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1 Summary Value Map for Malaysian Palm Oil Mill – Total Mill Revenue Potential of RM 242 – 250 mio

(USD 59 - 61mio) of which FiT Electricity up to RM 11.7 mio (USD 2.9 mio) or ~5% of revenue potential
Palm Kernel Mill - Value Add RM 5.2 mio / USD 1.3 mio
1 MW gen set power requirements as off-grid solution Palm Output Potential % of
Animal Feed Revenue Total
“Medium grade • Crude palm
• Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)
Palm Oil Distillate protein feed” Kernel Oil 11 – CPO RM 189.0 mio 77.5%
▪ RBD Crude Palm Oil - Refined,
• Palm Kernel Expeller (PKE)
(CPKO) USD 46.1 mio
Bleached and Deodorized
▪ Palm Fatty Acid Distillate $ Palm Refinery 22 – PK RM 32.2 mio 13.2%
Palm Kernel USD 7.8 mio
Output $
$ $
Mill Output
Palm Plantation Palm Oil 33 – Palm Shell RM 3.1 mio 1.3%
USD 0.8 mio
– Fresh Fruit Bunch(FFB) Input for Palm Oil Revenue
– Other: Biomass potential from Oil Palm Fond and Oil Palm RM 221 mio 44 – Palm Fiber RM 1.4 mio 0.5%
Trunk in addition to Palm Shell, Palm Fiber and Empty Fruit Bunch USD 53.9 mio USD 0.3 mio
(EFB) 1 Crude Palm 2 Palm
– Fertilizer substitution: Oil (CPO) Kernel (PK) 5(5 – EFB –Pressed and (RM 8.1 mio) (3.2%)
- Palm Frond RM 35 / ton (2/3 of basal frond with 1/3 nutrition) RM 189 mio / USD 46.1 mio RM 32.2 mio / USD 7.8 mio de-humidified to DLF (USD 2.0 mio) for process
- Palm Trunk RM 78 / ton and/or Pellets) (NKEA-EPP Oct 2014 RM steam or
- Empty Fruit Bunch RM 93 / ton Palm Oil Output 3 NKEA-EPP5 Oct 2014 – Probably
11.3 mio)
DLF/Pellets
Palm Shell better used to produce steam… – Not both
RM 3.1 mio / USD 0.8 mio
~22,500 ha ~ 430,000 ton/year 66 – FiT Electricity RM 11.7 mio 4.8%
(~55,500 acre) Palm FFB FFB 60 ton/h 4 USD 2.9 mio
Palm Plantation (24hr/300 days) ~ 430,000 ton/year at Palm Palm Fiber (CHCR+UASB)

24h/300days / Bio RM 1.4 mio / USD 0.3 mio 77 - Fertilizer RM 4.8 mio 2.0%
Typical 7200h/year
Malaysian Mill Size mass
USD 1.2 mio
60 ton FFB/Hour or output 5 Palm Empty Fruit
430 ton FFB/year) Grand Total RM 250.3 mio Na
Bunch (EFB) USD 61.0 mio
RM 8.1 mio in DLF/Pellets Grand Total excl EFB RM 242.2 mio 100%
(according to NKEA-EPP5 Oct 2015)
Palm Plantation 250 KWh power need (plus drying…)
USD 59.1 mio
“Most often integrated 7 Fertilizer Boiler Ash
RM 1.5 mio
plantation/ oil mill
complex Palm Oil Mill Effluent
7 Fertilizer (POME)
RM 3.3 mio $ Palm oil mill revenue – Seven potential revenue outputs
(Wu et al 2009)
$ Palm oil refinery/palm kernel mill revenue
Palm Oil Mill Input – Palm FFB
POME – Palm Oil Mill Effluent (methane rich waste)
Palm Mill Process Steam and Electricity Discharged
• Steam for FFB Sterilization Biogas Palm Oil Mill Process
water
• Steam for FFB pre-processing
• Steam also used to generate mill electricity
6 Electricity Next:
Grid FiT or diesel off set
To waste water lagoons
▪ Palm biomass as fuel in boiler/steam turbine: Detailed Revenue
up to RM 11.7 mio with high and then to rivers and if gas
– Pam Fiber value map for a 60
CapEx alternative not collected, then methane ton/hour Palm Oil Mill
– Palm Shell to the atmosphere
– EFB (only if dried with excess heat) CHP
▪ Diesel – Boiler maintenance and start up steam/pre-heat water or drying EFB
Palm Oil Refinery Palm Kernel Mill - Value Add RM 5.2 mio/ USD 1.3 mio
Detailed Value Map - Revenue Potential of up to RM 242-250 mio (USD 59 - 61
2 mio) of which FiT Electricity up to RM 13.3 mio (USD 3.2 mio) ~5% of revenue RBD Crude Palm Oil
CPKO Value
RM 33.2 mio / USD 8.1 mio
PKE Value
RM 4.2 mio / USD 1.0 mio
Palm Kernel Mill Power
consumption
Palm Fatty Acid - CPKO 46% extraction rate • PKE 50% extraction rate
Palm Oil Distillate 100k ton / day crusher
- CPKO 9,900 ton/year • PKE 10,700 ton/year
90-100 KWh/ton=> 0.9-1.0
Palm oil prices Revenue - RM 3,350 per ton • RM 390 pe rton
MW
RM/ton and 4.1 RM per USD December December December Sime Darby Used in RM 221 mio
2013 2014 2015 2014/2015 calculations Palm Kernel Mill Crusher Power Requirements about 1.0 MW
www.bepi.mpob.com.my USD 51.4 mio
CPO – Crude Palm Oil Local 2,570 2,300 2,150 2,222 2,200 1 2 Revenue RM 32.2 mio
PK – Palm Kernel ExMill 1,800 1,670 1,520 1,474 1,500 Revenue RM 189 mio
USD 7.9 mio
CPKO – Crude Palm Kernel Oil Local 3,560 2,500 3,350 - 3,350 USD 46 milo Next:
PKE – Palm Kernel Expeller 511 345 390 - 390 CPO 86,000 ton/year PK 21,500 ton/year
@ RM 1,500 Financial comparison with and without Grid Feed-in Tariff and
CER – Certified emission reduction 0.33 0.02 0.58 - 0.50 @ RM 2,200
EUR/ton (only limited after 2011…) optimizing usage of EFB in mill steam production: Low / Med / High
CPO extraction PK extraction
Capex
Palm biomass prices
RM/ton December December December Sime Darby Used in 20% of FFB 5% of FFB
Source: NKEA-EPP5-Update Oct 2015 2013 2014 2015 2014/2015 calculations Heat Value Energy/Heat Value Potential
Palm Oil Output % of FFB / annual supply Dry (KJ/Kg Mwhr
Palm Shell - 130 - - 120 3 6% of FFB (12% 19’114 KJ//Kg 16,74 MWhr/h
Palm Fiber - 30 - - 25 Palm Shell To sell as biomass for
humidity) 120’500 MWhr/year incremental revenue
Dry Long Fiber – from EFB - 400 - - 350 Revenue
Annual: 430’000x6%
Pellet/Briquette – from EFB - 300 - - 250 RM 3.1 mio
Palm Oil Mill USD 0.8 mio
25,800 ton @ RM 120 x0.88x19’114
Diesel off-set with Bio gas at Palm - - - - - RM 3.1 mio / $ 0.7 mio /3600=120’500
mill operations (excl. vehicles) Diesel RM/ton - 2,000
FFB 60 ton/h
- - 1,916 4
430,000 ton/year at Sell as biomass for
Palm Fiber 13% of FFB (37% 20’156 KJ//Kg 27,38 MWhr/h
24h/300days / 7200h/year Revenue
humidity) 197’200 MWhr/year incremental revenue or
55,900 ton @ RM 25 430’000x13% use as boiler fuel if EFB
Palm RM 1.4 mio
RM 1.4 mio / $ 0.3 mio X0.63x20’156 pressed /de-humidified
Palm plantation – Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) Input Bio USD 0.3 mio
/3600= 197’200 to DLF and/or pellets
mass 5 Palm 22% of FFB (67% 18’883 KJ/Kg 22,73 MWhr/h Energy/Heat Value
output Empty humidity) 163’700 MWh/year potential matches a 60
~22,500 ha 430,000 ton/year 94,600 ton 430’000x22% ton/h mill energy need for
Fruit
Partly dry for mill X0.33x18’883 steam, if upgrading boiler
(~55,500 acre) Palm FFB Bunch to at least 28% Thermal
(RM 8.1 mio) production steam or /3600=163’700
Palm Plantation (24hr/300 days) press/de-humidify for efficiency. Alternative:
Source: Sarawak Energy (USD 2 mio) Dry and process to Dry
Malaysia Yield Production DLF/pellets processing
~19 ton FFB/ha
7 Fertilizer
NKEA–EPP5/www.bepi.com.my
steam or DLF/Pellets value Long Fiber (DLF) or
RM 1.5 mio Boiler Ash DLF/Pellets RM 8.1 mio (NKEA-EPP5 pellets / briquette and use
FFB = Fresh Fruit Bunch
RM 11.3 mio) Palm Fiber as boiler fuel
Sime Darby Plantation
2014/15 22 ~ton/ha 7 Fertilizer 6 Anaerobic digestion produces Chemical Oxygen
RM 3.3 mio Palm Oil Mill Effluent POME Demand (COD) ~44,300 => ~ 102,000 mg/l
(Wu et al 2009) Grid FiT or diesel off set up to RM 11.7 mio
33% of CO2
67% POME of 60 ton/h FFB => 40 ton POME/h Discharge
SOURCES: multiple official and public web-sites with specific 67% of CH4 (Lagoon 55% CH4 10% losses
Three main technologies Water
references in each text box Sludge – Discharge water
- Low CapEx: Covered lagoon
and fertilizers
Palm Oil Mill Steam Requirements (30 ton/h) and biomass and diesel - Med/high CapEx: CSTR
(CH4 = 55,500 KJ//Kg)
- High CapEx: Combined HCSR/CSTR+UASB
consumption: “Life cycle inventory of the production of Crude Palm Oil Case -
12 mills (2008)” A B
Biomass boiler 24h/300days/Diesel gen sets 600KVA. A Low Capex: Covered lagoon with gas trapping B Med/high Capex: CSTR Only C CHCR (Combined HCSR and CSTR) + UASB
Power from Steam Turbine 1.1MWhr @17% efficiency Boiler Efficiency according to
Humidity Energy NKEA-EPP5 2014 (Thailand Cat cases and NKEA-EPP5) (Source: NKEA-EPP5) ( Source:Jeng Huat Palm Oil Mill Presentation)
(2008). Utilization 70% of 300 days
KJ/Kg Dry • 25m3 Biogas/m3 POME @ CH4 55% • 30 m3 Biogas/ m3 POME @ CH4 60% • 33 m3 Biogas/m3 POME @ CH4 65%
7.5 ton Biomass/hour: 20% shell/80% Fiber %
1.5 ton shell/hour ( 10,800 ton/year) 12% 19,114 1.5 x 88% x 19,114 / 3600 Cleaned Biogas (69% before BioGasClean)
7.0 MW@21%  1.5 eMWhr • COD @ 60’000 mg/L ≈19,000 KJ//m3 • COD 70’000 mg/l ≈ 21,000 KJ/m3 • COD 80’000 mg/l ≈ 22,500 KJ/m3
6 ton fiber/hour ( 43,200 ton/year) 37% 20,156 6 x 0.63 x 20,156 / 3600 • 40 ton POME x 25 m3 = 1’000 m2 Biogas/hour • 40 ton POME x 30 m3 = 1’200 m3 Biogas/hour • 40 ton POME/h x 33 m3 = 1’320 m3 Biogas/hour
21 MW@21%  4.5 eMWhr • 8.6 million m3 bio gas per year • 9.5 million m3 bio gas per year
• 7.2 million m3 bio gas per year
54L of diesel/hour ( 390m3 /year) 0.745 kg/l 45,100 0.054 x 0.745 x 45100 / 3600
• 25’200 MJ/h or 7.0 MWhr/hour (heat value)
0.5 MW @~40% 0.2 eMWhr • 19’000 MJ/h or 5.3 MWhr/hour (heat value) • 29’700 MJ/h or 8.3 MWhr/hour (heat value)
• 38’000 MWhr/year (heat value) • 50’400 MWhr/year (heat value) • 59’400 MWhr/year (heat value)
Total Heat Value per hour: 28.5 MWhr Total Boiler Steam Power (Heat Value) 6.2 MWhr/hour
3 Financial Summary Palm Oil Mill Biogas Trapping with Electricity Production

Cash Flow for 16 years ROI calculation


(Same as used in emission certificate applications)
Electricity Theoretical value Net Sum
RM Diesel Biomass Revenue of “available” Cash- Straight 16 years
Technology mio CapEx OpEx Offset Revenue FiT electricity (IND-E1) Flow pay back ROI

Covered Lagoon
Closed tank Base line: “Minimum to stay in business - Flaring - 7.0 - 0.2 N/A 2.1 … … + 1.90 “Sunk cost” N/a
Technology the biogas”
Covered Lagoon Technology “Addition/Delta to Baseline” – Baseline is “sunk cost” to stay compliant

Lowest CapEx Covered lagoon and current boiler modified for 1 - 2.0 - 0.10 + 0.8 + 0.6 N/a + 0.3 + 1.60 1.3 years 80%
Covered lagoon biogas and complemented with shell and fiber
7.2 mio m3 biomass to fuel the boiler 2 FiT - 5.0 - 0.15 + 0.8 + 0.6 + 0.5 N/a + 1.75 2.8 years 35%
biogas/year

Lower CapEx Covered lagoon and effective/ modified boiler 1 - 4.5 - 0.15 + 0.8 + 1.8 N/a + 0.7 + 3.15 1.4 years 70%
complemented with EFB and 20% of baseline shell
and fiber biomass to fuel the boiler 2 FiT - 7.5 - 0.20 + 0.8 + 1.8 + 1.2 N/a + 3.60 2.1 years 48%

Closed Tank Technology


Medium CapEx “less effective” gas engines using “dirty gas” 1 - 10.5 - 1.60 + 0.8 + 2.4 N/a + 6.4 + 8.00 1.3 years 76%
and consequently higher engine maintenance
2 FiT - 13.5 - 1.90 + 0.8 + 2.4 + 10.1 N/a + 11.40 1.2 years 84%
Partly dried EFB to fuel the boiler
High CapEx High Efficiency Gas Engines using
cleaned/chemically scrubbed gas and consequently 1 - 13.5 - 0.85 + 0.8 + 2.4 N/a + 7.1 + 9.45 1.4 years 70%
less engine maintenance
2 FiT - 16.5 - 0.95 + 0.8 + 2.4 + 11.7 N/a + 13.95 1.2 years 85%
Partly dried EFB to fuel the boiler
5 Summary Value Map Palm Oil Biogas Trapping &
Financial Analysis

• Basic technology to stay compliant a “sunk-cost” that must be made to remain in business
• Biogas trapping and usage for FiT is highly profitable and diversifies the Palm Oil Mill’s revenue base.
• 80% ROI and very low risk to only make the next step beyond flaring:
• Covered lagoon, collect and burn the biogas in the current boiler rebuild for biogas usage and sell the additional
biomass with an 80% ROI!
• Feed-in-Tariff to the grid is only very profitable when investing in the highest possible capacity of gas
production/collection and high efficiency reciprocating gas gen sets
• Boiler based gas combustion range from 35% - 50% ROI
• Recip Engine based gas combustion provides up to 85% (!) ROI
• When FiT available:
• …Always profitable to consider to also use FiT for an efficient (+20%) biomass powered boiler. RM 0.4667 KWh
compare to 0.4866KWh using gas technology in the boiler is still attractive! At least RM 1.2 mio in additional revenue
after mill power (0.9 MWh) has been consumed. With additional mill efficiency improvements the revenue can
significantly increase!
• CHP is needed to dry the EFB to acceptable humidity level to either burn (with lower emissions) and/or process the
EFB to DFL/Pellets
• Exhaust heat to dry EFB
• Jacket water to pre-heat water for steam boiler (to drive additional Biomass sales – not included in
calculations but should be in the range of an additional 15-20% bio mass to sell…
• Additional investments in down stream activities need to be evaluated separately, but is a requirement for all
alternatives where FiT is not an option.
• Palm Kernel Mill can drive a value add of RM 5.2 mio with a 1MWh/h electrical power need
• Dry Long Fiber and Pellets/Briquette from EFB can drive a value add of RM 8.1 mio with a 1.25 MWh/h electrical power
need.
• Palm Oil Refinery…
• ..in this financial analysis “available gas” has only been valued at the equivalent of TNB Industrial Tariff RM 0.285 per
KWh as “cost avoidance” if a down stream process facility could be co-located with the Palm Oil Mill
3 Biogas Trapping and Revenue from biomass/FiT – Detailed CapEx & OpEx
Alternatives: Baseline (flaring), Lowest CapEx – Lagoon/current boiler, Lower CapEx Lagoon/efficient boiler, Medium CapEx Closed tank/recip engine “dirty gas”, High CapEx
Closed Tank/recip engine and cleaned gas
All alternatives with two options: Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) or without FiT. All business cases with no FiT availability should review alternative revenue from additional electricity. This analysis only include revenue to sell
off maximum of Palm Shell and Palm Fiber – commodities with limited process cost - other alternatives requires detailed financial analysis
Grid connection assumes RM 3 mio in CapEx CapEx / Add. to OpEx Range %of CapEx OpEx / Add. to
RM mio range Base line Min 2% Max 4% Biomass used in palm mill (see slide 2) Bio mass left to sell Electricity for FiT or “available”
CapEx Base line
Baseline – minimum to comply to reactions 1 Baseline revenue for excess biomass 6-8 mio 7 mio 0.1 mio - 0.2 mio 0.2 mio Palm shell: 41% of 25’960 10,800 ton/year 15’120 ton x 120 = RM 1.8mio
▪ Covered lagoon and only collection to flare on site available to sell without any additional Palm fiber: 77% of 56’160 43,200 ton/year 12’960 ton x 25 = RM 0.3mio
▪ Flaring of biogas investments in gas production or boiler EFB: - Baseline: 0
▪ With approx. 10% methane leakage and deteriorating efficiency and baseline cost of current Biogas: -
over time to might still be questionable to be long term usage of diesel gen sets for mill Diesel: 390 m3/year x 2,000 RM 0.8mio cost in base line
compliant operations
Lowest CapEx lagoon/boiler 1 Mill steam/electricity 8-10 mio 9 mio 0.20 mio - 0.40 mio 0.3 mio Palm shell: -25% (base) 8’100 ton/year 17’820 ton x 120 = RM 2.1 mio Excess Electricity – “available”
▪ Covered lagoon (5.3 Mwhr/h heat value of bio gas) ▪ Sell excess biomass + 2 mio + 0.1 mio Palm fiber: -25% 32’400 ton/year 23’760 ton x 25 = RM 0.6 mio 1.1 - 0.9 = 0.2 MWh x 70% x 7200
▪ No gas scrubbing, only humidity reduction and limited HC4 ▪ Shell/fiber/gas in boiler 18% eff. Biogas: 7.2 mio m3 Total - baseline: RM 0.6 mio = 1’000 MWh / year @0.285=RM0.3mio
reduction due to drying the gas
▪ Only gas modification to current boiler. 17% efficiency. 2 Grid connection 11-13 mio 12 mio 0.25 mio - 0.45 mio 0.35 mio Palm shell: -25% 8’100 ton/year 17’820 ton x 120 = RM 2.1 mio Steam Turbine Electricity for FiT
▪ 1.1 MW/hr boiler/Turbine to produce electricity for mill ▪ Mill steam/heat/electricity + 5 mio + 0.15 mio Palm fiber: -25% 32’400 ton/year 23’760 ton x 25 = RM 0.6 mio 1.1 – 0.9 = 0.2 MWh x 70% x 7,200
▪ Steam based <20% efficiency. FiT 0.01 RM penalty. FiT ▪ Sell excess electricity FiT Biogas: 7.2 mio m3 Total – baseline RM 0.6 mio = 1’000 MWh / year x FiT of 0.4766
RM 0.4766 per KWh ▪ Sell excess biomass RM 0.5 mio
▪ 70% utilization of steam turbine (NKEA-EPP5-2014) ▪ Use Shell/fiber in boiler
▪ Palm mill consumes in average 0.9 MWh/h of electricity ▪ Use gas in boiler 18% efficiency
Lower CapEx lagoon/efficient boiler 1 Mill steam/heat/electricity 9-12 mio 10.5 mio 0.20 mio -0.50 mio 0.35 mio Palm shell: -75% 2’700 ton/year 23’220 ton x 120 = RM 2.8 mio Excess Electricity – “available”
▪ Covered lagoon (5.3 Mwhr/h heat value of gas) ▪ Sell excess biomass + 4.5 mio + 0.15 mio Palm fiber: -75% 10’800 ton/year 45’360 ton x 25 = RM 1.1 mio 1.4 – 0.9 = 0.5 MWh 70% x 7,200
▪ No gas scrubbing, only humidity reduction limited HC 4 ▪ Use EFB in boiler EFB: 31,200 ton dry/year Total - baseline: RM 1.8 mio = 2’500 MWh / year
reduction due to drying the gas ▪ Use gas in boiler 24% efficiency Biogas: 7.2 mio m3 (@0.285 (E1-industrial) = RM 0.7 mio in
▪ Improved co-fired boiler/turbine with (22%) efficiency ▪ Excess electricity available/no value theoretical/potential cost avoidance)
▪ 1.4 MW/hr Boiler/Turbine of to produce electricity for mill.
Grid connection 12-15 mio 13.5 mio 0.25 mio -0.60 mio 0.4 mio Palm shell: -75% 2’700 ton/year ‘23’220 ton x 120 = RM 2.8 mio Steam Turbine Electricity for FiT
▪ Excessive electricity sold at FiT or “available for use” 2
▪ High efficiency steam based 22% efficiency (>20%). No
▪ Mill steam/heat/electricity + 7.5 mio + 0.2 mio Palm fiber: -75% 10’800 ton/year 45’360 ton x 25 = RM 1.1 mio 1.4 – 0.9 = 0.5 MWh 70% x 7,200
FiT penalty. Tariff RM 0.4866 per KWh
▪ Use EFB in boiler EFB: 31’200 ton dry/year Total - baseline: RM 1.8 mio = 2’500 MWh / year x FiT of 0.4866
▪ CHP from boiler used to partly dry EFB as boiler fuel
▪ Use gas in boiler 24% efficiency Biogas: 7.2 mio m3 RM 1.2 mio
▪ 70% utilization of steam turbine (NKEA-EPP5-2014)
▪ Sell excess biomass
▪ Palm mill consumes in average 0.9 MWh/h of electricity
▪ Sell excess electricity FiT
Medium CapEx Closed Tank / Gas engine/”Dirty gas” 1 Mill steam/heat/electricity 15.5-19.5 mio 17.5 mio 1.25 mio -2.35 mio 1.80 mio Palm shell: -100% - 25,920 ton x 120 = RM 3.1 mio Excess Electricity – “available”
▪ CHCR + UASB. 8.3 Mwhr heat value of gas. ▪ Sell excess biomass + 10.5 mio + 1.60 mio Palm fiber: -100% - 56,160 ton x 25 = RM 1.4 mio 3.1 MWh x 90% x 7200
▪ No gas scrubbing, only humidity reduction limited HC 4 ▪ Use EFB in boiler +20% efficiency EFB: 31,200 ton dry/year Total - baseline: RM 2.4 mio = 20’100 MWhr/year Recip Engine
reduction due to drying the gas ▪ Use gas in gas engines for CHP Biogas: 9.5 mio m3 1.4 – 0.9 = 0.5 MWh x 70% x 7200
▪ Gas engines for dirty gas <40% efficiency. FiT 0.0199 RM ▪ High maintenance due to CH4 = 2,500 MWhr Steam turbine
penalty. Tariff RM 0.447/KWh. Steam turbine 0.4667/KWh ▪ Excess electricity available/no value Min 8% Max 12% (@0.285 (E1-industrial) = RM 6.4 mio
▪ Exhaust CHP used to partly dry EFB and jacket water to
pre-heat water to the boiler and export more biomass 2 Grid connection 18.5-22.5 mio 20.5 mio 1.50 mio - 2.70 mio 2.10 mio Palm shell: -100% - 25,920 ton x 120 = RM 3.1 mio Gas Engine Electricity for FiT
▪ Excessive electricity sold at FiT or “available for use” ▪ Mill stem/heat/electricity (boiler + 13.5 mio + 1.90 mio Palm fiber: -100% - 56,160 ton x 25 = RM 1.4 mio 3.1 MWh x 90% x 7200
▪ Theoretical 90% utilization engine / 70% of steam turbine ▪ Sell excess electricity EFB: 31,200 ton dry/year Total - baseline: RM 2.4 mio = 20’100 MWhr/year FiT of 0.4470
▪ G3516A+ with 36.8% electrical / 41.5% thermal efficiency ▪ Use EFB in the boiler +20% efficiency Biogas: 9.5 mio m 3 = RM 8.9 mio
▪ Max 3.1 MWhr: 3x3516A+ @ 1105kw (3’315= +215KWh) ▪ Sell excess biomass Steam Turbine Electricity for FiT
▪ Biomass Boiler/Turbine 1.4 MWh at 22% of thermal eff. ▪ Use biogas in gas engines for CHP 1.4 – 0.9 = 0.5 MWh x 70% x 7200
▪ Palm mill consumes in average 0.9 MWh/h of electricity. ▪ High maintenance due to CH4 = 2,500 MWhr x FiT of 0.4667
= RM 1.2mio
Min 4% Max 6%
High CapEx Closed Tank / Gas engine / Cleaned gas 1 Mill steam/heat/electricity 18.5-22.5 mio 20.5 mio 0.75 mio -1.35 mio 1.05 mio Palm shell: -100% - 25,920 ton x 120 = RM 3.1 mio Excess Electricity – “available” Engine
▪ CHCR + UASB. 8.3 Mwhr heat value of gas. ▪ Mill stem/heat/electricity (boiler) + 13.5 mio + 0.85 mio Palm fiber -100% - 56,160 ton x 25 = RM 1.4 mio 3.45 MWh x 90% x 7200
▪ Complete gas cleaning and drying process. Chemical ▪ Sell excess biomass EFB: 31,200 ton dry/year Total - baseline: RM 2.4 mio = 22’400 MWhr/year (Recip Gas Engine)
scrubbing, de-humidification resulting in CH4 <100 ▪ Use EFB in boiler Biogas: 9.5 mio m3 1.4 – 0.9 = 0.5 MWh x 70% x 7200
▪ High efficiency gas engine/Turbine No FiT penalty. Tariff ▪ Use gas in gas engines for CHP = 2,500 MWhr(steam Turbine)
RM 0.4669 per KWh / RM 0.4667 KWh Steam Turbine Min 4% Max 6% (@0.285 (E1-industrial) = RM 7.1 mio
▪ Exhaust CHP used to partly dry EFB and jacket water to 2 Grid connection 21.5-25.5 mio 23.5 mio 0.85 mio -1.50 mio 1.15mio Palm shell: -100% - 25,920 ton x 120 = RM 3.1 mio Gas Engine Electricity for FiT
pre-heat water to boiler and export more biomass ▪ Mill stem/heat/electricity (boiler) + 16.5 mio + 0.95mio Palm fiber: -100% - 56,160 ton x 25 = RM 1.4 mio 3.45 MWh x 90% x 7200
▪ Excessive electricity sold at FiT or “available for use” ▪ Sell excess electricity FiT EFB: 31,200 ton dry/year Total - baseline: RM 2.4 mio = 22’400 MWhr/year FiT of 0.4669
▪ Theoretical 90% utilization engine / 70% of steam turbine ▪ Use EFB in the boiler Biogas: 9.5 mio m3 = RM 10.5 mio
▪ CG170-12 with 42.1% electrical / 43.8% thermal efficiency ▪ Sell excess biomass Steam Turbine Electricity for FiT
▪ Max 3.45 MWhr: 3xCG170-12 (3600= +150kwh) ▪ Use biogas in gas engine for CHP 1.4 – 0.9 = 0.5 MWh x 70% x 7200
▪ Biomass Boiler/Turbine 1.4 MWh at 22% of thermal eff. = 2,500 MWhr x FiT of 0.4667
= RM 1.2mio
Feed-in-Tariff
SOURCEES: Multiple CDM applications with detailed Capex and OpEx analysis - Baseline cost to comply with minimum legal requirement
https.//cdm.unfccc.int search criteria: Malaysia & Biogas Biomass revenue
Anaerobic technology and full heat value potential