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Differences between Residual and Transported Soils

As you might know, soil is formed by the weathering of rocks by either physical(running water, wind,
glaciers, gravity etc) or chemical agencies (oxidation, reduction, carbonation etc).

If the products of rock weathering are still present at the place of origin, the soil is called Residual Soil.
For example : Bentonite is a type of chemically weathered volcanic ash that is present on the parent rock
from which it is formed.

If the soil has been transported away from its place of origin by wind, water or any other agency and has
been redeposited elsewhere, it is called Transported Soil.
For example : Alluvial soils are eroded from hills by rivers and deposited from suspension in running
water in the plains below.

What is the difference between a transported and a residual soil?


a. A transported soil has no A horizon
b. A residual soil has no B horizon
c. A transported soil consists, in large part, of material that has been wind blown and deposited on
bedrock/C horizon
d. Agriculturists only like residual soils
e. Residual soils have abundant calcium carbonate build up
f. None of the above.

Residual soil remains above its parent rock. Transported soil is blown or washed away from its parent rock.Soil that
remains at the place of formation is called residual soil. It is usually formed from chemical or physical weathering
and eventually covers the parent rock. the characteristics of residual soil depends on the that of the parent rock.
The weathered pieces of rocks that have been carried by several agents like wind and water and finally breaks
down into further small pieces to settle down is called transported soil. They are very fertile as they consist
of minerals from a variety of transported rocks.

What are Residual Soil and Transported Soil?


We know, products of rocks that are exposed to erosion are transported by various means
to any stable location. This product is known as soil. Now we will learn when a soil said to
be residual or transported.

RESIDUAL SOIL:

The soils that hold its position of their formation, without transporting, just above their
parent rock are called residual or sedentary soil.
Residual soils show considerable variation of engineering properties form top layer to
bottom layer. The transition is observed gradual. Relatively finer materials are found near
ground surface and they become coarser with depth to reach larger fragment of stone.

In many cases and many respects bottom layer of residual soil almost represent their
parent rock. But these soil formations are generally extended for only a few meters.

TRANSPORTED SOIL:

We have already discussed about transportation of eroded product of rocks. If these


products get deposited by different transporting agent at a point that is away from its
formation, the soil is called transported soil.
These soils are found to have entirely different engineering properties from that of the rock
on/at which they are deposited. These deposits are usually found uniform and a
considerable thickness. In foundation engineering context, they have great importance as
we deals with these deposit more frequently in founding civil engineering structures.

Soil that remains at the place of formation is called


residual
soil. It is usually formed from chemical or physical weathering and eventually covers the parent
rock. the characteristics of residual soil depends on the that of the parent rock.
The weathered pieces of rocks that have been carried by several agents like wind and water and
finally breaks down into further small pieces to settle down is called
transported
soil. They are very fertile as they consist of minerals from a variety of transported rocks.
Soils as they are found in different regions can be classified into two broad categories:

(1) Residual soils


(2) Transported soils

Residual Soils
Residual soils are found at the same location where they have been formed. Generally, the depth of
residual soils varies from 5 to 20 m.

Chemical weathering rate is greater in warm, humid regions than in cold, dry regions causing a faster
breakdown of rocks. Accumulation of residual soils takes place as the rate of rock decomposition exceeds
the rate of erosion or transportation of the weathered material. In humid regions, the presence of surface
vegetation reduces the possibility of soil transportation.

As leaching action due to percolating surface water decreases with depth, there is a corresponding
decrease in the degree of chemical weathering from the ground surface downwards. This results in a
gradual reduction of residual soil formation with depth, until unaltered rock is found.

Residual soils comprise of a wide range of particle sizes, shapes and composition.

ransported Soils
Weathered rock materials can be moved from their original site to new locations by one or more of the
transportation agencies to form transported soils. Tranported soils are classified based on the mode of
transportation and the finaldeposition environment.

(a) Soils that are carried and deposited by rivers are called alluvial deposits.

(b) Soils that are deposited by flowing water or surface runoff while entering a lake are called lacustrine
deposits.Atlernate layers are formed in different seasons depending on flow rate.

(c) If the deposits are made by rivers in sea water, they are called marine deposits. Marine deposits
contain both particulate material brought from the shore as well as organic remnants of marine life forms.

(d) Melting of a glacier causes the deposition of all the materials scoured by it leading to formation
of glacial deposits.

(e) Soil particles carried by wind and subsequently deposited are known as aeolian deposits

What is the difference between a residual soil anda transportedsoil?a.Residual soil develops fromweathering of the
bedrock beneath them,transportedsoil don’tdevelop fromlocally formed rocksbut fromregolithbroughtin from
some other region

Differentiate between ‘residual’ and ‘transported’ soils. In what waydoes this knowledge help in soil engineering
practice?Transported soils – soil produced by weathered rock that was transported by physical processes.Residual
soils – soils that stay where they are formed and cover the rock surface from which theyderive.Knowing whether the
soil is residual or transported will allow one to determine the composition of the soil which can help an engineer
determine some behavior characteristics of the soil