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Client ID: 37/USTE-15

CLIENT:

PROKRITEE.

REPORT ON:
GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION FOR THE PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION
OF 02 (TWO) STORIED COMMERCIAL BUILDING FOR BAGDHA
ENTERPRISE AT DAG NO.: 4211, KH. NO.: 1207, J.L NO.: 58, MOUJA:
BAGDHA, AGAILJHARA, BARISAL, BANGLADESH.

DECEMBER, 2015

SUBMITTED BY:

United Soil Test & Engineering


OFFICE & LABORATORY: LGED Road, Boilla Bazar, Tangail.
Mobile: 01760 458 884, 01723 627 627
e-mail: uste05@gmail.com

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SUB SOIL INVESTIGATION REPORT
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION OF 02 (TWO) STORIED COMMERCIAL BUILDING.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART-A SOIL INVESTIGATION……………………………………..03


 INTRODUCTION
 OBJECTIVES
 SCOPE OF WORK
 DESCRIPTION OF FIELD WORKS
 DESCRIPTION OF SOIL COMPOSITION
 CORRELATION TABLE OF SOILS BASED ON SPT
 DESCRIPTION OF LABORATORY TESTS
 BEARING CAPACITY CALCULATION
PART-B BEARING CAPACITY TABLE…………………………………11

PART-C PILE CAPACITY TABLE……………………………………....21

PART-D CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION….…………………..27

PART-E BORE HOLE LOCATION MAP….……………………………..30

PART-F BORE HOLE DATA………….…………………………………..32

PART-G GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS…………………………………………50

PART-H DIRECT SHEAR TEST RESULTS….……… .……………… .57

PART-I MOISTURE CONTENT & SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST ………60

PART-J SALINITY TEST …………………………………………….……63

PART-K SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS….……… .……………….....65

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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SUB SOIL INVESTIGATION REPORT
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION OF 02 (TWO) STORIED COMMERCIAL BUILDING.

PART-A
SOIL INVESTIGATION

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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INTRODUCTION

An adequate geotechnical investigation is an essential phase for the execution of a


civil engineering project. The results of a detailed geotechnical investigation should
provide adequate information for the selection of the most suitable type of
foundation for a structure and to indicate if special problems are likely to be
encountered during excavation and filling. It would also provide adequate
information to evaluate the load bearing capacity of an existing structure.
Information on the type of subsoil stratification, geotechnical parameters and its
behavior is obtained from comprehensive soil investigation program which
incorporates drilling of boreholes, collection of undisturbed and disturbed soil
samples, performance of specific in situ tests and laboratory testing of soil
samples. The results of laboratory tests and in situ tests need to be carefully
integrated in soil investigation. An engineering geological study of the project area
is also an essential element of soil investigation to establish the physiographic
setting and stratigraphic sequences of soil strata of the area.

The report presents the findings of the geotechnical investigation carried out for the
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION OF 02 (TWO) STORIED COMMERCIAL BUILDING FOR
BAGDHA ENTERPRISE AT DAG NO.: 4211, KH. NO.: 1207, J.L NO.: 58, MOUJA:
BAGDHA, AGAILJHARA, BARISAL, BANGLADESH. The developers awarded the
investigation work to UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING.

A total of fifteen (15) boreholes were drilled. The boreholes were drilled up to a maximum
depth of 50 ft below the existing ground level. Disturbed samples were collected from
each borehole. Routine laboratory tests on disturbed soil samples have been carried out
at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory of UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING
to evaluate the physical and engineering properties of the sub-soils.

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OBJECTIVES

The main objective of the investigation is to assess and evaluate the extent
and depth of loose earth or weak pockets, if any and also to provide the
designer with the relevant technical information and data of sub-soil in order
to help him select the most appropriate type of foundation with respect to the
prevailing sub-soil condition of the explored location.

SCOPE OF WORK

The main scopes of work for the investigation are as follows:


a. Execution of fifteen (15) exploratory drillings up to a depth of 50 ft from
the existing ground surface for recording the sub-soil stratification.
b. Execution of standard penetration test (SPT) at 5 ft intervals up to full
depth of exploration for each bore hole.
c. Collection of disturbed samples at each SPT and undisturbed sample
from cohesive layers as per standard practice.
d. Performing relevant laboratory tests on soil samples in order to evaluate
the physical and mechanical properties of the sub-soil deposit.
e. Analysis of results, compilation and presentation of a Factual Report.

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FIELD WORKS

All the field works and field tests were conducted as per standard procedure as laid
down in ASTM specification are as follows:
Exploratory Boring Drilling

Drilling was executed by wash boring method. A hole was started by driving vertically
a 4” dia steel casing into the ground to some depth and then the formation inside the
casing was broken up by repeated drops of a chopping bit attached to the lower end
of drilling pipe. The upper end of the same was fitted to swivel head through which
water or betonies slurry was forced at high pressure through pressure pipe. Forced
slurry or water emerges at high velocity through the pores of the chopping bit, and
returns to the surface through the annular space between drilling pipe and the side of
the casing or hole, carrying with it the broken-up soils. In this way drilling is advanced
up to a level of 12” above the depth, where SPT has to be executed.
Standard Penetration Test (SPT)

Standard penetration tests (SPT) have been executed in controlled bore holes at 5ft
intervals of depth up to the final depth of boring. In these tests, a split spoon sampler
of 2” outer diameter and (1-3/8)” inner dia is made to penetrate 18 inches, into the
soil by drops of a hammer weighing 140 lbs. The Hammer is falling freely from a
height of 30 inches. Number of blows of hammer required for penetration of each 6
inch length of the sampler is recorded. The number of blows for the last 12 inch
penetration of the total 18 inch is known as the SPT-N value as specified by ASTM
and is plotted as the SPT N-value of the particular depth.
Extraction of soil samples

Disturbed soil samples were collected at 5 ft intervals and at every change of soil
strata by split spoon sampler. These soil samples were studied visually and the soil
classification were done to prepare strata chart of soils up to the explored depth.
Before collection of samples, the hole is washed and cleaned for some time and the
Shelby tube is attached to the lower end of the drill pipe with the help of an adapter
and is lowered into the hole. The sampler is then pressed down into the ground in
one rapid continuous movement until the tube, except 4 inches from the top, is filled
with soil sample.

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LABORATORY TESTS

All Laboratory tests conducted on soil samples collected either in the disturbed or in
the undisturbed state. All tests were done as per ASTM:
Table 1: Test Methods for Conducting Different Laboratory Tests on Soil Samples.

Name of Test Test Method Followed

Soil Classification in Bore log ASTM D 3282

Water (Moisture) Content of Soil ASTM D 2216

Amount of Material in Soils Finer than the No. 200 Sieve ASTM D 1140

Liquid Limit of Soils ASTM D 4318

Plastic Limit & Plasticity Index of Soil ASTM D 4318

Particle Size Analysis ASTM D 422

Direct Shear Test ASTM D 3080

Vane Shear Test ASTM D 2573

Natural Moisture Content

The water content of a soil sample is the ratio of the weight of the water in the
sample to its dry weight. It is usually expressed as a percentage. The soil sample is
weighed both in natural state, and in oven dry state, and the moisture content is
calculated by dividing the loss of weight of the sample by its dry weight.
Complete Grain Size Analysis

The object of grain size analysis is to determine the size of the soil grains, and the
percentage by weight of soil particles of different particles size, comprising a soil
sample. The process consists of either sieve analysis or hydrometer analysis or both.
For hydrometer analysis, a 50 gm of the oven dry sample is thoroughly mixed with
required quantity of water in a calibrated glass cylinder. In order to avoid flocculation,
a little dispersing agent is added. The density of the suspension is measured at
specified time intervals, by means of a hydrometer or special design. At any
particular time, the size of the largest particle remaining in suspension at the level of
the hydrometer can be computed by means of Stocks’ Law, where as the weight of
the particles finer than that size, can be computed from the density of the suspension
at the same level.

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The mixture is then washed through ASTM standard sieve No. 200 and the fraction
retained is dried. The friction retained on each sieve is weighed for calculation of the
percentage of different fraction. The results are represented by percent finer are
plotted against particle size on semi-logarithmic graph paper.
Atterberg Limits

Physical properties of clay are greatly influenced by water content. A soil behaves as
a fluid or as a solid or as a plastic material, depending on how much water it contains.
The limiting water consistency are called as the Atterberg limit.The plastic limit is the
minimum water content at which a soil is just plastic and is determined by rolling out
a soil sample at slowly decreasing water content until, the desired water content is
reached, at which a thread of 1/8 inch diameter just begins to crumble. The thread is
rolled on a glass plate with hand.
Specific Gravity Test

The specific gravity of a solid is defined as the ratio of the unit weight of the solid in
air to the unit weight of water. To determine the specific gravity of a soil sample, 25
grams of oven dried soil sample is thoroughly pulverized and is placed in a calibrated
Pycnometer. Water is poured into the Pycnometer until its top is slightly below the
calibrated mark. The mixture is then boiled thoroughly in order to eliminate all the air
baubles. More water is then added to the mixture till it touches the calibrated mark. It
is then allowed to cool over-night, the temperature is then recorded and the bottle is
weighed.
The Specific Gravity Gs ( at 20o C) is given by:

GtWs
Gs =
Ws  W 1  W 2

Where Gt = Specific Gravity of Water at room temperature


Ws = The Weight of oven dry soil
W1 =Weight of Pycnometer + soil + water
W2= Weight of Pycnometer + water
Unconfined Compression Test

The unconfined compression testing machine is used for measuring the undrained
shear strength of a cohesive soil. Shear strength of a soil can be given by the Mohr-
Coulomb failure criteria as
s = c + ∂ tan Ф
Where s= shear strength

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c= cohesion
∂= normal stress
Ф= angle of friction
For undrained tests of saturated clay soils (Ф = 0), s = cu = undrained shear strength
The unconfined compression test is quick method of determining the value of c u for

clay soil. The unconfined compression strength is given by the relation qu= cu / 2,

where qu = unconfined compression strength of soil.

The unconfined compression strength is determined by applying an axial stress to a


cylindrical soil specimen with no confining pressure and observing the axial strains
corresponding to various stress levels. The stress at which failure in the soil
specimen occurs is referred to as the unconfined compression strength. For
saturated clay specimens, the unconfined compression strength decreases with the
increases in moisture content. For unsaturated soils, with the dry unit weight
remaining constant, the unconfined compression strength decreases with the
increases in the degree of saturation.
Consolidation Test

Consolidation is the process of time dependent settlement of saturated clayey soil


when subjected to an increased loading. The consolidation test unit consists of a
consolidometer and a loading device. The consolidometer can be either a floating
ring consolidometer or a fixed ring consolidometer. The floating ring consolidometer
usually consists of a brass ring in which the soil specimen is placed. One porous
stone is placed at the top of the specimen and another porous stone at the bottom. A
plastic ring surrounding the specimen fits into a groove on the base plate. Load is
applied through a loading head that is placed on the top porous stone. In the floating
ring consolidometer, compression of the soil specimen occurs from the top and
bottom towards the center. The fixed ring consolidometer essentially consists of the
same components i.e. a hollow base plate, two porous stones, a brass ring to hold
the soil specimen, and a metal ring that can be fixed tightly to the top of the base
plate. In the fixed ring consolidometer, the compression of the specimen occurs from
top towards the bottom.
Consolidation of a saturated clay soil occurs due to expulsion of water under a static,
sustained load. The consolidation characteristics of soils are required to predict the
magnitude and the rate of settlement. The following characteristics are obtained from
the consolidation test.

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USTE WORK SEQUENCE PLAN FOLLOWED:

APPROVED BORE HOLE


LAYOUT PLAN FROM CLIENT

ESTABLISHMENT OF SITE CAMP

MOBILIZATION OF WHOLE UNIT AT SITE CAMP

FIELD TESTING WORK

TRANSPORTATION OF SOIL SAMPLE TO


LABORATORY

LABORATORY TEST

PREPARING REPORT

REPORT HAND OVER

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SUB SOIL INVESTIGATION REPORT
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION OF 02 (TWO) STORIED COMMERCIAL BUILDING.

PART-B
BEARING CAPACITY TABLE

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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BEARING CAPACITY CALCULATION
The ultimate bearing capacity of soil can be calculated either from some of the bearing capacity theories
formulated from time to time or from some of the in-situ tests.
Terzaghi’s bearing capacity equation for general shear failures are lead to the following equation

Qult = Cu NC+q0 Nq+0.5  B N


Qult = Ultimate bearing capacity
Where,NC, Nq, N are the bearing capacity factors, c, the unit cohesion and γ, the unit
weight of soil.

Bearing Capacity for Purely Cohesive soil

NC = 5.7, Nq =1, N = 0 ,
Now the Terzaghi’s bearing capacity equation for purely cohesive soil

Qult = 5.7 Cu +q0


q0 =  Df where Df = Depth of the foundation
Cu = 6N kPa = 0.12 N ksf (Bowels, (1997) “Foundation Analysis & Design”) where N= S. P. T.
Value

Qult
Qall = where Qall = Allowable bearing capacity,
FS
FS = Factor of safety

Bearing Capacity for Cohesion less soil

N cor ( B  1) 2
Qall =
 D f for 1” settlement of individual footing
6 B2
Where, B = width of the foundation

Df = Depth of the Foundation

N cor = Corrected S. P. T Value

Bearing Capacity of Isolated Footing

Using the ‘C’ and ‘N’ –value the bearing capacity of typical isolated or spread footing is
using several methods. For the analysis typical sizes of footing are considered. For each of the
size, bearing capacity is calculated using MEYERHOF equation average Friction angle. φ=00
and using empirical equation (by N-value) for a particular depth from GL level. For the
calculation we have assumed the unit weight of soil as 110 pcf for softer/loosest layer (in
average) and 115 pcf for stiff/densest layer. If submerged condition is considered; then the
effective unit weight of soil will be = 110 – 62.4=47.6 pcf. And 115-62.4=52.6 pcf
respectively.

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(a) By Empirical Equation (using N-Value)

From the average of N-value is calculated for 0.5B depth below of the footing level. In order
to calculate the allowable bearing capacity (for assume settlement of 25 mm) using empirical
equation of footing as mentioned earlier. The calculation are made using the following
empirical equation (developed by MEYERHOF), by using SPT Value:-

qa(ksf)=(N/F2){(B+F3)/B}2Kd When, B>F4 …………………. (1)

In FPS unit, F1=2.0, F2=4, F3=1.0, F4=4 and qa is in ksf.

(b) by MEYRHOF Equation (Using cohesion ‘c’)

We may calculate the allowable bearing capacity, with a factor of safety (FS) = 2.5 for
selected typical footing size. Here ,we considered that Angle of Internal friction φ= 0. Then
using the following equation we can calculate the bearing capacity:

qult =CNcScDc+ qo NqSqDq+0.5BNγSγDγ ……………………………. (2)

For angle of internal friction. φ= 0o and for vertical loads the equation becomes
q ult= CNcScDc+ qo

Where,
C=Cohesion,
Nc = Bearing capacity factor,
Sc= Shape factor
Dc= Depth factor
qo = Effective unit weight of soil of the footing lavel.

Tarzeghi Equation for square footing

Qu=1.3Nc+γDNq+0.4γ ………………………………………(3)

Where,
C = Cohesion,
Nc Nq BNγ= Bearing capacity factor,
γ = Unit weight of soil.
D = Depth of footing,
B = Breadth of footing
Bearing Capacity of Mat Foundation

For larger structure, mat foundation may be used (though design engineer should do selection
of foundation type after thorough analysis of the soil profile). Bearing capacity of a mat
foundation as calculated below, using empirical equation (derived from MEYERHOF
empirical equation and for 2 inch assumed settlement of Mat). The equation is the following:
qa(ksf) = (N/F2) kd
where,
qa = allowable bearing capacity for 2 inch settlement in ksf
(Since higher settlement is allowed for mat)
F2 = 4 for FPS unit
N = Average of N –Value in the zone of 0.5B belw the footing level.
kd = 1+0.33 (D/B) < 1.33

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PILE FOUNDATION DESIGN

Bearing capacity determination of a typical diameter pile is shown below by assuming


starts from a particular depth below GL. Bearing capacity of the typical pile may be
calculated using the following equations:-
(a) Ultimate End Bearing (Ppu)

1.Meyerhof equation, From N value

(Ppu) = Ap40N(Lb/B) < Ap(380N) in KN

We have
B = diameter or breath of pile
N = av. Of N-value of 8B above to 3B below of pole tip
(Lb/B) Depth ratio of point into point bearing strata

2.Tomlinson’s equation for sandy soil:


Qp=qoNqAp

3.Meyerhof &Tomlinson suggested the same equation for cohesive soil:

Ppu= Ap 9qSu in Kpa

(a) Ultimate Skin resistance

The typical pile is assumed to be started from 6 ft depth from ground level. As mentioned earlier, the effective
unit weight of soil is 47.6 pcf (assuming submerged condition). For skin resistance calculation any of the
equation can be use.

Skin Resistance,(Ps) = s
 As
For cohesive soil:

(λ Method), 
s
  ( q  2S )
u , in the same unit of Su
λ=Coefficents depending on pile penetration.

Tomlinson’s method, (Ps) = αSuAs

For Non-cohesive soil:

(Meyerhof Method)
 s
 Xm  N (in kPa)

X m =1.0 for pile with small volume placement and 2.0 for pile with large volume displacement.
Tomlinson’s method,(Qm) = q

 K s  tan   As

Ks =1.0 for pile with small volume placement and 2.0 for pile with large volume
displacement.
tan   3 / 4 *  where  = angle of internal friction

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SUB SOIL INVESTIGATION REPORT
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION OF 02 (TWO) STORIED COMMERCIAL BUILDING.

PART-C
PILE CAPACITY TABLE

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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PART-D
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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CONCLUSION:

Following conclusions may be drawn regarding subsoil formation of the


project area.

a. The overall soil formations of the investigated site are more or less
regular in between the borehole (1 to 15) location.

b. The soil layers are in order of cohesive Non cohesive depth of


investigation (15.24m). (Ref: Soil Profile)

c. The Soil layer up to the depth of maximum 6.10 m from the top of
borehole at in the project area, consist Gray & Light Brown, Soft to
medium stiff, Clay, Medium to High Plastic, Cohesive. Gray, Very loose
to loose, Very fine Sand with some silt & clay, Non-plastic, Non-
cohesive up to the depth of maximum 12.20m from the depth of 6.10 m.
Gray, Medium dense, Fine Sand with little silt & clay, Non-plastic, Non-
cohesive up to the depth of maximum 15.24m from the depth of 6.10m
(BH-1 to 15 ) (Ref: Bore Logs.).

d. Allowable bearing capacity provided in Part -B and skin frication and


end bearing provided in Part-C are approximate and may be used for
an immediate impression.

e. If required settlement of cohesion less soil may be calculated based on


different method & correlation (1965) equation are given bellow to
review-

f. The water table is found to be at a depth of around GL level – 2.10 m.

g. Whenever any soil improvement are taken or pile is driven, field test
must be carried out to ensure that the bearing capacity and settlement
commensurate to design values.

If required settlement of cohesion less soil may be calculated based on


different method & correlation. Meyerof (1965) equation are given bellow to
review-

δ = (2.84*q/N)*(B/(B+0.33))2 for B>1.25 m


δ = 2.84*q/N for large rafts
δ = Settlement in mm
q = Applied foundation pressure in kN/m2
N = Average SPT over a depth equal to the width of the footing

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RECOMMENDATIONS:

Experience structural engineer and geo-technical engineer are


required to work side to select the appropriate foundation type
needed for the site of proposed construction of 02 (Two) storied
Commercial Building for Bagdha Enterprise, Prokritee.
Recommendation for a foundation type does not depend on soil
parameters rather some other factors like architectural layout,
loading condition, availability of building material in particular
region & construction technique etc. Also play important role.
Since it is beyond the scope of our assigned job, we refrain from
recommending specific foundation type.

PRECAUTIONER MEASURE

 In case of any excavation, it should be designed properly.


Taking care of existing building, utility lines & available
techniques.

 It is Seismic Zone -3 (According to BNBC, section 2.5.4.1


and Seismic Zoning Map of Bangladesh page 6-52)

The designer may select any other alternative type, depth as


well as the bearing capacity of the foundation in the light of
information provided in this report.

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PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION OF 02 (TWO) STORIED COMMERCIAL BUILDING.

PART-E
BORE HOLE LOCATION MAP

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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PART-F
BORE LOGS DATA

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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PART-G
GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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PART-H
DIRECT SHEAR TEST

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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PART-I
MOISTURE CONTENT & SP. GRAVITY TEST

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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PART-J
SALINITY TEST RESULTS

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION OF 02 (TWO) STORIED COMMERCIAL BUILDING.

PART-K
SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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THE END

UNITED SOIL TEST & ENGINEERING

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