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Contents

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 2


1.1 Statement of the Problem .................................................................................................................... 4
1.2 Objective of the Study ........................................................................................................................ 4
1.3 Research Hypothesis ........................................................................................................................... 4
1.4 Research Question .............................................................................................................................. 4
Chapter 2 LITRATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Definition of Drop Out .................................................................................................................. 5
2.2 Causes of Enrolment and Drop Put ..................................................................................................... 6
Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................... 13
3.1 Research Design................................................................................................................................ 13
3.2 Population of the Study ..................................................................................................................... 13
3.3 Sample............................................................................................................................................... 13
3.4 Sampling Technique ......................................................................................................................... 13
3.5 Research Instrument.......................................................................................................................... 13
3.6 Procedure of the Study ................................................................................................................ 13
3.7 Statistical Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 14
References ............................................................................................................................................... 14
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

The importance of education cannot be ignored in ever changing global circumstances. It is


established fact that nations achieved their development due to their high quality education
because the quality education ensures quality individuals. These individuals play their
constructive roles the making better societies needed for healthy societies. Thus education is
fundamental for every individual which are the basic units of societies playing vital role
development of countries.
Education is necessary for both male and female. It is education that increases one’s knowledge,
broadens one’s outlook and sharpens one’s intellect. Education plays vital role in building and
molding the character of an individual (Rahmatullah et al, 2015). The educational choices
available to the people of any country guarantee the human and economic wellbeing of the
country. This right of easy access to educational opportunities is safe guarded by the states across
the globe (Farooq, 2010). Education is a fundamental human right “It is the key to Sustainable
development, peace and stability within and among the countries and thus indispensible means
for effective participation in the societies and economics of the twenty-First century. (The Dakar
Framework for action, 2000). Primary education has gained central importance in the lives of
student for achieving further higher education. This is the initial gate way for enhancing the
literacy rate in countries proving basis for social, political and economic development (Jan et.al,
2002).
Primary education was recognized as a fundamental right of every Pakistani child. It was
affirmed that for achieving compulsory enrollment by the end of the decade, primary education
will be made free and compulsory (Ministry of Education, 1992). The Universal Education from
grade one to five was especially emphasized in The National Education Policy 1998-2010. All
children aged 5-9 years throughout the country will have to complete the primary education
cycle. In spite of all these efforts the Universal Primary Education (UPE) is a dream yet to be
realized. It has a special focus of different policies and action plans. The low literacy rate, high
dropout rate, limitation in access to primary education, low participation of girls, lack of
educational and financial resources are the major constraints to achieve the goal of this universal
primary education. The population of primary age group (5-9) was 17.9 million. This may rise to
19.6 million till 2007 and for few years remains constant, will turn down to 17.5 million in the
last year of the plan (Ministry of Education, 2003).
The dropout rate of boys and girls for primary education level in Pakistan was 43% in 2001-02,
31.3% in 2005-06 which again jumped to 41% during 2007-08 (Ministry of Education, 2009).
The overall school attendance (age 10 years and above) is 57 percent (69 percent for male and 44
percent for female) (Federal Bureau of Statistics, 2006). The factors contributing to dropout are
poor economic status of family, attitude of parents towards education of their child, illness
associated with child, ignorance of parents about their role in connection of education of their
kids, unattractive environment of schools, poor quality teaching and irrelevance of curriculum
(Ministry of Education, 1992).
The performance of the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (NWFP) in the education sector is
quite poor when compared with progress achieved in the rest of the country in both enrolment
rates and gender disparities and is unlikely to meet the millennium development goals (MDG) by
2015, says a World Bank survey report, (2004). According economic survey of Pakistan (2009-
10) literacy rate in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is significantly less than in other provinces. It was even
less than Baluchistan. Many factors can be held responsible for the dropouts that affect the
schooling of a child and compel him to leave the school without completing his education. Some
of the common factors such as Poverty, Failure, Repetition of grades, Over loading and vertical
type curricula, traditional method of teaching, poor quality of teachers, dull school environment,
poorly paid, unprepared, dissatisfied and frustrated teachers, parents neglect, domestic and other
work, lack of interest in school, early marriage of girls, absence of medical facilities in schools,
absence of guidance service in schools, observed in the Education Policy (1972-80) as the main
causes of dropout in Pakistan.
District Dera Ismail Khan is one of the under developed area of KP province. There are a lot of reasons of
drop out at primary level identified by different scholars.
1.1 Statement of the Problem

A lot of work has been done to identify the reasons of students’ drop out and thousands of
suggestions have been documented but there is still need to explore more as the difference of the
situation is always present. This study explores the intensity of the issue in District Dera Ismail
Khan.

1.2 Objective of the Study

1. To identify factors of primary school students' dropout in District Dera Ismail Khan.
2. To unveil the differences in factors reported by the primary school teachers.

1.3 Research Hypothesis


1. Gender influence the responses
2. There are significant differences among the opinion of male and female teachers
3. There are significant similarities among the opinion of male and female teachers regarding the
issue.

1.4 Research Question

1. What are the reasons of primary school students' dropout in District Dera Ismail Khan according
to male and female primary school teachers?
2. What are the differences in the opinion of male and female teachers regarding the issue of
students’ drop out at primary level?
Chapter 2 LITRATURE REVIEW

High drop out of students at primary level education has attracted the attention of researcher and
academics in developing countries. The findings of studies vary depending on societies
situations. These researchers also differentiated between rural and urban polity, gender biases,
and even school distance. This section shed light on literature published by researcher. Chaurd
and Mingat (1996) studied dropout of students in two provinces (Punjab and NWFP). They
argued that the drop out of students is low in private school then public schools. Their study also
indicate that students drop out is lower in schools offering classes in evening (double shifts).
Those schools offering double shift provide flexibility to parents to send their children to school
because children are helping their poor parent in earning also. Thus students are able to attain
schools as well as help parents earning their earnings. Moreover, the drop out is higher in single
gender female schools than single gender male schools. Kemal and Maqsood (2000) studied the
drop out of students in rural and urban areas. They argued that the harsh treatment of the students
helped in increasing the retention of students in rural areas whereas such harsh treatment was not
accepted in the urban areas.

2.1 Definition of Drop Out

Various researchers defined the phenomenon of ‘drop out’ differently. According to Jamil et.al,
(2010) drop out is “a term used for the children, who for any reason other than death,
discontinue schooling and leave their education uncompleted”. This is quite broad definition and
includes all those students discontinuing their studies without completing their studies for any
reason other than the death of the student. This definition includes students at all levels of
studies. This also covers those students who are expelled by the education institution due to their
week performance or failure in studies. Some of the students discontinue studies due to their
illness, may also be included in the above definition of drop out. According to Malik (2002) drop
out can be defined as, a student who left school before completing a course of study. This
definition does not cover any complexity of the phenomenon and has not clear in substance. This
is much generalized definition covering all students quitting their schools prior completing their
courses. Umoh (1986) define dropout as, “student who left school before the completion of the
program for which they are enrolled, for unseen reasons”. This is a flexible definition covering
all those students leaving their planned study program for any reason before completion. Hence,
this definition of drop out a quite comprehensive definition and focused.
The UNICEF and Government of Pakistan (2000) did joint study and they define drop out as
withdrawal of children from school at any stage before completion of primary education”. they
further explain that drop out is a “terminology used for the student who left his/her education
incomplete, before the completion of the specific program/level of education for which he/she
was enrolled in the school, for any reason, and he/she is no more enrolled in the same level or in
any equivalent qualification”.
Dropout problem is a burning question all over the world. Advanced and developing nations all
are worried about the future of their nation. Progress and prosperity can’t be obtained and
maintained without the educated personnel in the society. If the majority of the people are
illiterate or have low qualifications then the affairs of the state can’t function properly. The
dropout phenomenon is neither a problem of the past nor it is for present but if it is not properly
addressed it becomes a serious problem for future generations. This problem is not originated
today but historically it dates back to the history of education. The out of school and out of job
youth is an explosive issue for society. It serves as dynamite for socio-economic stability of a
nation. For addressing this problem it is needed to define the problem before moving towards its
solution. Different studies reported different causes and rates of dropout in Pakistan. Rural girls
dropout from early classes as compared to their urban counterparts. There is not a single reason
which caused the student to dropout but it is a combined effect of different causes. Dropout rate
is the percentage of students who dropout from primary school before reaching to 5th grade. This
rate is not only high but having a distressing situation (Bhatti, 2007; Malik, 2002; Shami &
Hussain, 2005; Zeba, Haque, Faizunnissa & Sultana, 2002).

2.2 Causes of Enrolment and Drop Put

Children may drop out from school due to many reasons and studies listed these reasons in
country specific contexts based on their social, political, cultural and economic circumstances.
Joubish & Khurram (2011) putted forward that illiteracy, poverty, low level of motivation, lack
of understanding, child labor, corporal punishment, teacher behavior and the school environment
are such factors that contributing to the dropout at primary level. This study covered factors
affecting the drop out of boys and ignored girls drop out factors. This means that the factors
affecting the drop out of girls’ studies and causing drop out may vary from the factors affecting
boys drop out at primary level. Farooq (2010) studied the drop out factors. He listed a number of
factors causing the drop out of student. Some of these factors, Farooq (2010) mentioned,
included repeated failure of students, poverty as students cannot afford to go to schools, lack of
interest in studies as students cannot seek admission in their favorable subjects, the low quality
of teachers and teacher behavior with students, and sever physical and mental punishment in
schools. However, this study was about the drop out of boys and girls were not included in this
study.
Studies indicated that poverty is one of the main factors for the drop out of students at primary
level in rural areas (Jamil et.al, 2010). Jamil et al., (2010) described other factors for drop out of
students including distance of schools, bulky families, overcrowded classrooms, corporal
punishment and grade retention. According to Hidayya Foundation (2005), 10 percent of the
total enrolled girls are promoted to high school during an academic year. Such low sustention of
girls is a serious challenge for the authorities working for the increased level of girl’s literacy and
the decision makers. Girls’ enrollment is very low and the phenomenon of drop out is further
deteriorating the literacy rate of girls. One of the factors that adding to the drop out of students at
primary level is the work burden which children are sharing with their parents at home (Malik,
2002). On one hand, boys are preferred as a source of income and schools going boys are
considered liability as providing education to children bring financial burden to parents. On the
other hand, in traditional societies, girls are preferred to remain at homes as there school going
girls are perceived as threat to honor for their parents. Moreover, girls education may bring more
expenses to their parents as parents have to arrange pick and drop facility also for their
daughters.

Sterns and Glennie (2006) studied public schools in North Carolina and argued that academic
failure, disciplinary problems, employment opportunities, populated families, marriages,
pregnancy reasons and caring children are factors which contributes to high school drop out of
girls and boys. This shows that various societies have different social issues resulting for the
drop out of children from the schools. As in the study of Sterns and Glennie (2006), pregnancy,
marriages and child caring responsibilities causing drop out of females from schools. Moreover,
students’ ethnical background, minimum opportunities after education,climate of schools and
parents perception towards education are also influencing the enrollment and drop out of
children from schools (Chistle et.al, (2007).
Debbie and Jennifer (2004) conducted a study in the University of Taxas at Austin on High
School dropouts. They identified factors for the drop out including income of the household,
social and emotional factors, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, stress for achieving better
grades and institutional factors.
According to a study of UNESCO and Center for Development Research, Bangladesh (CDRB)
(2002), the girls’ students are dropped out from school for two main reasons namely severe
poverty and the early marriages. In this study poverty is one of the most crucial factor of dropout
from school in Bangladesh. Similarly, the early marriages of students are also the major reason
for the drop out of students. The phenomenon of the early marriage is further linked with the
cultural factors. These factors may also add to the drop out students from the schools in Pakistan
as the context of Pakistan and Bangladesh indicate similarities. The perception of parents about
education may also important for the enrollment and drop out students from the schools. It is
argued that education parents are more inclined to send their children to schools than those
parents who are illiterate (Holmes, 2003). The author is of the view that if parents are illiterate
then their children are more prone to be dropped out from school. However, it may possible that
in some cases illiterate parents may send their children to schools because they may not want
their children to remain illiterate. Such parents may want their children to get better education
and find good jobs.
Kukreti and Saxena (2004) stated in his study that was conducted in Rajhistan, India that
poverty, teaching method, interest in study, illiterate parents and early marriages increase
dropout. In this study mainly “early marriages” is directly related to the girls’ dropout which
varies from society to society. It is not the only factor which aggravate girls’ dropout. Nidhi et.al,
(2007) has also found the same reason as were stated by the other researchers that parents
economic status and their education play a vital role in the education of their children while on
the other hand if they are not educated and their economic status is poor, their children will be
more exposed to dropout and there will be a greater chance of gender discrimination. Alderman
et.al, (1996) pointed out that cultural values of the society don’t allow girls to join co-education
school at high and middle levels. Our government is already spending less on education i.e. less
than 2.1 % 0f the GDP. It is difficult in this situation to develop more separate girls’ schools.
According to SPARC (2008), working on Child Rights, has claimed that 35000 pupils dropped
out from school each year due to corporal punishment. It also claimed that child abuses are
increasing dropout at primary and secondary level. And also the number of street children
increases because of the dropouts. Today, more than 70,000 street children are present in
Pakistan. Sherman and Sherman (1990) found small class and program size, low pupil-teacher
ratios, program autonomy, and a supportive school environment associated with successful
dropout prevention. Platero et.al, (1986) reported that the main cause of dropout was traveling
long distances to get to school. Deyhle (1989) stated that teachers did not care about the students
or help them in school which cause high dropout ratio. He suggested that teachers also need to
use interactive teaching strategies to develop positive relationships with their students. Studies of
Coburn and Nelson (1989) clearly showed that the problem of dropout could be overcome with
supportive teachers.
In Pakistan dropout rate of girls is higher than the boys. Most of the Pakistani population is
inhabited in the rural areas. Where especially girls are facing lots of problem, somewhere
cultural restrictions and somewhere schools are far away. Especially at secondary level they are
facing severe problems. And on average they cover a distance of 10 to 15 km. Which is far away
and their parent can’t afford it and pulled them out of the school (Stephen, 2007). Holmes (2003)
investigated the factors helping students in completing their primary level school. She found that
female receive less education than males. Holmes (2003) argued that the girls are unable to
complete their primary education because of their economic and socio cultural constraints. The
girls are getting married in their earlier stages of their lives in rural areas because it is perceived
that sending girls to schools bring fewer benefits to their parents (World Bank, 1989). It is
argued that socio-cultural factors hinder girls to attend mixed school and schools at distance also
obstructs girls to attend school (Alderman et al,. (1996). They are of the view that the literacy
gap between male and female can be reduced by 40 % in rural areas through eliminating the
gender gaps. However, Holme (2003) said that the distance of schools for primary education was
not significant factor for the drop out of children. Moreover, she argued that the distance of
school is important factor influencing the continuation of studies at middle level for girls than
boys. Sathar and Llyod (1994) also are of the opinion that the school distance more than 1
Kilometer had a positive and significant impact on the continuation of girls in rural areas. The
girls’ attendance at primary level can be increased by 16 percent in rural areas if the schools are
easily accessible for the girls (Swada dn Lokshin, 2001).
Setharam Usha Devy (1989) identified; parental poverty and consequent drive of the parents to
employee their own children, firm or non-firm worked of the house to save on labour or
alternative to send their children for paid labour is very important factor for dropout. The
researcher further states that family background also plays a key role in retaining the children
within the school. Education, occupation and income of parents, the educational statistic as a
whole, family size and health status of parents etc. are the external factors which influence the
retention of children or their defection from schools. Rumberge, W.R, (2001) and
Chernichovsky, Dov, (1985) says that dropout in one way or another relates to high
unemployment, inadequate income of the parents and poor health outcomes in addition to
haunting poverty. It has also been pointed by Horn. L, (1992) that the children dropped out of
school are needed by their parents for certain domestic responsibilities i.e. for the look after of
other siblings, sharing household works and farming.
The study of Kukreti and Saxena, (2004) reveals the causes of school dropout as need of children
for supplementing family earnings, discouraging school environment, illiteracy and ignorance of
parents, language problem and early marriage. Grade retention is yet another cause of school
dropout. In a study conducted by Grissiom and Shepard (1989) pointed out “grade retention” as
an important cause of dropout. Nidhi et al.(2007) identified positive correlation between
financial & educational status of parents and dropout rate in rural areas, whereas gender
discrimination was pointed as cause of girl’s school dropout. According to Shahid (2010)
students` difficulty in learning, lack of interest in school, lack of interest in studies, class
repetition and low socio-economic status of parents are the major causes of dropout. Attaullah
(2000) identified health problems &family diseases, domestic work, poverty, rough climate,
parental indifference, transportation and irregular attendance as the major contributing factors to
school dropout. To conclude no single factor alone can be held responsible for dropout but
different factors attribute to it “Dropout” is a universal phenomenon in Pakistan educational
system at all the levels but is the most serious at primary level which results in considerable
wastage of resources. It is a big social problem that leaves long lasting effects, not only on the
life of the individuals but on the society as a whole as well. Dropout is not mere a problem that
impacts an individual rather it is a problem that has many faces and effects the entire community
as it has been noticed that certain dropouts get involved in crimes. So Policies to improve school
progression and reduce the numbers of children dropping out of schools in Pakistan are critical to
be devised if Universal Primary Education (UPE) is to be achieved by the year 2015 in
compliance to the Millennium Development Goal 2: target 3 witch says to ensure that by 2015,
children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary
schooling. Keeping in view the current status of primary education, Pakistanis likely to face the
risk of defaulting on EFA 2015 targets.

There are numerous factors which lead school students to make decision for termination of their
education. High dropout rates are caused due to poor quality of education especially in public
sector schools and rural schools. The main causes of high dropout are “low level of economic
development of the country, low per capita income of the people, inadequate provision of
physical facilities in schools, shortage of funds especially to meet the recurring expenditure, poor
standards of health and nutrition, costly text-books/exercise books, in-adequacy of audio-visual
aids, poor condition of school buildings, poor motivational level of parents to send children to
schools, punitive measures adopted by the teachers and loss of self-respect, nonconductive
atmosphere of schools, heavy load of school bag, practice of forcing children to repeat classes,
induction of formal education from the very first day in school, learning problems of children,
unattractive/unfamiliar environment of the school, over-crowded classes, scattered pattern of
population in large parts of the country, long distances of schools from homes, natural calamities
in the hilly areas, poor communication facilities, lax supervision and weak administration,
meeting the learning needs of all, indifferent attitude of administrative and supervisory personnel
towards teaching community, teacher absenteeism, undue political interference, curriculum not
in harmony with the needs and cognitive abilities of children, lack of relevance of curriculum to
the needs of the community, poor quality of education, rigid system of examinations, non-
availability of textbooks on time, rigid formal system of education, shortage of teachers,
hesitation of female teachers to go to schools located in remote areas, inadequate/improper
residential facilities especially in far flung areas compelling them to remain absent from school
to attend to family problems, low morale of primary school teachers and harsh treatment of
pupils, high student-teacher ratio especially in urban schools and inadequate knowledge of child
psychology” (Ministry of Education, 2003). Different studies which were concerned with the
causes of school dropout in United States concluded that student’s dissatisfaction with school,
class repetition, and parental poor economic conditions are the major causes of school dropout
(Bhatti, 2007; Malik, 2002; Millard, 1966; Shami & Hussain, 2005).
It is very difficult to solely identify the factor which is the main cause of dropping out because
there is not only a single factor but this phenomenon is influenced by an array of different factors
related to school, family, community settings and the student himself (Remberger, 2001). A lot
of research has been conducted for exploring the causes and reasons for school dropouts.
Duckenfield (1998) identified 33 factors that lead students towards dropping out from school in
USA. He categorized the factors in four groups. These categories are the student, the family, the
school and the community where the students live. Potential dropout may possess one or more
than reasons for his dropout. Sometimes one cause leads a student towards dropping out and for
another may be that has no value. The spread of these causes vary from dropout to dropout.
Rumberger (1986, 2001) organized causes of dropout as, demographic, individual, peer,
economic, family and school related categories. In this scenario of primary school dropout it is
evident from the above discussion that if these reasons are not addressed properly, the dropping
out phenomenon cannot be controlled and ultimately, the goals of EFA and UPE cannot be
achieved and increase in literacy rate will not be possible. Identification of factors contributing in
decision making for leaving school is the basic key to respond this serious problem. However the
factors influencing student’s decision to drop out from school identified in different studies
discussed above were summarized for this study according to the categories given by
Duckenfield (1998). These factors are; Student Related Factors; Community Related Factors;
School Related Factors; and Family Related Factors. In spite of all the efforts made to decrease
the dropout rate and increase the retention of students till the completion of primary education,
students are leaving primary schools before completion at a constant rate. Different programs
were launched time and again to improve this situation but in vain. Keeping in view the
sensitivity of the problem, this study was planned to explore the dropout phenomenon in the light
of views of the primary school teachers.
Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design


The positivism is the philosophy of the research for this thesis. Many sch Both qualitative and
quantitative data will be used to draw results. For qualitative data classification Theoretical Framework
Approach will be used. 1952 Toulmin’s Approach will be justifying the arguments, evidences and
conclusions drawn.

Quantitative data collected will be put in data matrix to reduce it. Chi Square and Avg Mean will be
applied beside Regression and correlation analysis.

3.2 Population of the Study


All male and female primary school teachers in District Dera Ismail Khan. According ASER PAKISTAN
the total number of primary school teachers in D.I.Khan are 3,457.

3.3 Sample
Stratified random sampling method will be used for selection of respondents.

3.4 Sampling Technique


Sample size will be taken on John Curry’s formula for Sampling.

3.5 Research Instrument

Figure 1. Dr John curry, professor of educational research, North Texas state university.

1. Theoretical Framework Approach (TFA) Toulmin, 1952


2. SPSS

3.6 Procedure of the Study


A descriptive study will be conducted. A self administered questionnaire will be used for collection of
responses on Likert 5 scale.
3.7 Statistical Analysis
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) will be used for quantitative analysis of the data
collected in the form of responses through questionnaire.

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