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P U B L IC A T IO N S O F T H E
F O U N D A T IO N F O R F IN N IS H A S S Y R IO L O G IC A L R E S E A R C H
NO. 1

S T A T E A R C H IV E S O F A S S Y R IA C U N E IF O R M T E X T S

VOLUM E VI

State Archives of Assyria Cuneiform Texts (SAACT) is a series of text editions presenting
central pieces of Mesopotamian literature both in cuneiform and in transliteration, with
complete glossaries, name indexes and sign lists generated electronically from the
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Assurbanipal available in this format.

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A S S Y R I A N TE XT C O R P U S PROJECT 2010 . STATE ARCHIVES OF ASSYRIA CUNEIFORM TEXTS VOLUM E VI The Neo-Assyrian Myth of ISTAR’S DESCENT AND RESURRECTION INTRODUCTION. CUNEIFORM TEXT. GLOSSARY. AND EXTENSIVE COMMENTARY By Pirjo Lapinkivi THE N E O . AND TRANSLITERATION WITH A TRANSLATION.

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I am in d e b te d to the O sk a r O flu n d F o u n d a tio n . a lth o u g h it w as o n e o f th e m o st s ig n ific a n t re lig io u s and lite ra ry te x ts o f a n c ie n t M e so p o ta - m ia . D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 9 P irjo L a p in k iv i . u n til th e sp rin g o f 2 0 0 7 w h e n . T h e ir g ra n ts e n a b le d fu ll-tim e w o rk o n p re p a rin g th is e d itio n o f I s ta r ’s jo u rn e y to th e N e th e rw o rld a n d h e r re s u rre c tio n w h ile I w as w o rk in g at th e U n iv e rsity o f H e ls in k i. u n til now w h en the tim e to h a v e it b o rn h a s c o m e . th e e d itio n h as b e e n on m y m in d . S im o P a rp o la and D r. I d e c id e d to fill th e g ap an d a tte m p t to p ro v id e an e d itio n th a t c o u ld be u se d b y s c h o la rs . it h a s n o t re c e iv e d p ro p e r a tte n tio n in th e m o d e rn sc h o la rly w o rld . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h is c ritic a l e d itio n o f th e “D e s c e n t o f Is ta r Jo th e N e th e rw o rld ” has b een a b a b y w a itin g to b e b o rn fo r a lo n g p e rio d o f tim e . S e c o n d . th e w o rk fo r th e e d itio n s ta rte d q u ite a few y e a rs ag o as a co n tin u - a tio n o f m y d is s e rta tio n “ T h e S u m e ria n S a c re d M a rria g e in th e L ig h t o f C o m p a ra tiv e E v id e n c e ” (p u b lis h e d as SA A S 15).I d e c id e d to m o v e to a n o th e r fie ld o f w o rk a n d le ft th e e d itio n u n fin is h e d at th a t tim e . F o r th is fin a l step I am fo re v e r g ra te fu l to P ro f. B e c a u se o f th e o b v io u s la c k fo r th e fie ld o f A ssy rio - lo g y a n d b e c a u s e o f m y o w n in te re s t in th e fig u re o f the m u lti-fa c e te d g o d d ess I s ta r . b u t in a la te n t s ta te . in th e In stitu te fo r A sia n an d A fric a n S tu d ie s . th e E lla and G e o rg E h rn ro o th F o u n d a tio n . W h itin g w h o h a v e p ro v id e d m e w ith all the a s sis ta n c e n ee d e d to h a v e th e b o o k c o m p le te d a n d p u b lis h e d . E v e r sin c e . I w o rk ed as a p o s t-d o c to ra l re s e a r c h e r at th e U n iv e rsity o f H e ls in k i. stu d e n ts a n d a n y o n e in te re s te d in th e m y th . I am g ra te fu l to th e F o u n d a tio n fo r F in n ish A s sy rio lo g ic a l R e se a rc h fo r m a k in g th e p u b lic a tio n o f th is w o rk p o s s ib le . R o b e rt M . V a n ta a . F irs t o f a ll. T h e re h a s n o t b e e n a c ritic a l e d itio n o f th e A s sy ria n v e rsio n o f th e m y th d e sp ite its im p o rta n c e an d v a lu e . an d th e E m il A a lto n e n F o u n d a tio n . F in a n c ia lly .

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...................... xi Previous Work on Istar’s D e sc e n t.................................................................. 1 T R A N SL IT E R A T IO N ..................................................... 23 T R A N SC R IPT IO N ........... xii A bbreviations and S y m b o ls........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 109 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103 Index of N a m e s ............................................................... 108 SIGN L IS T ......................... 9 TEXT S C O R E ............. xvii CUNEIFORM T E X T ............... 95 GLOSSARY AND INDICES 101 Logogram s and Their Readings 101 Glossary .......................................................... xiv B ib lio g rap h y ........................................................ ix M an u scrip ts........................... v INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 M ID D LE ASSYRIAN VERSION (Transliteration and T ran slatio n )....................................................................................................... CONTENTS A C K N O W LED G EM EN TS........................... 29 CONTEXTUAL COMM ENTARY AND ANALYSIS 35 Gram m atical C o m m en tary ....................................... 25 T R A N SL A T IO N ..........................

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INTRODUCTION T h e “D e s c e n t o f Is ta r to th e N e th e rw o rld ” is c e rta in ly one o f th e b e s t k n o w n a n d m o st w id e ly re a d M e so p o ta m ia n m y th s. th e s u rfa c e sto ry a n d th e v a rio u s la y e rs o f m e a n in g u n d e rly in g it are n o t g e n e ra lly d is c u s s e d in th is in tro d u c tio n . 9 5 -1 0 4 . th e a v a ila b le c o m p a ra tiv e e v id e n c e (b o th M e s o p o ta m ia n a n d n o n -M e s o p o ta m ia n ) h as n e v e r b e e n c o lle c te d in to a lin e- b y -lin e c o m m e n ta ry th a t w o u ld fa c ilita te th e u n d e rsta n d in g o f its re lig io u s a n d p h ilo s o p h ic a l d im e n sio n s . T h is sta te o f a ffa irs is all th e m o re d e p lo ra b le sin c e . and tra n sla tio n s o f it are a v a ila b le in n u m e ro u s a n th o lo g ie s o f M e so p o ta m ia n lite ra tu re (fo r m an y y e a rs a lso o n th e In te rn e t). fo r e x a m p le . 6) a g ra m m a tic a l and o rth o - g ra p h ic c o m m e n ta ry . w h o is th u s fo rc e d to a p p ro a c h it la rg e ly fro m his o r h e r o w n (m o re o r le ss s u b je c tiv e ) p e rs p e c tiv e o n ly . th e u n fille d la c u n a e in B o rg e r’s tra n s lite ra tio n . 3) a n o rm a liz e d tra n s c r ip tio n . In a d d itio n to th e c u n e ifo rm te x t. w ith o u t re c o u rs e to a tra in e d A s s y rio lo g is t. B e c a u s e o f th e b re v ity o f th e m y th an d th e g re a t v a rie ty o f th e in te rp re ta - tio n s p ro p o s e d fo r it. as w e ll as 7) e x h a u s tiv e lo g o g ra m . 5) a d e ta ile d lin e -b y -lin e c o m m e n ta ry . still p re s e n t a se rio u s o b s ta c le to th e u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e e n d o f th e m y th . T h e n o rm a liz e d tra n s c rip tio n an d g ra m m a tic a l e x p la n a tio n s are a d d re sse d to th e b e g in n in g s tu d e n ts an d n o n -A s s y rio lo g is ts w h o w ish to stu d y th e A k k a d ia n te x t firs t- h a n d . d e s p ite all th e a tte n tio n th a t th e m y th h as re c e iv e d . It h a s co m e d o w n to us a lm o st c o m p le te in its c la s s ic a l N e o -A ss y ria n v e rsio n . a lth o u g h th e m y th h as a lso b e e n stu d ie d in d e p th fro m in te rte x - tu a l a n d in te rc u ltu ra l p e rs p e c tiv e s . . p a rtic u - la rly th o se a t th e b e g in n in g s a n d en d s o f lin e s 1 2 8 -1 3 4 . it c o n ta in s 1) a n ew c o m p o site tra n s lite ra tio n o f th e N A v e rsio n b a se d o n all a v a ila b le m a n u s c rip ts . is th e o n ly s c h o la rly e d itio n o f the te x t a v a ila b le to s tu d e n ts . T h e title o f the v o lu m e w as c h o se n to d ra w a tte n tio n to th e fa c t th a t th e d e sc e n t o f the G o d d e s s w as n o t a o n e -w a y jo u rn e y But e n d e d in an a sc e n t to h ea v e n . 2) a sc o re h ig h lig h tin g th e d iffe re n c e s b e tw e e n the N in e v e h and A s s u r v e rs io n s . th e k ey co m - p a ra tiv e e v id e n c e w ill n e c e s s a rily re m a in b e y o n d the k e n o f th e c a su a l s tu d e n t o f th e m y th . w o rd an d nam e in d ic e s an d 8) a sig n lis t in th e c u s to m a ry S A A C T sty le. T h u s . R y k le B o r g e r ’s sco re tra n s lite ra tio n in B A L 2 (1 9 7 9 ). W ith o u t su ch a c o m m e n ta ry . T h e m y th its e lf h as b e e n d isc u s s e d or to u c h e d u p o n in in n u m e ra b le c o n n e c tio n s . 4) a tra n sla tio n o f th e c o m p o - site te x t. a n d re a d in g it in c u n e ifo rm is a s e lf-e v id e n t m u st fo r e v e ry a s p irin g A s s y rio lo g is t. it is b o th su rp risin g and d e p lo ra b le th a t no fu ll-s c a le c ritic a l e d itio n o f th is im p o rta n t m y th h as e v e r b e e n p ro d u c e d . the te x t s till p re se n ts m an y te x tu a l a n d in te rp re tiv e p ro b le m s th a t h a v e n o t b e e n s a tis fa c to rily re so lv e d . M o re o v e r. A p a rt fro m P e te r J e n s e n ’s e d itio p r in c e p s fro m 190 1 . A g a in s t th is b a c k g ro u n d . T h e p re s e n t v o lu m e is an a tte m p t to p ro v id e a c ritic a l e d itio n th a t c a n n o t o n ly b e p ro fita b ly u sed in te a c h in g b u t w ill also satisfy th e n eed s o f m o re s e rio u s stu d e n ts o f th e te x t.

g e n e ra lly fo llo w th e c o n v e n tio n s o f th e S A A s e rie s . T ransliteration S in ce th e N in e v e h an d A s su r v e rsio n s o f th e m y th d iffe r c o n s id e ra b ly fro m ea ch o th e r in d e ta ils .. it h as b e e n m ad e a b it m o re “u s e r- frie n d ly ” (e . alth o u g h in th e in te re s t o f b e g in - n in g s tu d e n ts an d n o n -A s s y rio lo g is ts . !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION C uneiform Text a n d Sign L ist T h e c u n e ifo rm te x t an d sig n lis t h a v e b e e n g e n e ra te d a u to m a tic a lly fro m the c o m p o site tra n s lite ra tio n u sin g p ro g ra m s and an d fo n ts c re a te d b y the S A A P ro je c t. L in e s in th e A s su r v e rsio n o m itte d in N in e v e h h av e h o w e v e r b e e n in c lu d e d in th e c o m p o site te x t.g . w h ile the lin e n u m b e rin g its e lf fo llo w s th a t o f K 162 (m s A o f th e N in e v e h v e rs io n ). G lo ssa ry a n d Indices T h e lo g o g ra m lis t.. A ll d iffe re n c e s b e tw e e n th e N in e v e h and A ssu r v e rsio n s (in c lu d in g m in o r v a ria n ts) are re g is te re d in th e v a ria n t a p p a ra tu s and th e sco re. B o r g e r ’s A s s y r is c h -b a b y lo n is c h e Z e ic h e n liste w ith m in o r m o d ific a tio n s . T h e sig n n u m b ers g iv e n in b o ld fa ce are th o se o f R .] T h e sig n lis t c o n ta in s all th e s y lla b ic an d lo g o g ra p h ic sign v a lu e s o c c u rrin g in th e c o m p o site te x t and th e ir fre q u e n c ie s . . T h e m e a n in g s a ssig n e d to th e w o rd s are la rg e ly o n ly th o se o c c u rrin g in th e te x t itse lf. th e c o m p o site te x t p re se n te d h e re is p rim a rily b a s e d o n th e N in e v e h v e rsio n . O u tlin e ch ar- ac te rs c o v e re d b y sh ad in g in d ic a te sig n s re sto re d in a d e stro y e d a re a o f the ta b le t. S o lid b la c k c h a ra c te rs re p re s e n t te x t p re se rv e d in at le a s t o n e m an u - sc rip t an d o u tlin e c h a ra c te rs s ta n d fo r re sto re d te x t an d c o rre sp o n d to item s w ith in sq u a re b ra c k e ts o r an g le b ra c k e ts in th e tra n s lite ra tio n . g lo ss a ry an d in d ic e s . w h o se o rth o g ra p h y is p re fe rre d w h ere the tw o tra d itio n s c o n v e rg e . by n o t listin g v e rb a l a d je c tiv e s u n d e r v e rb s). S u ch in c lu sio n s are in d i- c a te d w ith lo w e r-c a s e le tte rs a p p e n d e d to re le v a n t lin e n u m b e rs. w h e re v e r fe a sib le . P a rtia lly p re se rv e d c h a ra c te rs are sh o w n by a c o m b in a tio n o f so lid an d o u tlin e w e d g e s w ith sh a d in g o v e r th e o u tlin e p o rtio n o f th e sig n . e le c tro n ic a lly g e n e ra te d . W h e re v e r th e tw o m a n u sc rip ts o f the N in e v e h v e rsio n d iv e rg e .. D a m a g e d sig n s are re p re s e n te d by g rey c h a ra c te rs an d u n re sto ra b le p o rtio n s o f th e te x t are in d ic a te d by sh ad e d areas: Transliteration Cuneiform uk [uk] u[k] [ m]& [u k ‫י‬ [. p re fe re n c e h a s b e e n g iv e n to g ra m m a tic a lly a n d o rth o g ra p h ic a lly m o re “ c o rre c t” fo rm s .

159 (CT 34 18). Obverse corresponds to lines 4-43. corresponding to lin es 1-9 o f ms A. with lines 134-138a written on the left edge. NA script. minor variants only. Fragment from the lower left corner of the obverse corresponding to lines 68-80 of A. Except for minor breaks. = S T T 2 8 iii 1 . C2 = VAT 11269 (KAR 288). A ssurbanipal library stamp. follow ing the score tran sliteratio n o f the N A m an u scrip ts. One-column tablets from Assur C = VAT 9729 + VAT 11245 (+) VAT 11269. Manuscripts One-column tablets from Nineveh A = K 162 (CT 15 45-47). com plete text o f the myth. although they do not join physically. B3joins B. = K 7600 (CT 15 48). and B2 do not join physically. NA script. with line 78 written on the left edge. 23‫״‬. D uplicate of A. B2 = K 7601 (CT 15 48). All pieces are parts o f the same tablet. T his text dev iates considerably from the N eo-A ssyrian version and has no relevance to the reco n stru ctio n o f the latter. xi . B3 = Ki 1904-10-9. VI 97-100 // ms A 17-20 D2 = SAA Gilg. Lines 106-137. = VAT 9729 + VAT 11245 (KAR 1). = SAA Gilg. VII 117-119 //m s A 106-108 E = Parallel passages in The M yth of Nergal and Ereskigal E. Lines 32-46. but a new transliteration and tran slatio n o f it is p ro v id ed on p. VII 185-191 // ms A 4-10 D3 = SAA Gilg. A ssurbanipal colophon c-e (Hunger Kolophone no. 80 + 59 lines. Lines 133-138 + 2 lines of colophon. B. It is likely that both pieces are parts o f the same tablet. 7. although B. B = K 7600 (+) K 7601 (+) Ki 1904-10-9. C. v 11-12 // ms A 19-20 A n appen d ix to a M iddle A ssy rian poem in praise o f T ig lath -p ileser I (LK A 62) co n tain s the first 11 lines o f an earlier M A version o f the m yth. 319). reverse to lines 81-130 o f A.159. Other sources D = Parallel passages in The Epic o f Gilgam esh D. Early NA script. according to King. CT 34 p.5 / / ms A 0 6 -1 0 E2 = STT 28 iii 21-22 // ms A 29-30 E3 = STT 28 r.

Vol.. The Cuneiform Inscriptions o f Western Asia. 80-91. 231 [VAT 11269] 1953 Theo Bauer. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiosen Inhalts II (Leipzig). p. Rom a). in the British Museum XV (London).6 6 -7 2 [VAT 9729 + VAT 11245] 1979 Rykle Borger. “Istars H ollenfahrt” [K 162 and K 7600 + K 7601] 1917 Samuel Geller. 45-47 [K 162] and 48 [K 7600 + K 7601] 1914 L. “Istars H ollenfahrt” [K 162 and K 7600 + K 7601] . 95-104. &c. l . “H ollenfahrt der Istar” [K 162. (London). Berlin). 2nd ed. PI. Berlin).. Appendix B. W.] Transcriptions !9 7 4 W illiam R. Assyrisch-babylonische Mythen und Epen (K eilinschriftliche B ibliothek 6/1. Choix de textes cuneiformes inedites ou incomplement publies (Paris). “Die Rezension von ‘Istars H ollenfahrt’ aus A ssur. Pis. Assyrisch-babylonische Mythen und Epen (K eilinschriftliche Bibliothek 6/1. 1-4 and 321 [VAT 9729 + VAT 11245] 1920 Erich Ebeling. “The descent of the goddess Istar into Hades” [K 162 set in cuneiform type] 1902 L. Cuneiform Texts fro m Babylonian Tablets. Babylonische-assyrische LesestUcke. Heft II (AnOr 54. 18 [Ki 1904-10-9.. 30. Nr. Johns Hopkins U niversity). pp. “Die H ollenfahrt der Gottin Istar” [score of all mss. K ing. in the British Museum XXXIV (London). lines 1-125 only] 1979 Rykle Borger.p p . “Istar’s Descent into the N etherw orld” Translations 1901 Peter Jensen. IV. Cuneiform Texts fro m Babylonian Tablets.. Babylonische-assyrische LesestUcke. pp.” OLZ 2 0 . 80-91. 2nd ed. pp. “La descent d ’Istar aux Enfers” [K 162] 1891 T. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiosen Inhalts I (Leipzig). pp. 288. PI. 3. pp. 340-343 [reprint of CT 15 45-48] Transliterations 1901 Peter Jensen. Heft I (AnOr 54.159] 1919 Erich Ebeling.4 1 -4 8 . K ing. Nr. 2nd ed. W . G. Rom a). Akkadische LesestUcke (Roma). 241-250. Nr. &c. Pinches. Sladek. no. 50-53.. 31. !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION Previous Work on !star’s Descent Copies 1875 Francois Lenorm ant. In a n n a ’s Descent to the Netherworld (PhD diss. pp.

W.” in H. O xford 2000). An Anthology o f Texts and Pictures.. Altorientalische Texte zum Alten Testament. The Ancient Near East.” in J. (eds. K lein. 41-48. Lorsque les dieux faisaient Vhomme. Rogers. pp. B.” in H. I (2nd ed. ‘! s ta r ’s Descent into the N etherw orld”) 1985 Erica Reiner. (eds.).htm l 1970 Rene Labat. Band 111/4: Mythen und Epen I I ( G utersloh). 123-128 (“Ish tar’s D escent to the Underworld”) 1950 E. A. Creation.). Gressmann et al (eds.. “Die Rezension von ‘Istars H ollenfahrt’ aus A ssur. 402-409. “Y erideth Ishtar le-Sheol. 154-162 xiii . A. An Anthology o f Akkadian Lit- erature. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (2nd ed.). “Descent of Ishtar to the N etherw orld” 1996 Jacob K lein.” in Rene Labat et al.m e- sacc. 107-109 1955 E. Sladek. Myths fro m Mesopotamia. “D escent of Ishtar to the U nderw orld. Pritchard (ed. B ethesda. also available at http://www. Speiser. Kaksoisvirranmaa (H elsinki). ed. Gressmann (ed. 206-210 1926 R obert W. 2. Vol.” in Shin Shifra and J. Prince- ton).edu/dept/dlO /asb/m esopotam ia/descent_ishtar. Pritchard (ed. Your Mooring Rope Cut. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament with Sup- plement. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels (Chi- cago). B. Gilga- mesh. B. Speiser. “Die H ollenfahrt der Ischtar.). Johns Hopkins U niversity).” in O. 318-326 1994 G erfried G.” OLZ 20.). M uller. Vol I (Princeton). Speiser. 80-85 1969 E.” in J. 3rd ed. 296-300 1917 Samuel Geller. In Those Distant Days (Be-yomim ha-rekhuqim ha-hem). Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments.” in J. (Princeton) 106-109. and Others (rev. “D escent of Ishtar to the U nderw orld. “D escent of Ishtar to the Nether W orld. A.). M D). 258-265 1974 W illiam R.. Anthology of M esopota- mian Literature in Hebrew (Tel A viv). “Die H ollenfahrt der Ischtar.” in J. In a n n a ’s Descent to the Netherworld (PhD diss. 121-131 ‫י‬ 1945 Armas Salonen. ‫■׳‬ Altorientalische Texte und Bilder zum Alten Testament (Tubingen). Pritchard (ed). 251-262 (in Appendix B. 29-49 (“The D escent of Istar: From myth to narrative”) 1993 Jean Bottero and Sam uel Noah Kram er. “D escent of Ishtar to the Nether W orld. “La descente d ’lshtar aux Enfers. Poetry from Babylonia and Assyria (U niversity of M ichigan). “Ischtars H ollenfahrt. Before the Muses. Speiser. Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament (New York). the Flood. K aiser et al.). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton). 66-72 [VAT 9729 + VAT 11245] 1926 Erich Ebeling.. Your Thwarts in Pieces. 106-108 1958 E. PREVIO U S W ORK O N !S T A R ’S DESCENT 1909 A rthur Ungnad. Les religions du Proche-Orient asiatique (Paris). 368-375 2000 Stephanie D ailey. Pritchard (ed. A. (B erlin und Leipzig). Aufl. 539-546 [Finnish] 1946 A lexander Heidel. 760-766 1996 Benjam in R. Mythologie mesopotamienne (Paris). Foster. B.

von Soden. Rome 1979) BaM Baghdader M itteilungen BIN Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of J. (SANTAG 5. A Concise Dictionary o f Akkadian. Babylonisch-assyrische LesestUcke I-II (Analecta O rientalia 54. W iesbaden 2000) CNI Carsten Niebuhr Institute o f Near Eastern Studies. von S oden. A “The Cylinders o f G udea. comptes rendus CT Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British M useum Cyl.ox .orient .gud = imru = ballu HUCA Hebrew Union College Annual JAOS Journal of the A m erican Oriental Society JCS Journal o f Cuneiform Studies JNES Journal of N ear Eastern Studies KAJ E. 2nd corrected printing. Sumerian Poetry in Translation (New Haven 1987). 386-444.” in Thorkild Jacobsen. Ebeling. DI D um uzi-Inanna Love Songs Diri Lexical series diri DIR siaku = (w)atru ETCSL The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (http://www- etcsl . Lexical series HAR.).. Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik Hh. University of Copen- hagen CRRAI Rencontre assyriologique internationale. Leipzig 1895-1897) AEPHEH Annuaire de l ’Ecole Pratique des hautes etudes.uk/) FAOS Freiburger altorientalische Studien GAG W. Assyrian and Babylonian Religious Texts I-II (Assyriologische B ibliothek 13. Craig. and N. Postgate (eds. Assyrian Medical Texts fro m the Originals in the British Museum (London 1923) AOAT A lter Orient und Altes Testam ent ARM Archives Royales de M ari AS Assyriological Studies (University of Chicago) ASJ A cta Sum erologica Japonica BAL R. Akkadisches Handworterbuch (W iesbaden 1959-1981) AMT R. Keilschrifttexte' aus Assur juristischen Inhalts (Leipzig 1927) xiv . Borger. !S T A R ’S DESC EN T A N D RESURRECTION Abbreviations and Symbols B ib lio g ra p h ica l A bbreviation s ABRT J. Black.ra = hubullu Hg. Nies BiOr Bibliotheca O rientalis CAD The Assyrian D ictionary of the University of Chicago CBS M useum siglum of the University M useum in Philadelphia (Catalogue of the Babylonian Section) CD A J.. section des sciences historiques et philologiques AfK A rchiv fur K eilschriftforschung (= AfO 1-2) AfO A rchiv fiir O rientforschung AHw W. Cam pbell Thom pson. B. Lexical series HAR.ac . The Harps that Once . George. A.

Neue Folge (Leip- zig 1937. Sum erische K ultlieder aus altbabylonischer Zeit I-II (VS 2 and 10. Paris 1968) VS V orderasiatische Schriftdenkm aler der K oniglichen M useen zu Berlin WO Die W elt des O rients WOO W iener Offene O rientalistik WZKM W iener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des M orgenlandes ZA Zeitschrift fur A ssyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archaologie xv . Revue d ’A rt O riental et d ’Archeologie TAPS Transactions of the A m erican Philosophical Society TMH NF Texte und M aterialien der Frau Professor H ilprecht Collection of Baby- Ionian A ntiquities im Eigentum der U niversitat Jena. Gurney and J. Ebeling. Zim m ern. Ugaritica V: nouveuax texts accadiens. II (AOAT 5/1-2. J. Com- mentaires des texts historiques (M ission Ras Shamra 16. de G enouillac. The Sultantepe Tablets I-II (London 1957. Texts UF U garit-Forschungen U garitica J. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religidsen Inhalts I-II (Leipzig 1919) LAS S . (eds. Sumerische Gotterlieder (Heidelberg 1960) SK H. Literarische Keilschrifttexte aus Assur (Berlin 1953) Loeb Loeb Classical Library M SL M aterialien zum sum erischen Lexikon/M aterials for the Sumerian Lex- icon N abnitu Lexical series SIG 7+A L A M = nabnitu NABU Nouvelles A ssyriologiques Breves et Utilitaires NHC N ag H a m a d i C o d e x (C o d ic e s) OLZ O rientalistische Literaturzeitung OrNS O rientalia Nova Series OrSuec O rientalia Suecana PBS U niversity of Pennsylvania. Court Poetry and Literary Miscellanea. hour- rites et ugaritiques des archives et bibliotheques privees d ’Ugarit.). Publications of the Babylonian Section (Philadelphia 1911. (Helsinki 1989) SAACT State Archives o f A ssyria Cuneiform Texts SAAS State Archives o f A ssyria Studies SANE Sources from the A ncient N ear East (Los Angeles/M alibu 1974.archeologie orientale R1A R eallexikon der A ssyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archaologie SAA State Archives o f A ssyria SAA 3 A.) UET Ur Excavations. van D ijk. Leipzig 1912-1913) SMS Syro-M esopotam ian Studies StOr Studia O rientalia STT O. Neukirchen-Vluyn 1970. R. Letters fro m Assyrian Scholars to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal I.1964) Syria Syria.) SANTAG A rbeiten und U ntersuchungen zur K eilschriftkunde SGL II J. Parpola. A. J.) PRAK H. Livingstone. F inkelstein. N ougayrol et al. 1983) LKA E. ABBR EV IA TIO N S A N D SYM BOLS KAR E. Ebeling. Berlin 1961. Premieres recherches archeologiques a Kich (Paris 1924-1925) Proto-D iri see Diri Proto-Izi Lexical series izi = isatu RA Revue d ’assyriologie et d .

n o m in a tiv e obv.. s ta tu s c o n s tr u c tu s . sec o n d p e rs o n .... ] m a jo r b re a k + jo in e d to xvi . d a tiv e en cl. c s tr. p re te rit p re s. !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION O ther A bb revia tio n s a n d Sym bols acc. re v e rs e SB S ta n d a rd B a b y lo n ia n sg. g e n itiv e im p ... a c c u sa tiv e c com m on gender d at. v o c a tiv e 1 . p a rtic le r. p lu ra l p o ss. p a rtic ip le p tc l. fe m a le . c o n s tru c t state sta t. p e rfe c t p i. m a sc u lin e m s(s) m a n u sc rip t(s) NA N e o -A ss y ria n NB N e o -B a b y lo n ia n nom . su b je c t su ff. fe m in in e g en .a d j .. sta tiv e su b j. sin g u la r st. p re se n t p ro n . v e rb a l a d je c tiv e v a r. p o s se s iv e p re c . v e n tiv e v o c.. p re c a tiv e p re p . p re p o sitio n p re t. p ro n o u n . im p e ra tiv e MA M id d le A ssy ria n m... e n c litic f. v a ria n t v e n t.3 firs t p e rso n . o b v e rse p e rf. su b ju n c tiv e . p ro n o m in a l p tc .] m in o r b re a k (o n e o r tw o m issin g w o rd s) [ . th ird p e rso n ! c o lla tio n !! e m e n d a tio n ? u n c e rta in re a d in g : c u n e ifo rm d iv isio n m ark s x b ro k e n o r u n d e c ip h e re d sig n <> su p p lie d sig n « » sig n e rro n e o u s ly ad d e d b y sc rib e [ . rev .2 . su ffix v .

Death. xvii . 180-185. 1992 “Two Old Akkadian Letters Concerning the Offices of kala’um and narum.D a g a n I) ETCSL: L u g a lb a n d a a n d the A n z u d B ir d ETCSL: N i n g i s z i d a ’s j o u r n e y to the n e th e r w o r ld ETCSL: T he C u r s in g o f A g a d e ETCSL: T h e D e a th o f U r -N a m m a ( U r -N a m m a A ) ETCSL: T h e e x a lta tio n o f In a n a (I n a n a B ) ETCSL: T h e E x p lo its o f N in u r ta ETCSL: T h e L a m e n t f o r U nug Abusch.g id a to N u s k a (N u s k a A ) ETCSL: A s ir .D a g a n K) ETCSL: A p r a is e p o e m o f S u l g i (S u lg i B ) ETCSL: A s o n g o f In a n a a n d D u m u z i d (D u m u z id -I n a n a D 1 ) ETCSL: A s ir . Ecstasy.” ZA 82. Bibliography The ETCSL texts used or referred to in the book: ETCSL: A n a d a b to I n a n a f o r U r -N in u r ta ( JJr-Ninurta C) ETCSL: A b a lb a le to I n a n a a n d D u m u z i d (D u m u z id -I n a n a C) ETCSL: A h y m n to In a n a (I n a n a C) ETCSL: A h y m n to In a n a (In a n a F) ETCSL: A h y m n to In a n a as N in e g a la (I n a n a D ) ETCSL: A h y m n to In a n a f o r I s m e . A lster.D a g a n (I d d in . 1995 “A scent to the Stars in a M esopotam ian R itual. Tzvi 1986 “Ish ta r’s Proposal and G ilgam esh’s Refusal: An Interpretation of the Gilgamesh Epic.” H istory of Religions 26/2.D a g a n (I s m e . 144-187.D a g a n A ) ETCSL: D u m u z i d a n d G e s tin -a n a ETCSL: D u m u z i d ’s D r e a m ETCSL: E n k i a n d the w o r l d o r d e r ETCSL: E n l i l a n d N in lil ETCSL: E n m e r k a r a n d the lo rd o f A r a tta ETCSL: G ilg a m e s . Bendt 1972 D u m u zi’s Dream: Aspects o f Oral Poetry in a Sumerian Myth.D a g a n a n d E n l i l ’s c h a r io t: a tig i to E n lil (Is m e .” in John J. and Other Worldly Journeys (Albany) 15-39. N.n a m u r s a g a to N in s ia n a f o r Id d in . Collins and M ichael Fishbane (eds. M esopotam ia 1. E n k id u a n d the n e th e r w o r ld ETCSL: I n a n a a n d B ilu lu : an u lila to In a n a ETCSL: I n a n a a n d E b ih ETCSL: I n a n a a n d E n k i ETCSL: I n a n a ’s d e s c e n t to the n e th e r w o r ld ETCSL: I s m e . Copenhagen. al-Raw i. F. Lines 1-79. Tablet 6.).

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‬זז‬ ‫^ ^‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ש<■‬ ‫!!!!זש‬ ‫‪WMm‬‬ ‫ד ‪ 1‬מ ף״ ‪^ 1‬‬ ‫מ זשש‬ ‫‪b‬‬ ‫זזש‬ ‫‪»-‬ז‬ ‫«< ‪Hp-‬‬ ‫‪tgf 1‬‬ ‫^‪MV‬‬ ‫^‬ ‫‪#‬‬ ‫^‬ ‫‪IF I‬‬ ‫‪85‬‬ ‫־‪h‬‬ ‫זמ‬ ‫^‬ ‫‪if‬‬ ‫מ‬ ‫‪>13‬‬ ‫<‪3‬‬ ‫ז^ שזז^‬ ‫זז מ‪ -‬מש‬ ‫‪<t% ►tg‬‬ ‫► ‪<t%‬‬ ‫‪ 3‬זמש ‪ <7-‬מ‬ ‫־^י ‪ 1‬מ ־מ‬ ‫מ■^ ‪if‬‬ ‫^‬ ‫יזז^‬ ‫‪ 1‬מ ‪ 1‬מ שזזזש‬ ‫מ ח‬ ‫^ ‪Bf‬‬ ‫ג!ש‬ ‫ג!ש>‬ ‫‪3 ^1‬ש ^ ‪ -^^fFFF‬שש‬ ‫^‬ ‫מ!‪±‬ש ‪1:‬‬ ‫ג!ש>‬ ‫‪ y btf‬שזזזש‬ ‫^ מ זזז‪1‬‬ ‫^‬ ‫^‬ ‫‪y‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫ע מ‪1‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫י‬ ‫^ ^ז‬ ‫! ‪a‬‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫ד‪ -‬ששזש^ש‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪TTT‬‬ ‫^ ‪90 b?>i‬‬ ‫<‬ ‫‪ zm‬זז מז מ ‪1‬‬ ‫מ ששזז‬ ‫‪HP■ 0‬‬ ‫’זז זזזזש‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ז ז‪4‬‬ ‫‪jy‬‬ ‫זמ ‪a 1 ■ n‬‬ ‫מ‬ ‫‪m‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫מזי ז‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪m‬מ‬ ‫^‬ ‫מש‬ ‫«<‬ ‫■&*‬ ‫^ עש‬ ‫ז^ ‪ 3‬מ ד ז‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫ז‪-‬ז<►‬ ‫^ ‪V.I‬־ ‪01‬‬ ‫‪45‬‬ ‫מ־זמשזמששזזזש מש ח זז‬ ‫‪Y‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫מ ‪-‬־ז *‪3‬ש**■‬ ‫ש מ ? מ‬ ‫^ (& ‪m‬‬ ‫^‬ ‫‪01‬־ ‪ff ►y 0‬‬ ‫‪ : s‬מ‬ ‫‪bf y‬י ‪.1YFI Y‬‬ ‫‪01‬‬ ‫‪Y 10‬‬ ‫‪ B Y I‬מ>‬ ‫‘‪Y > Y <13 IF‬‬ ‫ז^► ‪ 1‬מ‬ ‫‪y‬‬ ‫‪ bf‬זמש‬ ‫־** ‪ 1‬מ ־^י‬ ‫מ ‪if‬‬ ‫‪^ ^ w‬‬ ‫שזזזש‬ ‫‪ 1‬מ ז מ‬ ‫‪^ ^ >B‬ש־^‪ BFIrB‬־‪HF‬‬ ‫‪h‬‬ ‫►^‪-‬‬ ‫‪ Y‬מ ^ ^ש ־ז*־׳י‬ ‫ז­‬ ‫‪u‬‬ ‫■►‪V-‬‬ ‫*־־►‬ ‫?‬ ‫‪01 BF‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫<‪r-YI HF‬‬ ‫™ מ‪ -‬מ‬ ‫ג>‬ ‫►‬‫►■‬ ‫‪t..0‬‬ ‫ז ‪0‬‬ ‫‪iy ihf-‬‬ ‫< ‪>13 3‬‬ ‫זז ‪>13‬‬ ‫׳‪b>y 1‬‬ ‫‪Y‬‬ ‫‪>~7V TTT‬‬ ‫‪ _ b y ^ y i f y .1r3‬‬ ‫> ‪<W Y‬‬ ‫^ ‪<10 IF‬‬ ‫‪BY‬‬ ‫־‪0BF‬‬ ‫‪ b & i b y .y‬מ ש ‪ 1‬זזז‬ ‫—‪F ^ T‬ש ‪3.1‬ש ‪tCTTT tBTF ^fl‬‬ ‫^‪Y‬‬ ‫‪^ 01‬‬ ‫‪4-A‬‬ ‫‪t‬‬ ‫מ ־־יז *‪3‬ש‬ ‫ש מ ^ ‪BSr‬‬ ‫מ► ^ זזמ‬ ‫^ מ‪:‬‬ ‫—ז‬ ‫‪y‬‬ ‫מש ‪m‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪ w‬זמ‬ ‫‪^ 0 0 Y‬‬ ‫‪01‬‬ ‫> ‪£ <13 3‬־‪HF‬‬ ‫‪f‬‬ ‫^ ‪II‬‬ ‫‪$>*f I— Y‬‬ ‫מש שזזזש ‪y‬‬ ‫מ~ זזז^ ‪ w‬ז^־ ‪ by‬זמש ‪ y .y‬מש ‪b y‬זמש ‪>v bf‬זזזש ^שזזזש מש ‪ 1‬זזץ־‬ ‫—‪^ b i‬‬ ‫‪^ tty‬‬ ‫‪< <Buy‬‬ ‫מ ‪-‬ז & ‪t‬‬ ‫^ מ‬ ‫מ► ^ ‪b y‬‬ ‫^‬ ‫—ז‬ ‫מש ‪m‬‬ ‫>‬ ‫מש זז‪>£‬‬ ‫‪->Y‬״ ^‬ ‫‪01‬‬ ‫‪3.bf‬זזזש ^ שזזזש‬ ‫‪ y‬מ ‪ n <1‬מ‬ ‫‪& y‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫מ ־־יז ^ &‪t‬‬ ‫ש מ‬ ‫ש‬‫^‬ ‫זז‬ ‫‪t‬‬‫‪%‬‬ ‫^‬ ‫מ‬ ‫‪yb‬‬ ‫‪►W-‬‬ ‫זזלמ‬ ‫‪y‬‬ ‫ז‪0‬‬ ‫‪HP.f 3‬‬ ‫> ‪YY Y‬‬ ‫* מ‪YY IF0BF‬‬ ‫‪60‬‬ ‫’ ‪ y j y‬זמש מ► ‪ b & ib y y ^ y y ^ y * y y‬ז ‪0‬זמשזמש ‪* ^ y -y‬שמש מש שמש?‬ ‫► <<‪£+‬‬ ‫► —‬ ‫־ ‪V‬״‬ ‫מ~ ‪ y‬ז‪ 1‬מ‬ ‫^י ^‬ ‫‪-‬זז► ‪►-ci V‬‬ ‫► ‪W-‬־‪ti‬‬ ‫^־‪.<5-‬‬ ‫זז‬ ‫^‪ yah‬מ‬ ‫‪4‬‬ .t3‬‬ ‫> ‪<1M Y‬‬ ‫* מ ‪YY IF‬‬ ‫‪B «f I— Y‬‬ ‫^ ‪ ^ t b y‬מ־ ‪ b y‬זמש ‪ t ^ V ^ f ^ e F‬מ! ‪w i‬‬ ‫‪v‬‬ ‫^ !מ‬ ‫‪y‬‬ ‫‪b b y i— y‬‬ ‫‪55‬‬ ‫‪ ^ b y ^ ^ 1-‬מ ‪ £‬מ ‪a v s‬‬ ‫‪y‬מ‬ ‫‪bby‬‬ ‫► ‪0‬‬ ‫^>״•‪ti CS‬‬ ‫‪' 01‬‬ ‫‪3 . ‫‪CUNEIFORM TEXT‬‬ ‫‪a v s‬‬ ‫^ מ‬ ‫^ ^ ‪by‬‬ ‫‪m‬‬ ‫ח ‪bh‬‬ ‫‪01‬‬ ‫מש ‪ 1‬מ מזזל‬ ‫‪TTY‬‬ ‫^ ‪^ HFl-YF‬‬ ‫‪ eHF.

IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION

m ‫־‬44
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3 « I «

5

!S T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION

Middle Assyrian Version
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— 0‫ז‬ ^ 01 0‫ז‬ T ^ ‫זזד‬ ‫—ז‬
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‫ש‬0 £ ~0 «< 0 ‫ז‬0 -01 T 10‫ד*ז‬
10 10‫ד< ז‬ 0 0‫ז‬0 ‫זז‬ ‫״‬v 0 t 0
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7

.

ki-ma C: g im A . line om itted in C 8 s a h a r . g i 4. as-[bu] A: a s-b a C . om itted in A 12 d+1NN1N A: om itted in C. C: u-sam -[a]-du D: u-sam -ad E.A qaq-qa-ri l[a ta-a-ri] 2 d+lNNlN DUMU.l. a-na A: ana C. h i . D: i-na C.DU8 ba-a-bi a-m a-tum iz-zak-kar 14 LlJ. ba-ab-ka A: k a C 15 ba-ab-ka A: k a C.m eS D . a-kal-su-nu A: a-kal-[s]i-i-na C: -si-na D: n i n d a .DUg A: i.i.NU.g i 4. D . a A: ep- ru D.D A R pi-i-sa ip-pu-u-su i-qab-bi 13 LtJ.m ! d30 u-zu-u[n-sa] 4 a -n a E e-te-e su-bat Hr-kal-la 5 a -n a £ 5a e-ri-bu-su la a-su-u 6 a -n a har-ra-ni sa a-lak-ta-sa la a-a. a-m a-tum A: -tam C. k u l A: u sik-ku-ri C.i.a ina ka-sa-di-sa 12a p i-i-sa ip-pu-u-su i-qab-bi 13 a -n a LU. i-pu-us-m a A: ip-pu-su C.i.m eS D . E 10 lab-su-ma A: la b-sa-m a D. k u r . ba-a -b i A: sa kA C.[ ^ '- ri]a E. $u-bat A .a A: k u r .Gl4. E: me-tu-te C.m e S A . iz-zak-kar A: M U -nr C 14 l u . d u 8 A: L d u 8 C. ta -a-a-rat A . h i J a 1. mi-tu-ti A: O s.KUL sa-bu-uh ep-ru 11a [UGU Gl]S. g a p -[p i] A: a-g a p -p i C: kap-pi D: a-kap-pu E l l u g i s . n u . u -sab-la-kat D 18a Thus C. p i. su -bat A . E 20 u g u A . s a g .SAG. D.a C 6 har-ra-ni A: KASKAL D. -ma om itted in C. ina ka-sa-di-sa A: i-na ka-sa-di-i-sa C. bal-tu-ti A .ia . [su]-um-ma la-a ta-pa-ta-a ba-a-ba -am C 17 om itted in C 18 a-mah-ha-as A: a-ma-has C: a-sab-[bir] D. D E: su-ba-at C.m e s C: m u s e n D. ul im-ma-ru A: la im-ma-ra(-ma) D.DU8pa-a-su i-pu-us-m a i-qab-bi 22 iz-zak-ka-ra a-na GAL-ti Hs-tar 4 e-te -e A: ek-le-ti C. ik-ka-lu D: ik-kal-[lu] C: k u .IG. ti-id-du D: -di E 9 nu-u-ru A: it nu-u-ra D.D [A R C 9 . D E: t i . Transliteration 1 a -n a rKUR'l. E. g i C. om itted in A 19 u-se-el-la- a A: u-sel-lam-ma D: [e]l-lu-u-ni C. ina A . dis-tar A: d(u). g a l -ti A: dba-la-te C. D: el C. D .MES 18a {a}-sab-bir g is-ri-na-am -m a a-sa-[ha-at k]a-ar-ra 19 u-se-el-la-a mi-tu-ti ik-ka-lu bal-tu-ti 20 u g u bal-tu-ti i-ma-H-du m i-tu-ti 21 LU. i-m a-’i-du A . bu-bu-us-su-nu A: bu-bu-us-si-na-ma D: -rsP-na E. E: [bal-t]u-t[i] C 21 pa-a-su A: KA-i-su C. is-su-ri A: -ru E: m u S e n .IG u GIS. nu-u-ra D: nu-ra E: nu-[x A.D U 8 C. D : l a .ta . n u .MI d30 u-zu-un-sa [is-kun] 3 is-kun-m a d u m u . sa- bu-uh A: i-sa-bu-uh C. u-sa-bal-kat A: us-ba-lak-kaJ ta'1 C. m i-tu-ti A: uS . m e S C 11a Thus C. C adds: du .HI.DAL su-har-ra-a-tu tab-kat 12 d+1NN1N a-n a k a k u r . D: mu-sab D 5 l a A . ep-ru A: s a h a r .a-rat 7 a -n a £ sa e-ri-bu-su zu-um -m u-u nu-u-ra 8 a-sar SAHAR.n u .DU8-rae-e pi-ta -a ba-ab-ka 15 pi-ta-a ba-ab-ka-m a lu-ru-ba a-na-ku 16 sum -m a la ta-pat-ta-a ba-a-bu la er-ru-ba a-na-ku 17 a-m ah-ha-as dal-tum sik-ku-ru a-sab-bir 18 a-m ah-ha-as si-ip-pu-m a u-sa-bal-kat GIS.a A: p i-i-ta -a C. i-qab-bi A: [M]u-a[r] C 22 iz-zak-ka-ra A: iz-za-qa-ra C. E: -ma C. i .a .A bu-bu-us-su-nu a-kal-su-nu ti-id-du 9 nu-u-ra ul im -m a-ru ina e-tu-ti as-[bu] 10 lab-su-m a ki-ma is-su-ri su-ba t gap-pi 11 UGU GIS. lu-ru-ba a-na-ku A: a-na-ku lu-ru-ub C 16 thus A.r a tC 7 e-ri-bu-su A: a-si-bu-su D.

u d .2-ia 47 er-bi be-el-ti sa dNiN Ki-tim ki-a-am GARZA. sa C: sd A 29 ki-ma A: ki-i C: [g i]m E. §h-ba-sd A: -sa C.M E S-5a 45 2-a kA u-se-rib-si-m a um -ta-si it-ta-bal in-sa-ba-te sa Pi. g u . iz-zak-ka-ra A: iq-ta-bi C 2 6 an-ni-tu-me-e A: an-nu-u C. dis-tar A: d+1NN1[N] C. lu-ub-ki A: o m it t e d in C.a. B: la-a-’i C. G is. an-nu-u C 3 3 a-kal A: ek-ka-la C. Ml .GA]L 26 an-ni-tu-me-e a-ha-at-ki Hs-tar Hz-zcP-a[z] i-na [kA] 27 mu-ki-il-tu sa kep-pe-e g a l. B: [i]s-te-na C 43 a m -m e -n i o m it t e d in C 1 10 .MES5‫־‬a 48 3-su kA u-se-rib-si-m a um -ta-si it-ta-bal n a 4.m eS a-sat-t[i] a.ha-i-ri-si-na sal-lu-pa-ni 36 it a-na LU. a-ha-at-ki C: a-ha-ta-ki A. sap-ta-su A: sa-ba-tu-s[a] C 31 mi-na-a A: mi-i-na-a C.mes-sm tar-du 37 a-lik LU.GI li-ih-du ina pa-ni-ki 42 i-en kA u-se-rib-si-m a um -ta-si it-ta-bal AGA GAL‫־‬a sa SAG.d u 8. B: i- na u g u C.i.Kl.a. la-ke-e A .DUg ta-at-bal sib-bu n a 4 t u sa MURUB4.MES-5a 46 am -m e-ni LU.ha-i-ri A: [h]a-mi-ri C 36 m C: o m i t t e d i n A.MES-la 54 5-su kA u-se-rib-si-m a um -ta-si it-ta-bal sib-bu NA4 t u sa MURUB4. be-el-ti A: n i n C.m e s / da-li-ha-at ap-si-i m a-har dfi.GAL an-ni-ta i-na sa -m iJ P-[sa] 29 ki-ma ni-kis GIS.MES sa e-zi-bu u i.NU. l u .DUg ta-at-bal n a 4. l O .A A[D‫־‬la ] 28 dERES.5iNIG E.DUg ta-at-bal in-sa-ba-te sa P1.DUg ta-at-bal du-di-na-te sa GABA-ia 53 er-bi be-el-ti sa dNiN Ki-tim ki-a-am GARZA.m es a -kal im ki-ma kas. B: N l]N -f/ C. la A: la-a C. B.GAL 25 e-ru-um-m a LU.nunuz. m e s ’ A : p a r-si-k a C.GAL KUR.DUg p i-ta -as-si ba-ab-k[a] 38 up-pi-is-si-ma ki-m a GARZA. t u r A .i. lO o m it t e d in C. s a -p a t A: sap-ti E: sa-ba-at C.KI.[Kl. g a r z a .MES la-bi-ru-ti N 39 il-lik LU.SIKIL. ku-ni-ni A: -i-ni C.sm A: vu-mi-su C 37 ba-ab -k a A: kA C 38 up-pi-is-si-ma A .hi-[ A: hi-re-ti C 35 a-na A .2.KI li-ris-ki 41 E.fc i-[n ]i A: bi-i-ni C: g]1S.m es sa g u -ia 50 er-bi be-el-ti sa dNlN Kl‫’^־‬m ki-a-am GARZA.ME§ a-sat-ti 33 ki-ma n in d a. t a A: ana C.m es dal-hu-te 34 lu-ub-ki a-na GURUS. B: o m it t e d i n C.DU-5a 43 am-m e-ni LU.i. B: ser-ri C.D U 8.DU-!'a 44 er-bi be-el-ti sa dNlN Ki‫'^־‬m ki-a-am garza..DUg ip-ta-as-si KA 40 er-bi be-el-ti g u . ni-kis A: ni-ki-is C. E.i. la A: la-a C 23a T h u s C. si-qir-ki lu-sa-na- a [ x x ] x x [ x x ] C 25 e-ru-um-ma A: e-ru-ub C.K1 A: ku-tu-u C 41 li-ih-du ina pa-ni-ki A: a-na pa-ni-ka [li-ih -d \u ■ ’ C 42 1-en A .m e s-.TUR la-ke-e lu-ub-ki sa ina la ud.K]l.DUg iz-za k-rka -ra‫[ ו‬a-na] rd1ERES. e-ri-qu C: e-ru-[qu A: i’-ir-qu E.i.A. B: [up]-pi-si C.MES‫־‬l a 55 am -m e-ni LtJ.bi-ni e-ri-qu pa-nu-s[a] 30 ki-ma sa-pat ku-ni-ni is-li-m a sap-ta-s[a] 31 mi-na-a SA-ba-sa ub-la-an-ni mi-na-a kab-t[a-as-sa] us-per-da-an-ni-m a 32 an-ni-tu-m e-e a-na-ku it-ti da-nun-na-ki A.i.h i-re-ti 35 lu-ub-ki a-na MI'. pa-nu-s[a] C: pa-nu -u s E 3 0 ki-ma A: ki-i C: GIM E. mi' A .MES sa t a u r LtJ.i.nunuz. ub-la-an-ni A: C a d d s -ma\ kab-t[a-as-sa A: ka-b[at-t]a-sa-m a C 32 an-ni-tu-me-e A .DUg ta-at-bal AGA GAL-a sa SAG. im A: ti-id-da C.i. ba-ab-[su] A: kA C 4 0 be-el-ti A . la-bi-ru-t[i] A: la-a-be-ru-u-ti C 3 9 ip-ta-as-si A: -se C.m es sa G\5-sa 49 am -m e-ni LtJ.MES-5a 51 4 -u k A u-se-rib-si-m a um -ta-si it-ta-bal du-di-na-te sa g a b a -sa 52 am -m e-ni LU. H z-za'-aiz C: i-[ A 27 mu-ki-il-tu C: -kil. o m i t t e d in A 24 th u s A. !S T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 23 i-zi-zi be-el-ti la ta-na-da-as-si 23a qer-bi-is qa-*iJ P IG l[i-pe-tP] 24 lu-ul-lik MU-ki lu-sa-an-ni a-na sar-ra-ti dE[RES.MES-/a 23 i-zi-zi A: i-ziz-zi C. e-zi-bu A: uzJ zu^-bu C. a-sat-t[i] A: -ta-a C 34 a-na A: i-na u g u C.

GL. 2 .m a H s .TAR [ l i .t i s a z u -u m .s i i t .b a t b a l.m a u m .MES-sa 57 6-su k A u .m a 69 s u .h i ] .n a .s e .s i ] 83 il-lik a n .m a u m .s u .Kl.b i .n a s a .h u . r e s t o r a t i o n s f r o m l in e 86 77 a-na A: a-na u g u C.i s .m a . n u .GAL p a .Ki.q a b .a .s i i t .r a 8 8 a r .s a .n a . g i 4.n i .n i .n i z [ i] k .b i b e .t a .r i d ul i.2]-sa 71 GIG a .b a t b a l . m e s s u .n a a .b a l h a r .sa 61 a m . 2 [a-na 1G1.b i 67 a .a A: k u r . i .t u m ina .s i .s i .t a r b e .A A: C a d d s MAN.t a .n a KUR.r u 92 i b .a .a .g i 4.t i sa dNiN Ki-tim k i . em -qi A: -q i C.u d -d u -u d ap.2-za 59 e r . m e s l i .u s .s a u s-b i 6 6 dERES.s i 1 su -s i g [ i g .D U -5a] 75 a .n i .n i LU.h i .n u -s u [kat-mu ?] 82 k a r -r u l a .e l . d i v id i n g l in e in C o n l y 93 1E -su -n a -m ir A: [ la ] s -n a . i-na A: a-na C.a t .MES3‫־‬a 60 l .s a .r i b .s a g a b .n i l u ./ a u G1R.m e .m a di s .GAL i .r a 1e p .m a .b i b e .t a .s a i . u-ri -du 64 dERES. s i l a A: s[u-qi] C.a su-kun p a .t i s a z u .GL.D A R C.m e .t i sa dNiN Ki-tim k i .q i s A -b i. ib-ta-ni z[i]k-ru A: a-[m a-ta ? i b .i t ANSE Ml'.ta r a .m a .l a .n a b u r -t i GU 4 ul i.n f C 92 1e -su-na-m ir A: l as—na -m e-er C.r a ] 78 a r . u-ri -du \ 87 a .2 a .m u r . bur-ti A: -te C.i [ t ] ANSE Mf.n u .s e .h i .[ n a SA-bi-sa] 74 g i g SAG .t u m i-na a .TAR S U K K A L .m a i.s a .m i .s i . r e s t o r a t i o n s f r o m l i n e 89 80 r e s t o r a t i o n s f r o m l in e 90 82 la-bis A: l a b .n u .ri .pa -s u p a .r i .a [ s .r a [e] t-lu 89 it-til et -l u i-na k u m .a .m i r i.su ] 80 [i]t -til a [ r .r i b .g i C 11 .a n d30 A D -su i.i a 62 e r . ina A: i-na C.s a ir-}u-ub 65 d+lNNlN ul im . i-na pa -a n A: ana ig i C 8 4 l u g a l A: o m i t t e d in C 8 5 k i -tim A: K i-n' C.a t .ta r a -n a Ki -tim u .m a a J n a ‫[ ו‬x x x x x x] 76 a r .[ s u ] 85 H s .k a d i .a .u m .a .a 8 6 ul-tu u l.m a ina p a .e l .s a h .t [ u m ] iz. ina A: i-na C.i a .2 -sa 58 a m .U u ] 79 riO-til et -l[ u i-na k u m .2 ]-3 a 73 g i g s k .[ n a G iR .d a . m e s SU.b i s C 83 an-his ( o r dUTU) A: 11p a p .t i [a^-[na KUR.la .z a k .e l .s a 91 dfi. m e [ s ] g a l . m e s q u . TRANSLITERATIO N 56 e r .l e .l e .p u ?] d+1NN1N 70 g i g i g i . s u k k a l C.h i . d u 8 t a .t a .m a lE .i.b a l s u .t a r a .la .n u .s u 90 it-til a r .e n a .u KA u .sa .s a .DU ra M n a S A G .t i sa dNiN Ki-tim k i .as-sin-nu A: ku-lu-‘a-[a] C.h is i-na p a .u s .n a b u r -t i GU4 ul i .t a .n u .s a h .n u .k i ] 84 i-n a p a .a m GARZA.a m GARZA.h i .b a l h a r .^SILA1 ul u .[ s i TA m a h .n a dNAM.l i k dNAM. u-ri-du] 77 a .GL.NU.h i a .b a [ k .m i r LU .n a KUR.li k e .s a . u-sa-ra A 88: u-sa-ra-a C 79 et-lu A: g u [ r u s C.[ n a a .MES-sa 63 is-tu u l.e r C.b i a .l a .d a .k a lE .NU.u m .k a r 6 8 a .s a ] 81 11 p a p .a n d^.b i b e .t u m i.ANSE ul u .e l .s a 72 GIG GIR.^ a 1 a .t u m ina SILA ul u . 2 -sa u GIR.u m .s u .m e . r e s t o r a t i o n s f r o m l i n e 87 78 ar-da-tum A: -tu C.k i dis .HlJB [ul u . u-rid A: u-ri-du C 91 dfi.A ina e m .s u i b .b a l s u .a m GARZA.q ] a .d a .a s-sin-nu 93 a l .DU‫ ״‬t a . LiJ.p u .A LUGAL il . k u r . s u k k a l SUKKAL d i n g i r .b i s m a .d a .[ m ] i .ra P .r i ] .a s .k a 63 is-tu A: ul-tu A 86 71 a-hi A: ta-[ C 76 dis-tar A: du .n a k A k u r .NU.

r i .s i b 118 Hs -ta r a .a n .p e .GAL GI. n a C 112 n a 4.s i ina m a h .a t URU lu m a .l i k .m e s G1s. B: -se C. bal-ti A . a-na A: ana C.D[AR l i . ak-su-pa-ti C.q a .m e § A . B: -te C.s i 103 a l.GI u .b a . lid-nu-ni A: lid-nu-ni-ma C.GAL im -ta-ha-as d i .lu h .h a-ba-na-at A: C om its d u g . uz-na su-kun precedes ana halziqqi in C 9 9 a A: ma-a e C.t a ina s e .m u r .b a t b a l .DAR C. lu-zir-ka iz-ra GAL-a A . B: -su-si-ma C.s a .n i e .k a li.TAR d[u].k a 95 dERESJa. m i b A d lu-u m a n . i-na pa-ni-ka A: a-na ka-a-sa C 95 i-n[a pa-n]i-ka A: ana 1GI-ka C.k a r 111 a.s i ^ 1 1 8 c [i]lJ q O . i-pu-us-ma A . ina A . u-za-H-i-na A . s a o .D IB .h a -s u le -e t .GAL a n .m i .m e S - ka A: re-si-ka C.r i s . B. B. B.t e r .l u h . B. C: ina B 114 d+1NN1N A .h a . B : /.a .t u lu m u .a s E.m a i-n[a p ] a .b u .GI s u .u .m e S g a l .t i .s a .NA 116 n a 4.t u m la e .s e .M E S za -H-i-na sa n a 4.l a i s . !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 94 7 k A KUR.MES TI.hal-zi-qu A: hal-zi-iq-qi C.t i sa z u .ZA KUG. B: du. u-za-in C.ih. C: ip-pu-su C 110 thus A .m a u t. i-na A .n a -k i s u . 1E-su-na-m ir A: [ 1]a$-n a-m e-er C.GAL p a . C: si-il-li G ilg.k a 106 g i s . m e s 119 1-en kA u . B. su- luh A .u s -m a i.t i KU§ .m a n a m . kab-Ha^-as-sa A: ka-bat-ta-su C. B.m a dNAM.1 .I.t u r 98 su -q i SAG.m a l i . t a r suKKAL-a C 111 ma-ha-a? fi.h a . cf.pa.m e s 117 da -n u n -n a .t u J u ‫ י‬i-na p a .a i-na GIS. mu-sa-bu-u-ka A: -ba-ka C 109 p a -a -su A . zu-H-in C.s i .k a .p a .i a 115 il-lik dNAM.DIB.a s E.t a r [a-na k A ].n i .q a b .A l i p .n a C 118 d+1NN1N A .d ib .GU.r i .p e . tas-su-ka A: it-ta-sa-ak C 102 te-ter-sa-an-ni A: te-tar-[s]a-ni-ma a ?-n a -m e-e r C.n i .k i u . B: i]l-qa-si ana iG i-s a 1 1 8 a ‫־‬c O nly in C.k a 109 dERES.GAL li .z a .u m . lu A: lu-u C 106 g iS .m i r lu .a l . E. B. n a A .s d la Ud -da^-[na-ka t i ] r .GAL g i .s e . i-nu-uh-hu A: im-mer-su C.LA s u .i t .MES uru lu a .zi .GAL-Za m a-ha-af d i . la A: sa la C. fi.i.s i .m ] a ip . li-ih-du A: li-per-du C 96 §k-ba-sa A: S]A-bu-su C. se-m i-sa A: sa-mi-sa C 101 tam-ha-as A: im-ha-a? C. ia-e-re-te C 113 su-sa-a A .GAL GI.n a .s i a n a 1G1-sa 118a [m fl]‫־‬ra ?1 a .s a i . man-za-zu-ka A: ma-za-ku-ka C 107 as-kup-pa-tu A: ak-su-pa-tu C.MES ina SA-bi lu-u l-ta.z u .s a 94 lip-pe-tuJ u ‫ י‬A: lip-pa-tu-u C. lu A: lu-u C.s a . is-luh A .k a lE . lu-ul-ta-ti A: lal-ta-ti C 100 ina A: i-na C.a ina GIS. za-H-i-na A . ip-pe-red- du-u A: ip-per-du C 97 tum-me-si-ma A: [tu]m-mi-su-ma C.m e § u-za -H -i.TAR m a . n a A .s a 101 tam-ha-as p e-e n -sa tas-su-ka u-ba-an-sa 1 0 2 t e .DAR C.n a . B: k a -i-su C.TAR SUKKAL-sa a .n a dNAM. VII 102. B: is-lu-u* C.a t rNAM?1 [x]x s a .n a KUS .u li m .z a k . VII 117.du 96 ul-tu SA .GU.k a 108 s ak -r u u s a .s i.s i s u .NA 112 N A 4 .qu lid -nu-n i A.s u .ME§ A .s i .r i . il-qa-as-si A .m i A .m a il .p a .e l .e r .q \ i .z ir . B. be-el-ti A: N1N-f« C.s i .s i b 114 d+iNNlN A. lu A: lu-u C. C has instead: sim-ti la m a-se-e lu-sim-ka 104 g iS .p a .r e .u 97 tum-me-si-ma m u d i n g i r .m u .te . ut-te-er-Si A.MES-ka a .GI 4 .q a . sa n a 4.AP1N.p u .r a . B.k a l .NU. h a .k u p .m e S t i .a s . MU-ra a-na ^ n a m .s a . p e-e n -sa C: UR-5d A. k u S . m u A: ne-es C 98 su-qi A: [s]u-u[q]-qi C.n a . k u h al-zi-qi A: h al-zi-iq-qi C.GAL g i .s i .TAR i m .ha l-zi-qi uz-na su-kun 99 e b e . su-sa-ma C.m e s A: e-pi-(ne)-et C. l [ i g i . ak-su-pa-te C.a .na s a n a 4.s e .m e$ 113 Aa-n u n. l i g i .b a .m e § A .t a i z . ina A: i-na C.m e s A . n a ] C 116 NA4.Ki.p a .Ki.ZA KUG. a-kal-ka A: S u k -at-ka C 105 d u g . ha l. B. zu-um-ri-sa A: su-ftz C 12 .m a 1 1 8 b [ s u m . e-ris-tu A: -a C.li k dNAM. A 126 119 u-se-si-Si-ma A .d u . G ilg. B: su-ul-li-P C 115 im-ha-as 6.i .k a iz -r a GAL-a 104 n i n d a .b i 110 a. ia-e-re-[te] C 117 u-se-sa-a A . B: du.ti 100 dERES.m e s 9 7 a [dMAH?] b a . e-re-si A: -se C 103 al-ka A: al-kam C.m a .a s .k a 107 a s .k a 105 DUG .s a i-nu-uh-hu k a b J ta^-as-sa i p .r e d .a p in . d i b . sa n a 4 .n i . B. -ma C.U .

h a b .e h . d u .h i .s Ar .a n .ZA.2-sa A: .m e s 138 BA.m a ti r-r [a -s i] 127 a .m a u t .2-La A: GlR.h a s x[x x] 130 M [ l .t e .rn a ‫ ו‬li.t e .s a la t a .n a dDUMU.e r .M C 125 . GiR.b a .a n .s i .r i .? i. m e §-7£ m a . B: ut-tir-[se C.i g i .s i . qut-ri-in A: qut-ri-lna2 C 139 k u r A: e .M E S-lc3‫־‬a u n .se .s u 13 1 [ x x ] db e .1G 1.h i e.b i l .du la t a .m e r s u .s i in .li .k [ a .a s a SA G .t a .m a u t. m e s el-lu-ti r a .g u . B: m[e-tu]-rtu'1 C.TJS.t e s a GABA-sa 123 5 -su kA u-se-si-si-ma ut-te-er-si n a 4.d a l .r i .m Jes-m j C 127 se-eh-ru-[ti-sa B: -re-ti-sa C 128 p[u s-si-is B: ]-si-is C 131 kab-ta-a[s-su] B: kab-t]a-su C 134 pa-an [x x] A: pa -a ]n lit-te C 136 h a r A: om itted in B.s i .is. B: k ] i.a ] 132 [ n ] a 4.z a .d i .GUG it-ti-su el-la -[an-nP 137 it-ti-su e l .a [ s ] .s a q .m in C.s e .s e .h a .s A r / k i 1 120 u-se-si-si-m a A .a lu .GID NA4.MES li .s i s ib -b u NA4 t u s a MURUB4.l a .u m .s a ] 133 ik-kil a .s i .Zl el-la-an-ni GI. li-lu-nim-ma A: -ni-ma C.2^-sd 125 7 -u kA u.s a .a n lit-te 135 a .a b ir .n a s a .s i .e r .s a . TRANSLITERATIO N 120 2 -a kA u .s i . B: *e^-la-a C 137 m i.n a .m ] e s .n a k .lu .li .li s u .a d .b is .m a a .n i m .r i .m e s A: [ x x x] .a k a b .g Id n a 4.m i r s e .t e .a n .a p a .e r .d i .M E S -la C 123 g u .’a .t u C 138 b a .s e .ta s a z [ u .2-M u GIR.a m .s a t a s .t e sa rP l .t a .t e .M E§-5a C 121 u-se-si-si-m a A .s a ?] 134 NA 4 .b a .n i 136 ina UD -me dDUMU.a s db e .s i.i s 129 t u g h u s .g i n li m .m i .a m a n s u m a n k u r .k a m .t e .r u .k u t .m e s u m 1.s a 128 a .s i .m a u t .[ q a .e r .m e t a m .GA p [ u s ] .s i .i n .m a q u t .li su -k u t. ut-te-er-si A.nu 139 kur 1a n .m a u t .M E js -ia C 124 P1.s i . g a l B.2.s i d u .u s .6r .MES-3a 122 4 -u kA u .Zi h a .s i s e .s a u .GIN HAR NA4.m a n a p .s] a m -h a -t e l i .m a u t.u r a .m e s sa G\5-sa 124 6-su kA u .n u n u z .e r . el-la-an-ni A . B adds: sa d+AG ‫[ ו » ז‬Has-me-tum uz-nu ra-pa-as-tum is-ru-ku-us] 13 .m e S A .u b .l a .n a .e r .si.m i n C 122 GABA-sa A: ].a .s e .i k i DUG.e r . B: k 1 ] .M A: .n i l u .fDU l-la 126 s u m .t i .l a .t i .s i a .s u g i .2-sa 121 3 -[su] k A u .

.

.A b u-bu-us-su-nu a-kal-su-nu ti-i[d-du ] C [..MES su -b a -a t a-gap-pi D lab-sa-ma GIM m u s e n su -b at kap-pi E [.HI..A qaq-qa-ri l[a ta-a-ri] 2 A d+lNNlN DUMU. is-s]u-ru s u -fbaP a-kap-pu 11 A ugu G1S..MI d30 u-zu-un-sa [is-kun] 3 A is-kun-m a DUMU..[ .t i [ d s y b a ‫י‬ 1 0 A lab-su-ma GIM is-su-ri su -b a t gap-[pi] C [.... bu-bu-us]-[sP -na N iN D A .MI d30 u-zu-u[n-sa] 4 A a-na E e-te-e su-ba t dir-[kal-la] C [..... zu-u]m -mu-u nu-ra 8 A a-sar SAHAR... TEXT SCORE 1 A a -na rKUR’l .Gl4.. dir]-kal-[la] D a-na E ek-le-ti su-bat dir-kal-la D a-na E ek-le-ti m u-sab dir-kal-la 5 A a -na E sa e-ri-bu-su la a-s[u-u] C [.H l.] ‫ח‬e U u .] a-kal-[s]i-i-na ti-id-[du] D a-sar ep-ru b u-bu-us-si-na-m a a-kal-si-na ti-id-du D a-sar ep-ru b u-bu-us-si-na-m a a-kal-si-na ti-id-di E [.NU.r! d 1 la ta-a-a-rat 7 A a-na E sa e-ri-bu-su zu-um -m u -u nu-[u-ra] D a-na E sa a-si-bu-su zu-um -m u-u nu-u-ra E [..IG u sik-ku-ri i-sa-bu-uh SAHAR. im]-ma-ra i-na e-tu -ti as-b[a ] D u nu-u-ra la im -m a-ra-m a ina e-tu-ti as-ba D u nu-u-ra la im -m a-ra ina e-tu-ti as-ba E [...MES 11a C [ u g u g i J s / d a l su -ha r-ra-a-tu tab-ka-at 1 15 .n ] a ti-id-di 1 1 1 9 A nu-u-ru ul im -m a-ru ina e-tu -ti as-[bu] C [.... e]-ri-bu-su la-a a-su-u D a -na E sa e-ri-bu-su la a-su-u D a -na £ sa e-ri-bu-su la a-su-u 6 A a-na har-ra-ni sa a-lak-ta-sa la ta -a -a -\ra t] C [.] ki-m a MUSEN..1G u g i s .k u l sa-bu-uh ep-ru C [x] GIS.s a g .rA . a-lak]J ta2-[x\ la-a ti-ia-a-[rat] D a-na k a s k a l sa a-lak-ta-sa la ta-a-a-rat D a-na KASKAL sa a-lak-ta-su la ta-a-a-rat E [ .] .

D U sa k A a-m a"-tam m u -dr 8 14 A LU.i.GA]L C e-ru-ub i.MES 21 A LU.D U -me-e p i-i-ta -a k A 8 15 A p i-ta -a ba-ab-ka-m a lu-ru-ba a-na-ku C pi-ta-a KA‫־‬m a a-na-ku lu-ru-ub 16 A sum -m a la ta-pat-ta-a ba-a-bu la er-ru-ba a-na-ku C [su]-um-ma la-a ta-pa-ta-a ba-a-ba-am 17 A a-m ah-ha-as dal-tum sik-ku-ru a-sab-bir D a-m ah-[ha-as dal-tum sik-ku-ru a -sa b-b ir] 18 A a-m ah-ha-as si-ip-pu-m a u-sa-bal-kat GIS.Kl.GAL an-ni-ta i-na sa-mi-H\-[sa] 16 .A A [D ....[GA]L an-ni-H a ‫ י‬i-n[a se-mi-sa] C dERES. m e s ik-ka-lu bal-tu-u-ti E u-[sel]-reP -m a O s .[m es] / da-li-ha-at ap-si-i m a-har dE.M E §-m a ik-kal-[lu ba]l-tu-[t]i D u-sel-lam -m a u S.i...m e s k Lj .ME§ C a-m a-has si-ip-pa us-ba-lak-ka-{tad [GIS].i.MES E el bal-tu-ti u-sa m -ad US.IG..a [ r ] 8 22 A iz-zak-ka-ra a-na GAL -ti Hs-tar C iz-za-qa-ra a-na dba-la-te d(u ).1G.DAR p i-i-sa ip-pu-u-su i-qab-bi 1 13 A a-na LtJ..MES D a-sab-[bir si-ip-pa GIS. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 12 A d+iNNlN a-na kA ina ka-sa-di-sa KUR.] C an-nu-u a-ha-at-ki rd+^ N N i[N ] [iz-za 1-a[z] i-na [ k A] 27 A [mu^-kil-tu sa kep-pe-e GAL.D U iq-ta-bi [a-na] rdlERES.D [A R ] 23 A i-zi-zi be-el-ti la ta-na-da-as-si C i-ziz-zi n i n la-a [.DU ba-a-bi a-m a-tum iz-zak-kar 8 C a-na i.DUg iz-zak-[ka -ra ‫[ י‬a-na dERES.K]l.a ] 5 28 A dERES.m e s bal-tu-ti C [e]l-lu-u-ni U S .] a x [ .NU.DUg me-e p i-ta -a ba-ab-ka C i..] sa [a ] 23a c qer-bi-is qa -’i-H ‫ י‬IG l[i-pe-tV] 24 A lu-ul-lik MU -ki lu-sa-an-ni a-na sar-ra-ti dE[RES.MES da-l[i-.] 25 A e-ru-um -m a LU.i.GIi-na ka-sa-di-i-sa 12a C rd U.MES] u-sab-la-kat 18a C ra '-sa b -b ir gis-ri-na-am -m a a-sa-[ha-at k]a-ar-ra 19 A u-se-el-la-a m i-tu-ti k u . a C ana kA KUR.D ]u KA -i-su ip-pu-su [ M ] u .Kl.MES bal-tu-ti 20 A UGU bal-tu-ti i-ma-H-du m i-tu-ti C el m e-tu-te i-ma-H-du [bal-t]u-t[i] D UGU bal-tu-ti u-sam-[a]-du US.GL..NU...IG.DUg p a -a -su i-pu-us-m a i-qab-bi C L (i.GAL C si-qir-ki lu-sa-na-a [ .[ K I .] C mu-ki-il-tu sa kep-pe-e G A L .[ i.Kl. g a l ] 8 26 A an-ni-tu-m e-e a-ha-ta-ki Hs-tar i-x[.

MES a .m a s a .a s .bi-[n]i e . d u . [ C u a .fe ‫ ] י‬.^ m t a r . a . m e s a .s i .si -n [ a ].h u .t u .b i [N l]N -!i ku-tu-u li .b a .t [ i ].l a t i .r u .NU. [ C [x x k ] u r .t a .m a n i n d a . . .i .n]i i [ s .e a ...m a ki .u .[.m a GARZA.m a u m .s i ki .DUg p i .m a / m [ i ] -i .a s .u s 30 ].[ B u[p-pi-i]s-si-ma C [ u p ] .n i .i-n i is .M B l -en k A u .ub ].k a . A m i-na-a s k -b a -sa ub-la-an-ni mi-na-a kab-t[a-as-sa C m i ..s i b a .t i g u .[ m a ]C k i .i.s [ a E GIM s a p .s a t .m a s a .n a . g [ i ] a-na p a -n i-k a [li-ih-d]u 42 A 1-en k A u .s e k A 40 A e r .a s .n i e .r i .s i .s e .t a .. s i k i l .MES d a l .m a p a r .[ d u B [x] l u .b i .i .a UD -mi -su ta r .b e .s a u b ..DUg p i . [ B il -li k LU. .t u . B [x] NINDA..e l .ME§ l a .m a s a p .hi-[x ].n i .xm a ‫ ] י‬.t i 33 ].k i a .r i s . B er-bi be-el-t[i C [ e r ].l i .ub -k i a.l i k ‫ י‬LU.r i la-a-H s a ina l a .s a t ..ti 35 ].p i ..t i ku -[ ni.. [ C [ i] s . t u r l a -k e . ..n a C ka-b[at-t]a-sa-ma us-per-da-an-ni-ma 32 ].A l u. .i .t a .s i i t .k u it-ti da .h a .. A ki .l a .b a . TEXT SCORE 29 ] .n a .[ q u ]C ki-i ni-ki-is b i.a S k .a t k u.t a .b a .t a .n a . m e s a .a n .n a MLK1.m e .t a . Aki-i s a ...LDUg1 ].a b .m a k a s .m a NINDA.n a M l C lu -u b.[ s u ] .s i b a . m e s s a e-zi-bu M l .B [ lu.[ A a n . .s a t .u a . m e s s a a n a rtfR 1 C [h]a-mi-ri-si-na sal-lu-pa-ni 36 ]A a .SINIG i’-ir -q u p a .k a l a .n a l u .p i.d a / k i.NU.r i b ..l i k LtJ.ki ].ki i-na u g u g u r u s .r u ..G ] 1 .k i C lu -u b.s e .i.u ] b .k i s a ina la u d .[ C [a .ri .n u . .[B [ lu . [ 17 .i.a A. t u r l a .d u 37 ]A a .s [ a E [ g i ] m ni-k[ i-is G]1S.m a KAS.te -n a k A ] .n ]i -t [ u C a n -n u.a .[MES C k i.ki a .r i b .GAL KUR..ki i-na u g u k i . k i li -r is .n u .n a s e r .DUg C [ il]-lik riA [D U 8] i p ..r u .m e s .r e ..i. ?A k i . .k e .p a t ku-ni-ni i s .t e 34 ]A lu-ub-ki a .n a g u r u S .ni.a b .m a ni-kis GiS.n a .s i k A 38 ]A u p ..S1K1L.q u p a . B [ a n .MES e .GI li-ih-du ina pa-ni-ki B E.t a .t i 39 ]A il-lik LU..e lu -u b .s i . d u 8 . ...a s ...DUg i p . .k a l im k i .t [ i ].b i b e .MES s a t a UR l u .GAL KUR. m e s a .b a l a g a G AL-a sa s a g .i d . m e s s a uz-'zu^-bu h i.l i .n u .l ] i .k i 41 A fi.k [ a B [a-//]& rLO.ku it-ti ]. .s i . .i s .n u n .t a .s u 31 ].

GAL pa-a-Sa i-pu-uS-ma i-qab-bi 67 A a-na dN A M .s a C GIG[.2 [a-na iG l.] 69 A Su-sa-aS-Si 1 Su-Si G [ G. 2 2 58 A a m -m e -n i l u .. ] 8 C [lu . . d u ta-at-bal in-sa-ba-te Sa p i -ia 8 .NU.DU-za 8 B a m -m e-n i LU.GAL i-mur-Si-ma ina pa-ni-Sa ir-'u-ub 65 A d+lNNlN ul im -m a-lik e-le-nu-uS-Sa uS-bi 66 A dERES.m e s ...] 70 A GIG IG1. t a r SUKKAL-r^a a-ma-t[a] iz-zak-kar 1 68 A a-lik dNAM.TAR [li-q]a-raS1-[Si ta mah-ri]-ia-m a C a-l[ik .MES‫־‬s a 2 B 2 -a rKA1 [. ..] 71 A GIG a-hi a-[na a-hi]-Sa C GIG f a .MES-!a 4 4 56 A er-bi be-el-ti Sa dN l N .MES-M 54 A 5 -Su k A u-Se-rib-Si-ma um-ta-si it-ta-bal Sib-bu NA t u Sa MUR 4 55 A a m -m e -n i L U .i.Ki.. . i .] 8 44 A er-bi be-el-ti Sa dN lN -K i-7 /m ki-a-am GARZA .m e s . 2 ] . i . 2 B a[m -m e-ni .Ki.i.sa . d u ta-at-bal du-di-na-te Sa GABA -ia 8 53 A er-bi be-el-ti Sa dN1N-K1-rim ki-a-am GARZA.MES-sa 60 A 7 -u kA u-Se-rib-Si-ma um -ta-si it-ta-bal su-bat bal-ti Sa zu-um-ri-Sa 61 A a m -m e -n i l u .. i . d u ta-at-bal n a .d ]u V [. !S T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 43 /A a m -m e -n i l u .K i -tim ki-a-am GARZA. .Sa B er-bi be-e[l-ti . m e s Sa g u -ia 8 4 50 A er-bi be-el-ti Sa dN i N .G1 u-ri-du 4 64 A dERES.. n u n u z ..M 57 A 6 -Su k A u-Se-rib-Si-ma um-ta-si it-ta-bal HAR.a u G iR . ] 18 .[ .MES-sa 51 A 4 -u KA u-Se-rib-Si-ma um -ta-si it-ta-bal du-di-na-te Sa GABA -Sa 52 A a m -m e -n i l u .K l -tim ki-a-am g a r z a .] 46 A a m -m e -n i l u .. ..K i -tim ki-a-am garza .. i . m e s s u . d u ta-at-bal su-bat bal-ti Sa zu-um-ri-ia 8 62 A er-bi be-el-ti Sa dN i N .2-/a 8 2 1 59 A er-bi be-el-ti Sa dN iN -K i-ft‘ra ki-a-am GARZA.riA [D U .MES li-is-hu-pu ?] d+lNNlN 1 C s a -s a -[.] 45 A 2 -a KA u-Se-rib-Si-ma um-ta-si it-ta-bal in-sa-ba-te Sa P l. d u ta-at-bal h a r . i .D U g ta-at-bal Sib-bu n a t u Sa MURUB ..MES-sa 63 A iS-tu ul-la-nu-um -m a HS-tar a-na KUR.MES-sa 48 A 3-Su k a u-Se-rib-Si-ma um-ta-si it-ta-bal n a . . n u n u z . d u ta-at-bal a g a GAL-a Sa SAG.. -. I ..MES S U -Sa u GiR.] 47 A er-bi be-el-ti Sa dNlN-Kl-?zra ki-a-am GARZA . m e § Sa GtJ-Sa 4 49 A a m -m e -n i l u .

] rap^-pa-su [. .N U ...] 85 A Hs-tar a-na K I -tim u-rid ul i-la-a C [ du . . . ] 73 A g ig s A -bi a-[na sA -bi-sa] 74 A GIG SAG . ] 84 A i-na p a -a n dfi. . .H IJB [ . u-ri-du 87 A a-na bur-ti gu 4 ul i-sah-hi-it a n s e m i .] 86 A ul-tu ul-la-nu-um -m a Hs-tar a-na K U R .s u k k a l SU K K A L d i n g i r .] 1a s -n a -m e -e r ku-lu-^a^-[a] 93 A al-ka lE -su -n a-m ir i-na KA K U R .N U . e J / a 1 92 A ib-ni-m a lE -su-na-m ir LI'].A N SE ul u-sa-ra] C a-na U G U bur-te [ .D A R [ .2 a-[na G iR .G 14 u-ri-du] C ar-ki dU .m e s q u-ud-du-ud ap-pa-su A p a -n u -su [x] C [ . .. .. ] 80 A [it]-til a[r-da-tum i-na a-hi-sa] C [i]t-til a[r-da-tu i-na a-hi-sa] 81 A *1p a p .. ] 77 A a-na bur-ti G U 4 ul i-sah-hi-i[t A N S E M l .N U ..s u k k a l ana i g i [ . .] 82 A kar-ru la-bis m a-le-e na-a[s-si] C [x] lab-bis m a-l[e-e na-si] 83 A il-lik an-his i-na p a -a n d30 A D -511 i-ba[k-ki] C [x]x *1p a p .A il-la-ka [.N U .G L .m e [ s ] g a l .. .D A R ] a-na k i -ti u-ri-du [. . TEXT SCORE 72 ‫ ו‬A GIG G IR .N U . . . ...D U [ . ] / A N S E M I.sn a ‫[ י‬.. ] 78 A ar-da-tum ina r s iL A 1 [ul u-sa-ra et-lu] C ar-da-tu i-na s[u-qi] / ul u-sa-ra-a [eP-[lu] 79 A HP-til et-l[u i-na kum-mi-su] C [i]t-til G U [R U S .G L .G L ..A L U G A L il-la-ka di-ma-a-[su] C [x x d] f i. a lip -p e -tu -'u 1 i-na pa-ni-ka C [x]x lip-pa-tu-u a-na ka-a-sa 19 .G I su-kun pa-[ni-ka] 94 A 7 kA K U R ...as-sin-nu C [. . ] 75 A a-na sa-a-sa gab-bi-sa-m a a .2 ] ..] 76 A ar-ki Hs-tar be-el-ti ra H na k ur .A ina em -qi sk-b i-su ib-ta-ni z[i]k-ru C m a n i-na e m -q i S k-bi-su a-[ma-ta'! ib-nP] [*.D U ra M « a S A G .5 a C GIG G [1R .D U -5 a ] C GIG S A G .A su-kun p a-ni-ka C [x x la ]s-n a -m e-er a-na K A K U R .2 .a n s e ul u-sa-ra 88 A ar-da-tum ina SILA ul u-sa-ra [e]t-lu 89 A it-til et-lu i-na kum-[m]i-su 90 A it-til ar-da-tum i-na a-hi-sa 91 A dE .

q a b .s u .h a . .m a .[ s ] a .s a i-nu-uh-hu k a b .U a ' .t a r .b i ] C dERES.b u .k am [ 1Y a s ^ .h a . .MES i-na SA -bi la l . .zir -ka i z .m u r .b i B [d]ERES.z i . .n i .k a .s a .z [ a k .Ki.n a .s a C dERES.q i r e .i q . .MES 97a C [ .t i .s a i.s a .p e .GAL-/a m a .li b A d lu-u m a n .p e r .t a iz .a . .TAR SUKKAL-5a 111 A a.GAL p a .mi b a d lu-u m a .e r s im -t i la m a .h a .q i l i d .k a li-ih-du C [dERES].GAL KA -i-su ip -p u -s u i .k i 107 A a s .d u ■ 97 A t u m .d u .u s -m a i .a s 6 .z u .a n .q i 99 A e b e .b a .li k dNAM.M a .p u .su le -[ e t.k a 106 A GIS.u li m .a re ‫ י‬NIN-ti h a l .z a k .p a .m a n e . h al . .z a .s a .t i KU§ . ] b a .GAL G[1.n a dNAM .li GI.s a 102 A t e .n i .b a .s a C im .ti C m a .ni A.APIN.r i s .s a i p .k a B [ .r e . h a .p e r -d u 96 A ul-tu s k .t u lu-u m u .n u .a s p e .u s .MI b Ad lu-u m a n .GAL li .h a .a s U R -la t a s -s u -k a u .s u .m a uz-na su-kun a n a h a l .s u i p .Ki.h a .NA 20 .a n .ti .a k u . !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 95 k dERES.TAR SUKKAL-5a a .q u lid.MES C \ t u ] m .a .su le -e t-k i 109 A dERES. .e n .b a .t i la m a .k a C [ h ] a .TAR m a .k a C [x ] x a n a 1e-pi-<ne->et URU lu-u SUK-a t-k a 10 5 A DUG .[ .s a 101 A t a m .m a i-n[a p ] a . ] 1x 1 s A.i t.MES-&a a .t i 104 A NINDA.r e d .a t URU lu m a .z a .t a .e l .s a i t .m a 1 s im .t a r s u k k a l .t a s a la e .b i 110 A a .u li m .m a MU DINGIR.li k dNAM. GAL GI.m u .rKi1.a t [ .ti 100 A dERES.t a .m a . ] C a k .a .nu. .n i .k a r B a -n a dNAM.a s .b a .b u -u .GAL a n .MES URU lu a .e a n a s a .MES GAL.GAL l i .n a .k a D s i-il.k a .s i .p u .Kl.n i.Ki. ] lu m u .h a .n a KUS .a .MES ina s k .s u k a .s i C te .m i r lu.k u p .i t .e lu-s im -k a C [l]u-rs i m .h a l.TAR E.p a .su i m .t u lu m u .r i s .b a .zi .s e 103 A a l-k a 1 E .a n .n a .TAR m a .m i .a t URU lu-u m a l .s a .t u m la e .r e .GAL p a .m e .b i lu-u l-t a.z i .t a i-na s a .k a .a s d i .e r e .m i .z u .MES GIS.m a A.Kl.n a . .[ q a b .m e .ta .s e . ] C [G]1S .z a .a l .NA] C a -li k dNAM.su l e -e t.s e .m e .n i .n a dNAM.h a . ‫ ן‬lu-u ‫ ן‬.k a 108 A sa k.m i .GAL a n .Ki.b a .z u .h a .k a B [ .MES GAL.t a i z . t Or 98 A su -q i SAG.u C [ul-tu s]A .m u .m a i.s a i.k a ] D [sak]-ru u s a .n a . .r a GAL-a C a l.m a <ha s .q a b .s a .n i e .b a t .m e r .e s DINGIR. .i q .a s fi.m u r .u li m .m a a n a 1G1-A:a li .k a .m u .zi -q i u z -n a su-kun C [s ]u -u [q ].n a .k a r ] C MU-ra a .s i .ru w s a .s u .k a l .t a ina s e .NA B a.t e r .k a B [sak]-ru u s a .

m a u t .LA s u .n a sa n a 4 .LA s u .s i .d a 1-[n a. g i su -[sib] C da . ] 115 A il-lik dNAM.r a .t a r A.i a B d+lNNiN A.h a s DI.s i 118c C [i] l -q f -s i.t e .s i .a ina GIS.s a ] C [1 -en k ] A ru ^.[ m e § ] C ak-su-pa-ti u-za-in ia -e-re-[te] 117 A da .t i s a z u .s i [ina m a h ] .a s E.t e .MES.GAL G I .m a u t .G 1 u -s e .MES.2 ‫ | ־ ו‬a] B [6 ]-su k A u .ZA KUG.‫ו »ז‬ kA u-se-si-si-ma ut-te-er-si du-di-na-te sa g [ a b a -M ] C [ ].s i . i .GAL i m .NA] 116 A NA 4 . n u n u z . .h a .a i-n a GIS.b a .ZA k u g .M E S -5a 123 A 5 -su k A u .s i . 1 .GU. n u n u z .s i in .k i s u .t e s a P [l.2-5A u GlR.MES za -H -i.b a t b a l.m a i l .t e sa GABA -sa B [ 4 ] .e r .q a .r i .e .n a s a NA 4 .TAR i m .k i u .t e .l u h .s e .n a G IS .ti r .m a i-na GIS.PA.e r .a s .GU.s i ina m a h .r [ i .h a .s i .m a u t .s i .e r .s u .I.s a .a ina GIS.DIB. m e s .GU.GU.t e .b u n a 4 t u sa m u r u b 4.s i .s i .l i .s i .t e .q a .GI u .DAR A.q ] i .s i n a 4 .t e 113 A da .s e .t a r [a.e r .s e .na k A 7] .G[1] s u -s i b B da.k i s u .m ] a i p .p a .n a .n u n .s i .m a u t .m a NAM .e r .l u h .q a .e r .m e r SU.5 a 121 A 3.s e .TAR d[u ].s e .TAR i m . m e s s a G X5-sa B [5 ]-su k A u .MES B [ n ] a 4 .LA is . l a s u .s e .si b 118 A dis .s i .s i .t a .r i .s i s u .m a l i .H -i.u l ..s i .lu .s i .t i r .s e .MES TI.t e . u t .MES u-za-H -i-na s a rNA 4 1 .k i s u . 2 .t e .[ n a ] C il-lik dNAM.s i .s i . TEXT SCORE 112 A NA 4 .M IN! : .k i u .m a i.s i s e .s e / [TUG? b a l 1]-te'} [ 5 a ] SU -sa 120 A 2-a k A u .M ] C [2 .s e .t i s a z u .p a .GU.s e .t e .n a .LA i s .s i s i b .s a K1].s i .s i n a 4 .DAR A.1 .MES TI.s i d u .s i.l u h .5 a ] C [3 .MES z a.MES TI.m a u t .MES TI.2 -s a u g i [ r .t e .s i s ib .s e .b u NA 4 TU s a MU[RUB 4 .q a .s i ^ m a 1 [ i \ l .a ina GIS.t a r A.s i b 114 A d+lNNlN A.s i .m e r s u .s e .m a l i .n a .s a la H d .m a / [ / .m a i l .e r .s i .s i s u .ti r ] .r i .m a u t .t e .m e § u-za-H -i-na s a n a 4 .[ s i ] C rdlU.m a u t .LA is .m a 118b C [ s u m .s a kA u .s e .a s e .u ^ .t i .G U A za 1 [ k u g ].s i .r i .ZA KUG.s a .MES-^a 122 A 4 -u kA u .u m .P .a s .[p] a .n a .s a B [1 -en] k A u .m a u t .t e . m e s s a G [ti-sa] C [ M E ] s 5 ‫־‬a 124 A 6 -su kA u .D [A R l i .ro ? 1 a .i a ] C dU.b u NA 4 TU s a MUR]UB 4 .e r .2 -M ] C 21 .s i .s i .se -s u -si -m a [ u t.s i .k i u .d i .s e .m e r SU.n a .[n u n ' .s a .s a .b a .m a u t . d i b .l u h .p a .l i k .ZA KUG.m a u t .n u n .s i a n a IGI-sa 118a C [ m a ] .GI s u .GI u .e r .a k]1.m a u t .s i .[ s e s e .s e .s i .t e zu-H-in ia .m e s ‫־‬M B [3 -sa] k A u .TAR fi.MES t i . [ g a l ] g i .s a .s i .r e .k a ti ] r .a s .s i i n .n a . [ m e s ] C a k .t e sa 5 ‫ <י‬1 .[ s i b ] C Xdla .s a .MES TI.MIN : [ u t.a s .s a .s i . m e s 119 A 1-en k A u .s i b B [da ] .M u ] GlR.b a t b a l .2-5a B [2 -a\ k A u .ZA KUG. n a B [i]l-lik dNAM.m a dNAM. .s e .L[1 GI.DIB.n u n .e r .q a .s i B [di ] s . m e S B NA 4 .DIB.s i s e .e r .[ u m .n u n .s e s i b .s a .s e .n u n -n a .

Zi ha-m ir se-eh-[ru-ti-sa] B [a-n]a dDUMU.] 140 B sa dAG ‫[ ו » ז‬dtas-m e-tum uz-nu ra-pa-ds-tum is-ru-ku-us .GiN .MES7‫־‬e sa] un-dal-la-a p [a -a n ] C [ ..a lu-ub-bis-su g i .MES li-lu-nim -m a qut-ri-in li-is-si-nu B b a .g id n a 4.?a?] 134 A n a 4.SA r /K I 1 B E. ...SA R-DU-A MAN SIJ MAN KUR-AN.d u g .iGi... . .g in ha r n a 4. ] C [ ..m e S] el-lu-ti ra-am -m i-ik i.]-i-su 130 A M[i....GUG i[t-ti-su el-la-an-ni] C [ .sam]-rha~'-[te l]i-na->a-a [kab-ta-as-su] B [ m i ..g u g it-ti-su el-laJ an-nP B ina UD-me m [DUMU..[GA .s]am-ha-te li-na-’a-a kab-ta-a[s-su] C [ kab-t]a-su 131 A [a] dbe-li-li su-kut-ta-[. .2. US..[ d u -M ] C [ .Z[A.GID NA4.MES u MI.z a ...2.iGl..GAL 1A tN.MES‫ ־‬te sa un-dal-la-a p a -a n [x] B N[A4.g a p[us-si-is] r ‫ ך‬v• •v C [ J-.MES-7e m a-la-a b[ir-ka-a-sa] B [NA4.DU-5a] B [7 ]-u kA u -se-si-si-m a ut-te-er-si a-gu-u ra-ba-a sa s a g .fiR.] C m ie .z1 el-la-an-ni g i ..tu y U u 1 [l]i-lu-ni-ma q u t-tri-n a ‫[ *־‬lis-si-nu] 139 A KUR 1AN.z a .g u g / [ .ER..] B [‫ ].m ] e s -sa 126 A sum -m a nap-ti-ri-sa la ta-ad-di-nak-kam -m a a-na sa-sa-^ma^ [tir-ra-si] B [sum-m]a nap-ti-ri-sa la ta-ad-di-nak-kam -m a a-na sa-sa-m a tir-r[a-si] C [ ]-ma 127 A a-na dDUMU..ME]s-te ma-la-a bir-k[a-a-sa] 133 A ik-kil a-hi-sa tas-m e tam-ha-as dbe-li-li su-kut-ta sa s [ u ?-..A lu-ub-bis-su GI.MES1 [ .sA R-DtJ-A ..ZA..?a?] B i[k-kil a-h]i-sa tas-me tam -ha-as dbe-li-li su-kut-ta sa s [ u ?-.ER.u s .SI-IS' 129 A TUG HUS . ג‬dbe-li-li su-kut-ta-sa u-saq-[qa-a\ 132 A [N]A4.] .] B [ a .MES B it-ti-[su el-la-an]J nP fLU..IG1 .MES el-lu-ti ra-am -m i-ik i-DtJG.2. n ] a 4.. .Zi el-la-a]n-ni GI..G1N ( h a r ) n a 4.Zi ha-m ir se-eh-ru-[ti-sa] C [ ]-re-ti-sa 128 A A.g i n lim-has x[x] C [ ]x-ti I [.GID NA4. ] fe^-la-a 137 A it-ti-su el-la-an-ni LtJ.. .lGi.]-tu 138 A B A ..pa-a]n lit-te 135 A a-hi e-du la ta-hab-bil-an-[ni] B a-hi [e-du] la ta-hab-bil-[an-ni] C [ -a]n-ni 136 A ina u d -me dDUMU.m e [S . IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 125 A 7 -u KA u-se-si-si-m a ut-te-er-si a-gu-u ra -b a-Ta sa ‫ י‬s[AG. . .g i d n a 4. ] B [t u g h u ] s .

from w hence its travellers do not return. the lady o f the great land. MIDDLE ASSYRIAN VERSION 1 a-na DINGIR-turn be-el-ti k[aq]-q 1-ri GAL-tu[m] 2 a-na di5 a-si-bat qer-bi ir-kal-li 3 a s-ri-gi-in-gal be-el-ti kaq-qi'-ri GAL-turn 4 a-na d15 a-si-bat qer-bi ir-kal-li 5 £ ir-kal-li sa a-li-ku-tu-su la ta-a-a-r[u] 6 as-ru nu-ru la sa -km UN. 5 the house o f Irkallu. 11 that her travellers do not return. 3 A sri-gingal. 8 the house o f darkness (w here) no star comes out.?^ 7 as-ru mi-tu-su sah-hu-pu ina ep-ri 8 <be>-et ek-le-tu MUL ul u-sa-a 9 d u m u . 6 the place (where) light is not given to its people. 2 to Istar who dw ells in the m idst o f Irkallu. the lady o f the great land. m I d30 u-zu-un-sa ip-te-m a 10 ip-te-m a u-za-an-sa u-sa-a s-km 11 sa a-li-ku-u-tu-sa la ta-a-ru-u Translation 1 To the goddess. 9 the daughter o f Sin put her m ind to. 10 put her m ind to (and) paid attention.MES-1‫־‬. 7 the place w hose dead are covered with dust. 23 . 4 to Istar who dw ells in the m idst o f Irkallu.

.

TRANSCRIPTION 1 ana kurnuge qaqqari la tari 2 I star m ar at Sin uzunsa iskun 3 iskunm a m arat Sin uzunsa 4 ana b id ete su b a t Irkalla 5 ana b id sa eribusu la asu 6 ana harrani sa alaktasa la tajarat 7 ana b id sa eribusu zum m u nura 8 asar epru bubussunu akalsunu tiddu 9 nura ul immaru ina etuti asbu 10 labsuma kim a issuri su ba t gappi 11 el dalti u sikkuri sabuh epru 11a el talli suharratu tabkat 12 ana bab kurnuge ina kasadisa 12a p isu ipusu iqabbi 13 ana a ti babi am atu izzakkar 14 atum e pita babka 15 p ita babkam a luruba anaku 16 sum m a la tapatta babu la erruba anaku 17 am ahhas daltu sikkuru asabbir 18 am ahhas sippum m a usabalkat dalati 18a asabbir gisrinnam m a a sa h h a t karra 19 usella m itu d ikkalu b a ltu d 20 el baltiid im a’Hdu m itu d 21 atu p a su ipusm a iqabbi 22 izzakkara ana r a b id Istar 23 iziz be Id la tanaddassi 24 lullik zikirki lusanni ana sa rrati E reskiga l 25 erum m a atu izzakkara ana E reskig a l 26 annitum e ahatki Ista r izzaz ina babi 27 mukiltu sa keppe rabuti d a lih a t A p s i m ahar E a abisa 28 E reskigal annita ina sam isa 29 kim a nikis bini eriqu p an usa 30 kim a sapat kuninni islima saptasa 31 mind libbasa ublanni m ind ka bta ssa usperdannim a 32 annitum e anaku itd A n u n n a k i m e a sa td 33 kim a akli akkal d d d u kim a sika ri a s a td me 25 .

..] 76 arki Istar b elti ana kurnuge uridu 77 ana biirti alpu ul isa h h it imeru atana ul us dr a 26 . !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 34 lubki ana etluti sa ezibu hireti 35 lubki ana ardati sa ultu sun hdHrisina sallupani 36 u ana serri lake lubki sa ina la umisu tardu 37 alik atu p ita ssi babka 38 uppissima kim a p a r s i labiruti 39 illik atu iptassi baba 40 erbi belti Kutu liriski 41 ekal kurnuge lihdu ina p a n iki 42 isten babu u seribsim a um tassi ittabal aga raba sa qaqqadisa 43 ammini atu tatbal aga raba sa qaqqadija 44 erbi belti sa B e le t erseti kiam p a rsisa 45 sana babu u seribsim a umtassi ittabal insabate sa uznisa 46 ammini atu tatbal insabate sa uznija 47 erbi b elti sa B e le t erseti kiam p a rsisa 48 salsu babu u seribsim a umtassi ittabal erim m ati sa kisadisa 49 amm ini atu tatbal erim m ati sa kisadija 50 erbi b elti sa B e le t erseti kiam p a rsisa 51 rebu babu useribsim a umtassi ittabal dudinate sa irtisa 52 amm ini atu tatbal dudinate sa irtija 53 erbi b elti sa B e le t erseti kiam p a rsisa 54 hamsu babu u serib sim a umtassi ittabal sibbu aban aladi qablisa 55 ammini atu tatbal sibbu aban aladi sa qablija 56 erbi belti sa B e le t erseti kiam p a rsisa 57 sessu babu useribsim a umtassi ittabal sem er qatija u sepija 58 ammini atu tatbal sem er qatija u sepija 59 erbi b elti sa B e le t erseti kiam p a rsisa 60 sebu babu u seribsim a umtassi ittabal sub a t balti sa zum risa 61 am mini atu tatbal su b a t balti sa zum rija 62 erbi belti sa B e le t erseti kiam p a rsisa 63 istu ullanum m a Ista r ana kurnuge uridu 64 Ereskigal im ursim a ina p a n isa irub 65 Istar ul imm alik elenu ssa usbi 66 Ereskigal p a sa ipusm a iqabbi 67 ana N a m ta r sukkallisa am atu izzakkar 68 alik N am tar liqassi ultu p a n ija m a 69 susassi susi m u rsi lishupu Istar 70 murus ini ana inisa 71 murus ahi ana ah isa 72 murus sepi ana sep isa 73 murus libbi a n a d ib b isa 74 murus qaqqadi ana qaqqadisa 75 ana sasa gabbisam a ana [.

TRANSCRIPTION 78 ardatu ina suqi ul usara etlu 79 ittil etlu ina kum m lsu 80 ittil ardatu ina ahisa 81 Papsukkal sukkal ilani rabuti q u d d u d appasu 82 karru labis male nasi 83 illik anhis ina p a n Sin abisu ibakki 84 ina p a n Ea sarri illaka dim asu 85 Istar ana erseti urid ul ila 86 ultu ullanum m a Ista r ana kurnuge uridu 87 ana burti alpu ul isa hh it imeru atana ul usara 88 ardatu ina suqi ul usara etlu 89 ittil etlu ina kum m lsu 90 ittil ardatu ina ahisa 91 E a ina emqi libbisu ibtani zikru 92 ibnim a A su su -n a m ir assinnu 93 alka A su su -n a m ir ina bab kurnuge sukun p a n ika 94 sebet babi kurnuge lippetu ina p a n ik a 95 E reskigal lim urkam a ina p a n ik a lihdu 96 ultu libbasa iniihu kabtassa ippereddu 97 tum m esim a nis ilani rabuti 98 suqqi resika ana halziqqi uzna sukun 99 e belti halziqqu lidnuni me ina libbi lultatti 100 E reskigal annita ina semisa 101 tamhas p e n s a tassuka ubansa 102 tetersanni eristu la eresi 103 alka A su su -n a m ir luzzirka izra raba 104 akli ep in n et ali lu akalka 105 habannat ali lu m altitka 106 silli duri lu m anzazuka 107 askuppatu lu m usabuka 108 sakru u sam u lim hasu letka 109 E reskigal p a sa ipusm a iqabbi 110 ana N a m ta r sukkallisa a m ata izzakkar 111 alik N a m ta r m ahas ekalla kina 112 askuppati zaHna sa ijerete 113 A nu nn a ki susa ina ku ssi hurasi susib 114 Istar me balati su luhsim a liqassi ina m ahrija 115 illik N a m ta r imhas ekalla kina 116 askuppati u za ^in a sa ijerete 117 A nu nn a ki usesa ina ku ssi h u ra si usesib 118 Istar me balati isluhsim a ilqassi ana p a n isa s 119 isten babu usesisim a uttersi su b a t balti sa zum risa 27 .

] Belili sukuttasa usaqqa 132 indte mala birkasa 133 ikkil ahisa tasme tam has Belili sukutta sa zum risa 134 inatesa undalla p a n litte 135 ahi edu la tahabbilanni 136 ina ume D um uzi ellanni m alil uqni sem er sam ti 137 ittisu ellanni b akka ’u u bakkaiatu 138 m i tutu lilunim m a qutrinna lissinu 139 ekal Assur-bani-apli sar kissati sar m a t Assur 28 ... !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 120 sana babu usesisim a utter si sem er qatisa u sepisa 121 salsu babu usesisim a utter si sibbu aban aladi sa qablisa 122 rebu babu usesisim a uttersi dudinate sa irtisa 123 hamsu babu usesisim a uttersi erim m ati sa 124 sessu babu usesisim a uttersi insabate sa uznisa 125 sebu babu usesisim a uttersi agu raba sa qaqqadisa 126 summa n ap tirisa la taddinakkam m a ana sasam a terrassi 127 ana Dumuzi h a m ir sehrutisa 128 me elluti ram m ik sam na taba pu ssis 129 subata hussa lubbissu m a lil uq ni 130 samhate Una”a kabtassu 131 [.

m y lady. 18 I will smash the doorjam b and overturn the doors. clay their bread. 18a I will break the balance and tear o ff the knob! 19 I will raise up the dead to devour the living. excep t for the com p letely destroyed parts. 17 I will smash the door and break the bolt.]. her fa th e r] ” 1 D am aged or destroyed w ords are not sp ec ifica lly m arked in the translation. the dw elling o f Irkalla. here is yo ur sister Istar. 9 They see no light. 11 O ver the door and the bolt dust has settled. she stands at the g a te ... 12 W hen Istar arrived at the gate o f the N etherw orld. set her m ind. the Land o f N o R eturn. the one who roils the A psu in front o f Ea. 10 clothed like birds in garm ents o f feather. w hose dwellers thirst for light. 24 I will go and tell your name to the queen E resk igal. TRANSLATION1 1 To the N etherw orld. 12a she opened her m outh and said. gatekeeper. the daughter o f Sin. the door w ill be opened. 6 to the road w here traffic is one-w ay. 29 . su ggested and conjectural restorations are marked with italics. do not knock it down! 23a W ait inside.” 25 The gatekeeper w ent in and uttered to Ereskigal: 26 “ H ey. 5 to the house w hich none leaves w ho enters. 2 Istar. w hich are marked with [ . 3 Indeed. 8 w here dust is their food. they dwell in darkness. 22 uttering to the great Istar: 23 “Hold it. the daughter o f Sin set her m ind 4 to the dark house. 13 uttered a word to the gatekeeper: 14 “H ey. 27 the holder o f the great w hipping top s. open your gate! 15 O pen your gate for m e that I may enter! 16 If you d o n ’t open the gate for m e (and) I cannot enter. 11a over the door beam a deathly silence has sunk. 7 to the house. 20 the dead shall o u tnum ber the livin g!” 21 The gatekeeper opened his m outh and spoke.

my Lady. my Lady. he loosed and rem oved the dress-pins of her breast. did you take away the great tiara o f m y h ead ?” 44 “Enter. he loosed and rem oved the girdle of birth-stones o f her waist. gatekeeper. he loosed and rem oved the great tiara of her head. I drink m uddy w ater for beer. Thus are the rites of the M istress of the N etherw orld. Thus are the rites o f the M istress of the N etherw orld. gatekeeper. did you take away the dress-pins o f my b reast?” 53 “Enter.” 57 He made her enter through the sixth gate. he loosed and rem oved the garm ent of dignity o f her body. he loosed and rem oved the earrings o f ^ her ears. did you take away the garm ent of dignity o f my b o d y ?” 62 “Enter.” 63 As soon as !star had descended to the N etherw orld. 34 Should I weep for the young m en who have left their wives? 35 Should I weep for the young w om en w ho have been pulled out from their lo v e rs ’ laps? 36 Should I weep for the baby. 40 “Enter.” 51 He made her enter through the fourth gate. 58 “W hy. gatekeeper. my Lady. here I drink water with the A nunnaki. 29 her face turned pale as a cut-off tam arisk.” 48 He made her enter through the third gate. gatekeeper. Thus are the rites of the M istress of the N etherw orld. Thus are the rites o f the M istress of the N etherw o rld . gatekeeper. Thus are the rites o f the M istress of the N etherw orld.” 54 He m ade her enter through the fifth gate.” 45 He made her enter through the second gate. did you take away the girdle o f birth-stones o f m y w aist?” 56 “Enter. did you take away the egg-shaped beads o f my neck?” 50 “Enter. gatekeeper. Thus are the rites o f the M istress of the N etherw orld. did you take away the bangles of my wrists and ankles?” 59 “Enter. my Lady. my Lady. 31 “W hat has prom pted her heart (to com e) to me? W hy is her m ind so pleased with me? 32 Look. 46 “W hy. did you take away the earrings of my ears?” 47 “Enter. Thus are the rites o f the M istress of the N etherw orld. the infant who was sent away before his tim e? 37 Go. my Lady. open your gate to her! 38 Treat her according to the ancient rites!” 39 The gatekeeper w ent and opened the gate for her. 33 I eat clay for bread. my Lady. let C utha rejoice over you! 41 Let the palace o f the N etherw orld be glad at your presence!” 42 He made her enter through the first gate. 49 “W hy. 30 . gatekeeper. 55 “W hy. gatekeeper. my Lady. he loosed and rem oved the bangles of her wrists and ankles. 43 “W hy.” 60 He made her enter through the seventh gate. !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 28 W hen Ereskigal heard this. 30 her lips turned black as the rim o f the bowl. 52 “W hy. 61 “W hy. he loosed and rem oved the egg-shaped beads o f her neck.

80 the young w om an slept by herself. 67 she uttered to N am tar. the don key w ould not im p reg n a te the she- d o n k ey . no.” the assinnu. 83 w earily.] w om b. 77 the bull w o uld not m o u n t the cow . 82 dressed in a m ourning g arm ent. the “m an -w om an .. 93 “G o.. 79 the young man slept in his private room . A susu-nam ir. in the wisdom o f his heart. against all o f h er!” 76 A fter Istar. the king: 85 “Istar has descended to the N etherw orld. N am tar. my L ady. the d o nk ey w ould not im p reg n a te the she- donkey. 74 disease o f the head against her head. bend your m ind towards the gate o f the N etherw orld. 65 Istar did not reason but sat on top o f her. 73 disease o f the heart against her heart.. 92 created A susu-nam ir. created the w ord. 96 A fter she has relaxed. his father. take her fr o m m y p r e s e n c e ! 69 R elease sixty diseases against her. 98 raise your head and pay attention to the waterskin: 99 ‘N o. 95 let Ereskigal see you and rejoice at you. 101 she smote her thigh. 72 disease o f the feet against her feet. 97 have her swear by the great gods. her minister: 68 “G o. A susu-nam ir. 66 Ereskigal opened h er m outh and said.. 86 The m om ent she descended to the Land o f No Return. 89 the young m an has slept in his private room . his nose dow ncast. 81 Papsukkal. she bit h er finger. let them give m e the w aterskin. (and) her m ood has lightened. I w ill curse you with a great curse. his hair unkem pt. 90 the young w om an has slept by herself. the m inister o f the great gods. d escend ed to the N etherw orld.] creatress [. 75 let them loose against h er body.” 91 Ea. went before Sin. 103a I w ill decree you a fate never to be forgotten. the lady. to overwhelm Istar: 70 disease o f the eyes against h er eyes. 94 let the seven gates o f the N etherw orld be opened before you. 102 “ You have m ade a req uest that should not be requested! 103 C om e. 31 . 78 the young m an w ould not im pregnate the girl in the street. 88 the young m an w ould not im pregnate the girl in the street. 71 disease o f the arm s against h er arm s. that I m ay drink water from it 100 W hen Ereskigal heard this. 84 his tears flow ing in front o f Ea. TR A N SLA TIO N 64 E reskigal saw her and trem bled in front of her. 97a [. (but) has not ascended. 87 the bull w ould not m o u n t the co w . his face gloom y. w eeping.

let him play the lapis lazuli pipe [. the “ Solitary and F irm ”). 106 may the shade o f the city wall be your resting place. 120 he m ade her go out through the second gate and returned to her the bangle(s) of her wrists and ankles. 114 sprinkle Istar with the water o f life and bring her into m y presen ce!” 115 N am tar w ent and knocked at the “ Steady P alace” (var. and take Istar away: 118b if she does not pay you her ran so m . N am tar w ent and knocked at the palace. 129 dress him in a red garm ent. 32 . 118 he sprinkled Istar with the w ater o f life and brought her into her (i. 113 bring out the Anunnaki and seat them on golden thrones. the “Solitary and Firm ). E reslq g al’s) presence.” 131 Belili lifted up her je w e lry . N am tar.e.. 122 he m ade her go out through the fourth gate and returned to her the dress-pins o f her breast. Go. her minister: 111 “Go. N am tar. 119 He made her go out through the first gate and returned to her the garm ent o f dig- nity o f her body. 105 may the city drains be your drinking vessel. bring her back!" 118c Nam tar took her to the gates. !ST A R ’S DESC EN T A N D RESURRECTION 104 May bread o f the c ity ’s ploughs be your food. 108 may the drunk and the thirsty slap your cheek!” 109 Ereskigal opened her mouth and said. 116 he decorated the thresholds with cow rie-shells. the lover o f her youth.. 112 decorate the thresholds with cow rie-shells. 128 in pure w ater. 125 he m ade her go out through the seventh gate and returned to her the great tiara o f her head. bring her back! 127 Bathe T am m u z. 132 her lap was filled with eyestones. 123 he m ade her go out through the fifth gate and returned to her the egg-shaped beads o f her neck. 118a [She said:] “G o.. 110 uttered a word to N am tar. 121 he m ade her go out through the third gate and returned to her the girdle o f birth- stones o f her w aist. Belili smote the jew elry o f her body. knock at the palace.. 107 may the thresholds be your seat.. 124 he m ade her go out through the sixth gate and returned to her the earrings o f her ea rs. 133 W hen she heard the wailing o f her brother.] 130 Let prostitutes amuse his m ind. anoint him w ith sw eet oil. 126 “If she does not give you a substitute for herself.]! 129a [. knock at the “Steady P alace” (■va r. 117 he brought out the Anunnaki and seated them on golden thrones. N am tar.

the lapis lazuli pipe and the carnelian ring will rise with him (to m e ) . TRA NSLA TIO N 134 the eyestones w hich covered the front o f the cow. king o f the w orld. 137 the male and fem ale m ourners will rise with him! 138 M ay the dead rise and smell the incense!” 139 The palace o f A ssurbanipal. king o f Assyria. 33 . 135 “Do not rob m e o f my only brother! 136 W hen Tam m uz rises (to m e).

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4 I n a n n a is the e ld e s t d a u g h te r o f E n lil in I s m e . A ) . h o w e v e r . why have you travelled to the Land of No Return? How did you set your heart on the road whose traveller never returns?” T h e d e s c rip tio n o f th e N e th e r w o r ld as “ a ro a d w h o se tra v e lle r n ev er re tu rn s . JAOS 88 (1 9 6 8 ) 3-14. th e e n d in g o f the lin e. E n k i 11. starts w ith I n a n n a s e ttin g h e r m in d fro m “ g re a t h e a v e n ” (an g al-ta ) to the “ g r e a t b e l o w ” (ki g a l. N U . 4 3 . A SJ 11 (1 9 8 9 ) 3 6 -5 4 .In a n n a love so n g D I R . 236. I n a n n a /I s ta r ’s fa m ily c o n s is te d o f th e m o o n g o d N a n n a /S in as h e r f a th e r.”3 w h ereas E n k i an d E n lil an d S in are I n a n n a ’s f a th e rs in the S u m e ria n D e s c e n t : E n lil 11. or K U R . th e s e e d . T h e w o rd er se tu .” is fre q u e n tly a tte s te d in le x ic a l lis ts . i. 2 ETCSL: In a n a ’s d es ce n t to the n eth er w orld. E n lil. 6 0 . Line 2: T h e g o d d e s s I n a n n a /I s ta r h ad se v e ra l fath ers: A n .8 4 ) :2 tukumbi za‫־‬e dinanna ki dutu e-a-as a-na-am ba-du‫־‬un kur nu-gi4-se har-ra-an lu du‫־‬bi nu-gi4-gi4-de sa-zu a-gin7 tum-mu-un “If you are Inanna going to the east. b u t ra re in S u m e ria n p r b ilin g u a l lite ra ry w o rk s.. H o r o w itz p o in ts o u t.s e ) . N in g a l as h e r m o th e r. F o r in s ta n c e . w h e re the g a te k e e p e r o f the N e th e r w o rld ask s I n a n n a th e re a s o n w h y she has c o m e th ere (11 8 2 . to th e N e th e rw o rld .5 M o s t o f te n . CONTEXTUAL COMMENTARY AND ANALYSIS Line 1: T h e S u m e ria n c o m p o u n d n a m e o f the N e th e r w o rld . N U . G I 4. E n k i/E a . for Ism e-D agan I see also M . is fo u n d in the A k k a d ia n v e rs io n in line 6: a n a h a r ra n i [var.S ch a rio t: a li8 i to Enlil (Ism e-D agan /). is p ro b a b ly an e x p la n a to r y a d d itio n to th e S u m e ria n c o m p o u n d n a m e o f th e N e th e r w o r ld . I n a n n a ’s D e s c e n t to the N e th e r w o r ld . T h e A k k a d ia n sc rib e s c o u ld u se th e lo a n w o rd k u r n u g u fo r K U R . 4 ETCSL: In a n a ’s d es ce n t to the n ether w orld. or tra n s la te th e c o m p o u n d as e r s e t ( K U R ) la td ri ( N U G I 4. K lein . q a q q a r i la td ri. 3 S efati 1998. and N a n n a /S in . th e re a d in g o f the first line o f this m y th as ua n a e r s e t la tdri q a q q a r i la tarV ’ w o u ld b e ta u to lo g ic a l. th e m o s t c o m m o n A k k a d ia n w o rd fo r e a rth ( e a r t h ’s s u rfa c e ). an d the sun god U tu /S a m a s as h e r b ro th e r. C iv il. N U . 35 . w h ic h su g g e sts th a t the S u m e ria n c o m p o u n d w as e ith e r m e a n t to b e left u n tra n s la te d o r re a d w ith the lo a n w o rd . A n as I n a n n a ’s f a th e r o ccu rs in D u m u z i. J. ‫ג‬ H orow itz 1998. T h e te rm “L a n d o f N o R e t u r n ” o c c u rs la te r in the te x t in the S u m e ria n v e rsio n . 185. A ) . ‫'״‬ a. A 11: “I a m th e q u e e n . G I 4. e n g e n d e re d by A n . w as also the m o s t c o m m o n n a m e fo r th e N e th e rw o rld . lite ra lly the “L a n d o f N o R e t u r n . 2 7 2 -2 7 8 . 2 1 8 . nt Erl lll l . K A S K A L ] sa a la k ta s a la ta ja ra t. G I 4( . 191. A s W . 2 1 2 . In o th e r w o r d s .D a g a n I 9 2 .A in sh o rt fo rm K U R .e .1 T h e S u m e ria n v e rs io n o f the m y th .

dum un-urugal(A B*G A L). transcendent God (see the com m ents for lin es 2 7 . esp e cia lly his w arlike character.” S till at this point. !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION T h e p ra c tic e o f w ritin g d iv in e n a m e s w ith n u m bers e m e rg e d in the M id d le A s sy ria n p e r io d . w hen the cult o f N ergal is attested. In le x ica l lists and b ilin gual texts.g . C astellino 1 957. w as not affected until the Ur III p eriod.e . or elsew h ere. h o w e v e r .7 L i n e 4: I r k a lla is an A k k a d ia n lite ra ry terra fo r the N e th e r w o rld . 4 2 -6 2 and 119-125). the k ing.iurugall = dn e. 3 3 8 -3 4 0 . A lthou gh during this tim e N ergal w as already w orshiped in Cutha it seem s that his w orshipers w ere S em itic p eo p le. 17-18. 2. and his con n ection w ith the Netherw orld is m erely im plied . E ven though N ergal s esteem gradually spread to the Sem itic areas in the north. lik e its later eq u ivalen t. s. a n d la m h u . e . m eaning “grave” (see C A D Q . 182 and n. and his status as the god o f war and death is w ell estab lish ed . E reskigal is the so le ruler o f the N etherw orld. D ..” as is s u g g e s te d by its c o n s is te n t tra n sla tio n in b ilin g u a l te x ts. esp ecially n. In the doctrine o f the Tree.11 T h e w o rd 6 Parpola 1993. w hereas the Sum erians still regarded M eslam tea as the m ain god o f Cutha. ct. b u t no b ilin g u a l or le x ic a l e q u iv a le n c e b e tw e e n th e s e te rm s is k n o w n .9 A c c o rd in g to K a tz . and 4 0 4 -4 2 0 . S in. For the m eaning o f the Sum erian w ords. N ergal becam e the m ain god o f Cutha. N ote that this practice coin cid ed with the appearance o f the A ssyrian Tree Parpola has argued that. c o in c id in g w ith the p r o m o tio n o f N e r g a l ’s ro le in th e p a n th e o n fro m the s e c o n d m ille n n iu m o n w a rd . th ere w o u ld h a v e not b e e n any re a so n to w rite his n a m e as the “ L o r d o f the N e th e r w o r ld . w h ic h w as th e n u m b e r o f d ays in th e lu n a r m o n th . N ergal is ca lled the “E nlil o f urugal (PB S 172101 Katz 2 0 0 3 .v. c o u ld b e w ritten w ith the n u m b e r th irty . u r u g a l/e rig a l (lit. N ergal is the first god to receiv e g ifts from the dead k in g. Even during this period. a n d w ith the fa c t th a t th e w o rd w as a c o m p o n e n t o f N e r g a l ’s n a m e in E m e s a l. th e n a m e o f Ista r is w ritte n w ith th e n u m b e r f if te e n (11. q a b r u . n. 177. arallu (Nabnitu X X V 74 = M SL 16 226) and ersetu (Proto-Izi 387 = M SL 13 3 0 ). C A D l-J . 3 3 8 -3 3 9 ). 288.. “ G re a t C ity ” ). 4 . all o f w h ic h m e a n the N e th e r w o r ld . 9U. 293. Katz 2 0 0 3 . T h e m e a n in g “N e th e r w o r ld ” w as th e r e f o r e a la te r d e v e lo p m e n t. see ib id . the fu ll m o o n w ith its p e r fe c t sh in in g d isc s y m b o liz e d Istar. g a n z e r. the S efirotic Tree o f Jew ish m y sticism . E ven later.v. w hose ex p lo its may have inspired S u lg i’s ow n intentions. In the M id d le A s s y ria n v e rsio n o f th e b e g in n in g o f th e D e s c e n t. 7 Parpola 1997a. 2 8 7 -2 9 0 . A ccording to K atz. the m e a n in g “ L o r d o f th e G r a v e ” w o u ld h a v e b e e n m o re b e fittin g to h is c h a ra c te r as a w a r-g o d a n d an u n d e r w o rld d e i t y . X C -X C I. irkalla. N ergal is m ore a w ar-god. and he is called E nlil of the N etherw orld. and show ed a path for the salvation o f a human soul.gal = su . and N ergal s epithet as “E nlil o f the N etherw orld” is more lik ely a reference to his capacity to bring about death as a w ar-god. for N erg al a n d E resk ig a l. In the fo llo w in g O ld Babylonian period. 8 H orow itz 1998. the M iddle B abylonian myth o f N erg a l a n d E reskigal explained how N ergal becam e the ruler o f the N etherw orld (for the D eath o f Ur-Nam mu. W . 88. 10 In le x ic a l lists. 4). the m ystical numbers played an im portant role as m anifestations and powers o f the in fin ite.6 T h e n a m e o f th e m o o n g o d . w h ic h o ccu rs b o th w ith an d w ith o u t th e d iv in e d e te rm in a tiv e d ig ir (m a rk e d w ith su p e rs c rip t d) in fro n t o f it. in the Em esal god list Em esal 1 106 (M SL 4 9) dum un. 23:6. despite the efforts to m erge the tw o (apparently they w ere tw o different gods and not m erely tw o aspects o f one god) into one and the sam e god. 9 The term urugal/erigal occurs in the nam e o f the god N ergal. th in k s th a t u ru g a l (AB *GAL) w as at f irs t a e u p h e m is m fo r “ g r a v e . but also w ith q a b r u ..” In s te a d . a n d th e fifte e n th day o f the m o n th w as th e id eal d ay o f th e fu ll m o o n . le x . 1. i. N aram -Sin o f Akkad (ca. see the com m ent for lin es 14-24) u H orow itz 1998. k i r 5. irka lla is e q u a te d w ith the S u m e ria n w o rd s h ilib /h a lib . T h e n u m b e r f if te e n in d ic a te d h e r c o n n e c tio n w ith th e m oon: sin ce she w as th e d a u g h te r o f th e m o o n . 18. K a tz . see ETCSL: The D eath o f Ur-Nam ma [U r-N am m a AJ. urugal is translated by Akkadian names for the N etherw orld. the southern part o f M esopotam ia. the Sum erian heartland. 111. the A ssyrian Tree w as both an im age o f God and an im age o f the perfect human b ein g. The fact that the Ur III ruler S ulgi prom oted N ergal w as probably influenced by N aram -Sin. In the D ea th o f Ur-Nammu. 36 . 2 25 4 -2 2 1 8 ) prom oted N ergal’s p osition .. c f. H o r o w itz has s u g g e ste d th a t the w o rd m ay d eriv e f ro m a S u m e ria n te rm fo r th e N e th e rw o rld .eri‫ ״‬. b e f o re N e r g a l ’s p o s itio n c h a n g e d to th e h e a d o f th e N e th e r w o rld . 2 8 8 . s.

i. as it w as ab le to le a v e th e slee p in g 12 L ivingston e 1986. A s the le x ic a l lists e q u a te w in d (sd ru ) and g h o s t (za q iq u ). N e r g a l a n d E r e s k i g a l (S T T 28 ii 7 ‫ ׳‬.” 15 A t o n e ’s d e a th . v ig o r. T h e u su al tra n sla tio n for th e w o rd 111. G A R ( . su g g e sts th a t the w o rd in th e se c ases m e a n s b o th a d eity a n d a p la c e . L K A 62 r. 2 3 3 -2 3 4 . za q iq u . z a q iq u is a s e x le s s . 3 0 3 . is a lso e q u a te d w ith E r e s k i g a l . 2 8 8 -2 8 9 . Z I w as u n d e rs to o d as m o v in g air. the S u m e ria n e q u iv a le n t o f z a q iq u lz iq iq u w a s 111.” “ g h o s t. w h e n th e s o u l/s p irit r e le a s e d its e lf fro m th e b o d y . 16 A c c o r d in g to th e C A D (Z . ro a m e d as h a rm fu l g h o s ts . 13 Lambert 1996. 58). b r e a th . w h ic h co u ld be s h o rte n e d o r p r o lo n g e d . as w ell as b ird . vi 4 7 ).14 Line 10: T h e fa c t th a t the in h a b ita n ts o f th e N e th e rw o rld are said to be clad in f e a th e r g a rm e n ts is p e rh a p s d u e to the b e lie f th a t a fter d e a th .. pro b- ab ly a b ird -lik e p h a n to m .12 I r k a lla o c c u rs w ith th e d iv in e d e te r m in a tiv e in the texts D e s c e n t 4 . T h e u se o f the d iv in e d e te rm in a tiv e b e f o r e irk a lla . S c u r lo c k . In fa c t. G ilg a m e s E p ic V II iv 33. 37 . an d as su c h .” and 111 is e q u a te d w ith the w o rd sd ru (w in d) in le x ic a l lists. Irk a lla is e q u a te d w ith A lla tu . b e c a m e a s s o c ia te d w ith d r e a m in g . 190. su ch as im p ro p e r b u ria l o r v io le n t an d p r e m a tu re d e a th . ii. see also H orow itz 1998. F o r in s ta n c e . s. w h ic h r e fe r r e d to a “ p h a n to m . T h o s e sou ls w h o h a d a tta in e d p e a c e w ere o c c a s io n a lly a llo w e d to v isit th e ir fa m ilie s . ETCSL: A Song o f Inana a n d D u m u zid (Dumuzid-Inana D l ) . b u t w h e n the b o d y c e a s e d to e x is t. za-q[f-qu]. in L u d lu l II 4 7 .lik e . za q iq u d e riv e s fro m th e s a m e r o o t as th e v e rb z a q u . Z A G . T h e M e s o p o ta m ia n s b e lie v e d in th e b o d y (p a g r u ) a n d the so ul.17 M o re o v e r . w in d -lik e e m a n a tio n .” “ g h o s t. bo th e t e m m u an d z a q iq u lz iq iq u d e s c e n d e d to th e N e th e rw o rld .” 18 ’ A c c o r d in g to J. [li-il] [u l ] = Zi-q 1'-a\u] sa-a-ri Ea IV 7f. m e a n in g “ sp irit o f th e d e a d . CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A L Y SIS irk a lla also o c c u rs in lite ra ry w o rk s and the late m y stic a l te x t O 1 7 5 :7 . 14 W eidner 1 9 24-25. T h o s e souls th at w e re d e n ie d a c c e s s to th e N e th e r w o rld fo r w h a te v e r r e a s o n .” w h ic h w as a s s o c ia te d w ith the th ro a t o r n eck . 4 0 . Z I (n a p is tu ) w as the a n im a tin g life fo rc e . 58: li-il li' l = sdru. “ to b lo w . h o w e v e r . an d O 1 75 :7. 17 C A D Z. 1 59 16 S ee Scurlock 1995. m e a n in g “ s o u l. le a v in g o n ly the za q iq u . A s it w as on ly the e t e m m u th a t w as a b le to h a v e in flu e n c e o n th e affa irs o f th e liv in g re la tiv e s. z a q iq u lz iq iq u . w h e re a s th e w o rd is w ritte n w ith o u t the d e te r m in a tiv e in E rra I 135. th e ir a s s o c ia tio n w ith e a c h o th e r c a n n o t be u n f o u n d e d .” “h a u n tin g s p ir it” as in lu-111-la//17w o r in ki-sikil-111-la////ftn. s. v 8 ‫ ׳‬. a b le to fly a b o u t th ro u g h sm all a p e rtu re s . such as s u b a t H rka lla (D e s c e n t 4 ).e . 13 S efati 1998.” “ p h a n t o m . sili[tu]. w in d -lik e . 73:23-25.v. ii 59. 1892. to o f fe r h e lp o r g iv e in s tru c tio n s to th e ir still liv in g re la tiv e s. lilu Idu II 236ff.” “ g h o s t.” an d A N . 1g S ee O ppenheim 1956.” a n d th e n o u n ziq u “b r e e z e .” L iv in g b e in g s (h u m a n s an d a n im a ls) also h a d ZI ( n a p is tu ) “ life . I n a n n a g ran ts “ long life (zi-sii-u d -g al) u n d e r h im (= th e k in g ) in th e p a la c e . R A ) / L I L = z a q iq u tz iq iq u . in tu rn . 13-14. a p e r s o n ’s so u l tu rn e d in to a s p irit o r a g h o s t. w h o . the la tte r b e in g r e fe r r e d to by tw o w o rd s: G ID IM = e te m m u .v. A s b re a th and c o m in g f ro m o n e ’s th ro a t. so did th e e te m m u . U garitica V 2 1 8 :1 1 6 -1 8 . 13 and in th e M id d le A s sy ria n v e rsio n o f the D e s c e n t . is “ w in d . in D I D . in an O ld B a b y lo n ia n g o d list. w h o s e n a tu re w as w in d -lik e . col. 305. sp e c ia l ca re w a s ta k e n to p r e s e r v e the re m a in s o f th e fa m ilia l d e a d . IV 123.

” (translation after G eorge 1999). w e a rin g a fe a th e r g a r m e n t.2°‫ ״‬T h e s o u l’s b ird . w h e re she is u s u a lly p o r tr a y e d w ith w in g s . T h e p la q u e sh o w s a n u d e . 24 Parpola 1997a. n a m e ly th e o w l..24 T h e su g g e stio n th a t I n a n n a /I s ta r can stan d for th e h u m a n soul is also c o r ro b o r a te d in th e ic o n o g r a p h y . the b ird -lik e a p p e a ra n c e o f the g o d d e s s is m o s t s tro n g ly s u g g e s te d b y th e p la q u e n o w n a m e d th e “ Q u e e n o f the N ig h t. 20 S ee Parpola 1997b.”26 S e v e ra l fa c ts. 118. th e e q u iv a le n t o f S o p h ia o f G n o sis an d the S h e k h in a h o f J e w is h m y sti- cism .w h er e they are clad lik e birds in coats o f feathers .th e fall an d a s c e n t b a c k to h e a v e n . 170. see G eorge 1 9 9 9 . P rio r to h is d e s c e n t. b ird . she is o c c a s io n - ally e q u a te d w ith a b ird . ‫ ^ י י‬. and th a t she is n o n e o th e r th a n In a n n a /Is ta r. 38 . im p ly th a t th e w o m a n o f the p la q u e is a g o d d e s s . 9 7 . A lte r n a tiv e ly .27 F o r in s ta n c e . a b e a u tifu l m a id e n .6) 23 the sin fu l I n a n n a /Is ta r falls f ro m h e r h e a v e n ly h o m e into th e m a te r ia l w o rld (th e N e th e rw o rld ) an d dies in the D e s c e n t . T h e Q u e e n o f th e N ig h t has b e e n d a te d to th e r e ig n o f th e k in g H a m m u ra p i (o r H a m m u ra b i) o f the F irs t D y n a s ty o f B a b y lo n . a n d h is h a n d s are c h a n g e d in to w in g s . A ll th e se a s p e c ts o f the soul can b e a p p lie d to In a n n a /Is ta r. she is th en p u rifie d and re d e e m e d b y the b r id e g ro o m D u m u z i. fig . he is c h a n g e d into a d o v e . X X X If. th e so u l is a n d ro g y n o u s .19 T h e w in d -lik e a p p e a ra n c e o f the soul is also a tte ste d in th e G ilg a m e s E p ic X II 8 3 -8 4 . H o w e v e r . the 19 Scurlock 1995..f o o te d w o m a n w e a rin g a h o r n e d c a p .25 S h e has b e e n th o u g h t to b e th e p h a n to m L ilitu .lik e .‫ז‬ 26 / sta r ’ s D e sc e n t to the N etherw orld 10: “cloth ed lik e birds in garments o f feather . h o w e v e r . and the latter h a lf p re se n ts h e r jo u r n e y b a c k to h e r h e a v e n ly h o m e . 119. ‫^ י ״יי‬ 25 M ost recently C ollon 2005. In th e se la te r tra d itio n s . w ith w h o m th e m y stic id e n tifie d w h e n s triv in g fo r a u n io n w ith G od . an d a p r o s titu te . see also Frankfort 1 9 3 7 -3 9 . it can also be a rg u e d th a t th e w in g s s y m b o liz e h e r a s p e c t as the p la n e t V e n u s . 2‫ ל‬Jacobsen (1987b . d u e to the f a c t th a t the d e a d o f the N e th e r w o rld are sa id to be “b ird . fig . a v irg in . ca.” p r e v io u s ly k n o w n as the B u rn e y R e lie f. a m o th e r. w h ic h c o u ld r e fe r to the s o u l ’s b ird -lik e e m a n a tio n . 1-11) also reaches the con clusion that the w om an o f the plaque is none other than Inanna/Istar. h o ld in g a ro d an d a rin g in e a c h h a n d . 111. T h e r e f o r e .In a n n a is p r e s e n te d in te rm s o f a v irg in an d a p ro s titu te . a g a in like h e r later p a ra lle l S o p h ia . w h e re E n k id u v isits the N e th e r w o rld in a d re a m .lik e a p p e a ra n c e is r e fe r r e d to in T a b le t V II 1 8 3 -1 8 4 . and s ta n d in g on tw o lio n s w ith an o w l on e a c h s id e . 128-135. 190-198. Lloyd 1984. w in g e d . 23 R obinson 1988. 183-184: [x x x a]-na su-um -[m e ] ia-si ut-tir-ra-an-ni // [ sak-na-m a kap]-p1 g i m m u S e n i-di-ia . 11. 1892. for translation. b u t lik e h er G n o s tic p a ra lle l. an d it has b e e n a rg u e d th a t this k in d o f u n io n is d e s c rib e d in so m e o f the S u m e ria n s a c re d m a rria g e tex ts 22 F u r th e r . F u rth e r. Frankfort 1996. the m o rn in g a n d th e e v e n in g star. . G ilg a m es E p ic VII 61: “ . D u e to th is tw o -w a y trip .21 It h as re c e n tly b een a rg u e d th a t In a n n a /Is ta r w as a p a ra g o n fo r the h u m a n soul. n o t a d e m o n e s s . 1795 BCE. 86-87) 21 Parpola 1997b . 116. w h ere E n k id u is ab le to a s c e n d fro m th e N e th e r w o rld th ro u g h a h o le in th e g ro u n d : “ ( G ilg a m e s ) o p e n e d a h o le in th e N e th e r w o rld .1 9 4 (11. the u tu kku (g h o st) o f E n k id u c a m e f o rth f ro m the u n d e r w o rld as a za q iq u . k ilili/k ililu . 22 S ee L apinkivi 2004. lik e S o p h ia in the E x e g e s is on the S o u l (N H C II . IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION b o d y . th e firs t h a lf o f the sto ry can be seen as p re se n tin g th e s o u l’s h e a v e n ly o rig in a n d th e d e f ile m e n t o f th e so u l in the m a te ria l w o rld (= the N e th e r w o rld ) . .

Therefore the m easuring lin e and rod are sym b ols o f p eace. carrying a pick and other b uilding to o ls (Frankfort 1996. ETCSL: A hymn to Inana a s N in eg ala (Inana D ) 2. b e c a m e s y m b o ls o f d iv in e j u s tic e . in the N e o . B la c k a n d G r e e n h a v e r e m in d e d us th a t th e b ird talo n s an d w in g s w ere also s h a re d by b e n e f ic e n t an d m a g ic a lly p ro te c tiv e b e i n g s . C O M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS w o m a n is w e a rin g a d iv in e h o r n e d c a p . th ese sym bols m ay in dicate “the lim ited span o f m an’s life or his judgm ent at death. C o llo n h as c lo s e ly s tu d ie d the Q u e e n o f th e N ig h t. In a d d itio n . the m e a s u rin g rod and th e m e a s u rin g lin e ( d e p ic te d in a w ay th a t it lo o k s like a rin g ) u s e d o rig in a lly f o r s u rv e y in g la n d . In th e c a s e o f In a n n a /Is ta r.4 5 . 36 has id en tified the birds as Barn O w ls. as the god dess o f war. H eim pel 1 968. D. th e Q u een is d e fin ite ly a g o d d e s s .. la b b a tu . C o llo n claim s th a t. h o w e v e r . In a d d itio n . sin ce th e o w ls o f th e p la q u e are id e n tifie d as k il l l u .33 th e u n d e r w o r ld b e in g s are d e s c rib e d as m o n s tr o u s .6 4 -6 5 . building) rather than war. 103.e . w h e n d e s c e n d in g to th e N e th e r w o rld to re trie v e t h e p u k k u and m e k k u . a c c o rd in g to the first m ille n n iu m in c an tatio n tex ts th e B e sc h w d r- u n g s r itu a le an I s ta r u n d D u m u z i. the p r o b le m o f a d e fin ite id e n tific a tio n lies in th e fa c t th at the ic o n o g r a p h ic s y m b o ls o f a c e rta in d e ity do n o t n e c e s s a rily c o rro b o ra te the s y m b o lis m fo u n d in te x tu a l s o u r c e s . 1 0 4 . 23. w h o .1 1 2 . and C o llo n te n ta tiv e ly su g g ests th a t the p la q u e w o u ld b e s t re p re s e n t E r e s k ig a l. C o llo n d o e s n o t id e n tify the Q u e e n w ith c e rta in ty . in tex ts th ey are n o t a s s o c ia te d w ith h e r by th is p e r io d .32 In the case o f E r e s k ig a l. 4).” A ccording to Frankfort (ibid.. peace (Jacobsen 1987a.” On the Stele o f U r-Nam mu.A s s y ria n te x t k n o w n as th e U n d e r w o r ld Vision o f an A s s y r ia n P r i n c e . yet he g iv es the king the m easuring line and m easuring rod. i.b ird s 29 th en th e w o m a n p o s in g to g e th e r with th e m is m o st likely K ilili h e r s e lf . n ow a c q u ir e d b y th e B ritis h M u s e u m . T h is te x t. M o r e o v e r . A ccording to Jacob sen. B lack and Green 1992. A c c o r d in g to h e r. A c c o rd in g to C o llo n . w h o re ig n e d 6 6 8 -6 2 7 BCE. th e d iv in e p o w e r s ( m e ’s) ta k e n a w a y fro m the g o d d e s s at th e sixth g a te o f the N e th e r w o r ld are. 36:55-56. E r e s k ig a l w o u ld h a v e b e e n e n title d to h o ld th e ro d and th e rin g .4 9 an d in th e S u m e ria n G ilg a m e s . b i r d ’s fe e t an d w in g s . E n k id u a n d the N e th e r w o r ld 199 -20 4.3° R e c e n tly . 3 1 5 -3 1 6 . s. 31 C ollon 2 0 0 5 . w e do n o t h a v e a n y d e f in ite ic o n o g r a p h ic re p re s e n ta tio n o f h er e ls e w h e re . in fa c t. is e q u a te d w ith Ista r (r a b itu I s ta r ) . h a v in g . see W atanabe 2 0 0 2 . the Q u e e n o f th e N e th e r w o rld .28 In th e S u m e ria n D e s c e n t. o r p e r h a p s . is u n iq u e a n d ra th e r late sin ce the p rin c e is g e n e ra lly th o u g h t to h a v e b e e n A s s u r b a n ip a l.34 C o llo n f u rth e r c la im s th a t. 33 L ivin gston e 1989. Nanna is sh ow n handing the sam e ob jects to the k ing. 28 Frankfort 1996. 32 For pirig an-na. 110). sin ce in S u m e ria n texts In a n n a h a s th e e p ith e t th e “ lio n o f h e a v e n ” (p irig a n -n a ).31 T h is is n o t e n tire ly tru e . as th e s u p re m e m istre ss o f th e u n d e rw o rld . 4 3 -4 4 . an d she is s ta n d in g on lio n s. 39 . This act on ly indicates that Nanna entrusts the king with works o f p eace (i. w h ic h w o u ld a s s o c ia te the Q u e e n o f the N ig h t w ith th e N e th e r w o r ld . 6 8 -7 6 . in b o th th e G ilg a m e s E p ic X II 2 8-30 an d 4 7 . b u t she p o in ts o u t th a t. 34 B lack and Green 1992. 112).v. w ho appears on the stele in the role o f a builder. w h ic h w e re c o m m o n a ttrib u te s o f In a n n a /Is ta r. c f. for labbatu see W atanabe 2 0 0 2 . In a n n a /Is ta r. ETCSL: An a d a b to Inana f o r U r-Ninurta (U r-N in urta C) 3. Inanna is show n holding them b ecau se.1 3 34. E n k id u .e .. 29 C ollon 2 0 0 5 . th e lapis lazu li m e a s u rin g ro d and m e a s u rin g line. Nanna is show n holding a b attle-axe in his hand. fig . C A D L . for in s ta n c e . she also controls the ab sen ce o f war. 156: “rod and ring. 10 2 -1 0 4 . T h e re- f o re . a lth o u g h b y th e O ld B a b y lo n ia n p e rio d lio n s w ere w e ll e s ta b lis h e d a ttrib u te s o f the g o d d e s s in ic o n o g r a p h y . th e sa c re d o b je c ts o f d iv in ity . 91. 30 Farber 1 9 7 7 . a n d in A k k a d ia n so u rces she is r e fe r r e d to as th e “ lio n e s s ” ( la b b q tu ).

T h e o v e ra ll fe e lin g o n e gets f ro m lo o k in g at the Q u e e n is th a t. T h e tw o r e c lin in g lio n s are p ro b a b ly an a d d itio n a l “ n a m e . 109.. w h o s e u p p e r. as w e ll as by th e tw o o w ls . lions are w ell k n o w n a ttrib u te s o f In a n n a /Is ta r. 3 5 7 . b o th o f w h ic h are f o u n d a m o n g h e r a s p e c ts. the m o u n ta in s and th e N e th e r w o rld . and H g.v. 7.. 39 For the ow l as an om inous bird. the w in g s a n d the b ird -lik e a p p e a ra n c e fit w ell w ith In a n n a /Is ta r. T h e w in g s .” T h e n a k e d Q u e e n c o u ld thus p e rh a p s be an im a g e o f th e n a k e d E r e s k ig a l.. as m e n tio n e d e a rlie r. T h is tw o -la y e re d re p re s e n - tatio n fits w e ll w ith Ista r. fro m w h ic h a g o d d e s s w ith a re d b o d y w o u ld h a v e m ad e a strik in g e m e rs io n . 77 T h e b o tto m o f the p la q u e is in c is e d w ith the p a tte rn th at is u se d to d en o te m o u n ta in s a n d h ills. T h .38 It is n o t im p o s s ib le to th in k th a t the m o u n ta in p a tte rn c o u ld h a v e b e e n u s e d as a r e fe re n c e to b o th places. 38 Jacobsen 1987a. 43:39.] “if an ow l [hoots?] in the dead o f the night in a man s yard either in a tree or in a [ .). T h is is s u g g e s te d b y th e m o u n ta in p a tte rn . a d o rn in g the d ais o f the b rig h t m o u n t a i n s . an d as a g o d d e s s o f w a r. an d the lite ra ry d e s c rip tio n o f the n u d e E re s k ig a l a c tu a lly o n ly says th a t h e r u p p e r to rso was n a k e d . 44. she is in this case c o n n e c te d w ith th e N e th e r w o rld .” u se d as a r e fe re n c e to In a n n a /Is ta r. and 43. w h ic h re v e a l th a t it h ad a d ark b a c k g r o u n d .40 E q u a lly . T h e c o n n e c tio n o f the Q u e e n w ith th e tw o lio n s is f u rth e r d e m o n s tr a te d b y the “d e w c la w s ” on h e r calv es: C o llo n s u g g e sts th e se fle sh y e x c re s c e n c e s are. in fa c t. see C A D K . as J a c o b s e n has alre a d y s u g g e s te d . ib id . ETCSL: Enmerkar a n d the lord o f A ratta. on o n e h a n d . b u t. kilili.39 E v e n th e w in g s are d e p ic te d d r o o p e d . 40 . w h ic h c o u ld p o in t to K U R . w h ic h also ac c o rd s w ith the w ay I n a n n a /I s ta r is o fte n d e p ic te d .35 H o w e v e r . in E n m e r k a r a n d the L o r d o f A r a tta 2 2 9 -2 3 1 : “T h e g reat q u e e n o f h e a v e n .] ” (CT 4 0 . also: summa MU§ENG7(/i ina q u id musi ina tarb a s a m e li lu ina muhhi isi lu ina muhhi [ . w h o s e o rig in a l h o m e w as o n th e m o u n ta in to p s ( K U R ) . fo r in s ta n c e . 40 Jacobsen 1987a. as C o llo n n o te s. e v e n th o u g h she m ig h t b e a re p re s e n ta tio n o f In a n n a /Is ta r. w h ic h in any c a s e are n o c tu rn a l c re a tu re s and thus a s s o c ia te d w ith d e a th . !S T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION d e s c rib e s the Q u e e n o f the N e th e r w o rld as n a k e d (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 9 5-97 a): “h e r p u re s h o u ld ers are n o t c o v e re d w ith a g a rm e n t. w h o rid es u p o n the a w e s o m e m e. ” (nin g al a n -n a m e h u s -a u 5-a // h u r-s a g k u r s u b a -k a d u r g ar-ra // b a ra g k u r s u b a -k a s e -e r-k a -a n d u g 4‫־‬g a ) . th at is. w h e re a s th e lo w e r p art o f the b o d y is u se d as a r e fe r e n c e to d e a th . 3. s. w h ic h thus are re la te d to th e lio n s she is s ta n d in g on. 3 1 -3 3 . . she is d e a th . in the lex ica l section. has c o n n e c te d the m o u n ta in s w ith I n a n n a . J a c o b s e n . 36 B lack and Green 1992. b u t n o t o f E re s k ig a l. T h e c h th o n ic c o n n e c tio n s can b e f u rth e r p o s tu la te d b y th e re m n a n ts o f th e c o lo rin g o f the p la q u e . to th e N e th e rw o rld . d iv in e p art o f the b o d y is u s e d as a re fe re n c e to life .36 F u rth e r. o n th e o th e r h a n d . where the om inous features are m entioned in Hh. r e fe r to K ilili. 3‫ל‬ C ollon 2 0 0 5 .. on th e o th e r 35 C ollon 2 0 0 5 . cf. an d n o t in th e u p r ig h t p o s itio n ..ta g . she is life . c a rp a l p a d s o f a lio n . see C A D K . T h e Q u e e n g iv es th e im p re s s io n th a t the lo w e r p a rt o f h e r b o d y is c o n n e c te d w ith the N e th e r w o rld . . an d no lin en is s p read o v e r h e r p u re b r e a s t. as m e n tio n e d . d w e llin g on th e p eak s o f th e b r ig h t m o u n ta in s . th e “ d e m o n ic ” a n d d iv in e fe a tu re s fin d th e ir e x p la n a tio n in the “ s o u l” a s p e c t o f th e g o d d ess: th e soul in b o th its sin fu l an d p u rifie d states. an o w l ( k ililu /k ilili). w h e re a s h e r u p p e r p a rt is d iv in e. A s a g o d d ess o f lo v e .

p e r fe c t state o f the so u l. 320-3 2 3 . see G eorge 1999. w h ic h is a b le to c a rry its e lf to h e a v e n .1 1 . th ey m ay im p ly that the fig u re is a r e p re s e n ta tio n o f a so u l in its b ird . The sheep of the Nether World carry no wool. and N ovotn y 2 0 0 1 .6 1 . the g o d N in g is z id a d e s c rib e s his d e s tin a tio n to his sister w ith th e fo llo w in g w o r d s :46 The river of the Nether World carries no water. and she will never sit down in my shade. 41 . seat of Irkalla: to the house which no one who enters ever leaves. on me.” w hich w ould provide him w ith an heir.42 L i n e s 1-1 0 : T h e u s u a l u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e afterlife in M e s o p o ta m ia is la rg e ly b a s e d on p a s s a g e s in su ch m y th s as th e D e s c e n t. you would scream at it. A c c o rd in g to h im . like a tamarisk I shall never grow thick the trunk up toward water. P a r p o la .45 In N i n g i s z i d a ’s B o a t-R id e to H a d e s . o r th e G ilg a m e s E pic. on my neck he has put a neck stock.. no flour is milled from it. ascends to heaven on an eagle in order to bring back the “plant o f birth.1 . the story d e s c rib e s th e s o u l ’s jo u r n e y to s p iritu a l p e rfe c tio n : E t a n a ’s a s c e n s io n to h eav en o n th e e a g l e ’s b a c k to fetch th e “p la n t o f b i r t h ” is a m e ta p h o r f o r the a sc e n sio n o f a h u m a n so u l.44 S u c h an im a g e is also f o u n d in U r -N a m m a A 83 .lik e a p p e a ra n c e . whom my mother dug like a canal. G eorge 1 999.g . no cloth is woven from it. on the path that allows no journey back. T h is k in d o f w in g e d soul o ccu rs in the E ta n a E p i c 41 as s u g g e s te d b y S. ap p a re n tly in a tra n c e . e . an h eirless k in g. Enkidu a n d the nether w o r ld . w h e re th e d e a d in h a b ita n ts e a t c la y a n d are d re ss e d in f e a th e r g a rm e n ts . on my hands he has put manacles. 47 Translation after G eorge 1 9 9 9 . K innier W ilson 1985. w h e re the fo o d o f the N e th e rw o rld is said to b e b itte r an d its w a te r b r a c k is h . on me. In o th e r w o r d s . no water is drunk from it. 31-39. « Jacobsen and A lster 2 0 0 0 . you would scream at it. Me. visio n s a trip to th e N e th e r w o r ld :47 [He bound] my arms like the wings of a bird. T a b le t V II. The fields of the Nether World carry no grain. 44 For the Gilgam eS E p i c . 41 The Etana E pic describ es how Etana. like a date palm she will never tell me how desirable are the dates I bear. 189-202. D allev 2 0 0 0 . to lead me captive to the house of darkness. se e. an d its S u m e ria n p r e d e c e s s o r G ilg a m e s . th e e a g le r e p re s e n ts the p u rifie d . 43 ETCSL: The D ea th o f U r-Nam m a ( Ur-Nam ma A)\ C astellin o 1 9 5 7 . you would scream at it. Me the constable beats with a stick. 43 ETCSL: G ilg am es. see R einer 1985. In T a b le t V II o f th e G ilg a m e s E p i c . 2:41. 175-194. For the Etana E p ic . CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS h a n d . 42 Parpola 1993. 195-199. E n k id u . E n k id u a n d the N e th e r- w o r ld 43 w h ic h p o r tr a y the N e th e r w o rld as a g lo o m y p la c e . for IS tar’s D e sc e n t. see a lso ETCSL: N in g is z id a ’s jo u rn e y to the nether w o rld . my waters she will never open up.

Scurlock 1995. d igir. !S T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION to the house whose residents are deprived of light. 49 H eim pel 1986. w h e n the k in g a s c e n d e d to h e a v e n . A ta b le t fo u n d at Isin (B IN 10 190) d a te d b y S te in k e lle r to I s b i. T h e N e o .55 48 Scurlock 1995.2 0 4 7 ). a s k s :51 a-na ab-tuku ur5‫־‬re lb-hul a-ba nam-til an-na ba-e-ed Whatever is acquired is destined to be lost. and see no light. T h is b e lie f alre a d y e x is te d in the tim e o f S ulg i sin ce an e c o n o m ic te x t d a te d to h is last re g n a l y e a r m a k e s the re m a rk “ w h e n th e d iv in e S u lg i a s c e n d e d to h e a v e n .E r ra o f Isin (ca. 50 S e e .g . 54 S teink eller 1992.S u m e ria n k in g s w e re v ie w e d as “ g o in g u p /to w a rd h e a v e n ” a fte r th ey d ie d .a -d a . I G I ) g u -la u d lu g al a n -se b a . b u t to the p e o p le as w ell. 333:5. an d d e a th c o u ld b e o v e rc o m e b y s p iritu a l p e rfe c tio n . 245-255.” [e]r ( [ A ] . states: “ (for) the g re a t la m e n ta - tio n .”54 S till. a d efectiv e sp elling. a ru le r o f th e U r III p e rio d (ca.) notes the verbal form ba-a-da is either a phonetic realization o f b a-a -e‫ ״‬-da or m ore lik ely .53 P. 127-151. 2 0 1 7 . at the te r m in a tio n o f his e a rth ly e x iste n c e . 1883-1893. the N e th e r w o rld is also d e p ic te d as a so rt o f im ita tio n o f life on ea rth . 51 ETCSL: A p r a is e po em o f Sulgi (Sulgi B). S te in k e lle r v ie w s S u lg i’s a s c e n s io n to h e a v e n as p la u s ib le d u e to his d iv in ity .48 T h e d a rk n e ss o f th e N e th e r w o rld is te m p o ra ry sin c e the sun g o d p a s s e d th ro u g h th e se re g io n s o n his d aily jo u r n e y 49 In f a c C t h e N e th e r w o rld has th e sam e so cia l s tru c tu re as th e r e a lm o f th e liv in g o n e a r th . where soil is their sustenance and clay their food. th ere are p a s sa g e s su ch as the o n e in S u lg i B 2 8 1 -2 8 2 . 1887.” dS u l-g i a n -n a b a .E r r a ’s last re g n a l y e a r. a lth o u g h this m u s t h a v e b e e n c o n tra d ic to ry to th e b e lie f th a t S u lg i w as at the sam e tim e seen as m o rta l sin c e he w as “ a ffo rd e d all th e h o n o rs and tra p p in g s o f a d e a d r u le r. he w as se ttin g an e x a m p le n o t o n ly f o r his s u c c e s s o rs .] O n th e o th e r h a n d ..] on the House [of Dust was poured a deathly quiet.52 C. but dwell in darkness. fo r s o m e . 53 W ilck e 1988. 55 Published by van der M ieroop 1987. A lth o u g h S ulgi w as ra th e r a p e s s im is t in his s ta te m e n t a b o v e . e . 52 W atson 1986. Steinkeller (ibid. w h e re S u lg i. W ilc k e a rg u e d th a t th is p ro v e s th e b e lie f th a t. n a m e ly I s b i.1 9 8 5 ). th e re is e v id e n c e th a t. H o w e v e r. 3. as S te in k e lle r p o in ts o u t. What mortal has ever reached the heavens? It seem s th a t an afterlife s p e n t in th e N e th e r w o rld w as n o t the o n ly o p tio n in M e s o p o ta m ia .a . On door [and bolt the dust lay thick. as a k in g . 2 0 9 4 .50 In o r d e r to re in fo rc e th e id e a o f th e g lo o m y d e s tin y o f h u m a n s . th e sam e tra d itio n w as ap p lie d to a n o th e r ru le r. d eath w as o n ly te m p o ra ry . w h e re th e in h a b ita n ts eat b re a d an d d rin k cle a r w a te r . In s te a d . S u lg i j o i n e d the ran k s o f th e d e n iz e n s o f h e a v e n . 42 . 190. and n o t an o r d in a ry h u m a n b ein g .e ‫ ״‬-d a -a . it w as his o w n d e s tin y to a scen d to h e a v e n a fte r d eath . the a fte rlife m e a n t an a s c e n t to h e a v e n . It is tru e th a t h e w as a g o d . where they are clad like birds in coats of feathers.

E r e s k ig a l in stru c ts th e g a te k e e p e r to fo llo w h e r o rders w h e n le ttin g I n a n n a in sid e h e r re a lm . T herefore. in other w ords. a c c o r d in g to th e le x ic a l lists. paid attention to the instructions of his mistress. doorman. in f ro n t o f th e N e th e r w o r ld ” a fte r he h as lo st his “h o o p a n d s tic k ” (S u m . see C A D M /2. e lla g and e k id m a . “g ate o f the N etherw orld. w h o . 2 8 7 -2 8 8 . Groneberg 1987. A k k .) 59 to th e N e th e rw o rld 56 ETCSL: Inana ’s d e s c e n t to the nether w orld. He said to holy Inanna: “Come on. E . in the le x ica l list Diri II 150 ga.. In the beginning o f the E pic (Tablet I). an d it c o m p r is e s d o o rs an d g ates th ro u g h w hich o n e can p r o c e e d to the se a t o f E r e s k ig a l.58 A n o th e r S u m e ria n lite ra ry te x t th a t m e n tio n s G a n z e r is G ilg a m e s. E n k id u a n d the N e t h e r w o r l d . H orow itz 1 998. He bolted the seven gates of the underworld. Ninsubur threw herself at her feet at the door of the Ganzer (ka ganzer-[ra-ka]).” and w ith words denoting the N etherw orld as a w h ole (e . an d the g a te k e e p e r o b e y s (11. both o f w hich G ilgam es m akes lo v e to.z a ) is equated with b a b ( k A) er -se -ti. The words are apparently used as puns for a kezru (“m ale with curled hair”) and for an assinnu (translated by Draffkorn K ilm er as “prostitute”). 121-123. w hich fa lls from the sk y. 7. 59 For the different interpretations o f these o b jects.zer ( i g i . Draffkorn K ilm er understands that “the ball and the stick ” are used as a pun for G ilg a m e s’s erotic relationship w ith Enkidu. see the com m ent for line 13.57 the chief doorman of the underworld. p u k k u a n d m e k k u . COM M ENTARY A N D A N A L Y SIS Line 12: W h ile th e A k k a d ia n D e s c e n t s ta te s on ly th at Istar a rriv e s at th e “ gate o f the N e th e r w o r l d .” understood as a m eteorite in this con text). la te r in th e te x t (11. the “b a ll” and the “axe” seen in the tw o dream s refer to Enkidu. In the dream he sees a ki$ru (“b all.” w h ic h w as at th e e n tr a n c e o f th e N e th e rw o rld . the te rm G a n z e r c an m e a n b o th th e e n tr a n c e to the N e th e r w o rld as w ell as the N e th e r w o rld as a w h o le . G ilgam es sees tw o dream s o f portraying the appearance o f Enkidu. W hen 43 . In o th e r w o rd s . and enter.” in the S u m e ria n v e rs io n I n a n n a arriv es at the “ p a la c e o f G a n z e r ( G a n z ir ) . 57 For the reading o f the nam e o f the gatekeeper. 2 6 9 -2 7 0 .. 3 0 6 -3 0 7 ): After Inanna had ascended from the underworld. as w e ll as a hassinnu (“axe”). A H w 878.k u r .” F u r th e r in the te x t. the p la c e c a lle d “p a la c e o f G a n z e r ” is at the e n tra n c e o f the N e th e r w o r ld . irkalla. mekku.” In a d d itio n . 5 9-63. kukku). danninu. 1 2 9 -1 3 0 . D raffkorn K ilm er 1982.an. s. 58 S ee Sladek 1974. Then he opened each of the doors of the palace Ganzer separately. In f a c t. Inanna. 123-128): ne-ti 1-dug gal kur-ra-[ke4] inim nin-a-na-se sag kese2 ba-si‫[־‬in-ak] abula kur-ra 7-bi glSsi-gar-bi [bf-ib-us] e-gal ganzer dili-bi [gl4g-bi su ba-an-us] kug dinanna-ra gu mu-na-de-[e] ga-nu dinanna kur9-um-[ma-ni] Neti. open up. She shouted aggressively at the gate of the underworld: “Open up.v .g .g . w h e re G ilg a m e s is d e p ic te d as sitting “ at th e g a te o f G a n z e r . she pushed aggressively on the door of the underworld. is an assinnu and a kezru. L in e s 73 -76 o f the S u m e ria n v e r s io n :56 dinanna e-gal ganzer-se um-ma-te §1§ig kur-ra-ka su hul ba-an-us abula kur-ra-ka gu hul ba-an-de e gal-u 1-du8 e gal-u When Inanna arrived at the palace Ganzer.

w ho descen ds to the N etherw orld to retrieve the fa llen objects and con sequ en tly. and passim . W . 2 1 0 0 BCE). the r u le r o f the city o f L a g a s (ca. where a great oven is lighted. May Inanna be my vanguard. 63 V eld h uis 2 0 0 3 . w h e re I n a n n a f irs t arriv es in th e D e s c e n t. ibid. as is the le n tic u la r s h ap e o f th e tab let. 64 Translation after V eld h u is. 62 Katz 2 0 0 3 . It is p ro b a b le th a t th e ta b le t d ates f ro m the tim e o f G u d e a . he also lo ses his friend.” OrNS 5 4 (1 9 8 5 ) 56-64. c f. May its gate be proud because of me. th e N e th e rw o rld . may he go behind me.. on the frin g e b e tw e e n th e w orld s o f liv in g a n d the d e a d . fa c in g th e m b o th . T h e d ista n c e b e tw e e n th e g a te G a n z e r a n d th e N e th e rw o rld is. 44 . G a n z e r rem ain s as a f ic tio n a l p a s s a g e w a y to the N e th e r w o r ld . 4 5 -4 6 . a n d in th e G ilg a m e s story th e h e ro c a n n o t re a c h h is tw o fallen o b je c ts w ith his h a n d . May its bolt. in fa c t. an d b e c a u s e o f the a p p e a r a n c e o f the g o d d e s s N a n s e in the te x t. K a tz w o n d e rs w h e th e r there m ig h t h a v e b e e n a real g ate c a lle d G a n z e r in U ru k . 61 Katz 2 0 0 3 . 1. sin c e it first d e p ic ts G ilg a m e s at G a n z e r w e e p in g fo r th e o b je c ts falle n to th e N e th e r- w o rld . Enkidu a n d the n ether w orld. May my god be my helper. Inside. w h e re a s th e e k id m a m u st b e r e trie v e d f r o m G a n z e r . T h e te x t is in te re s tin g . This friend. at th e lo w e s t lev el o f th e s u b te rra n e a n p a rt o f th e c o s m o s . 166. which is a courier. i. 2 9 -3 2 . turn around for me. May its door. w h ich w o u ld h a v e b een u s e d fo r fu n e ra l p ro c e ss io n s. is thus the human counterpart for a kisru and a pukku as w e ll as for a hassinnu and a mekku (note that the shape o f the stick and the axe are sim ilar). b u t th e n the ellag m u s t b e r e trie v e d fro m th e N e th e r w o rld . s u g g e s te d b y the tw o sto ries th e m se lv e s: in the D e s c e n t In a n n a p ro c e e d s fro m G a n z e r to th e se a t o f E re s k ig a l (= N e th e rw o rld ) th ro u g h the s ev en g a te s .e . C ontinued. m u st be u n d e r s to o d e ith e r as a n a m e fo r th e e n tr a n c e to the N e th e rw o rld o r d e s c rib in g th e p la c e o f E r e s k i g a l ’s th ro n e . “B ack to the B ig H ouse: C olloq uial Sum erian. May its crossbar be the Lama at my favorable side that shines brightly on my right shoulder. stand open when I finish my journey.63 T h e te x t ru n s as f o llo w s :64 May the palace provide clear water to me in the forest where gur-birds live. d ies. Enkidu. which is a messenger. th e N e th e r w o rld w as situ a te d at the very en d o f th e r e a lm o f th e d e a d . w h e re a s the g ate G a n z e r w as on the b o rd e r o f the tw o w o rld s. A c c o r d in g ly . G ilgam es in Tablet XII lo ses the ball {pukku) and stick (mekku) (used for playing a stick gam e) to the underworld.60 T h e G ilg a m e s story p laces the gate G a n z e r in G i l g a m e s ’s city o f U ru k .4 5 -4 6 . K a tz also ad d s th a t the “p a la c e G a n z e r ” and the g a te o f the N e th e r w o rld . sin ce th e y h a v e fa lle n all th e w ay f ro m G a n z e r to the b o tto m o f th e N e th e rw o rld . H allo.61 A c c o r d in g to K a tz . IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION th ro u g h a c rack in th e g r o u n d . h o w e v e r.62 T h e “p a la c e G a n z e r ” is p o s s ib ly also th e su b je c t o f a p ra y e r fo r a safe e n tr a n c e to the N e th e r w o rld . 8 5 -9 1 . D . C uneiform D igital Library B ulletin 2003:6. its p ro v e n ie n c e has b e e n th o u g h t to b e the L a g a s a r e a .W . may it sprinkle clear water for me. 60 ETCSL: G ilg a m e s . W ith - out any a rc h a e o lo g ic a l e v id e n c e . the G ilg a m e s sto ry b o th d is tin g u is h e s and e q u a te s th e g ate G a n z e r an d th e N e th e r w o rld .

le x ic a l o n ly ).a n ‫־‬z e ‫־‬er m a 5‫־‬m a 5 “ c o v e rin g th e L a n d . the en try to the N e th e r w o r ld . ekletu or etiitu (ga-an-zerTA-gunu = e-tu-tum: M SL XIV. th e w o rd G a n z e r is in le x ic a l lists a s y n o n y m fo r a “ f la m e . The word ganzer has also the m eaning o f “darkness. h e in sists th at it has n o th in g to do w ith th e la te r d e s c rip tio n s o f a fie ry h ell o r in fe rn o . so that I might raise my neck on high! In the shrine of Enki.KUR.. 364. D e s p ite the o p p o site c o n n o ta tio n s . M S L 16.Sl.” for w hich the A kkadian w ords w ere kukku (g a‫־‬an‫־‬z6‫־‬er1G1. see CAD K . the r e fe r e n c e to the g re a t o v e n th a t is lig h te d o n ly d e s c rib e s the d iffic u lt jo u rn e y o f a c c e s s in g the N e th e r w o rld . in H a l l o ’s o p in io n . as it is o fte n p r e s e n te d in lite ra ry te x ts.a m u -d u b s eg -g e26 k a la m - m a d a r -r e .” g a . c o u ld h a v e b e e n a c o llo q u ia l w o rd fo r a p ris o n .66 V e ld h u is n o te s th a t b o th w o rd s . m eaning “fla m e . 66 ETCSL: Inana a n d Enki. c f.d a m “ its to n g u e shall b e an i n fe rn o .e. H a llo has s u g g e s te d th a t the “p a la c e ” m e n tio n e d in the firs t lin e is to be u n d e r s to o d lite ra lly as a “ big h o u s e ” (the S u m e ria n te rm is e g a l). V e ld h u is ad d s th at the “p a la c e G a n z e r . T h e only e x c e p tio n m ay b e I n a n n a a n d E n k i I 116 e g a . In c o n te x t the w o rd a p p e a rs in the E x p lo its o f N i n u r t a 596: "34m a s . as is th e p ra y e r.z e (2)-e r = n a b lu m (M S L 13. N u s k a A D 7: k a la m d u 6-u l. b la z in g f ir e s ” . 67 V eld h uis 2 0 0 3 .68 T h is m e a n in g . W . T h e p e c u lia r ity o f th e p ra y e r is th e r e m a r k o f the “ g reat o v e n w h ic h is lig h te d ” in sid e th e N e th e r w o rld . “f la m e ” a n d the “ (e n tra n c e o f th e ) N e th e r- w o r ld ” . N .” a n d th at th e s u p p lic a n t h e re w is h e s fo r a safe e n tra n c e to the re a lm o f the d e a d . 68 G eorge (1 9 8 6 . 4 9 8 ). d u b b a n ston e. h o w e v e r .a n -z e -e r b a . are u s u a lly k e p t a p art in s p e llin g .” i. 20 2 4 ‫) ׳‬.z e ‫־‬e r -r a . written ga‫־‬an-s1sxAxGl6 = e-tu -tu m .a n . W . e k le tu o r etiitu in le x ic a l lis ts .KUR(ganzer3). In fa c t. ek-le-tum: III 138). in th a t ca se it w o u ld b e p e c u lia r th a t th e w ord g a n z e r also has th e m e a n in g “ d a r k n e s s . c o u ld d e riv e f ro m th e s a m e o r ig in . ETCSL: A sir -g id a to Nuska (Nuska A)\ ETCSL: The L am ent f o r Unug.” 65 T h e tw o w o rd s . s. th a t su n d ers th e L a n d .a n -s a 4 “ sh e n a m e d it w ith th e n a m e th e ‘H o u s e G a n z e r Is R e b u i l t . sin c e th e w o rd fo r fla m e is sp e lle d NE.b a -a n g a . ” ’ b u t h e re the w o rd o c c u rs in an u n c le a r c o n te x t. d i r i . a n d this is a p r a y e r f o r s o m e o n e ’s re le a s e fro m a “ big h o u s e .” g iv e n th e A k k a d ia n e q u iv a le n ts k u k k u .A(gan- z e r 2.KUR. Ea IV 225. ra in in g e m b e rs. 136) thinks that the hom ophonic ganzer(2).d u m u -s e b a . w h e re a s the e n tra n c e to the N e th e r w o rld is w r itte n IGI.d a "34d u b .a n . o r g a . since Nanse is at my side.z e (2)-e r.d u 6-ul-e e rim 2-e izi s u m -m u h u l ? g a . V e ld h u is has c o m e to th e c o n c lu s io n th a t th e “p a la c e ” re fe rs to the “ p ala c e G a n z e r . th ro w in g fire at the e n e m y .” w h ic h .a n . kukku. A c c o rd in g to h im . and d e s p ite th e fa c t th a t th e a b o v e m e n tio n e d te x t is the only k n o w n e x p lic it 65 ETCSL: T he Exploits o f Ninurtcr. 45 .ZA(ganzer) o r IGI.v. will not be able to loose (this spell).67 I f th e s e tw o w o rd s d e riv e f ro m the s a m e o r ig in . w o u ld be n a tu ra l i f o n e c o n s id e rs th e v ie w o f th e N e th e r w o rld as a g lo o m y p la c e . burn - i n g ” . r e fle c tin g the id e a th a t th e d e a d h a d to c ro ss a fire w h e n e n te r in g th e N e th e r w o rld . Asari in his Abzu. is c lo s e ly a s s o c ia te d w ith d o o rs and g ates. T h e r e f o r e . fla m e and th e e n tra n c e to the N e th e r w o rld . R e c e n tly . 3. “ m a s d a sto ne. L a m e n t f o r U ru k E19: e m e -b i g a . COM M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS M ay my gatekeeper bow down.” is probably unrelated to the ganzer m eaning the N etherw orld.ZA = ku-uk-k[u-u]\ Proto-D iri 11 Id . 36 A 1 2 a n d B l . P r e v io u s ly . i z i .a n -z e -e r b a r 7-a.

o r h a ra s s in g th e v ic tim s in th eir d re a m s . they m ig h t h a v e b e e n able to “ d e v o u r th e l iv in g . 46 . G e o rg e h a s s u g g e ste d th a t the w o rd is a P ro to . ga-an-ze-er /ga-I-n-ze. S p T U I 3 iii 13‫׳‬-iv 4 '.d u 8( d u h ). som e prefer the su ggestion that the word is a Sum erian fin ite verbal form . 72 S ee Sladek 1974. in C A D G. in th e firs t m ille n n iu m A s sy ria n te x t U n d e r w o r ld V ision o f a n A s s y r ia n P r in c e (rev . ga n zir. G h o s ts d id n o t alw ay s attack th e v ic tim s o n th e ir o w n in itia tiv e . F o r th e e ty m o lo g y o f g a n z e r . she sh o u ts at the g a te k e e p e r to let h e r in . or o th e rw ise she w o u ld a g g re ss iv e ly b r e a k the d o o r a n d “ra ise up th e d e a d to d e v o u r the liv in g . T h e g a te k e e p e r o f th e f irs t g ate is c a lle d db 1. o r in S u m e r in p a rtic u la r. previously read N eti (dn e . S T T 28 iii 4 T .e. the so u ls o f th e dead w ere a n g ry a n d v e n g e f u l. w h e re th e p eo p le o f th e N e th e rw o rld are d e s c rib e d as te rrify in g d e m o n ic b e in g s . If the reading o f the word “doorm an/gatekeeper” is 1-du8 (c f. In te re s - tin g ly .g . w h ic h d e riv e s fro m the A k k a d ia n im p e ra tiv e f o rm p it e “ o p e n ! ” (cf.75 69 G eorge 1986. 32:r. 74 L ivingston e 1989. and none o f the Akkadian renderings o f ganzir relates to this Sum erian verb.v. 4 3 . T h e d ead w h o “ w ill d e v o u r the liv in g ” re fe r to th o s e u n fo rtu n a te d e a d so u ls w h o h a d d ie d v io le n t a n d u n h a p p y d e a th s .v. from the variant w riting o f dne-du8 in CT 16 13. R.73 L a te r. K ol. IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION r e fe re n c e to a h o t and b u rn in g re a lm o f the d e a d . 73 The name is read as N edu by D ailey 2 0 0 0 . it c o u ld be p o s sib le th a t th ere c o e x is te d an im a g e o f a fie ry N e th e rw o rld in a n c ie n t M e s o p o ta m ia . th e A k k a d ia n D e s c e n t d o e s n o t give th e g a te k e e p e r any sp e c ia l id en - tity . X X V III). 1-31. as w ell as by Hunger 1976. 86-87.” T h e g a te k e e p e r d o e s n o t ask th e re a so n fo r I s t a r ’s v is it. the g a te k e e p e r s are n a m e d . an d T in tir. 71 For the reading B id u /B itu /B iti (cf. s.K U R e x p la in e d th e re a l m e a n in g o f the te rm . p h y s i- ca lly a b u s in g th e ir v ic tim s . th ro u g h a p p ro p ria te c o u n te r m a g ic th e ev il g h o sts a n d th e ir actio n s c o u ld be a v e r te d (see a lso the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 3 1 . i. w h e re th e lo g o g ra p h ic v alu e IG I . se iz in g . 18. 67. 70 Katz 2 0 0 3 . For the etym ology o f the w ord. A . F o rtu n a te ly . 136. “ f ro n t o f the N e th e r w o rld /m o u n ta in . 7 ). 19. von Soden 1 936. Landsberger 1974.” T h e s e e v il g h o s ts are d e s c rib e d as p u r s u in g . 72.E u p h r a tic n a m e s im ila r to K e n g ir.. I ll 13'. B e c a u s e o f th e ir fa te .. and Pituh by Foster 1996. a n d b i r d ’s f e e t. 47. n. w h e r e the n u m b e r o f the u n d e rw o rld g ates is s ev en as in th e D e s c e n t. h u m a n h a n d s . 7 ).4 7 ') . then the Akkadian word atu is a Sum erian loanword (Sladek 1 9 7 4 . 1889-1891. Katz (2 0 0 3 . The prince Kummfi o f the text is p o ssib ly A ssurbanipal. 191-192 for the Sum erian reading o f ni-du8/ 1-dug = “doorm an/gatekeeper” and dne-ti as a phonetic variant o f ni-d u 8 (c f. r. b in d in g .1 9 1 . Falkenstein 1959. p e t u ) 71 T h e n a m e w a s p re v io u sly re a d as N eti (dn e-ti). L ivingston e 1989.74 Lines 14-24: W h e n Is ta r a rriv e s at th e g ates o f the N e th e rw o rld . to rem ove. dbf-du8[duh]) o f the gatek eeper’s nam e.1 7 0 . no.s e e D eller 1991. to break” [Thom sen 1987a. Z im b ir .” e . an d as a c o n s e q u e n c e . c f. s. atu A . see C A D A /2 .72 In the late v e rs io n o f the m y th o f N e r g a l a n d E r e s k ig a l (se e the c o m m e n t for lin es 1 4 -2 4). no. 17. th e g a te k e e p e r is said to h a v e a l i o n ’s h e a d .”70 Line 13: T h e g a te k e e p e r o f th e N e th e r w o rld is c a lle d B id u or B itu (db 1-ti in I n a n n a ’s D e s c e n t and dM -d u g[duh] in K A R 142 iv 12-15. then crow n-prince and later king o f A ssyria (ib id . 518). 322]) has no con n ection with death. 73 Scurlock 1995. 86) notes that the verbal root /ze. 101). o r th o se w h o h a d b e e n d e n ie d p ro p er b u ria l o r the fu n e ra ry cu lt.69 A c c o rd in g to K a tz . as so rc e re rs so m e - tim es u s e d the g h o s ts as p a rt o f th e ir b la c k m a g ic .3 6 ). 422.ti) .. this w o u ld ex p la in w h y th e te rm g a n z e r w as w ritte n w ith m e a n in g fu l S u m e ria n w ritin g .r/ (m eaning “to tear out. m eaning “L et-M e- R em ove. 9.r/. b u t tries to c a lm h e r d o w n . and G eorge 1991a.

80 D . w ho is equated w ith the god dess A llatu (CT 25 4:27 + 5:28 and CT 25 8:8-9. th e g o d d e s s o f th e N e th e r w o r ld . h e is to d e s c e n d to the u n d e r w o rld as p u n is h m e n t. I shall raise up the dead. g iv [er o f . ] . e . A lla. b e lo n g e d to the g ro u p o f d y in g g o d s ..”79 T h e id e n tity o f G u g a la n n a is u nclear: he m ay h a v e b e e n N e r g a l. lady o f the [w ide under]world. rather co n cise copy o f the text (ca. PBS 1/2 112 6 2 -6 2 . the d e a th an d fu n e ra l o f the “ G r e a t B u ll o f H e a v e n ” m e a n s th a t fo r six w eek s the c o n s te lla tio n T a u ru s (mulg u d /g u 4-a n -n a ) is b e lo w th e h o r iz o n in S u m e r and th u s “d e a d .e m e r g e s in M a r c h . 79 In the m uch rew orked god -list a n = Anum. and is dated to the M iddle Babylonian period. In th e S u m e ria n v e r s io n o f th e D e s c e n t. In the U nd erw orld Vision o f an A ssyrian Prince (1. T h e m y th o f N e r g a l a n d E r e s k ig a l e n d s w ell. S in c e N e r g a l b e h a v e s d isre s p e c tfu lly to w ard s N a m ta r an d thus in su lts E r e s k ig a l. a s tro n o m ic a lly in te rp r e te d . like T a m m u z (= D u m u - z i). ! ” (L ivin gston e 1 9 8 9 . and the c o n s te lla tio n r e .. dgu-gal-an-na appears as the husband o f E reskigal. u s e s m an y o f th e sam e im a g e s as lite ra ry p a ra lle ls w ith the D e s c e n t ? 6 A c c o r d in g to the m y th . A llatu is hailed as fo llow s: “O A lla tu . he m a y h a v e b e e n the g o d A lla . for an overview o f the list a n = Anum see Lam bert 1969a. W o lk s te in n o tes th a t. w h ic h m ig h t e x p la in w h y in the D e s c e n t th e h u s b a n d o f E re s k ig a l h as d i e d . T w o m uch lon ger version s (ca. I n a n n a claim s sh e v isits the N e th e r w o rld d u e to the d e a th a n d f u n e ra l o f G u g a la n n a . 4 1 0 -4 2 8 . a lso k n o w n by th e e p ith e t the “W ild B u ll ” (am ). 77 T ranslation after D a ile y 2 0 0 0 . w h o s e w ife w o u ld h a v e b e e n A lla tu . and b rin g to h e r w h a te v e r fo o d A n u . she b e c o m e s m is e ra b le . H e fa lls f o r E r e s k ig a l. and ask th e m to se n d E rra b a c k . A llatu. . . b u t at th e d a w n o f the s e v e n th d a y . W h e n E r e s k ig a l u n d e r s ta n d s h e r lo v e r has fle d . I shall make the dead outnumber the living! In o th e r w o rd s . She b e g s N a m ta r to g o to A n u . sin c e N e r g a l fin a lly re -e n te r s th e N e th e r w o rld a n d b e c o m e s th e h u s b a n d of E r e s k ig a l. 90 lin es) com es from T ell el-A m arna in E gypt. w h o is o n ly k n o w n h ere by a n o th e r nam e. . 173.” b u t in th e g o d . Foster 1996. o f Old B abylonian origin. 350 lin es) are known from Sultantepe o f the seventh century and from Uruk in the Late B abylonian period. T h is is also the tim e w h e n D u m u z i. w h ic h a lso m ark s th e b e g in n in g o f the y e a r a n d agri- c u ltu ra l c y c le . the (first) h u s b a n d o f E r e s k ig a l. w h ic h e x p la in s how N e r g a l. a lth o u g h he p ro m is e s to retu rn . [queen o f the nether]w orld. w here the pair is called E nlil and N in lil o f the N etherw orld resp ectively.. I f th e y do n o t o b e y . th e lo rd o f th e N e th e r w o r ld .] tom bs o f [ . also k n o w n as E r r a . 78 N ergal as E resk igal’s husband appears for the first tim e in Old Babylonian religious tex ts.g . she s a y s :77 According to the rites o f Erkalla and the great Earth. D ailey 2 0 0 0 . and m a k e s lov e to her fo r six d a y s . th e g o d s h o ld a b a n q u e t in h e a v e n . e . E llil (= E n lil) a n d E a . and they will eat the living.” T h is e a rly j o u r n e y b e g in s in th e m id d le o f J a n u a ry . I n s te a d . o ffe rs f ro m the b a n q u e t tab le. to w h ic h E re s k ig a l. CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A L Y SIS T h e M id d le B a b y lo n ia n m y th o f N e r g a l a n d E r e s k i g a l. N e rg a l e s c a p e s . 15th or 14th centuries BCE. The earliest. she is a llo w e d to sen d her m in is te r N a m ta r to th e f e a s t.lis t A N =■ A n u m his n a m e is w ritte n G u -g a l-a n -n a . 47 . she th re a te n s to a c t th e sam e w ay as Ista r w h e n the latter tries to g et in to th e N e th e r w o rld .7 0 ). a s c e n d e d f ro m the 76 The myth o f N e r g a l a n d E resk ig a l (se e . 5 0 -6 0 ) exp lain s how N ergal b ecam e the lord o f the N etherw orld.. 30). 80 Lambert 1 9 8 0 . b e c a m e th e lo rd o f the N e th e r w o rld . is n o t e n title d to c o m e .6 2 -6 4 . 163-181.g a l-a n -n a m e a n s th e “ G re a t Bull o f H e a v e n . h e r fa th er. .g . 4 7 5 ). w h ic h w a s a n o th e r n a m e fo r E r e s k ig a l. R einer 1985. the “ C a n a l-in s p e c - to r o f H e a v e n /A n .78 G u d /G u 4. the h u s b a n d o f In a n n a / Is ta r. A lte r n a tiv e ly .

161. n a m e ly G ilg a m e s a n d the B u ll o f H e a v e n . th ro u g h h e r c o n n e c tio n w ith the N e th e r- w o rld as a d eath g o d d e s s . 4 7 . H o w e v e r . cf. 82 For the Sum erian m yth. 91. su cceed s in k illin g the b e a s t. w h e re E n l i l ’s fro w n h ad slain the city o f K is “like the B u ll o f H e a v e n .in -la w . w h o in this w a y gets k ille d . can be e x p la in e d by th e id e n tific a tio n o f Ista r a n d E re s k ig a l w ith o n e a n o th e r. G u g a la n n a .85 I n te re s tin g ly .g . C ooper 1983. th e sin fu l soul vs.” 48 .54. at th e h o riz o n is its fo o d . for the G ilgam es E p ic. his return (and m arriage to Inanna) w as celebrated around the N ew Y ear. 5 0 -5 1 . Hartner 1 9 6 5 .n a . 88 G eorge 1999. 166-175 (“B ilgam esh and the Bull o f H eaven: The Hero in B attle”). 119.i s k n o w n fro m a d iffe re n t S u m e ria n m y th . 2.” G u d /G u 4. L X X X V III. w h ic h w as o n e o f the m a n y a s p e c ts o f Istar. re le a s e s the B u ll o f H e a v e n to w re a k h a v o c in the city o f U r u k and u ltim a te ly . ibid.. h o w e v e r . ra th e r th an w ith the h u s b a n d o f h e r s is te r. 1. The d escen t and ascent o f Dum uzi are traditionally connected w ith the seasonal cycle: the death o f D um uzi.81 In this c a s e . an d u ses th e b e a s t in try in g to d e s tro y G ilg a m e s. 4 7 6 -4 8 1 ). F u r th e r m o r e . P a rp o la . Tablet V I. A n o th e r B u ll. in this c a s e .1 -1 6 + p is. Cohen 1993. A n o th e r in te rp re ta tio n o f th e B u ll o f H e a v e n in the G ilg a m e s E p ic h a s b e e n s u g g e s te d by S. I s ta r tak es the B u ll as his r e p la c e m e n t. A b u s c h su g g ests th a t th e k in g o f U ru k re fu s e s the g o d d ess b e c a u s e he w a n ts to d e c lin e b e c o m in g the h u s b a n d o f a c h th o n ic g o d d e s s . Is ta r /In a n n a .” it “ g ra z e s w h e re th e sun r is e s . at the tim e w hen the harvest was cut down.” 83 A n o th e r re fe re n c e to th e sam e ra m p a g in g “ B u ll o f H e a v e n ” o ccu rs in th e C u r sin g o f A g a d e . th at th e tw o b u lls.” w as mourned in the sum m er. we are at th e p o in t w h e re the S u m e ria n D e s c e n t b eg in s: I n a n n a d e s c e n d s to the N e th e r w o rld in o rd e r to p ay h er re sp e c ts fo r th e d e a th o f h e r b r o th e r. W h e n d isc u s s in g G i l g a m e s ’s re fu s a l to m a rry Is ta r in the G ilg a m e s E p ic . G ilg a m e s . the “ G re a t B u l l o f H e a v e n ” an d the “B u ll o f H e a v e n .” 84 It m u s t be f u rth e r n o te d . th e n . E re s k ig a l. to kill its k in g . the c o n n e c tio n o f the c o n s te lla tio n T a u ru s w ith th e B u ll o f H e a v e n . n a m e ly th e “ B u ll o f H e a v e n .. !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION N e th e r w o r ld . e . the M id d le A s sy ria n v e rs io n o f th e first e lev en lin es o f the D e s c e n t id e n tifie s E r e s k ig a l as “ Istar ( is ta r u ) w h o d w ells in th e m id s t o f I rk a lla ” 87 (se e the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 9 1 -9 2 ).a n . G eorge 1999. fo r a d e a th she h e r s e l f has cau sed . the G re a t B u ll o f H e a v e n w o u ld be id e n ti- fied w ith the h u s b a n d o f In a n n a /Is ta r. the h e a v e n ly b u ll “ w o u ld h a v e no fo o d . w ith th e h e lp o f his frie n d E n k id u . lets lo o se h e r s is te r ’s h u s b a n d . E re s k ig a l h e r s e lf can be seen d e riv in g f ro m In a n n a /Is ta r. n. 168. since the q u e e n o f the N e th e rw o rld m ay b e seen as a h y p o s ta s is o f th e q u e e n o f h e a v e n . X C II. A slig htly d iff e r e n t v e rsio n o f th e sto ry is also fo u n d in T a b le t V I o f th e G ilg a m e s E p i c P In this v e rsio n . 86 S ee Parpola 1997a. w hich w as the tim e when the bountiful harvest m anifested his return (see Jacobsen 1976. n. p. 84 ETCSL: The Cursing o f A g a d e . w h o has a rg u ed th a t th e E p ic d e s c rib e s th e jo u r n e y 81 W olkstein 1 9 8 3 .86 In fa c t. A fte r G ilg a m e s ’s r e fu s a l.” m ay h a v e in d e e d s h ared the sam e id e n tity . th e n . a c c o rd in g to th e te x t. B y re le a s in g the B u ll o f H e a v e n . se e . T. 85 A busch 1986. w ho w as the “pow er o f grain and herds. th e *“ B u ll o f H e a v e n ” c a n also be u n d e r s to o d as th e c o n s te lla tio n T a u ru s . a fter b e in g re je c te d by G ilg a m e s.1 5 7 . w h e re I n a n n a . s in c e . th e p u rifie d s o u l. and th e ir id e n tific a tio n w ith the h u s b a n d o f E re s k ig a l o n o n e h a n d a n d w ith D u m u z i on the o th e r. 62. in the spring. 87 The term istaru is used as the proper name o f Istar but also as ageneric term for “g o d d ess. G ilg a m e s .

Parpola 1997b. 312. L i n e 2 7 : I s ta r is h e r e d e s c rib e d as the “h o ld e r o f the g reat k e p p u .e .d i = kip-pu-u.s a . the w o rd “ g a m e . the E p ic c o m p a r e s E n k id u to a h a s s in n u (ax e).” w as th ro u g h his n a m e g iv e n th e id e n tic a l o rig in as A s u s u . In th e G ilg a m e s E p ic I 2 5 0 a n d 2 7 0 . 15-16. s in fu l soul). 119. 119 91 E . in th e S u m e ria n D e s c e n t 86: n in 9-g a l-m u k u g -g a dg a .g a l.” o r a “ (p la ce of) d a n c in g . c o m fo rtin g a n d g iv in g the p ro m is e o f s a lv a tio n .92 dIn a n n a ti-s u h s15la K I .88 E n k id u .. 7 4 :3 f. XCII-III n. X X X II. 140. lite ra lly “ C re a te d b y E n k i. E .” is In an - n a / I s t a r ’s e ld e r s is te r. 90 Parpola 1997a. I s ta r sa m e lu lta s a tu q u n tu “I s ta r w h o s e p la y is f ig h ti n g ” .4 5 6 i 7. E . s. w h o w as c re a te d b y E a . L i n e s 2 5 . he cu ts o f f th e “rig h t h a n d ” ( i m i t t u . N E . m e lu ltu . th e b a ttle a n d the fig h t tw is t a ro u n d like a sk ip p in g r o p e . m a k e s the tro o p s d a n c e th e d a n c e o f 88 Parpola 1997a. is u s u a lly tra n s la te d as a “ sk ip p in g r o p e . 92 M ich el 1 9 5 2 . F u r th e r m o r e .” w h ic h re fe rs to his e m a s c u la te d state.la . 121-124. C o m p a r a b le to th e c a s tra te a s s in n u . E .e.”93 T h e S u m e ria n m y th E n m e r k a r a n d the L o r d o f A r a tta 289 states: “ (In an n a) w h o .90 In the M id d le A s s y r ia n f r a g m e n t o f th e D e s c e n t E re s k ig a l is d e s c rib e d as “I s ta r ( i s ta r u ) w h o d w e lls in th e m id s t o f I rk a lla . a “ sk ip p in g r o p e .n a m ir. O Is ta r. n e . keppu. and Rom er 1965. also “ s h o u ld e r ” ) o f the B u ll a n d th ro w s it at I s t a r ’s fa c e (T a b le t V I). me-lul-tu sa Istar ibid.k i. in tu rn .D I dI n a n n a g i n x(GIM) u . N E . th e frie n d o f G ilg a m e s . X C II-X C III. the S u m e ria n w o rd fo r k e p p u is e s e m e n (w ritte n K I . th e a s sin n u .n e . i.a n . C A D K . A s E n k id u fig h ts a g a in s t the B u ll o f H e a v e n .” 91 T h e w o rd k e p p u ..g . in fa c t.” K I .d i ^ in a n n a = m in = (= kip-pu-u). is a p a ra lle l to the a s s in n u o f the D e s c e n t . 163-164. g a m e .. In o th e r w o rd s. S. c o m p a r a b le to th e s a lv a tio n id e o lo g y o f the G n o sis or o f J e w ish m y stic is m . to h is p e n is 89 (see also th e c o m m e n t for lin es 9 1 -9 2 ). n. w h ic h is u s e d as a p u n fo r th e w o rd a s sin n u (see th e c o m m e n t fo r lin e 12).n i-f b . lite ra lly the “ Q u e e n o f th e N e th e r w o rld .D I is a lso e q u a te d w ith the A k k a d ia n w o r d m e l u l t u . n.s a r dI s ta r a n a n ti ii tu q u m ta k im a k e p p e s u ta k p im a “m a k e . and th e o ne w h o stirs up the A p s u in E a ’s p r e s e n c e . th e B u ll o f H eav en in the G ilg a m e s E p ic r e fe r s to E n k id u h im s e lf . w ho w as s e n t to b rin g Is ta r to life and to c o m f o rt the rag in g E r e s k ig a l (= the fa lle n . th e E p ic refers to E n k id u as the “ m u le . it is E n k i d u ’s task to a c t as the “h e lp e r /s a v io r o f the f r ie n d ” (m u s e z ib ib r i) . E .9 2 ).m i. e-se -m e-in k i .e . T h e “ rig h t h a n d ” is a m e ta p h o r fo r p e n is . w h ic h is tra n sla te d as a “p la y in g g r o u n d . 49 .g .” W h e n a s so c ia te d w ith th e g o d d e s s I n a n n a /I s ta r .” h as also b e e n c o n n e c te d w ith h e r w a rlik e c h a r a c te r . CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS o f a h u m a n so u l f r o m its fa lle n state to p e rfe c tio n . D I ) . 93 Langdon 1915. as in M t 5 :3 0 . see a lso Landsberger 1 960. e .k e 4.2 6 : E r e s k ig a l. E n k id u . the sin fu l a s p e c t o f Ista r (= th e falle n soul) (see th e c o m m e n t fo r lin es 9 1 .” A c c o rd in g to the le x ic a l s e rie s .v . “p la y .. e-se-m e-in k i .” o r “d a n c e ” is u s e d as a re fe re n c e to h e r w a rrio r a s p e c t. th e w o rd k e p p u .” I n a n n a /I s ta r ’s tw o -s id e d n a tu re is a lso p r e s e n t in th e p la q u e o f th e Q u e e n o f the N igh t: th e u p p e r p art b e in g c e le s tia l/p u r e an d th e lo w e r p a r t d e m o n ic /im p u re (see th e c o m m e n t fo r lin e 10). P a rp o la has s u g g e s te d th a t E re s k ig a l is. me-lul-tu in the lex ica l series Diri (diri d ir siaku = [w]atru) IV 272f. n.g . as the h e r o in e o f th e b a ttle g ro u n d . and X C II.. 119 and X C V I-V II. 89 S ee Parpola 1997a. P a r p o la has s u g g e s te d th a t the ta s k o f th e a s sin n u w as to act as a “ h e lp e r ” o f th e n o v ic e s o f I s t a r ’s c u lt.v . a n d in tro d u c in g th e m to th e d o c trin e o f th e a s c e n t o f the so u l. N E . C A D M /2. a n d as a c o n s e q u e n c e . s.

9 6 7 ).d a m ) .3 5 3 ) the nature o f Istar’s diaphanous robe is depicted more clearly. and fin ally. “to m a k e b e n d . Parpola 1997a. On seal 778 (B oston 9 3 . A ll three o f these seals com e from the area o f Syria and P alestine. w h o se sim ilarity to In a n n a / I s ta r is u n q u e s tio n a b le 99 H e k a te . h e h ad to tu rn his soul to w a rd s th e n o etic r e a lm b y c o n tro llin g o r e v e n d e n y in g the b o d y ’s n eed s in o rd e r to r e d e e m his so ul. to I n a n n a ’s d an ce (e s e m e n din an - n a -k e 4) ! ”95 R e c e n tly . D a ile y has a rg u e d th a t th e o ld in te rp re ta tio n fo r k e p p u as a s k ip p in g ro p e w as b a s e d on a m is in te r p re ta tio n o f a g ly p tic scen e. as she w as the virgin g od d ess.”98 w h ic h a p p ro p ria te ly d e s c rib e s m o tio n th a t a “ w h ip p in g to p ” w o u ld m a k e . Hogarth 1914.97 T h e w o rd k e p p u u s u a lly o c c u rs w ith the v erb s u ta k p u (cf. sin ce as a h eaven ly god dess she w as H ekate. N o. also through personal com m unication with S. Porada 1 948. 49. the tra n s c e n d e n t s u p re m e G o d . T h is k in d o f w h irlin g o b ject is r e m in is c e n t o f a sp ecial iy n x .100 T h e m ain g o al o f C h a ld e a n th e u rg y w as the u n ific a tio n (a n a g o g e ) o f m a n ’s soul w ith the d iv in e . 93 C D A . 96 D ailey 2 000. and caused the disk to spin (lie s Johnston 1990. o v e r w h o m she h a d c o n tro l.. S. 80. 102 The Tynx-wheel was a m agical d ev ice turned rapidly by the theurgist in order to produce a w hirling m ovem ent and a w histling sound. 2. R e p e a te d p ra c tic e w as in te n d e d to g ain w is d o m an d p u rify th e soul for its e v e n tu a l r e le a s e fro m fa te w h e n the th e u r g is t ’s b o d y d i e d . and as an earthly goddess (P h ysis) she w as the m istress o f the bad dem ons. k e p p u m ay b e a “ w h ip (p in g ) to p .. 97 E xam ples o f the seals o f the naked god dess unveiling h erself can be found in C ollon 1987. kep u S t). th u s u n v e ilin g h e r n u d ity . Then the string w as tied in a w ay that it form ed a loop . D o n o t lift y o u r arm to th e s m itin g o f w e a p o n s . 101 lie s Johnston 1990. sto red in H e k a te . i. 130. the b o r d e r o f h e r d ia p h a n o u s ro b e. Plate B 7 1:10. 176-180. lie s Johnston 1990). D a iley . 501. 170. s. 101 W h e n th e th e u rg is t d e s ire d to sen d his soul u p w a rd s in a u n ifie d sta te . 155. cf. T h e iy n g e s . 95 ETCSL: The Exploits o f Ninurta. associated with lim in al p laces. in fa c t. w as a d o p te d as the P la to n ic C o s m ic S o u l by th e C h a ld e a n th e u rg ic a l sy stem . a sp in n in g top la sh e d into fa ste r g y ra tio n s w ith a c o rd .v. 99 Hekate shared many traits w ith Inanna/Istar. 203) and 777 (Pierpoint Morgan Library. th e G r e e k c h th o n ic g o d d e s s. 105. 94 ETCSL: Enmerkar a n d the L o rd o f Aratta. the goddess o f the m oon. n. She is d e p ic te d lifting up b o th frin g e s o f h e r ro b e . seal 777 to the period o f 2 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 B C E . to m a k e w h irl a r o u n d . The theurgist either increased or relaxed the ten sion o f the tw o sides o f the loop . the m ediator b etw een m en and god s. for w hich I am grateful. n.” i. fo r w h ic h the C h a ld e a n O ra cles s e rv e d as s a c re d l i te r a tu r e .96 T h e m is in te rp re ta tio n c a m e fro m seals w h e re th e n a k e d g o d d e s s ho ld s o u t h e r arm s an d a r o p e -lik e th re a d g o es d o w n f ro m h e r h a n d s . to the fe stiv a l o f th e y o u n g m e n .w h e e l 102 to in v o k e H e k a te an d th e n o e tic d e m o n s k n o w n as “ iy n g e s ” (sg. Speleers 1917. iy n x ). 9 3 -9 5 ). h o w e v e r . T h e th re a d lo o k s lik e a sk ip p in g ro p e . H e also h ad to p e r f o r m ritu a listic acts such as u sin g the iy n x . the m istress o f good dem ons (“iynges”).” w hich is com parable to the d ivision betw een Inanna/Istar and E reskigal (see Lapinkivi 1994. the “d o g s. kepu. do n o t v e n tu re a g a in to a b attle as te rrib le as th at. the co sm ic sou l. N ew York. In s te a d . S eals 77 6 and 778 are dated to the period o f 2 0 0 0 -1 5 0 0 B C E . the m other o f the w orld .e . 89..e . w h ile the b o d y w as still alive. su ch as is s h o w n in a c tio n on a m u ra l s c u lp tu re o f th e ea rly first m ille n n iu m at C a r c h e m is h “. 50 . sea ls 7 7 6 (B russels O. ib id . C ollon also com m ents on the m isinterpretation o f the robe.w h eel o f the g o d d e s s H e k a te . w ere c o n c e iv e d by the s u p re m e G o d to act as m e d ia to rs b e tw e e n th e w o rld s o f g o d s an d m e n . c f.”94 an d L u g a l-e (= the E x p lo its o f N in u r ta ) 135-137 says: “B u t L o rd . cf. A string or thong w as passed first through one and then through the other o f the tw o h oles pierced in the m iddle o f a four-spdked disk (the disk cou ld also have serrated ed g es). 100 lie s Johnston 1990. b u t it is. IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION I n a n n a (din a n n a u r-s a g m e s a h a r-ra -k e 4 sag e s e m e n din a n n a d i. she w as associated w ith both the upper and the low er w orlds.

the “ S tr if e ” o f the A g u s a ja . 108 STC (= K in g.. M a r d u k ’s w o rd “ ro ils a s u rr a k k u (= A p s u ) ” (4 R 26 no . 3 0 6 -3 1 7 . b o th o f th e m n eed an eq u al c o u n te r p a rt to guid e th e m to the rig h t p a th . th en . T h e re is a sim ila r im a g e in a h y m n to M a rd u k . n a m e ly S a ltu .sur. 108 A p s u . her f a t h e r . had to be c a lm e d d o w n by c re a tin g a m o n s tr o u s c a r ic a tu re o f h e r .104 It is in te re s tin g th a t in th e O ld B a b y lo n ia n A g u s a ja -h y m n .110 A c c o r d in g to the B a b y lo n ia n E p ic o f C r e a tio n (E n u m a e lis ) w h e n E a k ille d A p s u (p e rs o n ific a tio n o f th e fre s h s u b te r r a n e a n w a te rs ).tus. “ S trif e . 4 :5 1 -5 2 e. 4 : 5 1 . the k u r g a rr a (= a s s in n u ) an d th e g a la tu rra . 109A lth o u g h A p su is n o t e x p lic itly d e s c rib e d as a p la c e w h e re d ead p eo p le liv e d . also k n o w n as E a a n d S a ltu . s. in th is c o n te x t. E n k i/E a .g . CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A L Y SIS d e liv e r in g in fo r m a tio n an d g u id a n c e to th e u rg is ts w ith the a s c e n sio n o f th eir s o u ls . g a s u . in the incantation series Utukku Lemnutu. an a s p e c t w h ic h sh e te rrib ly m isu s e d and th e r e fo r e . he s e t up his h o m e on A p s u ’s b o d y . 37.” A lth o u g h I n a n n a ’s a s p e c t o f s tirrin g up the w aters o f A p su in fro n t o f E a is n o t m e n tio n e d e l s e w h e r e . to d a n c e ”) in th e streets. a s s o c ia te d w ith I s t a r ’s w arlik e a s p e c t as A g u s a ja . 106 F oster 1977.” 105 It is e v id e n t th a t E a ’s c r e a tio n . 108.h i a. w h e re G ilg a m e s m is b e h a v e s in a sim ilar fa sh io n as I s ta r in th e A g u s a ja . I n a n n a ’s tw o r e s c u e r s in the S u m erian D e s c e n t.ganzer. and it w as seen as a place in h a b ite d by th e m a le v o le n t s p ir its . 28:8-9.106 T h e la s t p a rt o f lin e 27 re a d s “ (Ista r) w h o ro ils the A p su in f ro n t o f E a . thus im ita tin g the m o v e m e n t and th e so u n d o f th e iy n g e s t h e m s e l v e s . ”to w h ir l. as S a ltu o f th e h y m n . w h o se n a m e w as 103 Ib id. 104 Ibid. 194-197. T ablet 12.em dasal.lu. It h a s b e e n a rg u e d by S. T h e r e f o r e .v. see H orow itz 1 998. 11° E . 107 th e im a g e c o u ld partly be u se d h e r e to e m p h a s iz e th e an x ie ty o f the g o d d e s s (b u t see b e l o w ) . are c re a te d fro m the d irt u n d e r E a ’s fin g e rn a ils (see th e c o m m e n t fo r li n e s j9 1 . w h e re M a r d u k ’s ro a r “ro ils th e A p s u ” (S T C I 2 0 5 :9 ). B y c o m p a r is o n . 110:V 2 3 -2 8 . R e m a r k a b ly .103 T h e iy n x . 1°9 C A D A /2 . is th e fe m a le e q u iv a le n t o f E n k id u o f the G ilg a m e s E p ic .h y m n is th e e q u iv a le n t o f th e a s sin n u o r E n k id u . For a com prehensive o v erv iew o f A psu.lu . 108:11 1-2. G roneberg 1981. 107 R einer 1985.” T h e w h irlin g d a n c e is . The Seven T able ts o f C reation ) I 2 0 5 :9 a-na u-ta-az-zu-mi-su id -dal-la-hu a p -su -u “the A psu is roiled by his (M arduk’s) roaring. 51 .” see H orow itz 1998. 8 9 . 3 3 4 -3 4 7 . E nki/E a’s “abode is the place o f the N etherw orld (ki.h y m n .bi ab. th e f irs t c re a tu re and the lo v e r o f T ia m a t (p e rs o n ific a - tio n o f th e s a lt w a te r s ) . it is o c c a s io n a lly a s s o c ia te d w ith th e N e th e r w o rld . 3 1 0 -3 1 1 . 342). th e re a lm o f th e g o d o f w is d o m . P a rp o la th at E n k i d u ’s role to w a rd s G ilg a m e s is th e e q u iv a le n t o f th e a s sin n u o f the D e s c e n t (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 14-24 an d 9 1 -9 2 ).” 4R 26 no. cf.am // m u-sab-su a -sar er -se -tim -m a )” (G eller 1980. see also H orow itz 1998.w h e e l a ttra c te d H e k a te and the d em o n s by its w h irlin g m o v e m e n t a n d its w h irrin g s o u n d ..9 2 ). 80.na ki. w as the co sm ic s w e e t-w a te r o c e a n a n d a s u b te r r a n e a n s o u rc e o f fre sh w a te r a n d hence l i f e . a n d in a b ilin g u a l p a ra lle l. 105 F oster 1977. I s t a r ’s m o v e m e n t is d e s c rib e d as w h irlin g : “ she w h irls aro u n d g o d s a n d k in g s in h e r m a n lin e s s ” (Hi u s a r r i ig a s z ik r u tu s s a ) . T h e p e o p le w ere a d v is e d to “ s o o th e ” th e g o d d e s s a n n u a lly b y im ita tin g h e r w ith a “ w h irlin g d a n c e (gustu. 102. 79-84. G roneberg 1 981. S a ltu .n e. 110. apsu . 104.5 2 ) .lu // a -m at dm arduk a-sur'-ra-ak-ku i-dal-la-a h “the word o f Marduk roils asurrakku‫׳‬..an.

” i.” a n d zu . v o l. the g o d o f w is d o m . 9 2 . A p a ra lle l o f the A p s u . 7‫ ״‬Parpola 1993. S e fir a h ) fo rm in g th e S efiro tic T re e . line 149. 9 4 . 17. th e “ A b z u T e m p le . n. 113 R einer 1958. see Andrae 1923. P a r p o la h as s u g g e s te d th a t E n S o f c o rre s p o n d s to th e A s sy ria n go d A s su r. w ith d ra w a l o f se n se s . T h e c h u rn in g o f this m ilk y o c e a n sy m b o liz e s m a n ’s s p iritu a l a tte m p t to gain im m o rta lity th ro u g h c o n c e n tra tio n o f m in d . as e x e m p lifie d by th e p e rs o n a l n a m e G a b b u . 3 .2 2 8 -2 7 7 . in so m e S e firo tic d ia g ra m s . p is.” calls to m in d th e im a g e o f the “ C h u rn in g o f th e M ilk O c e a n ” (S a m u d r a m a n th a n ) in H in d u is m . 119 Parpola 1993. is fo u n d in later J e w ish m y s tic is m . n. dated 7 44/3 B C E . lo rd o f all g o d s .115 S. and 102. nos. d e n ia l o f m a te r ia lis m . n. 152.7 7 for the im pression).” 111 T h e S u m e ria n te rm fo r A p s u w as A b z u .117 C o r r e s p o n d in g to th e K a b b a lis tic S e firo tic T re e (T ree o f L ife ). in the reig n o f T u k u lti.” E n S o f is only k n o w n th ro u g h th e lig hts s p rin g in g f ro m H im . 414f). th ro u g h w h ic h the tra n s c e n d e n t G o d m a n ife s ts H im s e lf . 119 A c c o r d in g ly . 7 2. Tablet II. 101. T h e re the “M ilk O c e a n ” is a sy m b o l fo r the m in d o r th e h u m a n c o n s c io u s n e s s .. lite ra lly .e. 8‫ ״‬A seal im pression on a text KAJ 144 dated in the eponym y o f Tukulti-Ninurta (1243 B C E . w h ic h in tu rn e m a n a te th e lig h t f u rth e r th ro u g h o u t the w o r ld . 114 G eorge 1991b.” 121 T h e se e m a n a tio n s in tu rn f o rm e d an o r g a n iz e d s y ste m o f h y p o s ta tiz e d d iv in e p o w e rs ( c o rre s p o n d - in g to th e S e fir o t a n d to th e G n o s tic P le r o m a as w e ll). a n d S A A 3 3 5 :4 6 . 52 . 24. nos. and the w all paintings o f K ar-Tukulti-Ninurta (ib id .. A B R T I 83. L X X X I. 67 and n. ‘p o u r e d o u t .e. n. there was a T re e o f L ife in A s s y ria . 448f. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION in this w ay tra n s fe rre d to E a ’s d w e llin g p la c e . is called th e “ G re a t L ig h t o f A p s u . 176. w h o “ g re w u p in the A p s u . “ w is d o m ” (zu = n e m e q u = “ w is d o m ” ). 94 citing C raig. w h ich h ad e m e r g e d a lre a d y in th e M id d le A s sy ria n p e r io d . n. w h o w as r e p re s e n te d as a w in g e d so lar d isc h o v e rin g o v e r th e T r e e . 118As a sy m b o l o f the d iv in e w o rld o rd e r. H alevi 1972. See Parpola 1997a. For the E nglish translation o f the Epic o f Creation (Enuma e l is ). k in g o f h e a v e n and e a rth . 24. 184-185. 115 Parpola 1993.N in u rta I . n. 9 4 . th e o n e w h o stirs th e “ o c e a n o f w is d o m . 2 f). 5 5 . n. w h o e m a n a te d (sa p a k u . is u n d e rs to o d as the b o u n d le s s “ o c e a n o f lig h t. th ro u g h th e S e fir o t (sg.ila n i-A s s u r “A s s u r is the to tality o f g o d s . see D ailey 2 0 0 0 . ’ or ‘c r e a t e d ’) the s u p e rn a l an d in fe rn a l g o d s an d f a sh io n e d th e v au lts o f h e a v e n an d e a r th . 112 Parpola 2 000. Parpola 2 0 0 0 . an “ o c e a n . w h ic h can be e x p la in e d as a c o m p o u n d o f ab. w h ic h th e n re su lts in th e “ o c e a n o f w is d o m . E a ’s te m p le at E rid u w as k n o w n as E . each go d re p re s e n tin g 111 B lack and Green 1992. M oortgat 1 9 4 2 . th e c o n c e a le d G o d h e a d .. n. w h e re a s E a .A b z u .” 116 F u r th e r .” 114 I s t a r ’s e p ith e t in the D e s c e n t . 16. th e T ree d e p ic te d the g re a t g o d s o f A s s y r ia as the p o w e rs a n d asp ects o f th e g o d A s s u r. c o n tro l o f d e s ir e s . th e “o n e w h o ro ils the A p s u . 120 A s s u r w as th e su m to tal o f all the g o d s. and p ra c tic e o f a s c e tis m (c o m p a re w ith the C h a ld e a n th e u r g is t ’s a c tio n s m e n tio n e d ea rlie r). the o c e a n o f w is d o m and lig h t. w as the fa th e r o f th e g o d s. tw o ivories from the palace o f Tukulti-Ninurta in Assur (K epinski 1982. 121 The nam e appears in BaM 24 (1993) 2 6 2 no. 176. 18:7 and 18. E n S o f is re p re s e n te d b y a c irc le h o v e rin g o v e r th e T r e e . 120 P once 1973. i. 96. A s s u r is also sa id to be “ d re s s e d in w a te r ” in S A A 3 3 4 :5 5 . 27.” 112 A p s u ’s e p ith e t in S u r p u II 1 4 9 113 is the “ h o m e o f w is d o m ” ( b it n e m e q i ) . w h e re E n S o f. 116 Parpola 1993. Idel1988. 32.

5 5 1 . A c c o rd in g ly . lin e 27 c o u ld h a v e tw o in te rp re ta tio n s . 127 L apinkivi 2004.122 In a d d itio n . th e g o d d e s s I n a n n a /I s ta r w a s th e so u l. th e F a th e r . the o c e a n o f w is d o m . so m e o f th e D u m u z i. an d . 123 A c c o rd - in g ly . the k in g is d e p ic te d as ta k in g the p la c e o f th e tre e b e tw e e n the w in g e d g e n ie s . w as u se d b y th e C h a ld e a n th e u r g is ts to attra c t H e k a te and the iyn g es to d isc lo s e in fo r m a tio n (w isd o m ) fo r th e a s c e n sio n o f th e ir s o u ls .I n a n n a lo v e so ng s p e r ta in in g to the ( S u m e ria n ) s a c re d m a r ria g e can be in te rp r e te d as th e s o u l ’s u n io n w ith the d iv in e. are sta te m e n ts o f her irr ita te d state o f m in d and a n g e r at the g ate o f th e N e th e rw o rld . 4. th e k in g . T o s u m u p . as an id eal c r e a te d a fte r th e im a g e o f G o d . the f irs t d e s c rip tio n c o u ld re fe r to h e r w a rlik e a s p e c t.126 T h e F a th e r is th e r e fo r e c o m p a r a b le to A s s u r o r to th e E n Sof. it is Ista r h e r s e lf th at is th e s o u l. th e se d e s c rip tio n s c o u ld also re fe r to g a in in g w is d o m .6 0 . w h e re the “ u n k n o w n G o d ” e x iste d b e y o n d all th at is v isib le or s e n s ib le .” h e is d e s c rib e d as “r o o t o f the a ll. o f c o u r s e . S im ila rly . the w h irlin g d a n c e a n d w h irlin g k e p p u . fig . is d e s c rib e d u s in g the im a g e o f the “ r o o t. an d th e s p in n in g an d w h irlin g c o u ld h a v e b een a w a y to re a c h th is in fo r m a tio n by g e ttin g in c o n ta c t w ith In a n n a /Is ta r. th e D iv in e A n th r o p o s c o r re s p o n d s to the fo rm o f th e e a rth ly m an . and as m e n tio n e d e a r lie r. T h e e a s ie st e x p la n a tio n is. In this c a se . T h e re f o re .e. F o r in s ta n c e . b y w h ic h th e P le r o m a is m e a n t. F irs t o f all.to y s w o u ld m a k e sen se i f the p e o p le d a n c in g and u s in g th e se s p in n in g d e v ic e s w e re try in g to g e t in c o n ta c t w ith th e g o d d e s s . 125 R obinson 1 9 8 8 .s a v i o r . 122 P once 1973. 53 . th e fa c t th a t the A s sy ria n kin g w as the p e rs o n ific a tio n o f th e T re e can be v e r ifie d b y te x tu a l e v id e n c e as w ell as b y ic o n o g ra p h y : on th e re lie fs fro m th e p a la c e o f A s s u rn a s irp a l II (8 8 3 -8 5 9 BCE). w h o w as also th e p a r a g o n o f th e ir sou l. in c o r p o ra tin g the P le r o m a (“ F u lln e s s ” ) o f an g els and o th e r h e a v e n ly b e in g s . F o r c o m p a r is o n . by its v e ry n a m e . b ra n c h e s an d fru its. i.4 3 . 31. 167. and n. She is a n x io u s to g et in . A p s u is. 124 Parpola 1993. 134ff.127 A s o u l ’s u n io n w ith the d iv in e is n o t p o s sib le w ith o u t th e n e e d e d w is d o m . 123 S ch olem 1 9 9 1 . an d as the o n e w h o ro ils A p s u .1 5 . O n th e o th e r h a n d . w h o . 126 Rudolph 1 9 8 7 . w a s h er b r id e g r o o m . o r the p rim a l b e g in n in g . CO M M EN TARY A N D A N A LY SIS a lim b o f th e in v is ib le g o d (A ssu r) and to g e th e r c o n s titu tin g h is m a n ife s t b o d y . in th e T rip a rtite T ra c ta te (N H C 1. as in th e A g u s a ja H y m n m e n tio n e d e a rlie r. b e in g the M o n a d . It h as b e e n arg u ed e ls e w h e re th at.6 4 . e a c h o f the S e fir o t is th o u g h t to re p re s e n t a lim b o f G o d .” w h ic h b rin g s fo rth tre e s . In the D e s c e n t.2 8 ) 125 G o d . a c o p y o f the d iv in e p a tte rn . w h ir lin g a n d w h ir rin g . thus c o m p ris e s the ten S efiro t. an d p r e p a re d to d o so v io le n tly . th e iy n x -w h e e l. if one u n d e r s ta n d s the w h irlin g m o v e m e n t m e n tio n e d in th e h y m n a s s o c ia te d w ith h e r d e s tr u c tiv e asp e c t. th e p a r a lle l o f the w h irlin g w h ip p in g to p . th a t I s ta r as the h o ld e r o f th e g re a t kep p u (w h ip p in g to p s). sin ce she th re aten s to b r e a k d o w n the d o o r if sh e is d e n ie d e n tr a n c e . w h e re a s D u m u z i. the G n o s tic w as an im a g e o f G o d . th e D iv in e A n t h r o p o s . p e rh a p s by fa llin g in to tra n c e . in J e w is h m y stic is m .124 A n o th e r p a ra lle l to b o th th e A s s y ria n a n d the S e firo tic T rees o c c u r re d in G n o s is .

Lines 28-30: W h e n E re s k ig a l h ears th a t h e r s is te r is try in g to e n te r h e r r e a lm . n a p a r d u . re a c ts e x a c tly the sam e w ay w h e n fin d in g o u t th a t N e rg a l. is no w s u p p o se d to fe e l p ity f o r th e d e a d p e o p le .” E. she s a rcasti- cally ask s w h e th e r s h e . are tra n sla te d as q u e s tio n s . T h e re f o re . she is d e s c rib e d as h o ld in g the ke p p u a n d stirrin g the o c e a n o f w isd o m . T h e sam e s p e e c h by E re s k ig a l o c c u rs in p a rt in th e m y th o f N e r g a l a n d E r e s k ig a l (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 14-24 ).” In o th e r w o rd s . “ I w ish I w e p t” (b o th tra n sla tio n s are eq u ally p o s sib le w ith the p re c a tiv e ). s. th e m in is te r o f th e N e th e r w o rld (see th e c o m m e n t fo r lines 6 6 -7 5 ). 169-170. Is ta r has d e c id e d to p a y h e r a “ f rie n d ly ” v isit. s. o r a tro u g h for w a te r o r fo r b e e r . a fter N e rg a l has a rriv e d 128 So also D ailey 2 0 0 0 . N a m ta r . and she h e r s e lf h as alre a d y b e c o m e a n g ry o r frig h te n e d at h e a rin g o f I s t a r ’s arriv al. w h e re In an - n a. u s in g th e p re c a tiv e . 131 Translation after D ailey 2 000. stan d s at the o u te r g ate o f the u n d e r w o r ld . a n d c h ild re n . 279): “W h a t h as p ro m p te d h e r h e a rt (th at she c o m es) to m e .v. It c o u ld be p o s sib le th a t E r e s k i g a l ’s q u e s tio n e ch o es th e S u m e ria n v e rsio n . w ho d ie d b e f o re th e ir t i m e . 53 9 ) e x p la in s th e w o rd to m e a n a ty p e o f “ b o w l (o f sto n e o r m e ta l). h av e b e e n ta k e n as d e c la ra tiv e se n te n c e s (“ I e a t clay fo r b r e a d ” ).” thus u n d e rs ta n d in g th e w o rd k u n in n u (k u n ln u ) as a ty p e o f u n id e n tifie d p la n t.o ff ta m a ris k . I f th e se th re e lin es are tra n s la te d as q u e s tio n s . 130 So also R einer 1985. she b e c o m e s so a n g ry or f rig h te n e d th a t “ h e r face tu rn e d pale as a c u t. also k n o w n as E rra . is said to co m e to p ay h e r re sp e c ts on the d e a th o f E r e s k i g a l’s h u s b a n d . o u t o f fe a r o f I s t a r ’s a c tio n s. w ith “ s h o u ld . k u n in n u .129 Lines 31-36: T h is p a s sa g e b e g in s w ith E r e s k i g a l ’s q u e s tio n o f I s t a r ’s re a so n f o r a rriv in g in th e N e th e r w o rld . th e n m a y b e E r e s k ig a l. 129 D ailey 2 0 0 0 . th e n E r e s k ig a l is re a lly in d iffe re n t to the u n f o rtu n a te fates o f th o se n o w re sid in g u n d e r h e r ru le . If.” o r as w is h e s . T h e re . w h a t has p u t h e r in a m o o d so frie n d ly to w a r d m e ? ” In o th e r w o rd s . w o m e n . h o w e v e r . the lines are tra n s la te d as w is h e s. T h e C A D (K .p la n t. h e r lips tu rn e d b la c k as the rim o f th e b o w l. E r e s k ig a l ’s q u e s tio n is sarcastic: she u n d e r s ta n d s th at I s ta r has n o t arriv e d fo r a frie n d ly v isit. on to p o f e v e ry th in g e lse . 169. T h e n e x t tw o lin es (3 2 -3 3 ). 7.” T h e c h o ic e o f tra n sla tin g th e last th re e lines as q u e s tio n s . e a tin g clay an d d rin k in g m u d d y w a te r.v. is s h o w in g so m e re m o rs e for th e y o u n g m e n . 161. a ffe c t the u n d e rs ta n d in g o f the p a s s a g e . 38-39. n.” 128 In th e m y th N e r g a l a n d E r e s k ig a l (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 1 4 -24 ).130 I b e lie v e th at E re s k ig a l c o n tin u e s h e r s p e e c h in a sa rc a stic m a n n e r: e v e n th o u g h she d w e lls in h o rrib le c o n d itio n s . IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION th e r e fo r e . the co at o f b itu m e n on th e rim m a d e th e v essel lo o k “ b la c k - l ip p e d . T h e fo llo w in g th re e lin es (3 4 -3 6 ). T h e tra n sla tio n o f lin e 31 fo llo w s th e sam e id ea as the tra n s la tio n in th e C A D ( N / l . o fte n m a d e o f b itu m e n -c o a te d r e e d s . “ S h o u ld I w e e p . u sin g the p r e s e n t te n s e . a lth o u g h actin g a g g re ss iv e ly an d w ith an u lte rio r m o tiv e . R e in e r tra n sla te s the last lin e as “h e r lips tu rn e d b la c k as a k u n ln u . 54 .

he is still o n ly E r e s k i g a l ’s u n d e rlin g . has p o in te d out th a t the a rc h a e o - lo g ic a l f in d s d o n o t s u p p o rt th is v ie w . h o w e v e r . T h e M e s o p o ta m ia n s b e lie v e d th a t th ere w as a sp ecial g ro u p o f d e m o n ic b e in g s . B y asking the la st th re e rh e to ric a l q u e s tio n s o f h e r o w n b e h a v io r she w an ts to p o in t o u t that sh e.” S in ce in th e M id d le B a b y lo n ia n p e r io d th e te r m Ig ig u c a m e to m e a n th e g od s o f h e a v e n . w h e re th e tra n s la tio n u n d e r s ta n d s th a t she d o es d rin k th e w a te r w ith the A n u n n a k i! ). an d th e fe m a le lilitu an d a r d a t-lili. L ilu ' s f e m a le e q u iv a le n t w a s th e lilitu . Jacobsen 1976. T h is gro up w as f o rm e d o f the m a le lilu . th e r e fe re n c e to th e y o u n g m e n . Nor should you desire to do heroic deeds. B ottero 1 980. B lack and Green 1992.) come up and sit on the throne of the royal dais? You. (What. E r e s k ig a l b e g in s a ra th e r e n ig m a tic s p e e c h to h e r m i n i s t e r : 131 My dear Namtar. K a tz . in c a p a b le o f n o rm a l sex u al activ ity . the “ m a id e n lilu ‫ ) ״‬w as a fru s tra te d b r id e . the “ A n u n n a k k u o f h e a v e n an d e a r th . I s t a r ’s u n d re s s in g h a s in flu e n c e d th e sch o l- arly v ie w th a t the a n c ie n t M e s o p o ta m ia n s v ie w e d th e d ead as a rriv in g in the N e th e r w o r ld n a k e d . 55 . 1890. th ere w e re a m u ltitu d e o f g o d s .134 D . an d w as e s p e c ia lly d a n g e ro u s to p re g n a n t w o m e n and in fa n ts. T h e lilu h a u n te d d e s e rts and o p en c o u n tr y . 3 3 -3 4 .132 O b v io u s ly . CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS at the o u te r g ate o f th e N e th e r w o rld . w o m e n . th e se d e m o n s w e re th o u g h t to slip in th ro u g h w in d o w s to lo o k fo r v ic tim s to fill the ro le o f h u s b a n d s a n d w iv es w h o m th e y h a d n e v e r h a d . to o . perform the judgments of the broad Earth? Should I go up to the heaven of Anu my father? Should I eat the bread o f the Anunnaki? Should I drink the water of the Anunnaki?' Go and bring the god [into my presence]! It is o b v io u s th a t also h e re E r e s k i g a l ’s w o rd s are m e a n t to be s a rc a s tic . 134 Kramer 1960. f o rm e d o f p e o p le w h o d ie d u n m a rrie d . a n d w ith A n /A n u as th e ir h e a d . T h e s e u n f o rtu n a te y o u n g p e o p le th en fo rm e d th e n e x t g e n e ra tio n o f th e lilu -g r o u p . 118.lili (lit. th a t is. 65. sin ce the d e a d se e m to h a v e b e e n b u rie d 132 Scurlock 1995. 57. C o n s e q u e n tly . A c c o r d in g to th e E p ic o f C rea tio n . an d c a rry th e m o f f to an e a rly d e a th . n eed s to stic k to h e r o w n statu s (b u t see the p a ra lle l lines o f the D e s c e n t. m e n tio n e d in line 32. w e re a g ro u p o f god s w h o o r ig in a lly c o n s titu te d a g ro u p n o t d if f e r e n tia te d b y th e ir in d iv id u a l n a m e s . T h e A n u n n a ( k i) . 133 Line 38: T h e “ a n c ie n t r it e s ” m e n tio n e d h e re m u st re fer to the p a s s a g e th a t f o llo w s . you should not seek Ellil-power. A p p a re n tly she w a rn s N a m ta r n o t to e le v a te h im s e lf to too h ig h a ran k: e v e n th o u g h a ll th e o th e r g o d s ( e x c e p t N e rg a l) re s p e c te d h im as th e ir e q u a l at the b a n q u e t. 34. th e te rm A n u n n a k i (o r th e A n u n n a ) w a s tr a n s f e rr e d to m e a n th e god s o f e arth (k i) an d the N e t h e r w o r l d . th e u n d r e s s in g o f Is ta r w h e n she e n te rs th ro u g h e a c h g a te o f the N e th e r w o rld . and th e in fa n t(s ) w h o d ie d b e f o re th e ir tim e re fe r to the h o rrif y in g fate o f b e in g s n a tc h e d a w a y b y th e d e m o n s. 133 B lack and Green 1992. In g e n e ra l. w h e re a s the a r d a t. and N a m ta r h as go ne to r e c o g n iz e the v isito r a n d th e n c o m e to re p o rt to E re s k ig a l o f h e r g u e s t ’s id e n tity .

h a s c a u s e d his d e a th . an d th e u n d re s s in g is ap p lie d o n ly to In a n n a /Is ta r. if th e re w ere no real “r ite s ” to u n d re ss the d e a d or to p ro h ib it c lo th in g in th e N e th e r w o rld . C o llo n h as s u g g e ste d th a t.k e 4) re fe r to k n o w in g th e p ro p e r o ffe rin g s th a t th e d e a d k in g sh o u ld g iv e to d iff e r e n t d eities w h ile he d e s c e n d s to the N e t h e r w o r l d . E n k id u a n d the N e th e r - w o r ld (1 9 9 -2 0 4 ). 11. 136 Katz 1995. 135 an d th e re is no re a s o n w hy they w o u ld b e s trip p e d n a k e d b e fo re b u r i a l . T h u s it seem s th a t th e d e c e a s e d re ta in e d h is /h e r statu s e v e n a fte r d e a t h . In o th e r w o rd s.a fa c t th at is c e rta in ly true w ith the A k k a d ia n v e rsio n as w ell .4 4 .139 D e s p ite th e fa c t th a t Is ta r is aliv e an d n o t d e a d . K a tz sees th at th e se “ r ite s ” h a v e b e e n c r e a te d fo r the o c c a s io n . In a d d itio n . 1 6 3 5 -1645. the version from Susa. It w as also c o m m o n to d e p ic t I n a n n a /Is ta r fu lly n u d e o r n u d e fro m th e w a is t d o w n . a n d no lin en is s p re a d o v e r h e r p u re b r e a s t. e . h o w e v e r .th e u n d re ss in g is o b v io u sly d o n e in o rd e r to m a k e the g o d d e ss o f h e a v e n p o w e r le s s . 135 Cf. she is tre a te d a c c o rd in g to th e rites o f th e N e th e rw o rld in th e c a s e w h e n o ffe rin g s a re n o t m a d e . 138 C ollon 2 0 0 5 . 2 21-223. F irs t o f a ll. and th e re fo re o rd e re d h e r to be strip p e d o f h e r c lo th e s .r a . k n o w n to the a u d ie n c e f a m ilia r w ith th e S u m e ria n v er- sion. In o th e r w o r d s .” w h ic h m e a n s th a t the u p p e r p a rt o f h e r b o d y w as n o t c lo th e d . se e . I n a n n a c la im s she w a n ts to v isit h e r sister in o rd e r to p a y h e r re sp e c ts on G u g a l a n n a ’s d e a th . for jew elry found in the tom bs. it c o u ld be o n e o f the u n d e rly in g th e m e s . Forest 1983. p e rh a p s she d id n o t w a n t to b e u p s ta g e d by h e r fu lly c lo th e d s is te r. A lth o u g h clo th es are m a d e o f p e ris h a b le m a te ria ls and are th e re fo re n o t e a s ily id e n tifie d . she is still on h e r w ay to th e r e a lm o f th e d e a d . in the S u m e ria n D e s c e n t. !ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION c lo th e d and w ith th e ir p e rso n a l b e lo n g in g s .138 S trictly sp e a k in g . D . in the D e a th o f U r -N a m m u the rites o f the N e th e r w o rld (g a rz a k u r . S ince Ista r has no in te n tio n o f d o in g so. sin ce E r e s k ig a l is d e s c rib e d as b e in g n a k e d in b o th the G ilg a m e s E p ic (X II 2 8 -3 0 and 4 7 -4 9 ) an d in the S u m e ria n G ilg a m e s. 84-137. it is u n d e rs ta n d a b le th a t E re s k ig a l is n o t very w e lc o m in g (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 14-24). 136 T h e re f o re . 137 Katz 1 9 9 5 . th e “ a n c ie n t r ite s ” m ay r e fe r to the m is tre a tm e n t o f Istar. A lth o u g h th e re is n o m e n tio n o f any fu n e ra l in the A k k a d ia n v e rsio n . 11. In fe a r o f lo sin g h e r s ta tu s . such as je w e lr y . a n d it is likely th a t this k in d o f v isit w o u ld r e q u ire o ffe rin g s o f som e k in d .2 2 1 -2 2 8 . is still v e ry m u c h a l i v e . e x c a v a to rs h a v e f o u n d o th e r p e rs o n a l o b je c ts s y m b o liz in g th e id e n tity and so cial status o f the d e c e a s e d . th e re fe re n c e s to E r e s k ig a l say only that “h e r p u re sh o u l- d ers are n o t c o v e re d w ith a g a rm e n t. w h ich m e a n s th a t e v e n p a rtia l n u d ity w as no real re a so n fo r E re s k ig a l to c o m p e l I n a n n a /Is ta r to g e t u n d re ss e d . 56 . S in ce the S u m e ria n D e s c e n t e q u a te s the d iv in e p o w e rs an d th e g a rm e n ts o f th e g o d d e s s . Bahrani 1995. it m u st b e n o te d th at th ere m ig h t h a v e b e e n o th e r re a s o n s as w ell to tre a t h e r th e w ay she is tre a te d . E v e n th o u g h th e u ltim a te in te n tio n o f the u n d re s s in g is to h a v e I n a n n a /Is ta r p o w e rle s s .137 O n th e o th e r h a n d . th e re m o v a l o f th e g o d d e s s ’ c lo th e s at h e r d e s c e n t m u st serv e a n o th e r p u rp o se . C 18-67. 139 ETCSL: The D eath o f U r-Namma ( Ur-Namma A): the Nippur version.g .. E re s k ig a l has c o m m a n d e d the u n d re s s in g o f p o w e r s in o rd e r to su b ju g a te h e r h e a v e n ly siste r. S in ce sh e. a p p a r e n t l y . 144-146. w h o at this p o in t.

w h e th e r a c c id e n ta l o r in te n tio n a l by th e e n e m y . T h e d is m a n tlin g o f a d iv in e sta tu e w as seen as the d e a th o f the g iv e n d iv in ity . h er h u s b a n d w a s th e late G u g a la n n a (see the c o m m e n t fo r lines 14-24). L i n e 4 0 : T h e re fe re n c e to th e city o f C u th a /K u th a (Tel Ib ra h im . let not your daughter be put to death in the Netherworld. Let not your good metal be covered with dust of the Netherworld. T h e re a s o n w h y I n a n n a is u n d e rs to o d as a statu e d e riv e s fro m th e p a s s a g e w h e re h e r m in is te r N in s u b u r. lo c a te d n o rth w e s t o f th e city o f K is) m a y b e u s e d h e re as a n o th e r n a m e f o r the N e th e r w o rld . n . w h e n I n a n n a “d ie d . the lo rd o f the N e th e r w o rld (se e the c o m m e n t fo r lin e 4 ) .5 3 -5 7 . T h e b e g in n in g o f the S u m e ria n v e rs io n (11. CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS not n e c e s s a r ily to th e very act o f u n d re s s in g (see also the c o m m e n t fo r lines 6 6 -7 5 ). 2 4 6 .406-420. Katz 2003. the r e s id e n c e o f the N e th e r w o rld g o d s. w h e re she w as re sto re d to p e rfe c tio n . 4 1 1-4 12 ).T ib ir a . w h e re C u th a is m e n tio n e d as “ the g a th e rin g o f th e g h o s ts . a b a n d o n s se v e ra l o f h er citie s. as she “ sets her m in d to the G r e a t B e lo w ” a n d “ d e s c e n d e d to the N e th e r w o rld . 57 . 14 (CT 23 16:14). 142 B u ccella ti 1 9 8 2 . B u c c e lla ti su g g e sts th at th e ritu a l fo r d is m a n tlin g a d iv in e s tatu e. 9 . a lth o u g h a c c o rd in g to the S u m e ria n v e rsio n o f th e D e s c e n t. B u c c e lla ti h a s s u g g e s te d th a t the r e fe re n c e to C u th a m a y b e an a llu s io n to the jo u rn e y th e m e in the S u m e ria n v e rsio n o f the D e s c e n t. In a d d itio n . 1 6 1 . ib id . 406. a lth o u g h it still c o n tr o lle d th e m ain can al ro u te b e tw e e n U ru k an d N i p p u r ..142 140 D ailey 2 0 0 0 . B a d tib ir a . G . Cutha w as the city o f N ergal from the tim e o f N aram -Sin o f A kkad (K atz.1 . N ip p u r. A t the sam e tim e th e city o f Isin w as lo sin g its p o litic a l im p o rta n c e an d te rrito ria l c o n tr o l. T h e r e f o r e . S in c e th e city o f A k k a d is n o t h er final d e stin a tio n . i. M e ta l.” B u c c e lla ti th in k s th e fin a l stop w o u ld h a v e b e e n th e city o f C u th a .. sin ce the p a tro n g o d o f C u th a w as N e rg a l.” she “ d e s c e n d e d ” to the N e th e r w o r ld . Let not your boxwood be cut up into the wood of the woodworker.” 141 A lte r n a tiv e ly . m ay h a v e in sp ire d the n a rra tiv e o f this m y th . w h ile v isitin g I n a n n a ’s f a th e rs in o r d e r to g e t h e lp fo r h e r re s c u e . B u c c e lla ti th in k s th a t th e re a s o n w h y In a n n a starts h e r jo u r n e y in the firs t p la c e f r o m the city o f U ru k a n d th e n d e to u rs to the ea st to w a rd s L a rs a an d B a d . the city o f C u th a . in ste a d o f m o v in g n o rth to I s in . 140 N e rg a l w as also E r e s k i g a l ’s h u s b a n d . d e s c rib e s the g o d d e ss w ith the fo llo w in g w ord s: O Father Enlil. K is h an d A k k a d . a p p a re n tly in th e fo rm o f a s ta tu e . 141 C astellin o 1955. B u c c e lla ti also n o tes th a t I n a n n a ’s d re s s in g and u n d re s s in g c o u ld be ta k e n lite ra lly . 7 -1 3 ) d e s c rib e s h o w I n a n n a . re fe r r in g to d r e s s in g an d u n d re s s in g o f a cu ltic s ta tu e . n a m e ly in an A k k a d ia n in c a n ta tio n a g a in s t a p p e a rin g g h o s ts . A d a b . lap is la z u li an d w o o d are all ra w m a te ria ls o f w h ic h d iv in e sta tu e s w ere m a d e .e . T h e city o f C u th a is m e n tio n e d as a m e ta p h o r fo r the N e th e rw o rld in a n o th e r te x t. Let not your good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stoneworker. m a y su g g est th a t th e story w as c o m p o s e d u n d e r the g e o g r a p h ic a l in flu e n c e o f the city o f L a rs a . Z a b a la m . a n d h er te m p le s in th o s e cities: U r u k .

an d B u c c e lla ti’s o r d e r o f the cities an d te m p le s fo llo w o n ly o n e o f th e se so u rces (m a n u s c rip t C in W . 144 T h e n u m b e r a n d o rd e r o f the te m p le s and cities listed v a ry a g re a t d e a l in th e se c o m p o s itio n s as w ell as in the m a n u sc rip ts o f I n a n n a ’s D e s c e n t. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION O n the o th e r h a n d . K atz p ro p o s e s th a t th e w h o le p a s sa g e (11. >46 Katz 1995. H5 Sladek 1974. 9 7 -114.145 D . R om er 1969. G e o rg e h a s a g r e e d w ith B u c c e lla ti th a t In a n n a in the D e s c e n t is de- s c rib e d in te rm s o f a d iv in e statu e.g . 1-13. tra n sla te s th e r e le v a n t p a s sa g e as fo llo w s: 143 In his com m entary. cf. h o w e v e r . because “its length and different order w ould have made the apparatus unw ieldy” (Sladek 1974. O n ly m a n u s c rip t C s e e m to fo llo w a lo g ic a l order: the cities liste d start fro m U ru k . *44 E . G e o r g e .146 A . n. cities an d te m p le s is an in tro d u c tio n o f the n arrato r. R. ETCSL: A hymn to Inana (Inana F). e s p e c ia lly ta b le t HS 1480 + 1580 (T u M N F 3 2. cf. Katz 2 0 0 3 . w h ic h w as I n a n n a ’s c ity . 256. th e S u m e ria n v e rsio n o f the D e s c e n t h as m a n y s o u rc e s . S l a d e k ’s e d itio n o f th e tex t). 183-186. b u t the r e su lt o f h e r v o lu n ta ry d e s c e n t a n d s u b s e q u e n t d e a t h . Bergm an 1964. 58 \ . A c c o rd in g to h e r. it is m o re p r o b a b le th a t the list o f the d e s e rte d tem p les is n o t p a r t o f the p r e p a ra tio n s In a n n a m a k e s p r io r h e r d e s c e n t. w h ich list I n a n n a ’s tern- p i e s . 2). 183. V S 2 4 8 .d a m c o m p o s itio n s .. Sladek says that these additional lines were left out o f the textual apparatus. E a ch o f the m a n u s c rip ts u sed by S la d e k in his ed itio n list the o r d e r o f I n a n n a ’s c u lt c e n te rs d ifferen tly : S la d e k h as s u g g e ste d th a t th e listin g o f I n a n n a ’s te m p le s h a s b e e n in- f lu e n c e d b y th e s o -c a lle d e . B u c c e lla ti h a s ig n o re d the o th e r so u rc e s. U ru k [U ruk] U ru k [Uruk] no t p re s e rv e d Z a b a la m [B ad -T ib ira] Z a b a la m Z a b a la m [A dab] [Z a balam ] Umma Akkad [A dab] Ur K is N ip p u r K is ig a B a d -T ib ira K is G irsu N ip p u r Akkad Adab N ip p u r Isin Kis A ksak S u ru p p a k K a z a llu ‫י‬ Akkad w as n o t d ire c t at all: the lo c a tio n o f th e a d d itio n a l cities m e n tio n e d re v e a l th at the g o d d e ss w as re a lly z ig z a g g in g S u m e r w h en she h e a d e d to th e N e th e r- w orld. 226. and fo llo w th e Itu ru n g a l can al n o r th w a r d . 4 -1 3 ) o f In a n n a a b a n d o n in g h e r o ffic e s . m a n u s c rip t E in S la d e k ’s e d i t io n ) 143 w h ic h add s sev en n ew te m p le s to the list. T h e tem p les an d cities listed in m a n u s c rip t E show th at I n a n n a ’s j o u r n e y A________________ B______________ C_______________ D ___________ E tw o c itie s .e s . V S 10 199 iii 2 9 -4 1 .

The Exaltation o f Inanna‫׳‬.r a .1 1 1 d u 5. corresponding to Akkadian kunnusu. e . the m y th o f I n a n n a a n d S u k a lle tu d a 11 8-1 19 .e k u .d u l s e m b i lu h e .d a . E s a r h a d d o n .e m .a b .z u g i s . u n r e fin e d fo rm .d a r .” 148 Lines 42-62 and 119-125: In the S iim erian v e rsio n o f the m y th .k i . g o ld a n d s ilv e r in its n e w ly . Inanna und S u kaletu da‫׳‬.g i n d i 4.s i k i l dg a .d a r .d i s . A lth o u g h In a n n a /Is ta r is f re q u e n tly d e p ic te d w ith “ n u m e r o u s m e ’s. 149 T h e D e s c e n t f irs t d e s c rib e s h o w I n a n n a ad orns h e r s e lf fo r th e j o u r n e y (11.d a .n i .s a 6.n u g a b a .m a .l i s a g .n a b a . and correspondingly.” b u t re fe rs to so -c a lle d “c ru d e o r e .a n ‫ ־‬G A M 147.k a n a m . lite ra lly “ its m o u n ta in d u s t. na4z a .n i n .a b a r .a n ‫ ־‬s i ‫ ־‬i l .n i .n a b a .G A M !.s i tugp a l a 3 t u g n a m .r e k i .g i n .n a b a . 110-11 l .z a d i m .b a .r a . 11) n otes.n a su b a .” 59 .g a n a 2 z a . n .r a n a m . 109-113.i n .g a .n a k u r . in Inanna C 105.g i n su b a .r a m e n e d i n .u n .n a m u . ETCSL: The exaltation o f l n a n a (Inana B).r a .d u h e .n a b a .2 5 ):150 tdgs u .m u .s a r . h o ld in g the s ev en d iv in e p o w e rs (the m e ’s) in h e r h a n d . “to k ill” in b ilingual literary texts o f the first m illennium (see C A D M /1 .b a ‫ ־‬d a .n a s a g .a n .i n . H allo and van Dijk 1968. ETCSL: A hymn to Inana as N in egala [Inana D] ) .e m .a n .a n .g f d h a r k u g . 421b ).k u r . d re ss e d in h e r ro y al g a r m e n ts . o r In a n n a B 5 ..d a lu g a .a n .t a b . except that the word tu-di-da is here translated as “d ress-pin” instead o f “p ectoral.s i g 17 s u . N ote that the num ber seven is associated w ith her also in other ways: e .n i n d a n e s . in Inana D 2 9 . In a n n a d e s c e n d s to th e N e th e r w o rld as th e q u e e n .a n . this translation w ould w eaken the interpretation: Inanna w as not m erely subdued. 150 T ransliteration and translation after ETCSL: In a n a ’s d es ce n t to the nether w orld. she is said to “ride on sev en great dogs (ur = kalbu) as you com e forth from h ea v en ” (Sjoberg 1976.d u 8 g i .[ s a ] . 149 V olk 1993. let no one in the Netherworld kill your child! Let no one smelt your fine silver along with crude ore! Let no one cleave your fine lapis lazuli along with the lapidary’s stones! Let no one cut up your boxwood(?) along with the carpenter’s timber! Let no one in the Netherworld kill the youfig woman Inanna! T h e n ew id e a in G e o r g e ’s in te rp r e ta tio n is th a t sa h a r-k u r-ra -(k ) is not m e re ly “d u s t o f th e N e th e r w o r ld .g .z u s a h a r .d a .t i .k a n a m .d u 8 147 g a m (reading uncertain) can correspond to sumutu.k a n a m .e O Father Enlil.d u i g i .[ a ] dm u .n a g a r . CO M M EN TARY A N D AN ALYSIS a . “to subdue. 148 G eorge 1985.s a 6.. The earlier ev id en ce is lacking. she is said to be “standing on seven dogs (ur)” (B ehrens 1998.n i .b a g a b a .g u r .u l .a n .n a b a -n i-in -g a r t u .i n . T h e m y th d e s c rib e s th e lo ss o f I n a n n a in th e N e th e r w o rld as if it w as h e r statu e th a t h a d b e e n c a p tu re d an d w as in d a n g e r o f b e in g d e s e c ra te d b y “h e o f the N e th e r w o r ld .l e gl§t a s k a r i n .a n .b a . but k illed in the N etherw orld.g a .z u z a .g a .n a b a .b a .l a g u .n u g a . 1 7 . and A s s u r b a n ip a l.l a na4n u n u z .” so m e texts assign h e r s ev en d iv in e p o w e r s .d i 4.” th a t is.” T h is te rm is f o u n d in the r o y a l in s c rip tio n s o f th e A s s y r ia n k in g s T ig la th p ile s e r III. G e o rg e su g g e sts th a t the a b o v e lin es d e s c rib e I n a n n a ’s u n fo rtu n a te fate in te rm s o f th e d e s e c ra tio n o f h e r statu e a n d its d ism a n tlin g for the re u se o f its c o m p o n e n t p a rts. It is p ossib le to read the verb as gur or gurum.g a l h i .d i .r e z a .m in e d . T h e te c h n ic a l te rm in A k k a d ia n is e p e r s a d ts u .b a ‫ ־‬d a . ETCSL: A hymn to Inana [Inana C ]).g .” but as G eorge (1 9 8 5 .z u m u ‫ ־‬l u k u r ‫ ־‬r a n a m .

151 T h e A k k a d ia n v e rs io n d oes n o t d e s c rib e h o w the g o d d e s s d re s s e s up fo r the jo u r n e y . headgear for the open country.DU)-sa Gate II: ins aba te sa uzni(Pl.MES)-sa Gate III: N A 4. was removed from her body. she placed mascara which is called “Let a man come. an d th e re a d e r is o n ly in fo r m e d o f the re m o v a l o f th e g a rm e n ts at this p o in t. 7 1 -7 5 . Gate IV: the “Come. a n d th e n th e ones tak eh o f f . man. the garment of ladyship. A s o n e can see. she took a wig for her forehead. she is also s trip p e d o f h e r p o w e rs (11. Gate II: the small lapis lazuli beads were removed from her neck. th e d iv in e p o w e rs are e q u a te d w ith h er g a rm e n ts .2. come!” dress-pin was removed from her breast. T h e o rd e r o f the g a rm e n ts in b o th cases is b a s e d on the ta b le t HS 1480 + 1580 (T u M N F 3 2 ).M E S )-.M E S ) sa kisadi{G\5)-sa Gate IV: du din ate sa irti(GABA)-sa Gate V: sibbu a b a n { N A 4) a la d i{ T U ) sa g a & /i(M U R U B 4. b e c a u s e its o r d e r ag re e s w ith the p a s s a g e w h e re the g a te k e e p e r d e s c rib e s I n a n n a to E re s k ig a l (11. in tw o o f the m anuscripts. Gate V: the gold ring was removed from her hand. th e m a n u sc rip ts do n o t a g re e in the o rd e r o f th e g a rm e n ts In a n n a first puts on (e x c e p t fo r the firs t tw o . she covered her body with a pala dress.m m m a f t '( N A 4. Gate VII: the pala dress. In o th e r w o r d s . E v e n th o u g h I n a n n a is c o m p le te ly n a k e d a n d w ith o u t h er p o w e rs at th e la st g a te . 1 0 5 -1 1 3 ).2)-sa u sepl(GlR. w h e n she is s trip p e d o f h er o r n a m e n ts . 60 . CBS 11064 + 11088 and U ET VI 9 .2)-sa Gate VII: s u b a t ba lt i sa zumrlsa Gate I: the great tiara of her head Gate II: the earrings of her ears Gate III: the egg-shaped beads of her neck Gate IV: the dress-pins of her breast Gate V: the girdle o f birth-stones of her waist Gate VI: the bangles of her wrists and ankles Gate VII: the garment of dignity of her body 151 See Sladek 1974.M E S ) qati(SG. T h e g a te k e e p e r lo o se d a n d r e m o v e d the fo llo w in g item s: Gate I: a g a ( A G A ) raba(GAL:a ) sa qaqqad!(SAG . th e S u m e ria n m y th d o es n o t d e s c rib e at w h ich p o in t I n a n n a lo se s h e r w ig an d m a s c a ra . H ow ever.fe m e r (H A R . th e tu rb a n an d the w ig ).sa Gate VI: . on her head. the garment of ladyship.N U N U Z . come” over her breast. she hung small lapis lazuli beads around her neck. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION She put a turban. Inanna lo se s her w ig either at the third or sixth gate. 130-160): Gate I: The turban. let him come” on her eyes. she placed a golden ring on her hand. headgear for the open country. she held the lapis lazuli measuring rod and measuring line in her hand. man. the g a rm e n ts I s ta r w ears slig h tly d iffe r f ro m the S u m e ria n v e rsio n . was removed from her head. A s a m a tte r o f fa c t. she placed twin egg-shaped beads on her breast. A t th e g a te s. Gate III: the twin egg-shaped beads were removed from her breast. she pulled the dress-pins which are called “Come. Gate VI: the lapis lazuli measuring rod and measuring line were removed from her hand.

the g reat gods c o n s titu tin g th e b o d y o f A s s u r are m a n ife s te d in th e f o rm o f the A s s y ria n T re e . th e so u l h as th re e g rad es: o v e rs o u l. as w ell as by th e ir m y stic n u m e r ic a l v a l u e s .2 2 5 -2 2 8 . the m o ra l a n d e th ic a l p o w e rs (m o ra l s o u l) are in the m id d le . In a d d itio n . 172 n. A s said e a r lie r . 5f. see also Parpola 1993. th e u n d re s s in g o f th e g o d d e s s w as do ne a c c o rd in g to the “ a n c ie n t r ite s . 61 . T h e tra n s c e n d e n t G o d o f J e w is h m y s tic is m can m a n ife s t H im s e lf th ro u g h th e S e firo tic T r e e (T re e o f L if e ) .” a re re p re s e n te d in a d ia g r a m b y circles n u m b e re d fro m o n e to ten. m o ra l so u l. the g o d d e ss is g iv e n b a c k h e r c lo th in g in a r e v e rs e d o rd er. th e re w o u ld not h a v e b e e n a n y story to t e l l . In h e r a s c e n t. Parpola 2 0 0 0 . its (sp iritu a l) d e a th . D . 1 7 5 -1 8 5 . an d th re e o f the S e fir o t are d e p ic te d o n e a c h s i d e . T h e s tru c tu re o f th e T ree o u tlin e s th e p u r if ie d s o u l ’s a s c e n t to h e a v e n : it d ep icts the p ath fro m ig n o r- an ce (a n im a l so u l) to c o n s c io u s n e s s (m o ra l soul) and s a lv a tio n (d iv in e o v e r ­ 152 Katz 1 9 9 5 . b u t it m u s t b e re a d in the m y th im p lic itly . T h e S e f i r o t . a n d an im a g e o f th e D iv in e A n th r o p o s . K atz h as s u g g e ste d th at th e fa c t the g o d d e s s is strip p e d o f o n e g a r m e n t at a tim e s erv es a lite ra ry fu n c tio n : the a ctio n is to ld as a g ra d u a l p r o c e s s w h ic h b u ild s in te re s t and su sp e n s e fo r the a u d ie n c e . E q u a lin g th e S e firo tic T r e e and th e a ttrib u te s o f E n Sof. T h e S u m e ria n v e rs io n e x c lu d e s th e r e d re s s in g . she m ig h t h a v e r e a liz e d th a t h e r u s u rp a tio n s ch em e w o u ld fall a p a r t. u n til h e r d re s s is re m o v e d . re s to rin g its o rig in a l sta te . 152 A s a lre a d y m e n tio n e d e a r lie r. 5 3 . and a n im a l so u l. the d iv in e p o w e rs o r a ttrib u te s o f E n S o f. an d she m ay h a v e c h a n g e d h e r m in d an d re tu rn e d to h e a v e n . it h a s b e e n a rg u ed th a t the D e s c e n t c a n be in te rp r e te d as th e s o u l ’s d e s c e n t to th e m a te ria l w o rld . C O M M EN TARY A N D AN ALYSIS T h e o r d e r o f the g a rm e n ts o r je w e l r y u n d re s s e d starts f ro m h e r h e a d an d en d s w ith h e r w ris ts an d an k les (in the S u m e ria n v e rsio n w ith h e r h a n d s ). and the in te lle c tu a l p o w e rs ( o v e rs o u l) are lo c a te d at th e to p in th e T ree. an d a s c e n t b a c k to p e rfe c tio n in h e a v e n . In o th e r w o r d s . 153 A c c o r d in g ly . an d in the sa m e w ay as in N e o p la to n is m . literally “ c o u n tin g s ” or “ n u m b e r s . w h ic h is c o m p o se d o f the ten S e f i r o t. th e c o rre c t p lace o f e a c h A s s y ria n (M e s o p o ta m ia n ) g o d o n th e A s s y ria n T re e (the tw o sid es o r the tru n k ) c a n b e c o n c lu d e d by the a s p e c ts th e y re p re s e n t. if it h a d b e e n d e m a n d e d th at the g o d d e ss g et u n d r e s s e d at the f ir s t g a te . T h is fall a n d r e d e m p tio n o f the soul fo llo w the sam e id ea as in G n o s is o r in J e w ish m y s tic is m (se e the c o m m e n t fo r lines 10 an d 27). 154 Parpola 1993 177-190. F o u r o f th e S e fir o t are d e p ic te d o n th e tru n k o f the T re e . w h o th u s c o m p r is e s th e tra n s c e n d e n t G o d h e a d . T h e b a s ic in stin c ts (a n im a l soul) are lo c a te d at th e b o tto m . sin ce s e v e n is a ty p o lo g ic a l n u m b e r (see a lso the c o m m e n t fo r lin e s 9 3 -9 4 ). In this w ay the s tru c tu re o f the T re e c o r re s p o n d s to th e s tru c tu re o f th e h u m a n so ul. T h e u se o f the n u m b e r s e v e n fo r th e g a rm e n ts a n d fo r th e g ates has b e e n e x p la in e d to d e riv e f ro m th e d ig it itse lf.” w h ic h se e m to h a v e b e e n c re a te d o n ly fo r this o c c a s io n : to m a k e I n a n n a /I s ta r p o w e rle ss (see th e c o m m e n t fo r line 38). le a v in g h e r c o m p le te ly n ak ed . 153 H alevi 1979. F u r th e r m o r e .154 T h e S e firo tic T r e e is b o th a m a n ife s ta tio n o f the a sp e c ts o f E n S o f. c o r r e s p o n d in g to an ea rth ly (p e rfe c t) m a n . s u b s e q u e n t r e s u r r e c tio n .

d e s c e n t a g re e s w ith the stru c tu re o f the T r e e o f L ife . be o n ly fo llo w in g th e c u s to m s p r a c tic e d at w e d d in g s in a n c ie n t M e s o p o ta m ia . Istar. a n d th e g a rm e n t o f d ig n ity (S u m . 98. 157 S u b s e q u e n tly . the tu rb a n . b u t m a n can re c e iv e it on ly th ro u g h a p ro c e s s o f d re s s in g .. s y m b o liz in g w is- d o m . T h e re f o re . the g a rm e n ts o r the seven d iv in e p o w e rs e q u a l th e n u m b e r o f the g a te s . P a rp o la h as n o te d th a t I n a n n a /I s ta r ’s. 145-148.1 8 7 . the p r o g re s s io n b e in g fro m top to b o tto m . 157 Parpola 2 0 0 0 . e q u a te d w ith th e T o ra h ) by d re ss in g in its la y e rs. 159 T h e sa c re d m a r ria g e so n g s o f th e D u m u z i. and Parpola 1 9 9 3 . are the b a sic instincts (anim al soul). A nu . are the moral and eth ical pow ers (moral soul). the g a rm e n ts and je w e lr y (in th e S u m e ria n v ersio n the m e ’s) can be id e n tifie d w ith th e d iv in e p o w e rs c o n s titu tin g the T r e e . th e (n e c k la c e of) tw in e g g -s h a p e d b e a d s . th e a d o rn in g o f th e b rid e m u st. 156 Parpola 1997a. i. In the D e s c e n t . 197-198. g o ld rin g ).156 S in ce the g re a t g o d s c o n s titu te d th e A s s y r ia n T ree as A s s u r ’s p o w e rs or m a n ife s ta tio n s . th e s tu d e n t o f th e T o ra h (= the h u m a n so ul) w ill o n ly re a c h the u ltim a te k n o w le d g e and u n io n w ith the T o ra h (i. the sing le p ieces m a k e u p the tru n k o f the tre e . su ch as th e E x e g e sis on the S o u l an d the H y m n o f the P e a r l . 112.In a n n a cy c le also c o n ta in the th e m e o f a d o rn in g a n d d re ss in g th e b rid e b e f o re the u n io n w ith the k in g is c o m p le te d .158 the soul seek in g u n io n w ith G o d is p ro v id e d w ith p r o p e r c lo th in g o r ad o rn - m e n ts . A dad. T h e T o ra h re v e a ls its e lf b y a p ro c e s s o f u n d re s s in g . A c c o rd - in g ly .155 S. F o r th e h u m a n b e in g . In m an y tra d itio n s . w ith G o d ’s fe m in in e a s p e c t th e S h e k h in a h . a n d to its fall a n d r e d e m p tio n as w e l l. O n the 155 The A ssyrian Tree m anifested the sam e three grades o f the human soul as the Sefirotic Tree: the god s located at the bottom . 384-87. F o r the T o r a h . n. In o th e r w o rd s . p rio r to the u n io n w ith the d iv in e. w h ich in tu rn e q u al the stru c tu re o f the T re e . as it is re g a rb e d in all th e v irtu es or d iv in e p o w e rs (= the g reat g o d s) th a t it h a s lo st in its d e s c e n t. T h e sam e d iv is io n is ap p lic a b le to th e A s sy ria n T re e .. th en re g a rb e d o r ad o rn e d w ith p r o p e r g a rm e n ts. lap is lazu li b e a d s ). are the in tellectual pow ers (o v erso u l). 159 !del 1 9 8 8 . in G n o s tic and ea rly C h ristia n te x ts. th e s o u l ’s. 62 . and th e b a n g le s (S u m . th e soul b e c o m e s o n ce m o re c o m p le te an d p u re . th e re ex ists th e id e a o f the fa lle n so u l b e in g firs t p u rifie d . !S T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION sou l). an d thus to the so u l. 158 Layton 1 9 8 7 . the s in g le an d p a ire d p ie c e s o f c lo th in g a lte rn a te . th e s ig n ific a n c e o f u n d re ss in g is its re tu rn to a su p e rn a l p o s itio n p rio r to its d e s c e n t into the m a te ria l w o rld . the p o w ers o r g a rm e n ts o f the g o d d e s s can be c o r re la te d w ith th ese g re a t g o d s . Nabu and N ergal. w h ic h also a g rees w ith the s tru c tu re o f th e T ree. the gods located at the top. In J e w ish m y s tic is m . X C I. th e p ala d ress) c o r re s p o n d to the th re e n o d es on th e tru n k . c o rre s p o n d s to the p a lm e tte c ro w n . the g ird le (S u m .e. d re s s in g is the only w ay by w h ic h he can as c e n d to h ig h e r w o rld s .2 2 7 -2 2 9 . T h e g reat tia ra (cro w n ) or as in the S u m e ria n v e rs io n . Ea and Sin. R oukem a 1999.e . F o r in s ta n c e .3 6 5 -3 7 5 . w h ic h is a m e ta p h o r fo r a tta in in g th e n e c e s sa ry w is d o m e n a b lin g the u n io n . on on e le v e l. fo r b y d re ss in g in th e ir g a rm e n ts he a s su m e s the q u a litie s o f th e se w o r l d s . Marduk and Sam as. at its a s c e n t.n . the gods located in the m idd le. w h e re a s th e p a ire d p ie c e s m ak e up th e th re e fru its on each side o f the tru n k . see Parpola 1995. the lap is la z u li m e a s u rin g ro d an d m e a s u r- ing line) c o rre s p o n d to th e circles o r fru its s u rro u n d in g the tru n k . C e r ta in ly . the d re s s -p in s . and th e e a r rin g s (S um .

for N ab u ’s id en tification with the k in g . and fro m this and fro m th e rep resen tatio n s on cylinder seals. th e g a rm e n t o f th e Q u e e n o f H e a v e n (tugp a la 3 n a -a g g a . 5 2 . see Sladek 1974. in LAS 125:18.I n a n n a fro m the N e th e rw o rld .162 N o te th a t s o m e o f the g a rm e n ts o r je w e lr y m e n tio n e d in the D e s c e n t . 2 0 5 -2 0 6 . c f. w h ile d e s c e n d in g to th e N e th e r w o r ld .s a . as p a r t o f the c o n tin u u m o f the S u m e ria n s a c re d m a r ria g e tra d itio n . T h e re f o re . 163 A c c o r d in g to this te x t. is a lso e q u a te d w ith th e S u m e ria n w o rd m e n . 7 5 -7 7 . For instance. 168 n. 81-82.. the k in g acts as th e sav io r. 5 85-634. the king w as the perfect lik en ess o f god . to 138ff. D iri . the dress seem s to h ave been a long flo u n c ed d r e s s . in th ese s o n g s. ib id .. 165 R enger 1967. 166 Landsberger. ETCSL: A b a lb a le to Inana a n d D um uzid (Dumuzid-Inana C).r o b e ” (1. the d ead k in g . a gu (a g a ). m ak es o ffe rin g s to d iffe re n t d eities.v 124ff. 64.a n . n a m e ly in D I C . D e s p ite his h u m a n ity .g .a n -n a [= tdgp a l a 3 u g n a m -n in -a n -n a ]). is n a tu ra lly the k in g as D u m u z i. 127. 164 For the turban (‘“Ssu-gur-ra) m entioned in the Sum erian version . 163 Sefati 1998. n. in the D u m u z i. Parpola 1997a. 167 Sladek 1974. c f. 162 For the L ove L y r i c s . and p a in ts h e r ey es w ith k o h l (SIM xUH-zi/simbi-zi). X X X IX . the bridegroom -savior. N issinen 1998a.168 160 N ote that although the use o f the divine d eterm inative attached to the name o f the king was carefully avoided in A ssyria. see L apinkivi.In a n n a lo v e s o n g s . th e b rid e . X C III. a q u een ly p a la .. 3 3 5 -3 3 9 and PI. w h ile p re p a rin g h e r s e lf to m e e t h e r b r id e g ro o m D u m u z i. Haidar 1952. CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS o th e r h a n d . a n d h a v e h e r statu s e l e v a t e d . g o ld b ra c e le t(s ) (h a r k u g . and therefore a god in human form . T h ro u g h a d o r n in g . sm all lap is la z u li b ead s (za-g in d i4-d i4) o n h er n e c k .s a v io r w h o . 196. w h o p ro v id e s h e r w ith k n o w le d g e an d salv a tio n in the fo rm o f the g e m s w ith w h ich I n a n n a ad o rn s h e r s e lf . L ivinsgtone 1989. the a d o rn in g and d re s s in g o f th e b rid e in th e lo v e so n g s m ay also r e p re s e n t h e r (i. to g e th e r w ith se m b i ( k o h l. also o c c u r in o n e o f the D u m u z i. a lo n g -fle e c e d g a rm e n t. 8 4 -8 5 .p r ie s te s s e s ) . as in d ic a te d by the d iv in e d e te r m in a tiv e a tta c h e d to his n a m e an d by h is d iv in e fa m ilia l r e l a t io n s . see also Parpola 1993. 98: tug d u g u d t6gz u lu m h i t6gp a la 3 n a m . th e s o u l ’s) p r e p a ra tio n s b e fo re m e e tin g w ith th e b rid e - g r o o m . 55 and PI.g . I n a n n a p u ts on th e p a la d re s s . Parrot 1937. L i n e 42: T h e c r o w n (tiara). the idea o f the king being “the im age (sa lm u ) o f g o d ” occurs frequently in N eo-A ssyrian royal correspondence (e .165 T h e c ro w n and the d ress w ere also sym bols o f roy al p o w e r. b u t h e re s u b a t b a lt i) all b e lo n g e d to the a ttire o f e n -p rie s te s s e s ( h ig h . LAS 145.. i. 63 . a n d to E re s k ig a l he g iv es a “h e a v y g a rm e n t. as the g o d d e s s is a d o rn e d in o r d e r to e n te r the g a r d e n o f p le a s u re and w is d o m w ith h er b r id e g ro o m . A. W h e re a s in th e D e s c e n t the g o d d e s s is r e g a rb e d in h e r c lo th e s or p o w e r s . e . th e S u m e ria n k in g w as also c o n s id e re d d iv in e . is also re sto rin g h e r n a tu re like S o p h ia (= the S o u l) o f the G n o s tic tra d itio n . 143-149.In a n n a te x ts .e. 168 ETCSL: The D ea th o f U r-Nam m a (U r-N am m a A).. 161 L apinkivi 2 0 0 4 ..160 H e c o u ld thus be e a s ily c a s t in tw o d iffe re n t ro le s c o a le s c in g in the p a r a d o x ic a l fig u re o f th e s h e p h e rd g o d D u m u z i. n.161 L a te r. 14. as th e s o u l. M SL 10 131 n.n in . b y a n a lo g y w ith a s so c ia tin g th e D e s c e n t w ith the s o u l ’s re d e m p - tio n . in th e lo v e s o n g s. 132-150. 80.166 T h e p ala dress is p ro b ab ly d e p ic te d in a w all painting fro m cou rt 106 at M ari. w h o w as at the sa m e tim e a h u m a n k in g a n d the h u s b a n d a n d r e s c u e r o f. te d iq b e l t i ‫׳‬. L apinkivi 2 0 0 4 . the N e o . Parrot 1958.a ) . 123 and C l.s ig 17) o n h e r h a n d s . For T asm etu ’s id en tification with Inanna/Istar. see L apinkivi 2 0 0 4 .A s s y ria n L o v e L y r ic s o f N a b u a n d T a sm e tu a b o u n d s w ith this m e ta p h o r. 164 w h ic h . see M atsushim a 1 987. m a sc a ra ) and th e p a la d ress (A kk .167 In the D e a th o f U r-N a m m u .e . it is th e k in g w h o p r o v id e s the a d o r n m e n ts f o r h er. 33).

“to g iv e birth to”. f o r in s ta n c e .b a n l a e . STT 102:3. c a n n o t b e a sc e rta in e d .r e . = L ex ica l series HAR. but my beloved had turned away and gone. d u d ittu /tu d ittu . w h ic h h a v e s p o tte d b a c k s . a n d thus p ro d u c in g rd d (t) fro m an o rig in a l d d d ft) (d u d ittu h av in g d e v e lo p e d f ro m d u d id tu ) . i.. d u d ittu is d e s c rib e d as tu -d i-d a lu g a-n u g a-n u (g a b a -n a b a -a n -g fd ).5 2 7 . “ v e il” (tra n s la te d b y M . 9 1 . IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION L i n e 5 1: T h e w o rd d /tu d ittu has n ow b e e n id e n tifie d as a “ d r e s s . B IV i 7 2 f (cf. etc. b u t im ita tio n s m a d e o f m e ta l.” P re v io u s ly . A p p a r e n t l y . Fox as “ s h a w l.PES4 = a b a n e r e } 12 “ sto n es o f (= th a t ca u s e ) c o n c e p tio n . ( w ) a l a d u .b a n e . S la d e k has s u g g e s te d th a t the g ird le o f b irth . The watchmen who roam the city found me .” 173 T hese tw o stones occur together in B .. s. 140. 84.e “charm against b ecom in g pregnant” Hg.r e .those who watch the walls.e. w h ic h o f c o u rs e . m a y be e x p la in e d b y re la tin g a b a n a la d i. 3. 8. e r u . w h e re N a m ta r is a s k e d to d e c o ra te th e th re sh o ld s o f E g a lg in a . V . T h e e rro r c o u ld be th e r e s u lt o f m ista k in g th e sim ila r letters r and d . 228: i a 4.” o r a “b r e a s tp la te . u s e d in ap o tro p a ic rituals: th ey w e re d e s ig n a te d to h a v e s ev en “ s p o ts ” (GUN). 102:23. 4 0 7 -4 1 2 . to c o n c e iv e ”. the H e b re w w o rd .pes4.” 177 O ppenheim . na4. took my shawl away from me . ib id . c o m e ’ (she p u lle d o v e r h e r b r e a s t) . > 5 ‫ ל‬Sladek 1974. th e spots re fe r to s e v e ra l d iffe re n t c o w r ie -ty p e s . (Because o f him) my soul went forth: I sought him but did not find him. I called him but he did not answer me.s to n e s .PA = ia A-a rtu . o r s t o n e . a j a r t u . >69 K lein 1983. w h e th e r the th re sh o ld s o f the “ S te a d y P a la c e ” w ere d e c o r a te d w ith re a l c o w rie s o r w ith so m e o th er m a te r ia l.” see b e lo w ) . 170 I opened to my beloved. 4 r. The Sum erian word g u n m eans “to decorate with cd lors/d ots/sp ots. th e sh e lls u sed for d iff e r e n t p u rp o s e s w e re n o t alw ay s re a l o n e s. M SL 10 10:215-218. 64 . “ sto n e s o f (= th at c a u s e ) b ir th . is actu ally a m is r e a d in g o f the S u m e ria n /A k k a d ia n o rig in a l. s. sib b u a b a n ( NA4) a la d i( TU). K A R 213 ii 13. c la y . m a n . H . h as n o w b e e n e s ta b lis h e d .a r t u s a 7 G U N...sh ells w e re .v .M ES-sa AM T 8 8. “th e d re ss -p in s w h ic h are called ‘C o m e . 172 The logogram peS4 has the m eanings e r u / a r u . b i s s u r u .” 173 T h e fa c t th a t the PES4-sto n e s are n o t stones b u t c o w r ie -ty p e sh ells.a = a . C A D E s.” w ith th e a ja r tu ( NA4.e “charm to b ecom e pregnant. >7> Fox 1985.” na4. 2:2.171 L i n e 54: W illia m R . > 0‫ ל‬Pope 1 9 7 7 . 411.” T h e s e d re s s -p in s w ere m a d e o f p re c io u s m etal or s to n e s . “fem ale g en itals. 409. 176 O ppenheim .they beat me and bruised me. w h ic h seem s to h av e been a tra it th a t in c re a s e d th e ir ritu a lis tic e ffe c tiv e n e s s .v . 177 T h e re f o re . r e d id . 31:72-75. w o u ld h av e b een a p p r o p ria te fo r Istar. th e “ S tead y P a la c e . a j a r t u . 2:16. sh ells th a t re s e m b le a w o m a n ’s sex u al o rg a n .175 A ty p e o f th e se c o w rie -s h e lls o c c u rs la te r on in th e D e s c e n t.gud = i m r u = b a l l u ) >74 S ee O ppenheim 1963. ib id .nu.176 H o w e v e r. “to b e(co m e) pregnant. 15. It is k n o w n th a t th e se a ja r tu . M .169 In the S u m e ria n v e rsio n o f th e D e s c e n t. vu lva. the g o d d e s s o f se x u a l l o v e . C A D A /1 .a ja r tu ).pes4. in the S on g o f S o n g s 5 :6 -7 . in lin es 112 and 116. 229. 2 5 7 -2 8 4 . to be m ulticolored.v.174 S la d e k s u g g e sts th a t th e a b a n a la d i m a y h a v e h a d a sim ila r sh ap e to c o w r ie -s h e lls .a = a . LK A 136 r. 325) (H g. Landsberger.p in ” (“ to g g le -p in ” ) in s te a d o f its p re v io u s id e n tific a tio n as a “p e c to r a l. C A D A /1 .” to NA4. to sparkle. ib id . P o p e h a d s u g g e ste d th a t.

In o th e r w o rd s . T h is su g g e sts th a t it is Is ta r. as is s h o w n in the n u m b e r o f v a r i a n t s . “ to d e c re e the f a te . 181 Katz 2 0 0 3 . 180 Sladek 1 9 7 4 . is a n o n -fin ite f o rm (par- ticip le) o f th e S u m e ria n c o m p o u n d v e rb n a m . w a s a b u = “ to sit.A s s y ria n sta tiv e f o r m u sin g the m e ta th e s is o f sylla- b les: u sb i < u sib . w h o in tu rn . takes h e r se a t a b o v e E re s k ig a l. without reflection. N a m ta r is d e s c rib e d as son o f E re s k ig a l a n d E n lil. Udughul 360. T h e n a m e its e lf. T h e s e d ise a se s are a g a in st th e e y e s . h e a r t. 165-166) reads (translation after Katz 2 0 0 3 . N a m ta r .” a n d tra n s la te d lines 6 3 .” a n d th e f o rm th u s m e a n s “he w h o d e c r e e s th e fa te s . in fa c t. L i n e s 6 6 -7 5 : B e c a u s e it is c e n tra l fo r th e m y t h ’s p lo t th at Is ta r dies o n c e she h a s d e s c e n d e d to th e N e th e r w o rld . th e sev en ju d g e s o f the N e th e r w o rld . 2 5 6 . re n d e r th e ir ju d g m e n t o f d e a th o n th e g o d d e s s . CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS L i n e s 6 3 -6 5 : T h is p a s s a g e d e s c rib e s h o w th e situ atio n d e v e lo p s b e tw e e n th e tw o sisters w h e n th e y fin a lly m eet. for w h ic h see also th e n e x t c o m m e n t. In the A k k a d ia n v e rsio n . 12 i 5. rushed at her. . E re s k ig a l firs t tre m b le s (o u t o f fe a r o r a n g e r) b e f o re Ista r. so h is ra n k w as high in th e N e th e r w o rld an d in th e e n to u r a g e o f its q u e e n . th e se w e re th e b o d y p arts th a t w ere no l o n g e r p ro te c te d b y th e d iv in e g a rm e n ts (p o w e rs ) as th e y h a d 178 The Sum erian version (11.180 W h a t fo llo w s in th e S u m e ria n v e rs io n is th a t.6 5 : 179 As soon as Istar had descended to Kurnugi. the A n u n n a . b u t then g a th e rs h e r o w n p o w ers a n d starts to a c t as th e Q u e e n o f th e N e th e rw o rld by c u rs in g the v isito r. w h ic h it n e e d n o t b e . an d th e h e a d . fe e t..” In an in c a n ta tio n o f the U d u g h u l-s e rie s . W . T h e f o rm usb i has b e e n th o u g h t to be a scrib al e rro r fo r u sib (cf. she b e c o m e s m o rta lly ill th ro u g h E r e s k i g a l ’s use o f b la c k m a g ic . R . 260): nin9-a-ni 6i5gu-za-ni-ta im -m a-da-an-zi e-n e i iSgu -za-n i-ta dur im -m i‫־‬in-gar She (Inanna) raised her sister from her throne And took a seat in her (E resk igal’s) throne.t a r . S la d e k a lso d is c u s s e s the d iffic u lty o f u n d e rs ta n d in g th e p a s s a g e . CT 16. In the A k k a d ia n v e rs io n . 178 In th e A k k a d ia n v e r s io n . the e x a c t m e a n in g o f th e p a s sa g e is ra th e r u n c le a r in all the m a n u s c r ip ts . n.181 E v e n th o u g h th e te x t sp eak s o f six ty d is e a s e s . R e in e r . in flic ts d e a th ly d is e a s e s o n Istar. w h o tries to s u b ju g a te h e r s iste r in spite o f h e r n a k e d and th u s p o w e rle ss a p p e a r a n c e (see also the n e x t c o m m e n t). 65 . O n e o f th e p ro b le m s has b e e n th e in te rp re ta tio n o f the v erb al f o rm in d/5tar(IN N IN ) u l im m a lik e le n u s s a u sb i. N a m ta r was the o n e e x e c u tin g h is m i s t r e s s ’s c o m m a n d s . for the Udughul see G eller 1 9 8 5 . a rm s. 1. as she o rd ers h e r m in is te r N a m ta r to release six ty d is e a s e s a g a in s t Ista r.4 0 . Ereskigal saw her and became enraged at her presence. 3 9 0 -3 1 9 . 179 Sladek 1974. a n d n o tes th a t the a n c ie n t s c rib e s w e re c o n f u s e d o n th e c o rre s p o n d in g p a s s a g e in th e S u m e ria n v e rsio n (11. sin ce th e w o rd is a N e o . to d w e ll” ). 1 6 5 -1 6 6 ).2 0 2 . U n f o rtu n a te ly . A s n o te d b y E. as soon as I n a n n a has ta k e n h e r se a t o n h e r ( s i s t e r ’s) th ro n e . o n ly fiv e d iffe re n t d is e a s e s are actu ally m e n tio n e d in th e tex t. th ro u g h h e r a g e n t N a m ta r . it is E re s k ig a l h e r s e lf w h o . b o th in th e S u m e ria n a n d A k k a d ia n v e r s i o n s . if is a lso in e v ita b le th at she m u st m e e t h e r d e a th in o n e w ay o r a n o th e r. Istar. S la d e k s u g g e s te d th e fo rm co m e s fro m s u b e ’u = “ to ru sh u p o n . it s e e m s th at E re s k ig a l f ir s t s u b m its to Ista r.

183 In o rd e r to re m o v e ev il an d d is e a s e s . T h e re w as n o sp e c ia l g a rm e n t o r o r n a m e n t to p ro te c t h e r e y e s . 16): DIS NA UH ina KA -su NU T A R -as NA BI ka-sip Wenn ein Mensch . 66 ..m[ a. n. 185 M eier 1967. b e fo re e n te rin g the N e th e r- w o rld .DU-.1 9 1 1 -1 9 2 3 .GI6. th e n e c k la c e m ay also h a v e p ro te c te d th e ey es o f the g o d d e s s .4 rev. o r then they w e re c a u s e d by s o rcery . AMT 86. d o u g h . b o th o f w h ic h m e a n “b u r n in g .MES-5m p a r .ma -as -s u sim. 4 9 . . T w o o f th e b e s t k n o w n m a g ic a l c o lle c tio n s are S u r p u an d M a q lu . sh e lls . 183 Black and Green 1 9 9 2 .1 2 4 -1 2 8 . w ere m e lte d or b u r n t in fire . T h e c ro w n h a d p ro te c te d I s t a r ’s h e a d . 5 1 . all the p o s sib le sins h a d firs t to be e n u m e r a te d .] II bir-ka-su ka-si-a ba. d ise a se s w ere th o u g h t to be ca u s e d b y g o d s an d d e m o n s as p u n is h m e n t fo r sin . and ritu a ls w e re u se d .sa-na-bat-su sit-ta [ . c la y or b itu m e n . Farber 1995. 14 (= rev. F ig u rin e s o f th e s o rc e re r o r s o rc e re s s .1 4 9 . w h e re I n a n n a .182 It seem s m o re lik ely . ] / / MAS. T h e fu n c tio n s o f th ese tw o p ro fe s sio n a ls w e re o v e r l a p p i n g . an d th en the p a tie n t tra n s- fe rre d his sins and s u ffe rin g to an o b je c t. th a t the v u ln e ra b ility o f th e e y e s d eriv es fro m th e S u m e ria n v e rs io n . in c a n ta tio n s .d a ina sit-ti-su iq -b [i . on the o th e r h a n d . b u t a c c o rd in g to R e in e r .] II UZU-sw ru-ti-ib-[tu] im-ta-na-al-lu-su II LU BI ka-si-ip 182 R einer 1985.tu. 1 (II 3-7): DIS NA SAG. the d re ss -p in s an d the e g g -s h a p e d b e a d s h er h e a rt an d th e b a n g le s h e r arm s a n d feet.der Speichel in seinem Mund kann nicht gestopft werden - dieser Mensch ist verhext. th e illn e ss e s w e re tre a te d by e x o rc is ts (a s ip u ). transliteration and German translation by Thom sen 1987b. see alsoFarber 1995 . 7. In th e se c a s e s.. . I f th e d ise a se w as th o u g h t to h a v e o c c u r re d th ro u g h m o re “ n a tu r a l” c a u s e s . th e ca u s e s o f d iffe re n t d is e a s e s w e re n o t k n o w n .185 T h e so -c a lle d A s s y r ia n M e d ic a l T exts list so m e s y m p to m s o r illn e ss e s the p a tie n t m ay h a v e d e v e lo p e d w h e n he w as a v ic tim o f s o r c e r y :186 AMT 3 1 . In th e se ritu a ls .. 83. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION b een re m o v e d at th e sev en g ates. w as a n o c tu rn a l ritu al th a t w as in te n d e d to c o u n te ra c t b la c k m a g ic an d th u s h e lp a p a tie n t w h o w as c o n v in c e d h e h ad b een b e w itc h e d .6 7 -6 8 . w o o d . or to the fire g o d G ib il w h o d e s tr o y e d th e fig u rin e s o f th e s o r c e r e r s . h o w e v e r . . m a d e o f w ax .1 8 9 5 -1 9 0 9 . B iggs 1 9 9 5 . A lth o u g h this m a k e u p is n o t r e m o v e d at any o f th e g a te s . p u ts k o h l/m a s c a r a (se m b i/sim b i) on h e r ey es.” S u r p u w as u s e d w h e n th e p a tie n t h a d no k n o w le d g e o f ho w h e h ad o f fe n d e d th e g o d s o r d is tu rb e d th e w o rld o rd er. 86‫ י‬Cam pbell Thom pson 1923. 184 R einer 1958. w h ic h m e a n s th a t the r e m o v a l o f sem b i m u st be u n d e r s to o d im p licitly in the sto ry . A lth o u g h M e s o p o ta m ia n s h a d k n o w le d g e o f the u se o f h erb al r e m e d ie s a n d s o m e f a m ilia rity w ith s u rg ic a l o p e ra tio n s . su ch as a p e e le d o n io n . T h e m a g ic ia n th e n e x tin g u is h e d th e fire as w ell as the sins the p a tie n t h a d c o m m itte d . the g o d d e s s is n a k e d at th e la st g a te . 1898-1899. a n d o f te n b o th o f th e m w e r e s u m m o n e d to h e lp th e s ic k p a t i e n t . the p a tie n t w as tre a te d b y a p h y s ic ia n (a su ). an d th e c o n ju ra tio n s w ere a d d r e s s e d to th e so rc e re rs th e m s e lv e s .sw is.ls4M a q lu . w h ic h w as th ro w n in to a fire w h ile re c itin g a p p ro p ria te in c a n ta tio n s. to g o d s o f th e n ig h t. In g e n e ra l.

bring a severe illness upon his limbs. (and) enduring wounds to your bodies! Bathe in blood and pus like in water! T h e e p ilo g u e o f the L a w C o d e o f H a m m u r a p i (C o l.4 6 3 ) : 189 Gula azugallatu rabltu mursu tanehu [ina libbikunu?] simmu lazzu ina zumrikunu liskun [damu u sarku] kima me ru[mlnka\ May Gula. E n glish translation by PL. an evil asakku-demon. 164-165. the S u m e ria n D e s c e n t u ses a n o th e r m e a n s o f g e ttin g In a n n a k illed : th e g o d d e ss is j u d g e d by th e A n u n n a . th e h e a le r g o d d e s s . 191 The patroness o f doctors and the h ealin g g od d ess Gula w as also w orshipped under the name Ninkarrak.] seine Traume sind schrecklich.188 H e r e .dieser Mensch ist verhext.1 7 2 ):192 187 D river and M iles 1952-55. 11. to in flic t th e v a ssa ls w ith illn e ss e s (§ 5 2 .e . like the bite of death. as in I s t a r ’s D e s c e n t. N e v e r th e le s s . as se e n in th e L a w C o d e o f H a m m u r a p i § 2 . which he can not relieve with dressings. false a c c u s a tio n s o f s o rc e ry c o u ld le a d to the d e a th o f the p r o s e c u to r . 2 6 0 -2 6 1 . 1 6 5 . N in tin uga. M em e. a n d also here the d is o b e d ie n t k in g s are c u r s e d w ith illn e s s e s :190 dNin-kar-ra-ak II D U M U . as th e kin g ask s G u la . 192 T ransliteration and translation after Katz 2 0 0 3 .M I A N -num II qa-bi-a-at II dum-qi'-ya II ina £-kur II mur-sa-am kab-tam II A. 190 T ransliteration after W atanabe 1987. 4 6 1 . as w ell as N in isin a.]. 35. a c c o rd in g to w h ic h it w as c u s to m a r y to c u rse th e v a s s a l. [. On the o th e r h a n d . S in c e a c c u s a tio n s o f b e in g a s o rc e r e r o r so rc e re ss w ere se v e re .zAg le-em-nam II si'-im-ma-am mar-sa-am II sa la i-pa-as-se-hu II A . who in Ekur speaks in my favor. A s m e n tio n e d b e f o r e . may he moan for his (lost) manhood. 187 W h a t have su rv iv ed are the m an y ap o tro p a ic ritu a ls fo r d iss o lv in g c u rse s a n d g ettin g rid o f ev il th a t h a d b e fa lle n som eone. whose nature the physician does not understand. (and) until his life is extinguished. i..sein Kopf ist immer wieder angegriffen.. th e cu rse a lso in c lu d e s a w ish fo r illn e s s e s . the god dess o f Isin.. seine Knie sind gebunden. 188 W isem an 1958. 67 .sein Korper stets voll von Feuchtigkeit . 51. with w hom Inanna w as id en tified . sein Brustkasten gelahmt (?) . E n glish translation by PL. F o r in s ta n c e .. c u rs e s w ere c o m m o n ly u s e d in tre a tie s. the sev en j u d g e s (11. which. the great physician. W atanabe 1987. p e o p le u s in g b la c k m a g ic w e re c a re fu l n o t to w rite c u rs e s d o w n . w h e n th e A s s y ria n k in g E s a rh a d d o n w ro te v assal tre a tie s w ith n in e d iffe re n t b o r d e rin g Ira n ia n states fo r s e c u rin g his d y n a s ty after his d e a th .. CO M M EN TARY A N D AN A LY SIS Wenn ein Mensch .191 the daughter of Anu. th e v a s sa ls w e re e x te n s iv e ly c u r s e d in case o f m is c o n d u c t or d is o b e d ie n c e . er spricht im Traum [. a sore wound which none can assuage. 189 Transliteration after W atanabe 1987. 5 0 -6 9 ) in c lu d e s a le n g th y c u rs e fo r th e fu tu re k in g s w h o do n o t fo llo w the law s o f H a m m u r a p i. th e p o te n tia l e n e m y . can not be removed. put illness and distress [in your hearts].Z U !( S U ) qe-re-eb-su II la i-lam-ma-du II i-na si-im-di II la u-na-ah-hu-su II ki-ma ni-si-ik mu-tim la in-na-sa-hu II i-na bi-ni-a-ti-su II li-sa-si-a-as-sum-ma II a-di na-pi-is-ta-su II i-be-el-lu-u // a-na et-lu-ti-su II li-id'(DA)-dam-ma-am May N inkarrak.

The corpse was hung on a nail. 22 7 . m u st b e the cru cial p o in t w h en the o ffe n s e is c o m m itte d . a shout of guilt.194 T h e sam e s itu a tio n a p p lie s to th e A k k a d ia n 193 Katz 1995. L a te r in the S u m e ria n v e rsio n . Katz 2 0 0 3 . They looked at her. In short. 26 1-265.g o d s re n d e re d th e ju d g m e n t on In a n n a h a s in- f lu e n c e d th e v ie w th a t th e A n u n n a w ere ju d g in g the d e a d in th e N e th e r w o rld in g e n e ra l. and n o w In a n n a has seiz ed the p o w e rs o f E re s k ig a l.gar in line 166 (see also the c o m m e n t fo r lines 6 3 -6 5). rendered a decision against her. a speech of wrath. the version from Susa. F alkenstein 1965. In th e D e a th o f U r-N a m m u th e v e r d ic t is re n d e re d by G ilg a m e s . T h e se tw o lines h a v e b e e n c o n tro v e rs ia l b e c a u s e the s u b je c t an d the o b je c t are n o t d e fin ite ly d e te rm in e d . 280 and n. S in ce the g o d d e ss o b e y s the m e ’s/g arza ( p a r s u ) o f the N e th e rw o rld as she u n d re sse s w h ile e n te rin g th ro u g h the g a te s. b u t th e u ltim a te c o m m a n d is first g iv en b y E r e s k i g a l . The ailing woman turned into a corpse. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION nin9-a-ni ®1*gu-za-ni-ta im-ma-da-an-zi e-ne s1§gu‫־‬za-ni-ta dur im-mi-in-gar da-nun-na di-ku5-imin-bi igi-ni-se di mu-un-da-ku5-ru-de igi mu-si-in-bar gi-us-a-kam inim i-ne-ne inim-libis-gig‫־‬ga-am gu i-ne‫־‬de gu-nam-tag-ga-am munus-tu-ra uzu-ni-sig-ga-se ba-an-ku4 uzu-ni-sig-ga §1§kak-ta lu ba-an-ta-la She (= Inanna) raised her sister from her throne. and 2 02.193-194. I f the d ead are j u d g e d . the seven judges. h o w e v e r . w ith (?) G ilg a m es. h o w e v e r . K atz has p o in te d o u t th at the tw o lines (1 6 5 -1 6 6 ) e x p la in in g h o w so m e o n e (In an n a) sat o n s o m e o n e e l s e ’s ( E r e s k ig a l’s) seat ju s t b e fo re ju d g in g In a n n a . by actin g as a u s u rp e r. T his v ie w . 194 ETCSL: The D ea th o f Ur-Nam ma ( U r-Namma A). Sladek 1974. 2 1 . K atz arg u e s.. cf. 2 0 7 -20 8): The divine powers (me kur-ra) of the underworld are divine powers which should not be craved. also c o m e s in c o n ta c t w ith the d iv in e p o w ers o f the N e th e rw o rld . .g . and b e c a u s e o f the o b sc u re use o f the ab lativ e suffix / ‫־‬ta/ w ith the v erb d u r . It is ev id e n t th at th ere w o u ld n ot b e a ru le r w ith o u t div ine p o w ers to rule w ith . 165. C 68-72: At the com m and o f E reskigala. th a t it is by u s u rp a tio n th at In a n n a tak es th e th ro n e o f the q u e e n o f the N e th e rw o rld .193 T h e fa c t th a t th e A n u n n a . n. 68 . an d by d o in g so. th e j u d g e is u s u a lly th e sun g o d . 10. T h e re fo re . They shouted at her. For E reskigal leaving her seat voluntarily se e . They spoke against her. U tu / S a m a s . and took a seat on her (= Ereskigal’s) thrones The Anunna. the “ crav in g o f the m e ’s” w h ic h ju stifie s h e r d e a th s e n te n c e m u st o c c u r later in the tex t. for whoever gets them must remain in the underworld. his b elo v ed brother. has n o t f o u n d s u p p o rt in an y o th e r te x ts. som e ed ito rs h a v e in ter- p re te d th e lines in a w ay th at E re s k ig a l left h e r seat v o lu n tarily on I n a n n a ’s b eh alf. 15. . b o th E n lil an d N a n n a ex p la in I n a n n a ’s d e a th as a p u n is h m e n t f o r an o ffe n s e ag ain st the m e o f the N e th e r w o rld (11. 11. the look of death. he w ill pass the judgm ents o f the nether world and render t h e d ecision s concerning (?) all the men w ho fe ll by w eapons and all the m en w h o guilty. d esp ite o f h e r p o w e rle ss statu s. In an n a has c o m m itte d a crim e that ju s tifie s a d eath p e n a lty . e .

h o w e v e r. 197 Frym er-K ensky 1 9 9 3 . b u t a g o d d e s s . 23.e . and that th e A n u n n a w e re the ju d g e s fo r o th e r d e itie s .. Lines 76-80 and 85-90: A s soo n as I s ta r h as d e s c e n d e d to th e N e th e r w o rld . th e im p o rta n c e o f the sc e n e w ith th e A n u n n a lies in th e fact th a t the g o d d e s s /S o u l u ltim a te ly d ies b e c a u s e o f h er sin fu l a c tio n (s) (cf.e. F r y m e r . as the im p o rta n c e lies in th e resu lt: th e g o d d ess m u st die. in th e A k k a d ia n v e rsio n it is th e g o d d e s s w h o s e s o rry fa te a ffe c ts th e fe rtility . she r e p re s e n te d the a ttra c tio n th a t w a s n e c e s s a ry fo r s e x u a l c o p u la tio n . h a s s u g g e s te d th a t th e D e s c e n t w a s c r e a te d to e x p la in w h y . w h ich is an act s e v e re e n o u g h to n e e d th e ju d g m e n t o f o th e r g r e a t g o d s as w ell. the m o m e n t the A n u n n a a p p e a r on the sc e n e in the S u m e ria n D e s c e n t . w h e re I n a n n a ’s d is a p p e a ra n c e d oes n o t h a v e any c o n s e q u e n c e fo r fe rtility . COM M ENTARY A N D A N A L Y SIS D e s c e n t. w h o at the e n d o f the m y th is sen t to the N e th e r w o rld to take I n a n n a ’s p la c e . and th e re fo re . F u r th e r m o r e . T h is is n o t th e case in th e S u m e ria n v e rs io n . i. A s T. all sex u al d e s ire a n d c o p u la tio n d e p e n d e d on h e r p r e s e n c e . w h en I s t a r ’s p o w e r o f s e x u a lity w as e x tin g u is h e d . th a t a lth o u g h th e S u m e ria n s a c re d m a rria g e is n ot e x c lu s iv e ly a fe rtility ritu a l. as so o n as she has b een u n d re s s e d o f h e r p o w ers and d ie s. p e o p le a n d a n im a ls also lost th e ir se x u a l d e s ire to p r o c re a te . M o s t im p o rta n tly . an d th u s a p a r a g o n for th e h u m a n so u l. are c o n n e c te d w ith fe rtility . a lth o u g h m ad e im m o rta l. i. W h e th e r th e A n u n n a a p p e a r as j u d g e s fo r th e d eities o r for h u m a n s o r w h e th e r E re s k ig a l afflic ts I s ta r w ith d eath ly d ise a se s d o es not r e a lly m a tte r. B e c a u s e o f the fe rtility th e m e . T h e d ra stic re s u lt her d e a th ca u s e s can be e x p la in e d w ith the fa c t th at. th e re the im p a c t o n fertility has a lw a y s b e e n seen in the fa te o f D u m u z i.e. 4 0 2 -4 0 4 . she is n o t a h u m a n b e in g . N a tu r a lly this co u ld on ly m e a n th at th e g o d in c h a r g e o f th e se e s s e h tia l a c tiv itie s h a d d ied an d g o n e to the N e th e r w o rld an d th e r e fo r e c o u ld no l o n g e r fu n c tio n . so m e o f the lo v e so n g s d e s c rib in g the u n io n e x p lic itly state th a t the m a rria g e a ffe c te d g e n e ra l fe rtility . 196 Kramer 1969. It h a s to be n o te d . th e m y th o f the D e s c e n t h a s b e e n c la s sifie d w ith th e S u m e- ria n s a c re d m a r ria g e c y c le . n o t d e a d .. b u t a g o d d e ss o f lo v e and s e x u a lity . 197 195 Katz 1995. see the c o m m e n t f o r lin e 10). 69 . th e D e s c e n t e x p la in e d w hy D u m u z i.K e n s k y h as p o in te d o u t. Katz 2 0 0 3 . T his g o d w as D u m u z i. as w e ll as w a rfa re . fo r in sta n c e . N . is w hen In a n n a is still a liv e. T r a d itio n a lly . F u r th e r . I n a n n a /I s ta r w as not really a fe rtility g o d d e s s . T h e re - f o re . th e u n io n b etw een the g o d d e s s an d the k in g . d u rin g th e b a r re n tim e o f the y e a r. 231 and n. this is n o t th e c a s e o f ju d g in g a d e a d p e r s o n . n o t j u s t by E re s k ig a l a lo n e .196 As alre a d y m e n tio n e d .. T h is c la s s if ic a tio n h as b e e n a re su lt o f the fa c t th a t b o th the D e s c e n t and th e s a c re d m a rria g e o f I n a n n a a n d D u m u z i. the fe rtility on e a r th d isa p p e a rs . S o p h ia ’s s p iritu a l d e a th in th e G n o s tic E x e g e s is on the Soul.4 7 . th e sh e p h e rd . I s t a r ’s d eath a ffe c ts the a n im a ls as w ell as th e h u m a n s. 107. K atz su gg ests th a t the re a so n f o r th e ir a p p e a ra n c e is th e act o f u s u rp a tio n by In a n n a . h a d su ch a tra g ic fate r e m e m b e r e d in l a m e n ts .In a n n a lo v e so n g c y c le . all th e v e g e ta tio n d ie d . o r at le a s t it is not m e n tio n e d . K r a m e r. and the a p p e a ra n c e o f the A n u n n a as ju d g e s c a lls fo r a n o th e r e x p la n a tio n . w ith th e D u m u z i. as K a tz has p o in te d o u t. S. i. I n s te a d .195 In the case th a t I n a n n a /Is ta r in the m y th is th e S o u l.

wearily. E n lil. and all alone [set] your foot in the Ekur. to ask fo r h elp in re le a sin g th e ir d a u g h te r fro m h er d e a th ly p riso n . his face gloomy. b u t o b v io u s ly the la tte r re fu s e s to h e lp his d a u g h te r in the sam e w ay as in th e S u m e ria n v e rs io n . do n’t let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter’s lumber. a n d th e re fo re P a p s u k k a l e n d s up w ith E a (= E n k i). 14 1 -1 4 2 ). m asculine w hen he acts as the m inister o f An (Sladek 1974. his hair unkempt. beat the drum for me in the sanctuary. b e fo re e n te rin g the N e th e r w o rld . th ey r e m o v e d th e ir tu rb a n s o r c o v e re d th e ir h e a d s w ith th e ir g a r m e n ts . T h e y w e re e x p e c te d to d re ss an d act in a p r o p e r w a y fo r m o u rn in g . 156-1 5 7 . do n’t let young lady Inanna be subjugated in the Netherworld. a fter s h o w in g his g rie f. See the com m ent for lin e 40 for the idea that the god dess is here described in the form o f a statue. the private place. I n a n n a in stru c ts N in s u b u r w ith the f o llo w in g w o rd s (11. 3 4 . an d th e y d id n o t b a th e o r g r o o m th e ir 198 Ninsubur is fem inine w hen she acts as the m inister o f Inanna. p ro b a b ly b e c a u s e his g reat im p o rt- an ce in th e p a n th e o n h a d d e c lin e d by th e tim e the A k k a d ia n v e rs io n w a s w ritten . an d th e n E n k i. scratch at your ears. clothe yourself in a single garment. In the S u m e ria n v e rs io n . th e m in iste r or v iz ie r (su k k al) o f the g re a t g o d s . is also I s t a r ’s v iz ie r. the temple o f Enlil. in stru c ts N in s u b u r first to p e r fo r m the p ro p e r m o u rn in g rites an d la m e n t fo r h er. do n’t let anyone subjugate your daughter in the Netherworld. In the A k k a d ia n v e rs io n th e se in stru c tio n s are ig n o re d . C o n s e q u e n tly . dressed in a mourning garment. N ote that the Sum erian word nin can m ean both “lady” and “lord. see also B lack and Green 1992. the king. scratch at your nose. do n’t let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason’s stone. T h e v isit to E n lil has b e e n c o m p le te ly ig n o re d . It w as e x p e c te d th a t b o th th e r e la tiv e s an d th e frie n d s o f the d e c e a s e d m a d e p u b lic d isp la y o f th e ir g rie f. d o n ’t let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the Netherworld. 70 . b u t are ag ain to be re a d im p lic itly in the s to ry . T h e story d o e s n o t d is c lo s e any d e ta ils o f P a p s u k k a l ’s v isit to S in . the temple of Enlil. the g o d o f w is d o m . 187. went before Sin. T h e n she s h o u ld go to e a c h o f I n a n n a ’s f a th e rs . his father. the minister of the great gods. sin ce it is o b v io u s th a t P a p s u k k a l has re c e iv e d in stru c tio n s o f w h a t to d o a fte r I s t a r ’s d e s c e n t.” Translation after Sladek 1974. T h e s e tw o p a s s a g e s c ite d a b o v e d e s c rib e h o w a n c ie n t M e s o p o ta m ia n s sh o w e d m o u rn in g a fter o n e ’s d e a th . In a n n a .4 7 ) :199 Make a lament for me in my ruined (temples).198 In th is e a rlie r v e rs io n . P a p s u k k a l g o es first to Sin an d th e n to E a to seek h elp fo r Ista r. scratch at [your eyes].” W h a t fo llo w s are f u rth e r instructiori% to also visit N a n n a . IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION Lines 81-84: P a p s u k k a l. weeping. his tears flowing in front of Ea. lament before Enlil: “ [Father] Enlil. ‫״‬ make the rounds of the [temples] of the gods for me. w h ic h m e a n t th a t th ey w o re e ith e r s a c k c lo th o r to rn c lo th e s . the public place. when you have entered the [E]kur. scratch at your buttocks. N a n n a . th e m o o n g o d . his nose downcast. L in e s 8 1 -8 4 read: Papsukkal. like a pauper. an d E n k i. I n a n n a ’s v iz ie r is c a lle d N in - s u b u r .

] . a n d also h e re I n a n n a 200 See Rubio 2 0 0 1 .m a . the g o d d e s s d e c id e s to g iv e h im as h e r su b stitu te in to th e fsfetherworld.m a .m a .r e e dm u . an d w e re u su a lly p r a c tic e d by w o m e n (b u t see the c o m m e n t f o r lin es 9 1 -9 2 fo r th e s e lf-in flic te d w o u n d s an d s e lf-c a stra tio n o f the d ev o - te e s o f I n a n n a /Is ta r) .4 0 ( t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n a n d t r a n s l a t i o n a f t e r ETCSL: I n a n a ’s d esce n t to the n eth er world): [ i. if a d e ity left h is or h e r te m p le by fo rc e o r fo r s o m e o th e r r e a s o n . lacerate your n ose for m e. T h e re w ere also p r o fe s s io n a l m a le a n d fe m a le m o u rn e rs (e .l f l . the ‘secret place.d i h a s 4. g a la /k a lu ) 200 w h o c o u ld be h ire d fo r a d is p la y o f s o rro w o r to lead th e la m e n ts (see also th e n e x t c o m m e n t fo r lines 9 1 .’ for me! May she scratch her buttocks.g .s e m e .a m u r 10.l u .g i n 7 t u g d i l i .l a .d a n u . see the com m ent for lin es 9 1 -9 2 .z u h u r .l u .[ . a n d she to re at h e r h a ir like e s p a rto g r a s s . D u m u z i in stru c ts his s is te r G e s tin a n n a to a s k th e ir m o th e r to e x p re ss h e r g r ie f o v e r h im the sam e w ay as In a n n a in s tru c ts N in s u b u r in th e D e s c e n t: 202 May she scratch her eyes for me! May she scratch her nose for me! May she scratch her ears. . cloth e y o u rself in a sin g le garm ent and all alone set your foot in the E-kur.z a l h a .d ] a -H A R 1e "1 d i n g i r .z u [h u r-m a -a b ] k i m u .r a .d a . 53-57 in C ohen 1981. e . 201 Scurlock 1995.d a h a -[m a ] -d a -H A R [ k i ] . a n d as a c o n s e q u e n c e . she rip p e d it o u t lik e e s p a rto g r a s s . 88. 202 Ersemma no. g .a b [g e s tu g 2 k i] u 6 d i.d a n u .t u k u .ru 6H d i ] r x L T A (? ) h [a -m a . .u n ] Lacerate your e y e s for m e. ) ] h a . 3 7 .e n g a l 5. in o n e o f th e e r s e m m a . On the existen ce o f fem ale g a la . e . . can stay away from the galla-demon! T h e S u m e ria n v e r s io n a lso m e n tio n s c u ltic la m e n ta tio n an d m o u rn in g for th e ru in s o f th e a b a n d o n e d te m p le s o f I n a n n a . W h e r e a s t h e D e sc e n t u s e s i m p e r a t i v e ( s g . 11.t a m u .b f .’ for me! May she [go] to the house (of) her personal god for me! May she [go] for me.201 In the S u m e ria n D e s c e n t. . H o w e v e r. 2 7 0 .m a .b ]1 h a -m a -d a -H A R k i r i 4 h a -m a -d a -H A R [ g e s ] t u g 2 k i . COM M ENTARY A N D A N A L Y SIS h a ir.a b m u .m a . in public.l a . .e C o m p a r e th e p a s s a g e w i t h In a n n a ’s D esc en t.9 2 ) .. 180-185. 3 .g .m a . . .d a -H A R . In private. the h ouse o f E n lil. L ike a pauper. in th e la m e n ts it w as c u s to m a r y to w is h fo r the retu rn o f th e d eity to the te m p le in q u e s tio n . (that) I. O n th e o th e r h a n d . lacerate your buttocks for m e.) f o r m s .k u r .a b .m u .n e [ ( . 2 . For other groups o f p ersons perform ing the m ourning. T h e m o u rn in g rites c o u ld la s t fo r as lo ng as s ev en d ay s i f th e d e c e a s e d w a s a p r o m in e n t p e rso n . 87: [ i . h u r .) f o r m s .m a . h a -m a . see al-R aw i 1992.” fo r w h ic h see th e n e x t c o m m e n t) th a t.11.e g u r u s .z u ] h u r .z u d i l i [ g u b . Lacerate your ears for m e. 71 . 1885-1886. D u m u z i m a k e s th e tra g ic m ista k e o f n o t s h o w in g a n y sig n s o f g r ie f o v e r his w i f e ’s d e a th .d a . H e re it is In a n n a th a t has le ft h e r te m p le s .u 6. 8 5 .m e .a b e .r i .a b g i r i 17. th e e r s e m m a u s e s p r e c a t i v e ( s g . it re su lte d in th e ru in o f th a t te m p le . . the ‘public place.u l .l u n u .[ .z u h u r .by h e r o w n w ill .g a l .b y d e s c e n d in g to the N e th e rw o rld (see also the c o m m e n t fo r lin e 4 0 ).la m e n ts (se e la te r). th e en d o f th e S u m e ria n v e r s io n d e s c rib e s h o w I n a n n a “w e p t b itte rly fo r h e r h u s b a n d ( fo llo w e d by fo u r f ra g m e n ta ry lin e s ) . the young man. ] . It is am ply d o c u m e n te d in the la m e n ts w ritten in E m e s a l (“ w o m e n ’s l a n g u a g e . T e a rin g o u t o n e ’s h a ir o r s c ra tc h in g th e c h eek s and b re a s t w ere e x tre m e a c ts o f m o u rn in g .” O n e m ig h t also ad d th a t.

to re s c u e the g o d d e s s.munus i I-n a -di-n i-ra-x[. no. etc. 9 7 . w here its m eaning is “H is/Its rising is brilliant. the name could be given to both m en and w om en. n. which are also addressed to Inanna.” w hich refers to the rising o f a ce le stia l body. n. It is his ta sk to ask fo r th e w a te rsk in . a n d in this w ay to h a v e the d ead g o d d e s s to h im s e lf (see b e lo w . in fact. n a m e ly t h e ’tra g ic fa te o f D u m u z i.. halhallatu ). su ch as a d ru m . TM H N F 5 . In the S u m e ria n Descent. and it is. and 369.a. w h o s e n a m e m e a n s “H is A p p e a r a n c e (lit.). Bernhardt. C ohen. and nos. 22 9 . Stam m 1939. 8 8.e. he is an assinnu. e . th e initial lin es 35 a n d 36 o f the re le v a n t S u m e ria n p a s sa g e b e g in w ith th e w o rd s er (la m e n t) a n d sem (a ty p e o f a d r u m /ta m b o u r in e . E n k i (= E a ) sen ds tw o p e r s o n s . th e d e a d Is ta r. Iddin-Dagan A.” 206 A c c o rd in g to the N in e v e h r e c e n s io n (m a n u s c r ip t A ) . 1872-73. 7 . see the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 9 1 . th e re are a few e rs e m m a s th a t fo c u s o n I n a n n a ’s d e s c e n t to th e lan d o f th e d e a d as w ell as th e su b se q u e n t e ffe c ts o f h e r d eath on h e r city o f U ru k . 3 6 9 ).d r u m /ta m b o u r in e ” . 7 9 .g .203 T h e lam en ts c o u ld be p e rfo rm e d by sin g in g o r be a c c o m p a n ie d w ith a m u sic a l in s tru m e n t. It is th e ir ta s k to s p rin k le the life -g iv in g p la n t and the life -g iv in g w a te r on th e g o d d e s s in o rd e r to b rin g h er to life. w h e re a s the S u m e ria n te rm k u rg a rra (k u r-g a r-ra ) is tra n sla te d into A k k a d ia n by a lo a n w o rd kurgarru .. and 25. and to be a llo w e d to h a v e a d rin k f ro m th a t. i. as is shown by the unpublished M iddle Babylonian personnel roster CBS 3 4 7 2 . h is sister G e s tin a n n a . e . the celestia l b ody.204 In fa c t. 18. 205 See C ohen 1981. kurgarru and the other d evotees o f Inanna discussed b elo w . 7 9 . T h e S u m e ria n te rm fo r th e A k k a d ia n assinnu is sag u rsag (s a g -u r-sa g ).gaba 1 UD-sM-ZALAG2-/r dum u. ib id . is e x p la in e d in a S u m e ria n sa c re d m ar- riag e te x t.. a fte r w h ic h he d isa p p e a rs fro m th e sc e n e . 17. 2 8 -3 6 .ni (v iz . rea liz e s the p la n a n d c u rses Asusu- namir. 147. asu. he is a kulu’u. i. 50) translates the nam e as “H is departure (from the underworld) is sp len did. 6 . 187-188. n a m e ly th e e r -s e m -m a (“ w ail o f the s e m . the c o m m e n t fo r lines 1 0 9 -1 1 8 ). 206 M . 1 sum -^ag). w h ic h fo rm s th e n a m e o f o n e o f the m a jo r typ es o f E m e s a l la m e n ts . 144-152. and his m o th e r Z e rtu r (S irtu r) all h av e o v e r h im . ‘C o m in g O u t ’) is B r ig h t.” W .v . and 106 that deal with the destruction o f the tem ple o f Eanna and the city o f Uruk w h ile the goddess is held in the Netherworld.1 and 3 4 . von S oldt (in Katz 1995. see also N issin en . 204 Sladek 1974. CAD A /2 . 1981. as they are not alw ays mournful or sad (ib id . it is c le a r th a t b o th o f th e m b e lo n g e d to the v a s t v a rie ty o f d e v o te e s o f In a n n a /Is ta r.]\ and 8': dum u..205 Lines 91-92: In o rd e r to r e sc u e h is d a u g h te r fro m th e r e a lm o f th e d e a d .e . I. for ersem m as nos.. the ersem m a o f the goddess N ingirgilu (= Inanna). N a m ta r w h o sp rin k le s I s t a r ’s b o d y w ith th e w afer o f life. and not to the bearer o f the name. E r e s k ig a l. E a .207 T h e fa c t th a t b o th o f th e se tw o g ro u p s w e re sex u ally a m b iv a le n t o r tra n s v e s tite s . n. C ohen 1981. w hich only praise Inanna. nos. h o w e v e r . a n d a c c o rd in g to th e A s su r re c e n s io n ( m a n u s c r ip t C ). 165 deal with the capture and death o f D um uzi. w h ic h w as w ritte n fo r th e Isin D y n a sty k in g 203 S ee.2 . se e . Further. In fa c t. s. Asusu-namir. In these exam p les. 19) has remarked that the name Asusu-namir occurs in other texts as w e ll. 142. the g o d o f w is d o m . 11. N issin en (1998b . side B ii' 5': m unus UD-iw-ZALAGj-ir dum u. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION h e r s e lf asks N in s u b u r to m a k e su ch a la m e n t for h e r. H allo 1995.g . T h e e x a c t n atu re o f th e se tw o re sc u e rs h as b e e n m u c h d e b a te d . 6 0. 3 2. a k u rg a rra a n d a g a la tu rra . The nam e is frequently attested in the texts from Nippur during the K assite period (cf. the su ffix -su can only refer to u d .. 2 1 . 34. Krecher 1966.. 207 On assinnu. 72 . a n d th a t th e y w ere se x u a lly a m b iv a le n t. C lay 1 9 1 2 . b u t b a s e d on th e e v id e n c e .. c re a te s the “ w o r d ” ( zikru ). A k k . a n d the so rro w his w ife I n a n n a . 184 n. T h e re are also e rse m m a s th a t d e a l w ith the a fte rm a th o f the D e s c e n t . 32 and 106.9 2 ). and nos. Cohen notes that the term “w a il” is som ew hat m isleadin g for the ersem m a-com p osition s. te m p le s .

C O M M ENTARY A N D A N A L Y SIS

I d d in - D a g a n (ca. 1 9 7 4 -1 9 5 4 BCE). In lines 6 0-6 3 o f the te x t in q u e s tio n , the
s a g u rs a g are d e s c rib e d in th e fo llo w in g m a n n e r :208
Dressed with m en’s clothing on the right side, they parade before her, holy
Inanna...
Adorned (?) with w om en’s clothing on the left side, they parade before her,
holy Inanna.
A p p a r e n t l y , the ro le o f tra n s v e s tite s an d m e n b e h a v in g lik e w o m e n w as not
te m p o r a r y , b u t p e r m a n e n t, a c h ie v e d b y c a s tra tio n o r s e lf-e m a s c u la tio n 209 as
r e fe r r e d to in the sa m e te x t (1. 76): *
Those who (kurgarra) cover their swords with gore spatter blood as they parade
before her, holy Inanna.
F u r th e r , I d d in - D a g a n A 4 9 says th a t th e sag u rsag (a s s in n u ) c o v e re d th e ir
b o d ie s (k u s-b i-a ) w ith th e “ s k in /le a th e r /b o d y o f d iv in ity (k u s n a m - d ig ir - ra ) ,”
th u s in d ic a tin g th a t sin ce th e y w e re a llo w e d to be d re s s e d as d eities o r e v e n
h a d d iv in e b o d ies (k us = b o d y ) , th e y w e r e , in fa c t, id e n tifie d w ith I n a n n a .210
I n a n n a /Is ta r h e r s e l f w as n o t o n ly a b e a u tif u l m a id e n and v irg in , th e G o d d e s s
p a r e x c e lle n c e , b u t she w as also a n d r o g y n o u s , as she h ad b o th fe m in in e an d
m a s c u lin e c h a ra c te ris tic s e n tw in e d in h er. H e r n a tu re w as b ip o la r in m a n y
r e s p e c ts , c o m b in in g an d m e d ia tin g th e o p p o s ite s , in c lu d in g fe m in in e and
m a s c u lin e c h a r a c te r is tic s , e ro tic sex a n d c a s tra tio n .211 S h e h ad the a b ility to
c h a n g e p e o p l e ’s s e x , o r ra th e r, h e r fo llo w e rs e m u la te d h e r n atu re by e m a s c u -
la tio n , b u t a p p a re n tly also in o th e r, le ss ra d ic a l w a y s , such as b y d r e s s in g in
th e c lo th e s o f the o p p o s ite sex. T h e f irs t m ille n n iu m te x t E r r a a n d I s u m IV
5 5 -5 8 s ta te s :212
de-ku-u e-an-na kur-gar-ri L U .i-sin-[ni]
sa ana sup-lu-uh U N .M E S dIstar zik-ru-su-nu u-te-ru ana M [L M E S ]
na-as pat-r i na-as nag-la-bi qup-pe-e u sur-t[i ]
sa ana ul-lu-us kab-ta-at dIstar i-tak-ka-lu ra^-[sak-ka]
They remove from Eanna (= Istar’s temple in Uruk) the kurgarru and issinnu
(= assinnu), whose manhood Jstar changed to womanhood in order to strike
awe into the people, the wielders o f daggers and razors, vintner’s shears and
flint knives, who take part in tabooed acts for the entertainment of Istar.
A t M a ri th ere w e re c a s tra te assm n M -p ro p h ets in the serv ice o f the g o d d e s s
A n u n itu m (= Is ta r), tw o o f th e m k n o w n b y th e ir p ro p e r n a m e s .213 A c c o rd -
in g ly , the e v id e n c e also su g g e sts that s o m e o f I s t a r ’s or M u ll is s u ’s p ro p h e ts

208 ETCSL: A sir-n am ursaga to N in siana f o r Id d in -D agan (Iddin -D agan A).
209 Groneberg 1986, 39 and n. 86.
210 G. L eick (1 9 9 4 , 158-1 5 9 ) su ggests that kus-nam -digir-ra refers to the p hysical distinction o f the
sag-ur-sag divin ely b estow ed on these in dividu als. This p h ysical distinction could have b een a genital
m alform ation , herm aphroditism , or absence o f external g en ita ls. Like the Indian Hijras, their M esopota-
m ian eq u ivalen ts, assinnus (and sim ilar p eop le) w ere part o f the religiou s system , nam ely Inanna/Istar’s
cu lt.
2!1 Lapinkivi 2 0 0 4 , 178-182; G roneberg 1986, 3 0 -4 6 .
212 Cagni 1969, 110-111; translation in “Erra and Ishum ” in Foster 1 9 9 6 ,7 8 1 -7 8 2 .
213 In A R M 10 7 = ARM 26 213 an assinnu named Selebum (cf. AR M 10 80 = ARM 26 197 and the
end o f the letter) falls into a trance in the tem ple o f Anunitum and delivers an oracle to the king; in ARM
10 6 = AR M 26 21 2 another assinnu, nam ed Ili-haznaya, d elivers an oracle to the king (see a lso Parpola
1997a, CIII n. 220; cf. X C V I n. 138.

73

!ST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION

(,raggimu/mahhu ) w e re c a s tra te s .214 T h e re are tw o p ro p h e c ie s fo r the N e o -
A s sy ria n ru le r E s a r h a d d o n f ro m th e p ro p h e ts B a y a a n d I lu s s a -a m u r , w h ic h
in d ic a te th a t th e se tw o p e rso n s w e re at th e sam e tim e b o th a w o m a n a n d a
m an. T h e ir n a m e s h a v e a fe m in in e d e te rm in a tiv e M I , b u t th e y are r e fe r r e d to
as D U M U (“ s o n ” ) o r w ith a m a sc u lin e p r o n o u n .215
In the A s su r re c e n s io n o f th e Descent, I s t a r ’s r e s c u e r is c a lle d kulu’u. S in ce
the tw o te rm s , assinnu an d kulu’u, o c c u r as v arian ts o f o n e a n o th e r, it is c le a r
th at th e se tw o o ffic e s w e re re la te d , o r ev e n e q u a te d . B a s e d on this e q u a tio n ,
it is safe to a s su m e th a t the role o f the kulu’u w as sim ilar to th at o f the assinnu
in the c u lt o f Ista r. A c c o r d in g ly , the e v i d e n c e 5in d ic a te s th a t th e kulu’u w ere
not m en: (P N ) sa taqbu umma kulu’u la zikaru su, “ (P N ) a b o u t w h o m y o u
said , ‘he is a kulu’u, h e is n o t a m a n ’” (A fO 10 3:21) 216 In a n o th e r p ie c e o f
e v id e n c e kulu’u is p a r a lle le d w ith a harimtu, a “fe m a le p r o s titu te ” : amat
abika amat ummika amat ahatika am at L U . kulu’u u harimti ali attadin ina
erseti mukattimti, “ I h a v e g iv e n to the c o v e rin g o f earth th e w o rd o f y o u r (m y
e n e m y ’s) fa th e r, th e w o rd o f y o u r m o th e r, th e w o rd o f y o u r sister (as it w e re)
the w o rd o f the kulu’u a n d the w o rd o f th e h a rlo t o f the c ity ” (K A R 4 3 :3 , d u p l.
6 3 :3 , tra n sl. a fte r C A D K , s.v. kulu’u, 5 2 9 ). A c c o rd in g to y et a n o th e r p ie c e
o f e v id e n c e kulu’u is liste d as p a rt o f I s t a r ’s in tim a te en to u ra g e : ittiki liruba
salilki tabu h[ab]bubuki u kulu’uki, “let y o u r sw eet b e d f e llo w , y o u r lo v e r a n d
y o u r kulu’u co m e in w ith y o u (Z A 32 174:47 [SB n a m b u r b i] , see R A 4 9 182:3,
tra n sl. a fte r the C A D , ib id .).217 B a s e d o p this e v id e n c e , it is lik ely th a t kulu’u
w as s e x u a lly a m b iv a le n t, a tra n s v e s tite o r a c a s tra te , a n d c o m p a ra b le to a
fe m a le p ro stitu te .
In the S u m e ria n Descent, I n a n n a ’s o th e r re s c u e r is c a lle d g a la tu rra (g ala-
tu r-ra). T h e g a la (A k k . kalu) w e re ritu a l sin g ers w ho sp e c ia liz e d in re c itin g
la m e n ta tio n s . T h e y a c c o m p a n ie d th e ir sin g in g w ith m u s ic a l in s tru m e n ts , su ch
as a h a rp o r a ly re (b a la g ), o r w ith d iffe re n t k in d s o f d ru m s ( halhallatu,
lilissu).2n S u m e ria n cu ltic la m e n ta tio n s w ere w ritten in E m e s a l, “ w o m e n ’s
la n g u a g e .” T h e e x a c t n atu re o f E m e s a l is d isp u te d , b u t w h e th e r it can be
called a n o th e r d ia le c t o r w h e th e r it o n ly h as to do w ith the literary g e n re a n d
style (u se d in la m e n ta tio n s , c ity la m e n ts, w o m e n ’s o r g o d d e s s e s ’ s p eech in
m y th s and lo v e s o n g s ) , it is s tro n g ly c o n n e c te d w ith w o m e n an d th e fe m a le
s p h e re .219 F o r in s ta n c e , in th e T a m m u z c u lt, la m e n ta tio n s a n d m o u rn in g w e re
larg ely p e r fo r m e d by w o m e n , o r b y g a la - c h a n te rs , and the T a m m u z tex ts o f
the firs t m ille n n iu m w e re m o stly w ritte n in E m e s a l.220 F u r th e r m o r e , th e
e v id e n c e fro m E z e k ie l ( E z e k 8:1 4) re fe rs to w o m e n ’s p a r tic ip a tio n in th e

214 Istar o f A rbela and M u llissu , A ssu r’s w ife , are frequently equated, e.g . in oracle no 2 .4 ,1 . 30': “The
word o f Istar o f A rbela, the word o f Q ueen M u llissu !” For this and other exam p les, see Parpola 1997a,
X V III, and n. 5.
215 Parpola 1997a, Baya (Mi.ba-ia-a d u m u u r u .ar-b a-il), IL, oracle 1.4:40‫ ;׳‬Ilussa-am ur (M 1.D1NG1R-.sa
a-m [ur], referred to w ith the sg. m. pronoun a tta ) , L, oracle 1.5. For the term inology o f the prophets, see
ib id ., X L V -X L V II.
216 “K u lu ’u la zikaru su” appears in a letter about a short-term ruler o f A ssyria, N inurta-tukulti-A ssur
(ca. 1115 BCE), see W eidner 1935-1 9 3 6 , 3.
Zimmern 1 9 18-19, 174; E beling 1955, 182.
2!8 For the gal&lkalu see C A D K , s.v . kalu, 91 -94; and, e .g ., G elb 1 9 7 5 ,6 4 -7 4 ; H allo 1 9 9 5 ,1 8 7 2 ; R ubio
2 0 0 1 , 270; Krecher 1966, 2 6 -2 8 , 35-41.
219 For the use o f E m esal, see e .g ., Krecher 1966; T hom sen 1987a, 2 8 5 -2 9 4 ; S efati 1998, 53-55; and
R ubio 2 0 0 1 , 2 6 9 -2 7 1 , all with references.
220 Kutscher 1990, 44.

74

CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS

m o u r n in g r itu a ls , as d o c s th e m o u rn in g f o r T a ’uz (= D u m u z i) a m o n g the
S a b e a n w o m e n in th e city o f H a rra n in m e d ie v a l tim e s .221
T h e c a s tra tio n o f th e g a la is a d is p u te d m a tte r, sin ce th ere is e v id e n c e th a t
th e r e w e re b o th f e m a le an d m a le g a la - c h a n te rs , an d m a n y a d m in is tra tiv e tex ts
m e n tio n th at a g a la c o u ld h a v e c h ild re n a n d a w if e .222 O n the o th e r h a n d ,
W . G. L a m b e rt h as p o in te d o u t th at th e g a la c o u ld be c a s tra te d and still h av e
c h ild r e n , since they c o u ld s im p ly h a v e a d o p te d .223 In any c a s e , the g a la w ere
c u ltic s in g e rs , an d if th e m a le g a la w e re n o t p h y s ic a lly c a s tra te d (o r m a y b e
b o rn w ith o u t a c le a r g e n d e r ), p e rh a p s th e y w<gre th en tra n sv e s tite s , im ita tin g
b e in g w o m e n . F u r th e r m o r e , it is in te re s tin g th at the w o rd itself, g a la , is a
h o m o n y m fo r th e w o rd g a l4-la , “v u lv a ,” w h ic h c o u ld in d ic a te th e k a l u ’s
s e x u a l a m b iv a le n c e .224 T o c o n c lu d e , I n a n n a ’s re sc u e r, the g a la tu rra , w as a
j u n i o r g a la - c h a n te r ( o f l a m e n ta tio n s ) ,” w h ic h m a y h a v e re fe rre d to a c a s tra te
c h o i r b o y .225
T h e r e is so m e e v id e n c e , a lb e it s c a n ty , for h o m o s e x u a l ac tiv ity o f the
d e v o te e s o f the g o d d e s s . F o r in s ta n c e , o n e o f the o m en s o f the S u m m a a lu
s e rie s sp eak s o f a m a n w h o h as a n eed to h a v e sex w ith a n o th e r m a n , “lik e an
a s s i n n u r 226 A n o th e r s ta te s , th a t, “ if a m an c o p u la te s w ith an a s s in n u , a h a rd
d e s tin y w ill le a v e h im ( ? ) .”227 F u r th e r , b a s e d on the e q u a tio n o f fe m a le
p r o s titu te s , h a r im tu , w ith k u lu 'u (see a b o v e ), W . R. S lad ek has te n ta tiv e ly
s u g g e s te d th at the k u l u ’u w e r e p e rh a p s m a le h o m o s e x u a l p r o s titu te s .228 W h e n
r e v ie w in g the e v id e n c e , M . N is s in e n n o te s th a t th e re is th e p o s sib ility o f an
a s s in n u actin g as “ a p a s s iv e p a r tn e r in a sex u al c o n ta c t w ith m e n ,” b u t if th at
w a s th e c a s e , it d o es n o t n e c e s s a rily r e fe r to o n e ’s sex u al o rie n ta tio n , sin ce
se x u a l c o n ta c t w ith a d e v o te e o f I n a n n a /Is ta r w as the sam e as a u n io n w ith
th e g o d d e s s h e rse lf. F u r th e r m o r e , as N is s in e n p o in ts o u t, if the d e v o te e s w ere
r e a lly e m a s c u la te d , th e y h a rd ly w ere s e x u a lly o rie n te d to a n y o n e , w o m a n or
m an. S till, the lo g o g ra p h ic s p e llin g o f th e w o rd gala(&a//i) is p r o v o c a tiv e ,
s in c e i t w a s w ritte n w ith th e sign s US X U , w h ic h eq u als G IS .D U R , G IS m e a n in g
p e n i s , ” an d D U R “b u t t o c k s / a n u s .” T h e lo g o g ra p h ic sp ellin g its e lf th u s sug-
g e s ts th a t the s e x u a lity o f th e ka lu w as o r ie n te d to w ard s m e n .230

221 C hw olson 1 8 56/1965, 27.
222 S ee R ubio, ibid. On the ex iste n c e o f fem ale gala, se e al-R aw i 1992, 180-185. On gala in the third
m illenn iu m having fa m ilies, see G elb 1975, 4 3 -7 6 and Sallaberger 1992 149-150 288 298
223 Lambert 1992, 151. ’
224 R ubio 2 001, 270.
225 S ee Parpola 1997a, X C V I, n. 138.
7‫׳‬c 22i L CT 39 44:15: ° s -s e - e -n i-iS na -a k zi-ka-ru-ta hu-us-su-uh-su\ see also Bottero and P etschow 1972-
/4 0 4 , ‫כ‬.

227 CT 39 45:32: d i s (summa) na(< 2h 1‫׳‬/m) a -n a as-sin -n i-te dan-na-tu d u 8-5k . The translation o f w ould
require the v erb p a ta ru (D v s) = “to relea se, free” (C A D D , s.v . dannatu, 8 8 ), but then the pronom inal su ffix
sh ould be -su, not -su.
228 Sladek 1974, 88-89.
229 S ee also N issinen 1998b, 2 8 -3 4 , for further ev id en ce on the sexual orientation o f Inanna/Istar’s
“w k 7 ^ d ev0tl0n o f the d ev o tees to the g o d d ess, one m ight add here yet another saying■
1 S 9 248 2 4 9 7 ** ^ 6X0116 ^ Whi° h bel0n gs 10 my lady Inanna ” ’ (Gordon
230 N issin en 1998b, 150, n. 88; so also R ubio 2 0 0 1 . 270

75

!ST A R 'S d e s c e n t a n d r e s u r r e c t io n

In a d d itio n to th e gala(fca/w), cu ltic la m e n ta tio n s , w e e p in g a n d w a ilin g w ere
also p e rfo rm e d b y th e e c sta tic lu -a l-e -d e (m a h h u ),231 p ilip ili, k u rg a rra {kur-
g a r r u ) and s a g u rsa g (a ss in n u ), as d e s c rib e d in In a n n a C 8 8 - 9 0 :232
The ecstatic, the transformed pilipili, the kurgarra and the sagursag ... Lament
and song ... They exhaust themselves with weeping and grief, they... laments.
T h e m e a n in g o f the p ilip ili,233 p e rs o n s th a t h a v e “ c h a n g e d ” or b e e n
tra n s f o rm e d ” (b a l),234 is f u rth e r e x te n d e d in In a n n a C 8 0 -8 1 , w h ic h e x p la in s
ho w the p ilip ili w e re c r e a te d :235 ^
nir-da gu-la-ni su-ni-ta u-mu-e-ni-in-gar
ugu-ba giri‫ ״‬su gal-la mu-ni-in‫־‬ak pi-li‫־‬pi-li mu-ni-in‫־‬sa4
When she had removed the great punishment from her body ,
she invoked blessings upon it, she caused it to be named pilipili.
T h e re f o re , it se e m s th a t p ilip ili w e re c re a te d fro m the g o d d e s s h e rse lf: she
re m o v e d p u n is h m e n t and sin f ro m h e r b o d y , p u rifie d th a t p a r t by b le s s in g it
(u g u -b a refers to an in a n im a te o b je c t), a n d fro m th a t c re a te d p ilip ili. F u rth e r-
m o re , she g a v e the p ilip ili w is d o m , as “ sh e (o p en ed ) the d o o r o f the H o u s e
o f W is d o m , an d m a d e k n o w n its in te rio r ” (1. 84). In s h o rt, In a n n a C s u g g e sts
th a t the p ilip ili w e re s in n e rs , b u t p u rifie d f ro m th a t sta te , a n d m o re o v e r, g iv e n
w is d o m 236
T h e sa m e id e a o f p u r ific a tio n is fo u n d in th e S u m e ria n D e s c e n t , w h e re E n k i
c re a te d b o th th e k u rg a rra a n d the g a la tu rra b y re m o v in g d irt fro m th e tip o f
his f in g e rn a il, and th e n g av e th e m the “ life -g iv in g p la n t” a n d th e “ life -g iv in g
w a te r” in o rd e r to b rin g In a n n a b a c k f ro m th e N e th e rw o rld . In o th e r w o rd s ,
b o th k u rg a rra a n d g a la tu rra w e re c r e a te d f ro m an u n c le a n s u b sta n c e , b u t th e n
p u rifie d w h e n th ey w e re g iv e n th e p o s s e s s io n o f life -g iv in g s u b sta n c e s . T h e
b ip a rtite n a tu re o f th e se c u lt p e rs o n s is c o m p a ra b le to th e n atu re o f the
g o d d e ss h erself: she is b o th a v irg in a n d a p r o s titu te , e x p r e s s e d , fo r in s ta n c e ,
in h e r e p ith e t n u -g ig ( a n -n a ), w h ic h im p lie s b o th th e n e g a tiv e a s p e c t o f a
“ ta b o o e d w o m a n /p r o s titu te ” a n d the p o s itiv e a s p e c t o f b e in g the “ m istre ss
o v e r h e a v e n .” 237 M . N is s in e n h a s s u g g e s te d th a t the w a y E n k i c r e a te d In an -

231 Mahhu can also be translated as “ecstatic prophet,” for w hich see Parpola 1997a, X L V f.
232 ETCSL: A hymn to Inana (Inana C ) 88-90:
lu a l- e d - d e p i- li- p i- li b a l k u r - g a r - r a s a g -u r-s a g -e -n e [ ...]
i - l u s i r - r a - a m R1? a z u ? b a r n e [ . . . ]
e r e r - r a b f - f b - k u s - u - n e a - n i r m u -x -[...]
233 The lexical lists equate the p ilip ili with the assinnu, kurgarru and kulu'u, as w ell as with other
groups o f d evotees, for w hich see C A D A /2 , s.v. assinnu, 341.
234 1‫ ״‬Inanna an d Ebih 173-175, the p ilip ili are m entioned together with other cu ltic persons: I have
given the kurgarra cu lt performers a dagger and prod. I have given the gala cult performers ub and 1111
drums. I have changed the headgear o f the p ilip ili cult performers (ETCSL: Inana and Ebih). Here the
last lin e 175, p i-li-p i-li sag-su bal m u-ni-ak, is understood as changing the garm ents (headgear) o f the
p ilip ili w hereas L im et (1 9 7 1 , 18) understands this as describing Inanna’s ability to turn men into w om en
and v ic e versa, and thus translates “a l ’inverti, j ’ai change le sexe.
235 ETCSL: A hymn to Inana (Inana C).
236 p i-li-p i-li p ossib ly derives from the verb p i-la (= p il/p il) = to be/m ake obscure, to be/m ake d irty,
d efiled , disgraced (see H alloran, Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0) and Groneberg 1986, n. 54; van derT oorn
1985 29
237 R ecen tly, A . Z goll (1 9 9 7 , 181-195) has su ggested that the epithet n u-gig an-na does not m ean
“hierodule o f A n” but refers to Inanna’s pow er over heaven (an), in juxtaposition to her epithet lady of
all the lands” (nin kur-kur-ra). The term itse lf is w ell suited for describing Inanna, as its form carries the
negative aspect o f a “tabooed w om an/prostitute” (nu = lu , used to indicate p ro fessio n s, and g ig = sick ,
illn e ss, e v il, abom ination, taboo”) w h ile its use carries the p o sitiv e aspect o f the “m istress over heaven
(Lapinkivi 2 0 0 4 , 70-71; 2 4 3 -2 4 4 ).

76

CO M M EN TARY A N D A N A L Y SIS

n a ’s re s c u e rs f ro m th e d irt u n d e r his fin g e rn a ils d e s c rib e s the m a rg in a lity o f
th e s e b e in g s , i.e ., th e m a r g in a lity o f I n a n n a ’s s e x u a lly a m b iv a le n t d e v o te e s
as a w h o le . A lth o u g h th ey w e re p a rt o f th e g o d d e s s ’s cu lt, th ey w ere n o t re a lly
a c c e p te d in the s o c ie ty b e c a u s e o f th e ir se x u a l d e f ic ie n c y . W h e n d is c u s s in g
th e m a rg in a lity o f th e s e d e v o te e s ( assinnu, kurgarru, pilpilu, and kalu),
N is s in e n also p o in ts o u t th a t th e y w e re c h a ra c te riz e d in a d e m e a n in g m a n n e r
b y c a llin g th em sinnisanu, “ m a n - w o m a n ,” o r u r.s a l, “ m a n - w o m a n ,” lite ra lly
“ d o g - w o m a n .” F u r th e r m o r e , as a lre a d y m e n tio n e d e a rlie r, a m an c o u ld be
r id ic u le d by c a llin g h im a kulu’u. In a d d itio n , the assinnu o f the D escen t is
c u r s e d to h a v e an in h u m a n life , w h ic h su g g e sts p o o r so cial sta tu s .238
A c c o r d in g to S. P a r p o la , th e m y th o f th e D esc en t h a d a ro le in the e c s ta tic
c u lt o f I n a n n a /Is ta r, a c c o rd in g to w h ic h th e fo llo w e rs o f th e g o d d e s s , i.e., h e r
c u lt p e r s o n n e l, w ere p r o m is e d s a lv a tio n fro m the m a te ria l w o rld b y fo llo w in g
h e r e x a m p le set in th e Descen t. P a r p o la h as s u g g e ste d th a t the task o f the
assinnu w as to act as a “h e l p e r ” o f th e n o v ic e s o f I s t a r ’s c u lt, c o m fo rtin g a n d
g iv in g th e p ro m is e o f s a lv a tio n , an d in tro d u c in g th e m to the d o c trin e o f the
a s c e n t o f the soul. In o th e r w o rd s , it w as the assinnu’s task to s p iritu a lly
p r e p a r e th e in itiates for th e fin a l u n io n in h e a v e n , thus c o a le s c in g w ith the
ta s k o f th e b r id e g r o o m - s a v io r in th e G n o s tic te x t Exegesis on the Soul, w ith
w h o m the re b o rn soul S o p h ia u n ite s in the “b rid a l c h a m b e r ” in o r d e r to
“ r e c e iv e the lig h t” p r io r to h e r fin al a s c e n t to h e a v e n , thus h e lp in g th e soul
o n h e r w ay fo r the fin a l u n io n w ith G 0 4 •239 In G n o s is , a p e rs o n n e e d e d h e lp -
a c a ll, a w o rd (logos) f ro m G o d - in o r d e r to b e “ a w a k e n e d fro m his s le e p ”
o r m a k e h im “ so b er f ro m h is d r u n k e n n e s s ,” i.e., b e d e liv e re d fro m the state
o f ig n o r a n c e .240 T h e assinnu’s ta s k as th e “ h e lp e r ” is in d ic a te d in th e S u m e-
r ia n Descent, w h e re h e c o m fo rts E r e s k ig a l, the “ soul in p a in ,” a n d b rin g s
I n a n n a to life - a s itu a tio n c o m p a r a b le w ith the S o u l, S o p h ia , w ho w as ra g in g
lik e a w o m a n in la b o r p r io r to h er s a lv a tio n f ro m th e w o r ld .241 A c c o rd in g to
th is in te rp re ta tio n , the q u e e n o f th e N e th e r w o rld m ay b e seen as a h y p o s ta s is
o f th e q u e e n o f h e a v e n , th e s in fu l soul vs. th e p u rifie d s o u l.242 In the M id d le
A s s y r ia n f ra g m e n t o f th e Desc ent, E re s k ig a l is said to be “Is ta r ( istaru ) w h o
r e s id e s in the m id s t o f I r k a l la .” I n a n n a /I s t a r ’s tw o -s id e d n atu re is also p r e s e n t
in th e p la q u e o f th e Q u e e n o f the N ig h t: th e u p p e r p a rt b e in g c e le s tia l/p u re
a n d th e lo w e r p art d e m o n ic /im p u r e (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin e 10).
T h e sam e d u ty o f b e in g th e “ h e lp e r ” is a lso in d ic a te d in the Gilgames Epic
I 2 7 0 , w h e re it is E n k i d u ’s ta s k to be th e “h e lp e r /s a v io r o f the f r i e n d ”
(musezib ibri ).243 T h is f rie n d w o u ld h a v e b e e n G ilg a m e s , a m o d el f o r the
h u m a n so u l, w h o s e jo u r n e y f r o m fa lle n state to p e rfe c tio n th e Epic d e s c rib e s .
A p p r o p r ia te ly , the Epic calls E n k id u the “m u l e ,” w h ic h refers to his e m a s c u -
la te d s ta te .244 E v e n t h ro u g h the m e a n in g o f E n k i d u ’s n a m e , “ C r e a te d b y

238 N issin en 1998b, 2 8 -3 3 , and n. 4 6 .
239 S ee Parpola 1997a, X C II-X C III, nn. 119-121.
240 Rudolph 1987, 119f. E .g ., in the apocryphal A c ts o f John, 96 (e .g ., in James 1924), the redeem er
says to h is disciples: “Y ou cou ld by no m eans understand what you suffer i f I had not been sent to you as
a word (logos) from the Father” (see R udolph, ib id ., 120).
241 The E xegesis on the Soul, N H C 11,6 132 3-5; in R obinson 1988, 190f.
242 S ee Parpola 1997a, L X X X V III, n. 91; p. X C II, n. 119.
243 Parpola 1997a, X C II-X C III, n. 119; Parpola 1997b.
244 A s Enkidu fights against the B u ll o f H eaven, he cuts o f f the “right hand” (imittu, also “shoulder”)
o f the B u ll and throws it at Istar’s fa ce (Tablet V I). The “right hand” is here a metaphor for the p en is, as
in Mt 5 :3 0 , where Jesus preaches about ad ultery. In T ablet X , Enkidu is called the “rejected m ule” (kudanu

77

d u s e d to d e s c rib e th e m o v e m e n t is e n ig m a tic .” kisru. In the G ilg a m e s Epic Enkidu is equally ca lled a “m eteorite. kulu’utu an d kurgarrutu. n. zakaru = “ to s p e a k ” ). w hich denotes a d evotee o f Istar equipped w ith a sw ord and participating in self-castration scen es (see Parpola 1997a. w h o w as c r e a te d by E a w hen he c r e a te d a “ zikru . sin c e in a M id d le B a b y lo n ia n w is d o m te x t. the “coiffured m an. T h e p e rm a n e n t statu s o f th e ir c h a r a c te r is also in d ic a te d by th e ir e m a s c u la tio n . XCII-III n. 242 See G roneberg 1986. in d ic a tin g th a t the assinnu w as the p e rso n i- fic atio n o f the w o rd o f E a .” thus m aking a pun with the w ords kezru and kisru. “ s p iritu a l a s c e n t.A s s y ria n d o c u m e n t w h e re it is m e n tio n e d th at a p e rs o n ta u g h t a n o th e r p e rso n the art o f kurgarru f o r tw o y e a r s . w e e p in g . n a m e ly o f A n u . 39. see also N issin en 1998b. N o te th a t E n k id u is also a “zikru” o f a g o d . if o n e c o n s id e rs th e fa c t th a t the h y m n is ta lk in g a b o u t the k u rg arra and h o w th e y la c e ra te th e m s e lv e s . b u t a c a s tra te .k n o w n w ay to u n ite o r c o m m u n e w ith th e d iv in e .” In this c o n te x t. Holy Inanna.246 A s m e n tio n e d a b o v e . in the Gilgames Epic I 8 3 245 (see also the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 10 an d 14-24). d a n c in g . th e as c e n d in g is easily e x p la in e d by tra n c e .247 T h e se mahhe also p ra c tic e d s e lf-m u tila tio n . T h e d e v o te e s w e re sp e c ia lly tra in e d f o r th e ir ro le in th e c u lt. 245 Through p layin g with the con son ants. T his b e c o m e s e v id e n t f ro m a N e o . lo v ed by G ilgam es “like a w ife . and assinnu and hassinnu (Parpola 1997a. th e k u rg a rra are d e s c rib e d as fallin g in to a tra n c e :249 With daggers in their hands. n. X C II-III. kulu’u o r kurgarru r e s p e c tiv e ly . fre n z y a n d e c sta sy . a c c o rd in g to Isme-Dagan K 13-14 250 E n lil an d N in lil g a v e I n a n n a the ab ility to tardu). T h e te rm s assinnutu. Rom er 1988. 232). 559. CIV n. a n d ro g y n o u s. and w a ilin g . 33 n. 232 (lu = sa. and an “a x e. the b ro th e rs o f the s u ffe re r are sa id to h a v e “b a th e d in th e ir b lo o d like p ro p h e ts ( m a h h u ) ”24* In Iddin-Dagan A 7 4 -7 5 . Tablet I [M SL 12 102] and IV [MSL 12 132:1 1 6 -2 3 ]).” hassinnu. kurgarrutu. cf. T h e fa c t th a t I n a n n a / I s ta r ’s c u lt p e rso n n e l w e re e c s ta tic d e v o te e s is e v id e n t fro m the fa c t th a t th ey are liste d to g e th e r w ith mahhu a n d zabbu in le x ic a l lis ts .both given the sam e Sumerian eq u ivalen ts lu-nf-su-ub. 246 CAD K. Parpola 1997a. w h ic h is a w e ll. T h e o th e r m e a n in g o f zikru is “ m a n /m a le . for w hich see the com m ent for lin e i2 ) . or p e rh a p s b y th e ir p h y s ic a l d istin c tio n fro m b ir th . since it h as tw o o p p o s ite m e a n in g s “ to d e s c e n d ” an d “ to a s c e n d .v . 119 and X C V I-V II. a reference to his em asculation w hich m ust have taken place during the battle against the B u ll (see Parpola 1997a. In M SL 12 132:116-23 mahhu and zabbu “frenzied ” . Pinches 1 915. T h e s e w ere p ra c tic e d in o rd e r to re a c h a p a ra n o rm a l state o f c o n s c io u s n e s s . 250 ETCSL: A hymn to Inana f o r Ism e-D agan (Ism e-D agan K)\ cf. s. 30. w h ic h m e a n th e “ a r t” or “ p r o fe s s io n ” o f th e assinnu. such as g e n ita l m a lfo rm a tio n . 54. CIV n. 2 4 -6 0 . Draffkorn K ilm er 1 9 8 2 . w h ic h in c lu d e d ecstatic d a n c in g . 119.” M o re o v e r . !ST A R 'S d e s c e n t a n d r e s u r r e c t io n E n k i. 140 for more d etails). the w ord zikru p ro b a b ly m e a n s “ w o rd ” (cf.” O n e c o u ld in sist it o n ly m ean s h e re m o v e m e n t “ u p w a r d s ” o r “ d o w n w a r d s ” w h ile p a ra d in g w ith the d a g g e rs. c o m p a r a b le to th e G n o stic logos. the d e v o te e s o f th e g o d d e ss p ra c tic e d s e lf-m u tila tio n .” b u t this tra n sla tio n w o u ld n o t su it th e c o n te x t sin ce the assinnu is n o t a m a n .are grouped together w ith the word lu -zag- gi'r-la. in d ic a te th a t th ese th re e g r o u p s o f d e v o te e s b e lo n g e d to th eir ro le s p e rm a n e n tly . 103:3. 248 U garitica V 162:11‫ ׳‬. 249 ETCSL: A sir-n am ursaga to Ninsiana f o r Iddin -D agan (Iddin-Dagan A).” he is g iv e n th e id e n tic a l o rig in w ith A s u su -n a m ir. T h e v erb e d / e ‫ ״‬. fallin g from h eaven . H o w e v e r . m u s ic . cf. the ascending kurgarra (kur-gar-ra ed-da ba-da-ra su b 1-in-du8-us) parade before her. sin g in g a n d p la y in g .1 2 9 -1 3 0 . lu-gub-ba and lu -a l-e-d e . zikru b ecom es kezru.” w ho w as a d evotee o f Istar. 78 .

2 2 -2 3 .253 S e lf-m u tila tio n is also m e n tio n e d in the O ld T e s ta m e n t (Z e c h 1 3 :6 ).R o m a n w o rld to g e th e r w ith the c u lt o f C y b e le a n d A ttis. K a tz n o te s th a t i f the N e th e r w o rld w a s v is u a liz e d as h a v in g s ev en g ates a tta c h e d to s e v e n w a lls. W h ile c o m m e n tin g th is. 76-131. 251 R om er 1 9 8 8 . w h o h ad d ie d o f s e lf . R o m e r su g g e sts th a t “ a s c e n d in g fro m b e l o w to a b o v e ” im p lies I n a n n a ’s ab ility to m a k e p e o p le fall into a tra n c e . b u t fo r th o se w h o d o .e m a s c u la tio n b u t w h o h ad risen fro m th e d e a d . 253 Parpola 1 9 9 7 a . 138-140. a n d th e p ra c tic e w as later sp re a d to the G r a e c o . H . to turn light to darkness and darkness to light. 125-128 (C atu llu s).X X X IV . Loeb). CO M M EN TARY A N D A N A LY SIS un ki-ta an-na-se ed-ed un kur [1 ms. fo r in s ta n c e . B y self- c a s tr a tio n th e galli d e d ic a te d th e ir liv es to the g o d d e s s . N e rg a l a n d E resk igal. w h ic h h a s o n ly o n e g a te k e e p e r . Castellino 1 957. In a d d itio n to c o m m u n in g w ith th e d iv in e . 79 . s e lf-m u tila tio n w as u s e d to e m u l a t e th e a g o n y o f th e g o d d e s s . C ity o f G o d . an d also serv es as a m eans to g et h er n a k e d an d p o w e r le s s . 254 Horowitz 1998. Lines 93-94: A c c o rd in g to th e D e s c e n t . in Dailey 2 0 0 0 .. the o n ly re a s o n th e Desc ent uses this fe a tu re has to w ith th e lite ra ry f u n c tio n o f the story: th e fa c t th a t th e g o d d e ss e n te rs th ro u g h m o re g ates th a n o n e a d d s to the su sp e n s e o f th e s to ry . 252 Parpola 1997a. A c c o rd in g to K a tz . sin c e an e n tra n c e w ith sev en g ates h ad n o real p a r a l le l .at e a c h g ate she lo se s o ne o f h e r g a rm e n ts .. f ro m the b e g in n in g o f the m y th N e rga l and Ereskigal (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin e 13). w h e re the p r o p h e ts o f B a a l and A s h e ra h are la c e ra tin g th e m s e lv e s to fa ll in to a tra n c e a n d to g et in c o n ta c t w ith B aa l.d u 8 gal k u r ]. lite ra lly “to a scen d fro m e a rth to h e a v e n .1 6 3 -1 8 1 . to make the foreign/numerous people (un kur/sar) change their place. M eyer 1 9 8 7 . II 7 and V II 26 (V olum es I-II.A p u le iu s. Loeb). e. 31-32. M e ta m o rp h o se s VIII 26-28 (V olu m e II. see also M eyer ib id . T h e s a m e n u m b e r o f g ates is a lso k n o w n . as d e s c r ib e d in the Desc ent 252 T h e c u s to m o f in flic tin g b o d ily h a rm w as w id e ly p r a c tic e d by the galli in the cu lt o f the S y ria n g o d d e s s e s C y b e le and A ta r g a tis .ra 7-bi) in th e ir p a la c e s . ETCSL: The D ea th o f U r-Nam m a ( Ur-Namma A ). sh e tu rn s th e ir m ise ry to f o rg iv e n e s s (light).a n d n. 4 3 . In a n n a tu rn s the liv e s o f th o se w h o do n o t r e p e n t to m is e ry (d a rk n e s s ). w h e re “ w o u n d s on y o u r c h e s t” are a tra it o f a p ro p h e t. X X X IV .4 2 .”251 T h e w o rd s u n k u r (“ fo re ig n p e o p l e ” ) c a n also m e a n “ h o s tile p e o p l e ” : th ay c a n be in te rp re te d as s in n e rs w h o “ c h a n g e th e ir p la c e ” w h e n re p e n tin g .g. D . c f. C atullus. 11. P oem 63. it d id n o t h a v e a p a ra lle l in the a c tu a l city fo rtific a tio n s in a n c i e n t M e s o p o ta m ia . A u gu stin e. 138-139 (L u cian ). 5 0 -5 1 .b y c o n tr a s t to the Descent. D e d ea S yria . an d th u s are a b le to a s c e n d fro m b e lo w (th e m a te ria l w o rld ) to a b o v e (h e a v e n ). and in 1 K g s 1 8 :2 6 -2 9 . N issin en 1998b. W . th e N e th e r w o rld h a d sev en g ates. c f. P h . e q u a te d w ith h e r d iv in e p o w e rs (see th e c o m m e n t fo r lin es 4 2 -6 2 and 11 9 -1 2 5 ). has instead: sar] ki su bal-e zalag kukku2-se du kukku2 zalag-se dfb-be Make the people ascend from below to above.1 1 3 -1 1 6 . Lucian o f Sam osata. 18-19. w h o s e r e d e m p tio n w as p re c e d e d b y (sp iri- tu a l) d e a th and a g o n y . w h e re the d e a d k in g o ffe rs g ifts to e a c h o f th e seven g a te k e e p e rs ([ 1. as w ell as e m u la te d th e fa te o f A ttis. It is k n o w n th a t th e fo rtifie d c itie s h a d no m o re th a n th r e e g a te s . and 143-145 (A p u leiu s). 3 58-359. C o n s e q u e n tly .254 W h e n d isc u s s in g th e a r c h ite c tu ra l a sp e c ts o f th e N e th e rw o rld . an d th e Death o f Ur-Nammu.

as can be seen fro m th e re m a in s o f co lo rin g o n th e z ig g u r a t o f th e city o f D u r -S a r ru k e n (K h o rs a b a d ) in A s sy ria . ensi of Lagas. 258 Herodotus 1996. b la c k . 5 6 . the powerful warrior of Enlil. 260 Lambert and Tournay 1952. the related passage in G u d e a ’s C y lin d ers ( C y l .g . (and) his king Ningirsu decreed good fate for the temple. T h e s e v e n -s ta g e d z ig g u ra t alread y e x is te d in S u m e r in the tim e o f G u d e a . 76 and 126. a n d Statue E i 1 -1 7 ):260 For his king Ningirsu. Katz 1995.258 A lth o u g h th e city o f A r a tta ap p e a rs in m y th o lo g ic a l co n te x t as an e n e m y city (state) ag ain st E n m e r k a r ’s city o f U ru k . 256 ETCSL: Enmerkar a n d the L o r d o f A ratta: C ohen 1 973. 78 -8 5 . its walls and its towering brickwork are bright red. as h e re c o rd s in h is s ta tu e in sc rip tio n s ( Statue G i 1-18. th e se c o n d b la c k .. Gudea.. n a m e ly th e z ig g u ra t. 255 Katz 2 0 0 3 . Jacobsen 1987b.s 1 .5 9 -6 1 . w h ic h h a d s ev en w alls. 192-193. Suter (1 9 9 7 . IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION F u rth e rm o re . th ere w as at le a s t th e (m y th o lo g ic a l) city o f A ra tta .” In other w ords. and the b a ttle m e n ts o f the tw o in n er circ le s w e re p la te d w ith s ilv e r an d g o ld re s p e c tiv e ly . 4 1 3 . th e w alls are said to b e c o lo re d b rig h t re d . A c c o rd in g to H e r o d o tu s . n. their brick clay is made of tinstone dug out in the mountains where the cypress grows. each w all w as h ig h e r th an the o n e b e lo w it by the h e ig h t o f the b a ttle m e n ts.256 In an o th er m y th b e lo n g in g to the sa m e E n m e r k a r c y c le . th e re ce rta in ly w as a s tru c tu re th at h a d s e v e n lay ers in it.4 1 6 :257 Now A ratta’s battlements are of green lapis lazuli. 261 P reviou sly. T h e n u m b e r o f th e w alls is the sa m e as in the city o f E c b a ta n a (m o d e rn H a m a d a n ). 80 . 2 2 1 -2 3 3 . T h e e x a c t lo catio n o f A ra tta is u n c e rta in .. e a c h in d iffe re n t co lo rs: the first w h ite . th e re a p p a re n tly e x is te d a real city o f A ra tta s o m e w h e re on th e Iran ian p la te a u . 11. S in ce th e city w a s b u ilt on a h ill. whose pa (e pa-bi) rose foremost. th e fo u rth b lu e .”255 A lth o u g h K a tz says th a t M e s o p o ta m ia n c itie s h ad no m o re th an th re e w a lls. th e z ig g u ra ts w e re p a in te d . R ecen tly . th e fa c t th a t it is u sed h e re o n ly c o n firm s th at th e c h o ic e o f th e n u m b e r o f th e g ates is on ly an “ a rtificial lite ra ry c o n f ig u ra tio n . the temple of seven stages (e-ub-7). G udea describes how he built the seven floors or stages o f the ziggurat. sa bein g Sum erian for “square.xxi 12) has been understood to describe “seven b lessin g s for the tem ple” (e . and w h e th e r o r n o t it s itu a te d in th e v ic in ity o f the city o f E c b a ta n a is still to b e d e te rm in e d . b u ilt in c irc le s aro u n d it. C laudia E. who had built Eninnu o f Ningirsu. It show s th a t e a c h stag e w as p a in te d in a d iffe re n t colo r: w h ite . H e r o d o tu s d e s c rib e s th at th e se sev en c irc u la r w alls w ere p a in te d . 259 See Cohen 1 9 7 3 . 6 8 . p u rp le . cf. see also C ohen 1973.1 -1 0 ) has su ggested that the earlier reading o f the com pound verb silim . 257 ETCSL: L ugalba nda an d the A nzud Bird.259 E v e n if the s e v e n u n d e rw o rld g a te s d id n o t fin d an e x a c t p a ra lle l in M e s o p o ta m ia ..su m should be interpreted as sd . built Epa. sin ce th e n u m b e r s ev en is a ty p o lo g ic a l n u m b e r. and In a n n a w as th e o n e “ w h o a d o r n s ” th e se w a lls . th e city o f A ra tta has seven w a lls . In the S u m e ria n m y th Enmerkar and the Lord o f Aratta 2 8 7 . 4 1 3 -4 1 4 ). Lugalbanda and the Anzud Bird. the th ird c r im s o n . th e city h a d s ev en w alls. tra d itio n a lly said to be fo u n d e d b y th e first M e d ia n k in g D e io c e s .261 O r ig in a lly . A xx 24 . T h e la tte r m y th d e scrib es the c ity as fo llo w s . 47-48: I 98.. th e fifth o r a n g e .

th e a s c e n t s y m b o liz e s th e d o n n in g o f the g a r m e n ts .” E q u a tin g the la st. A x x iv 10. T h e se co lo rs e q u a l th e c o lo rin g o f the sev en c o n c e n tr ic w alls o f th e city o f E c b a ta n a . S u n = S a m a s. n. X C II. so u l. M ars = N erg al. In o th er w o rd s . th e y also r e p re s e n t the g a rm e n ts o f th e g o d d e s s. E a . n. CO M M EN TARY A N D A N A LY SIS b l u e . T h e co lo rs p r o b a b ly re p re s e n te d the s e v e n p la n e ta ry sp h eres: V e n u s = Istar.265 Lines 95-97a: T h e g o d o f w is d o m . sin c e A s u s u . In a d d itio n . 7:9) the god dess is addressed w ith the words: “O Z iggurat. 81 . th e to p b e in g the m o o n . th e a s s in n u is to a s k fo r th e d e a d Istar. 116. th e sam e p r o g r e s s io n is d e s c rib e d in te rm s o f a z ig g u ra t. in stru c ts A s u s u -n a m ir th a t w h e n he c o n f r o n ts E r e s k ig a l. P lace 1870. the s e v e n t h . infe rtile 262 Parpola 1997a. at th e sam e tim e . w h ic h b e g in s at th e silv ery to p (= M o o n ). T h e s e god s w e r e a lso am o n g th e g re a t g o d s th a t w e re th e m a n ife s ta tio n s o f A s s u r. w hich bears [aw e-inspiring splendor]!” 264 Parpola 2 0 0 0 . A fte r d o in g so . in A s s u r b a n ip a l’s hymn to Istar o f Nineveh (L ivin gston e 1989. J u s t as the d e s c e n t a n d th e a s c e n t o f the g o d d e s s are d e s c rib e d in te rm s o f th e s a c re d tree (p ro g r e s s io n f ro m to p to b o tto m a n d v ice v e rsa ). and h e r m o o d w ill be im p r o v e d . as th ere w as no r e s tr ic tio n fo r h e r to h a v e an im p o te n t. a n d th ro u g h th e i r e q u a tio n w ith th e A s s y r ia n T r e e o n the o th e r. an d silv er.” an d in Cyl. sta g e w ith th e m o o n is a c le a r r e fe re n c e to its c o lo r.263 W h e n ap p lie d to the D e s c e n t. the sev en c o l o r e d stag es o f the z ig g u r a t r e p r e s e n t th e s ev en g ates o f th e N e th e rw o rld . Pride o f N in ev eh . T h e s tru c tu re o f the T re e o u tlin e d the p u r if i e d s o u l’s a s c e n t to h e a v e n : it d e p ic te d th e p a th f ro m ig n o ra n c e (a n im a l s o u l) to c o n s c io u sn e s s (m o ra l so u l) a n d s a lv a tio n (d iv in e o v e rso u l). E r e s k ig a l c o u ld h a v e b e c o m e e x c ite d seein g a h a n d s o m e m ale (a lth o u g h a s e x u a l) . the s e v e n u n d e r w o rld g ates c o r r e s p o n d e d to th e s tru c tu re o f th e T re e o f L ife . 265 Parpola 1997a. c o r re s p o n d e d to th e s tru c tu re o f th e h u m a n soul and its three g r a d e s (o v e rs o u l. Parpola 2 0 0 0 . 114. a p p a r e n t ly . b u t a ls o to th e id e a th a t the stag e s w e re e q u a te d w ith the p la n e ta ry s p h e re s .s t a g e d z ig g u r a t w ith th e u n d e r w o r l d g a t e s a n d w ith I n a n n a ’s /I s ta r ’s g a rm e n ts o r p o w e rs on o n e h a n d . g o ld . X C II. as in C yl. T h e re a so n t h a t th e a ssin n u c o u ld im p ro v e E r e s k i g a l ’s m o o d h as b e e n s u g g e ste d to be th a t. it says th a t “ (G u d ea) h a d it (E n in n u ) w e a r a c r o w n lik e the n ew m o o n . s h in in g u p o n th e c o u n tr y . J u p ite r = M a rd u k . Parpola 1997a.262 N o te th a t. she w ill r e jo ic e to see h im . n a m e ly silv er. o r a n g e . A x x i 1 1-1 2 its last stag e is d e s c rib e d as “th e m o o n at d a w n . X C II. G u d e a ’s z ig g u r a t w as a lso p a in te d . a n d . 263 For instance. n. an d c o n s titu te d the A s s y ria n T r e e . M e r c u r y = N ab u .n a m ir w a s a s e x u a l. 199.6 2 an d 1 1 9 -1 2 5 ). w h ic h in tu rn . it is e v id e n t th a t the z i g g u r a t and the A s s y ria n T r e e c o u ld also b e e q u a te d . M o o n = Sin. the Q u e e n o f the D e a d . 199. F o r the e q u a tio n o f th e soul w ith th e g o d d e s s I n a n n a /Is ta r see the c o m m e n t fo r line 10 . w h ic h w as also a n o th e r s y m b o l o f In a n n a /Is ta r (= th e s o u l) . T h e d e s c e n t o f the g o d d e s s . 114.264 T h r o u g h th e e q u a tio n o f th e s e v e n . S a tu rn = A d a d . an a b ility th a t w as so r e p u ls iv e to E r e s k ig a l. the s tr u c tu r e o f b o th th e z ig g u r a t a n d th e T re e o u tlin e d th e p a th to o n e ’s sa lv a tio n (s e e a lso th e c o m m e n t fo r lin es 9 1 . A s m e n tio n e d e a rlie r (see th e c o m m e n t f o r lines 4 2 . he la c k e d the ab ility to c reate life . cf.9 2 ) . 114. n. a n im a l so u l). 79. sy m b o liz e s th e u n d re s s in g .

N in a zu ’s tem ple in E negi (Sjoberg and Bergm an 1969. She has fingers like a pickaxe. is d e s c rib e d w ith th e sam e te rm s in G ilg a m es. 268 See Parpola 1997a. w hich is dedicated to the E gida. oh your body. and no linen is spread over her pure breast. N in a z u o f E n e g i 266 See Sladek 1 9 7 4 .” T h is s itu a tio n w o u ld th en h av e b een c o m p a r a b le to th e fa lle n state o f th e S ou l (= S o p h ia ) in the G n o stic tra d itio n . 122. and in the city o f E s n u n n a in the n o rth e rn D iy a la v alley h e was a w a rrio r g o d . NHC 11.” 270 Parpola 1997b. S u b se - q u e n tly . and his p a re n ts w ere E re s k ig a l a n d a c e rta in “ g reat lo r d ” (en g al). 2 7 -2 8 ). our mistress. tra p p e d in the N e th e rw o rld . the mother of Ninazu who sleeps - her pure shoulders are not covered with a garment. 267 ETCSL: In a n a ’s d e s c e n t to the nether w o r ld (11. on account of her children. When she says “Oh my heart. translation after D a iley 2 0 0 0 . G eorge 1999. th e “ so u l in p a i n . from my body to your body . 115. 2 5 7 -2 7 1 ). 119. is lying there. she was w renching her hair out like le e k s. w as the m ain g o d o f tw o d iffe re n t p laces in M e s o p o ta m ia : in a sm a lle r c u lt c e n te r o f E n e g i in s o u th e rn S u m e r he w as an u n d e r w o rld d e ity .” When she says “Oh my body. 121.9 1 -9 3 . IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION lov er. A s m e n tio n e d e a r lie r. N inazu’s mother who lies there - her pure shoulders are not covered with a garment. L X X X V III. 190f. th e k u rg a rra a n d g a la tu rra are a sk e d to sy m p a th iz e w ith E re s k ig a l w h o a g o n iz e s as if in lab o r. T a b le t X II 2 8 -3 0 an d 4 7 .” 266 In the S u m e ria n v e rsio n . The Exegesis on the Soul. 185. in R obinson 1988. In E s n u n n a his cu lt was la te r r e p la c e d by th at o f T is p a k . w h o w as ra g in g like a w o m a n in la b o r p rio r to h e r s a lv a tio n fro m the w o rld (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 9 1 . 14. 271 N in azu ’s parents are Ereskigal and the “great lord” (en gal) in Temple Hymn no. th e m is tre s s o f the N e th e r w o rld .” (She will then ask:) “Who are you? Speaking to you from my heart to your heart. let me talk with you. if you are mortals. her breasts are not pendulous like an ointment jar in a sappatu-basin/sikkatu- basin. X C II.” Make her swear this by heaven and earth. she who lies there. Katz su ggests 82 . Enkidu and the n ether w o r l d . T h e b e a u ty o f the a s sin n u is r e v e a le d by his n a m e .9 2 ) .” you are to say “You are troubled. Ereskigal. it w as th e a s s i n n u ’s. 2 3 0 -2 4 4 . n. an d his p a re n ts w e re E n lil an d N in lil. she plucks her hair out like leeks.271 N e v e r th e le s s . w ho translates the end o f the passage: “her fingern ails she w ielded like a rake. our mistress. w h ich m ean s “ H is A p p e a ra n c e is B r ig h t. B y affectin g E r e s k i g a l ’s m o o d . the c o r re s p o n d in g p a s sa g e is slig h tly d iff e r e n t. p. the re sc u e rs are ab le to o b ta in th e b o d y o f the d ead g o d d e s s :267 The mother who gave birth.4 9 :270 She who sleeps and sleeps. may a destiny be decreed for you. T h e g o d m e n tio n e d in this te x t. Her holy shoulders are not covered by a linen cloth.” you are to say “ You are troubled. In the s ta n d a rd v e rs io n o f the E p ic o f G i l g a m e s . Her nails are like a pickaxe (?) upon her.268 E re s k ig a l. k u r g a r r a ’s a n d g a la tu r r a ’s ta s k to act as “ h elp- e r s ” and to c o m f o rt E re s k ig a l. Her breasts are not full like a sagan vessel. The hair on her head is bunched up as if it were leeks.if you are gods. 269 ETCSL: G ilg am es.6 132 3-5. D . oh your heart. n. 91. E n k id u a n d the N e th e r w o r ld 1 9 9 -2 0 4 :269 She who lies there. it has b e e n s u g g e s te d that E re s k ig a l can be in ter- p reted to be the sin fu l h a lf o f the so u l. N in a z u .

E resk igal’s spouse was on ly am biguously alluded to .276 In this w a y . W iggerm ann 1 989. and h is town is E n egi.11. In the D e s e r t by the Early Grass).” u r-sag . N in a z u ap p ears as the d y in g y o u n g g o d o f E n e g i. N ote that it is probable that the tradition o f the lam ent predates the Old Babylonian p eriod. based on fact that here N in a zu ’s tow n is E negi. 7 7 ).274 D . cf. D 41 i 2 3-24. 273 C ohen 1988. N ergal as E resk igal’s sp ouse is attested only later. A lternatively.e . th e d y in g y o u n g go d. w a rn s th e re sc u e rs to a c c e p t n o th in g to d rin k or e a t (11. E . K a tz su g g ests th a t th e c o m m e n ts o f E re s k ig a l as a m o th e r in g r ie f for h e r c h ild re n in the D escen t and fo r N in a z u in Gilgames re fe r to h e r m a te rn a l r e la tio n s h ip w ith N in a z u .d o n ’t accept it. lin es 18 -1 9 ). based on the fact that Enlil and N in lil are the parents o f N inazu o f E negi in Enlil a n d Nin lil. an Old B abylonian balbale-hym n to N inazu. i. C O M M EN TARY A N D A N A LY SIS a n d E s n u n n a w as th e sam e g o d . Katz further adds that sin ce G ugalanna (the “Great B ull o f H eaven”). 4 2 ). 277 ETCSL: In a n a ’s d esce n t to the n eth er w orld . 276 S ladek 1 9 7 4 . is only an epithet. T h e S u m e ria n v e r s io n . 2 7 3 -2 7 5 ):277 7 They will offer you a riverful o f water . w hich dates from the M iddle B abylonian period (K atz 2 0 0 3 . he had to be separated from the N etherw orld. a lost m y th o f th e d y in g N in a z u a n d E r e s k ig a l. 4 4 0 -4 4 1 . 274 Katz 2 0 0 3 . esp. she m ay have been N in lil. o n ly e x p re ss in g d iffe re n t lo cal c h a ra c te ris - tic s . his true identity rem ains unclear and con cealed (see also the com m ent for lin es 14-24). The su ggestion that E nlil m ight have been considered as E resk ig a l’s husband also derives from the Udughul-series (3 6 0 ).n a m ir ’s ta s k to a sk fo r a d rin k o f w a te r fro m th at w a te r s k in . the goddess in question may have been E resk igal. 4 3 8 -4 4 2 ). R . w h e re a s in the A k k a d ia n v e rs io n she is s o m e h o w tu rn e d in to a w a te r s k in . This m ay have been due to the fact that sin ce Enlil b ecam e the head o f the w h ole pantheon. according to som e sources. e+ 1 4 8 -1 4 9 : [e-n e -g i b a l a gurus]-tur-ra-ka ur-[sag du-m u-un-a-zu am -nu-a-ba (restored after PRAK II. but later m anaged to escap e from there. w as associated with the N etherw orld. p e rh a p s . 83 .4 1 :1 8 -2 1 = SGL II. as r e m a rk e d by W . a third source. his g r ie f. S la d e k . 43 7 .4 0 -4 1 . 273 Katz 2 0 0 3 . This is also the case in Temple Hymn no. S ince N inm ah.g. w here E nlil and Ereskigal occur as N am tar’s parents (see the com m ent for lin es 66 -7 5 ). They will offer you a field with its grain . since th e sto ry d o es not a n y w h e r e m e n tio n Is ta r tu rn in g in to o n e. in E nlil a n d N inlil (B ehrens 1978).do n’t accept it. calls N in a zu ’s father Enlil and his m other N inm ah..272 In an O ld B a b y lo n ia n la m e n t Edina-usagake ( e d in ‫־‬na u -s a g -g a -k e 4. w h ic h ties u p th e tw o d iffe re n t a s p e c ts o f N in a z u to o ne a n d the sa m e d e ity . w h e re I n a n n a tu rn s th e old w o m a n B ilu lu in to a w a te rsk in “f o r c o ld w a te r th at is u s e d in the d e s e rt.273 b u t th e sa m e te x t a lso re fe rs to h im as a “ w a r r io r .s tr ic k e n m o th e r .275 Lines 98-99: In the S u m e ria n D esc en t. 2 4 6 -2 4 8 ..” T h e th e m e o f tu rn in g s o m e o n e in to a w a te rsk in also o c c u rs in the sto ry o f Inanna and Bilulu. w ho. W iggerm ann 1997. and in th is w a y to g e t in c o n ta c t w ith I s t a r ’s b o d y . 121-122. It is p ro b a b le that th ere o n ce w as a c o m m o n s o u rce f o r th e s e r e fe r e n c e s . T h e lite ra ry ch o ic e o f tu rn in g I s t a r ’s b o d y in to a w a te r s k in m ay d e riv e fro m th e f a c t th a t. 3 87-388 and 4 3 3 -4 3 4 . she seem s to have been the sole ruler o f the N etherw orld. a fille d w a te rs k in r e s e m b le d the d e a d b o d ie s o f th e a n im a ls fro m w h ic h th e y w e r e ta k e n . w hich is dedicated to N in a zu ’s tem ple E sikil in Esnunna (Sjoberg and B ergm an 1969. the c o rp se o f the g o d d e s s is h an g in g f ro m a n a il. and therefore. translation in Jacobsen 1987b. Enlil is described first to have been in the N etherw orld. 4 28-442. and his city E negi (PBS 1 3 .” b e c a u s e she th in k s the w o m a n is that this anonym ous father m ight have been E n lil. o n th e o th e r h a n d . 5 7 -5 8 . W h a te v e r the re a so n m a y b e . But say to her: “Give us the corpse hanging on the hook. 675. the name o f E resk ig a l’s husband in the Sum erian D e sc e n t. it is A s u s u . Further. the “great q u een /lad y. 3 5 . In Enlil and N inlil. 272 Katz 2 0 0 3 . in the myth o f N e rg a l a n d Ereskigal. T h e r e fe re n c e to a w a te r s k in is e n ig m a tic . Rather. 3 4 . she sim p ly dies.” is only an epithet. d ead I s ta r w o u ld h a v e still k e p t h e r d iv in e sh a p e an d fo rm . in real life . N in a zu ’s parents are E nlil and N in lil. the period from w hich the cop y dates.

cf.” T h e sa m e re a c tio n is also fo u n d in the S u m e ria n v e rs io n . R einer 1967. h as p o in te d o u t th a t the s p e llin g can also be d e f e c tiv e . May bread of the city’s ploughs be your food. W h e n E re sk i- gal learn s th a t I n a n n a stan d s at th e g ate o f h e r re a lm . and the e m e n d a tio n o f the w o rd w o u ld b e e -p i-(n e -)e t. I will decree you a fate never to be forgotten. as she g ets so fu rio u s th a t she cu rses th e assinnu: Come. may the shade of the city wall be your resting place. she b it h e r lip and to o k the w o rd s ( o f the g a te k e e p e r) to h e r h e a r t” (11. n. may the city drains be your drinking vessel.” She tra n sla te s the first line o f th e c u rse as: “M a y th e b r e a d fro m the c i t y ’s b a k e rs b e y o u r f o o d . 161.k e 4 h as b a r-b i b f-in -ra // n u n d u n zu bf-in- gub in im sa-se b a . D a ile y .283 A. 282 D ailey 2 0 0 0 . 114-115: u d . I will curse you with a great curse. S o m e o f th e e v id e n c e e v e n su g g e sts th a t the d e v o te e s m ig h t h a v e b e e n h o m o se x u a ls (se e th e c o m m e n t fo r lines 9 1 -9 2 ). E r e s k ig a l’s c u r s e . in fa c t. A s alread y p o in te d o u t e a rlie r. e a rlie r p a rt o f th e sto ry . so also Sladek 1 9 7 4 . c o n ta in s a llu sio n s to this aspect: th e “p lo u g h ” (e p in n u ) w as a e u p h e m is m fo r the p e n i s . w as am b i- v alen t.” A c c o rd in g to h e r. w ho su ggests that the curse served as an etio lo g y to explain the social status o f the assinnu or the kulu’u. Asusu-namir. th e c o n te n ts o f th e cu rse re v e a l s o m e th in g o f the p u b lic ro le o f th e assinn u: the p ra c tic a lly in h u m a n fa te o f th e a s sin n u su g g ests his m a rg in a l p o sitio n in the so c ie ty . th e m e a n in g o f the cu rse is to e x p re s s a n ti-u rb a n fe e lin g s. 282 R einer 1 9 8 5 .n a m ir ’s re q u e s t. ISTA R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION to b la m e for D u m u z i ’s d e a th 278 (fo r th e w a te r o f life see also th e c o m m e n t fo r lines 109-1 18 a n d fo r B ilu lu th e c o m m e n t fo r lines 1 3 1-13 4 ).r o w ’ d e re lic t/ra g p ic k e r/m a le s tre e tw a lk e r. w h ic h stan ds f o r a “fe m a le b a k e r .b a de r e s . She s u g g e sts th a t th e v a ria n t “ c i t y ’s b a k e r s ” in ste a d o f th e “ c it y ’s p lo u g h s ” m ay be d u e to m is h e a rin g by oral tra d itio n . 117-120. 84 . and c u rs e th e a s s in n u lk u lu ’u to be a c ity -d w e lle r fo re v e r . p. as o p p o s e d to the m o re f a v o ra b le c o u n tr y -d w e lle r . 279 ETCSL: In a n a ’s d e s c e n t to the nether w orld.la . in c lu d in g a s s in n u s . R e in e r has s u g g e ste d th at the sy llab ic re a d in g e -p i-it in re c e n sio n C m e a n s e p itu .280 an d th e “b r e a d o f the c i t y ’s p lo u g h s ” thus r e fe rs to sex u al in te rc o u rs e w ith a m a n . she b it h e r f in g e r .281 O n th e o th e r h a n d . 162-163 and 168.n a m ir ’s d e m a n d to h a v e the w a te rsk in g ro w s to im m e n se p r o p o rtio n s . 281 N issinen 1998b. 280 Maul 1992. h o w e v e r .4 1 -4 2 . 284 Draffkorn K ilm er 1971. may the thresholds be your seat. 282 S.” an d th e lin es c o u ld be tra n s la te d as f o llo w s :284 278 ETCSL: Inana a n d Bilulu: an ulila to Inana. N is s in e n . may the drunk and the thirsty slap your cheek! A c c o rd in g to M . a lb e it in a d iffe re n t. 301. n. the sex u ality o f the d e v o te e s o f th e g o d d e s s . 3 5 . n.k i-g a l. D ra ffk o rn K ilm e r h as s u g g e ste d th at th e cu rse a g a in s t th e m a le p ro s- titu te creates an “ im a g e o f a b ig c ity ‘s k id . 17. with textual references. she “ sla p p e d the side o f h er th ig h . Lines 100-108: W h e n E re s k ig a l h e a r d a b o u t A s u s u .ti) . N is s in e n p o in ts o u t th a t. she “ sm o te h er th ig h .279 a E r e s k ig a l’s r e a c tio n to A s u s u . 28-34. E .4 4 -4 5 . 16.

as a g o o d h o s t. such as in th e ta v e rn s (e s -d a m !b it a s ta m m i ).. esp . as s u g g e s te d b y E r e s k i g a l ’s c u r s e .. T h e p r o s titu te s . an d b le sse s S a m h a t as w ell. w h ic h n o w h ad c o st h im his life. I will fix your destiny. o f the potter. w h ile S a m h a t s e d u c e d E n k id u to th e w o r ld o f h u m a n s . t h ro u g h th e in te rv e n tio n o f the sun g o d S a m a s. and claim against you! [The roof o f your house] no builder shall plaster! [In your bedroom] the owl shall roost! [At your table never shall] banquet take place! It is o b v io u s th a t b o th E r e s k ig a l and E n k id u are e n ra g e d an d d isa p p o in te d in th e tw o p e rso n s in q u e s tio n : b e c a u s e o f A s u s u .! No table [for a banquet. may the shadow of the walls be your hangout. in the S u m e ria n v e rsio n o f the D e s c e n t. D r a ff k o r n K ilm e r has p o in te d o u t th a t.. b u t a p p a re n tly also in the v ic in ity o f th e c ity w alls. w as b e in g h o s p ita b le by o ffe rin g h e r g u e s ts th e k u rg a rra a n d g a la tu r ra fo o d a n d d rin k (“riv e rfu l o f w a te r ” and “ a fie ld o f g r a in ” ). a doom to endure for all eternity: [I will] curse you with a mighty curse.n a m ir ’s r e q u e s t. 166. No . CO M M EN TARY A N D AN A LY SIS May the food of the city gutters be your food.. shall you have . [never to] reside in the [midst] of a family! In the young w om en’s [chamber you shall not] sit! Your finest [garment] the ground shall defile! Your festive gown [the drunkard] shall stain [in the dirt!] Things of beauty [you shall never acquire!] . shall be laid in your house! [The bed you] delight in shall be a miserable bench! [The junction] of highways shall be where you sit! [A f i e l d o f r u i n s s h a l l b e ] W h e r e y o u s l e e p ! The shadow of the rampart shall be where you stand! [Thorn and] briar shall skin your feet! [Drunk and] sober shall strike your cheek! . d is re p u ta b le .] the people’s abundance.. E n k id u w ish es th e sam e k in d o f fate on S a m h a t. T h e m e n tio n o f th e sh ad e o f the city w alls as a r e s tin g p la c e fo r th e a s sin n u is c le a r ly a re fe re n c e to the m a r g in a l. fo r in s ta n c e . E re s k ig a l h a s no o th e r o p tio n b u t to r e le a s e th e b o d y o f h e r s is te r an d r iv a l.. 1 5 1-153.. o r in the stre e ts . e s p e c ia lly b e c a u s e th e y h a d p o s itiv e ly affe c te d h e r m o o d by 285 L eick 1994. my curse shall afflict you now and forthwith! A household to delight in [you shall not] acquire. may the city sewers be your watering place. may thirsty drunks strike your cheek. p r a c tic e d th e ir tra d e in the p u b lic p la c e s . p r im itiv e b e in g :286 Come Samhat. the p ro stitu te w h o h a d s e d u c e d h im an d lu re d h im a w a y f ro m the b lis s fu l state o f b e in g a w ild . 85 . O n th e o th e r h a n d . o r p o o r p e o p le . A . shall be plaintiff.285 In th e G ilg a m e s E p ic V II 1 0 3 -1 2 3 . E r e s k ig a l. may doorways be yor dwelling. 286 Translation after G eorge 1999. 5 7 -5 8 .. 1 6 2-169. w h o w ere fo rc e d to live in th e o u tsk irts o f th e city . E n k id u a lle v ia te s th e cu rse h e h a d j u s t s p o k e n .

circ le. I f the m y th is in te rp r e te d in this w a y . is for th e re a d e r to d e c id e . It is tru e th a t at firs t the assinnu f o llo w s th e sa m e ru le s o f b e in g a g o o d guest: h e affects E re sk i- g a l ’s m o o d by im p ro v in g it. b u t o n ly to d e s c e n d b a c k to the h u m a n w o rld .e.. 96: kabtassa ippereddu ).. A d a p a h a d b ro k e n th e w in g s o f the sou th w in d . ib id . A busch 1995. the g o d o f w is d o m acts in te n tio n a lly . the p e r fe c t m a n . 53. w h ic h w o u ld e n a b le h im to be th e sag e an d the “ m o d e l fo r m a n k in d . flutter. A s a c o n s e q u e n c e . Y et E re s k ig a l d oes n o t o ffe r th e assinnu an y fo o d o r d r in k . th e v is ito r d ire c tly asks fo r a d rin k o f w a te r f ro m th e w a te rsk in .a n ‫־‬la) in ste a d . i. w h o is seen as th e p illa r o f th e u n iv e rse sin ce “ he d ra w s b le ss in g s o n to the [low er] w o r ld .288 W h e th e r o r n o t E a is m ista k e n in h is in stru c tio n s to A d a p a o r acts so d e lib e r a te ly . o n e c o u ld s u rm ise th a t E re s k ig a l is at first e ro tic a lly a ro u se d by the assinnu (1. It w as en visaged as ev il and com pared to a w itch in Maqlu V 82 -8 7 (cf.291 A lth o u g h D r a ff k o r n K ilm e r a rg u es th a t the rule o f h o s p ita lity a p p lie s in the A k k a d ia n v e rs io n o f th e D e s c e n t . 1 6 3 -1 8 1 . h e r r e s p o n s e to th e r e q u e s t to h a v e th e b o d y o f th e g o d d e s s is to ta lly d iffe re n t fro m th e S u m e ria n v e rsio n . 2 9 . A d a p a w as a llo w e d to a s c e n d to h e a v e n . “to w hirl. sw oop . h o w e v e r . sin ce th e ad v ic e he g iv es to A d a p a is in te n d e d to b rin g th e sag e b a c k . A d a p a . th e assinnu is se v e re ly c u rs e d . th e d e m o n ic a l so u th w in d . the g u ests w e re e n title d to re fu s e th e fo o d a n d d rin k th ey are o ffe re d . w o rld ly sp irit. c o u ld be u n d e rs to o d a lle g o ric a lly as p re v e n tin g the a ttack o f a d e m o n ic a l. see also L apinkivi 2 0 0 4 . IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION b e in g s y m p a th e tic w ith h e r p ain . the rig h te o u s m a n (H a sid ) s p iritu a lly a s c e n d s to h e a v e n fo r a u n io n w ith G o d in o rd er to d ra w d o w n th e d iv in e e f flu e n c e fo r the b e n e fit o f the c o m m u n ity . but at the sam e tim e. T h e re f o re . and as a c o n s e q u e n c e . 290 Zohar I 43a. w h o by b e in g a h a n d s o m e m a le w ith o u t 287 Draffkorn K ilm er 1971. this is n o t e n tire ly tru e . a c c o rd in g to P a r p o la ’s s u g g e s tio n . b e c a u s e he k n o w s th at th ese u n d e rw o rld g ifts w o u ld b e d e a d ly fo r th e ir r e c ip ie n ts . In the O ld B a b y lo n ia n Legend o f Adapa.287 A lte rn a tiv e ly . a n d he m a k e s h e r s w ear an o a th . T h e retu rn o f the H a s id ic m y stic fro m his ecstatic e x p e rie n c e m a k e s h im a p o w e rfu l m a s te r and a p illa r o f his c o m m u n ity . she c o u ld n o t re fu s e h e r g u e s ts . and a fte r b e in g ab le to re sis t w o rld ly te m p ta tio n s . th en A d a p a is re m in is c e n t o f a J e w ish m y stic . h as b e e n s u m m o n e d to h e a v e n . H e a sc e n d s to h e a v e n on ly to r e c e iv e w is d o m . b u t is in stru c te d by E a n o t to a c c e p t the fo o d an d d rin k A n u w o u ld o ffe r h im sin ce th ey w o u ld c a u s e d e a th .d a . an d ask fo r the p ie c e o f m e a t h a n g in g f ro m th e nail (1. wfiere th e g o d N e rg a l is in stru c te d not to a c c e p t an y o f h e r g ifts. d eceptive and destructive. p e rh a p s E n k i sim p ly in stru c ts the tw o re sc u e rs not to a c c e p t any o f the fo o d a n d d rin k o ffe re d . 36). 86 . 172: uzu n fg -sig -g a g1sk a k -ta lu b a . the last o f th e s ev en a n te d e lu v ia n sa g e s. 289 The south w ind. on the so u l o f th e s a g e . T h e y also h ad h er s w e a r an o a th . 291 !del 1995. w h ic h .289 A f te r p ro v in g his w o rth in e s s o f b e in g a g o o d se rv a n t o f E a . 182-188.”290 E s p e c ia lly in H a s id is m . 221. 104-109.”) The south w ind is a warm . A c c o rd in g to S.” B e fo re his a s c e n t. T h e sam e re fu s a l o f E r e s k ig a l ’s h o sp ita lity o c c u rs in Nergal and Ereskigal . P a rp o la . 288 For N erg a l a n d E reskigal see D a iley 2 0 0 0 . f e m a le . is fem inine and probably to be understood as “w hirling w in d ” (from s a ’u. B y fo llo w in g th e s o c ia l ru le s. w h e n in reality th e se g ifts w o u ld h a v e m ad e h im im m o rta l. in ste a d . in Akkadian sutu. 304-305. I f re a d c a re fu lly . and for A da p a . all o f w h ic h actio n s c re a te d a sp ecial b o n d b e tw e e n a h o s t an d g u e s ts . see Idel 1988. pleasant w ind.

place a bread ration before Samas. c o u ld h a v e b e e n a “ re a l c a tc h ” fo r th e Q u e e n o f th e N e th e r w o rld (see th e c o m m e n t fo r lines 9 5 .9 7 a ). H e affects E r e s k ig a l in a p o s itiv e w a y . th ro u g h h e r a g e n t N a m ta r . th e A n u n n a reap- p e a r at th e p o in t w h e n I n a n n a h a s b e e n re v iv e d an d is read y to a s c e n d fro m th e N e th e r w o rld . A s m e n tio n e d e a r lie r. S.” N a m ta r is a s k e d to d e c o ra te th e th re s h o ld s o f th e p a la c e w ith c o w r ie -s h e lls . 1957] 157). T h e s e v e n A n u n n a . an d its use is e x p la in e d in a ritu a l te x t as p r e v e n tin g s eiz u re b y g h o s ts : 293 If a man is chosen for death. translation after D ailey 2 0 0 0 .li. 87 .. T ab lets I-IV [Rom a. 52:12. set up three censers with aromatics. a c c o rd - ing to its n a m e .9 1 -9 3 .g i‫־׳‬n a “ S o lita ry and F i r m . D a ile y f u r th e r su g g e sts th a t.. 293 Zim m ern 1901.1 6 3 .n a m e a n s “ S tead y P a la c e . you must purify everything . and Marduk. Ea. Lines 109-118: A fte r th e c o n f lic t w ith th e a s s i n n u . w h e r e a s th e A s s u r re c e n s io n m e n tio n s th e “ p a la c e .g a l-g i. w h e re a s in th e A k k a d ia n v e rsio n . scatter dates. It is tru e . CO M M EN TARY A N D A N A LY SIS the c a p a b ility o f c re a tin g life . M SL V . w h ic h is. A s a c o n s e q u e n c e . D a ile y has s u g g e s te d th a t the w o r d k u s s u . th e s e ju d g e s re n d e r th e ir ju d g m e n t o f d e a th o n th e g o d d e s s . T h is s p e c ific “ g h o s t ’s c h a ir ” (§1sg u -z a g id im = k u s s u e t i m m e ) o c c u rs in le x ic a l lis ts . scatter all kinds of cereals. N o te th a t the S u m e ria n re sc u e rs are n o t e v e n d e fin e d b y th eir lo o k s the sa m e w ay as the a s s i n n u .G l) u s e s i b . set up three adagurru-vessels.GU.ZA) hu ra s i( K U G . o n ly the p la y e rs are d iff e r e n t. th e A n u n n a ta k e th e ir se a t on g o ld e n th ro n e s .292 B u t re a liz in g th a t th e c h a rm in g g u e s t w as o n ly u s in g h e r to g et to h is g o al m a k e s h e r fu rio u s. a n d th e v e r s io n la c k s the th e m e o f s e d u c tio n . see Hh.” and d i.g o d s a p p e a r in th e sc e n e to w itn ess th e re v iv a l o f the g o d d e s s .ra = hubullu‫׳‬. You must put down a chair to the left of the offerings for the ghost of his kin . the D i li g i n a . w ith o u t th e c h e m is tr y b e tw e e n th e m . as so o n as I n a n n a has tak en h e r seat on h er ( s i s t e r ’s) th ro n e in th e S u m e ria n v e rs io n . w h ile the A k k a d ia n r e s c u e r is c u r s e d . A and B . L a te r in the S u m e ria n v e rsio n . and re v iv e d e a d I s ta r b y sp rin k lin g h e r c o r p s e w ith the w a te r o f life. the ju d g e s o f th e N e th e rw o rld . M a y b e th e tw o b e in g s o f th e S u m e ria n v e rs io n d o n o t a ffect E re s k ig a l the s a m e w a y . th is is th e re a s o n th a t N e rg a l also tak es a c h air w ith h im w h e n h e d e s c e n d s to th e N e th e r w o rld in N e r g a l a n d E r e s k i g a l : he 292 S ee Sladek 1 9 7 4 . E g a lg in a a p p e a rs in the N in e v e h m a n u s c r ip ts . m ay r e f e r to a ritu al a g a in s t s e iz u re by g h o s ts .. published in Landsberger. N o . and a ghost has seized him. The S eries HAR-ra = hubullu. th a t th e o rig in a l m issio n o f r e v iv in g Is ta r is a c c o m p lis h e d . an d the a s s i n n u acts as a m e d ia to r in fu lfillin g th e ta sk . sin ce she r e le a s e s Is ta r into N a m t a r ’s h a n d s . w h ic h m e a n s b o th a c h a ir an d a th ro n e . flour.. ina k u s s i( GIS. T h e scen e o f th e c o n f ro n ta tio n is b a s ic a lly the s a m e . In th e A k k a d ia n v e r s io n . the S u m e ria n re sc u e rs g et w h a t th ey w a n t w ith o u t any d iffic u lty .” T h e S u m e ria n lo g o g r a m e . IV 93 (lex ica l series HAR. threefold. f o r w h ic h see th e c o m m e n t fo r lin e 54. it w as E re s k ig a l h e r s e l f w h o . E re s k ig a l sen d s N a m ta r to b r in g o u t th e A n u n n a k i. T h e g o d s s e iz e h e r an d d e m a n d sh e m u st p ro v id e a su b stitu te fo r h e r b e f o re she is a llo w e d to le a v e th e r e a lm o f d eath . h o w e v e r . T h e sc e n e o f th e story c h a n g e s f r o m E r e s k i g a l ’s p la c e to a p la c e c a lle d E g a lg in a . in flic ts d e a d ly d ise a se s on Ista r (see c o m m e n ts fo r lines 6 6 -7 5 ). a p a la c e in th e N e th e r w o rld .

A s S la d e k has p o in te d o u t. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION tries to e n s u re his e s c a p e fro m th e N e th e rw o rld and thus a v o id d e a th .. 28 0 ) th e k u rg a rra a n d the g a la tu r ra are in s tru c te d to s p rin k le the c o rp s e o f I n a n n a w ith “ the life -g iv in g p la n t and the life -g iv in g w a te r. NHC 11. it w as e s s e n tia l th a t th e se e le m e n ts o f lig h t co m in g fo rth f ro m the e a rth ly d a rk n e s s w e re th o ro u g h ly p u rifie d b e fo re m a k in g a r e -e n tr y i n t o the P le r o m a . NHC V III. 296 Sladek 1974. 138. 132 . 299 Rudolph 1987. Istar h e rse lf. the tw o re sc u e rs b rin g th e life- g ivin g p la n t a n d life -g iv in g w a te r w ith th em . o r o ffe rin g the g o d d e s s a d rin k fro m th e w a te rsk in . S la d e k also n otes th a t a fille d w a te rs k in re s e m b le the d e a d b o d y o f the a n im a l fro m w h ich it w a s m a d e . it is m o re lik ely th a t the c o n ta in e r is.294 D a ile y ’s s u g g e stio n re g a rd in g th e D e s c e n t m ay be c o r re c t. th en th e o rig in s o f the w a te r o f life m u s t b e s o m e w h e re e lse . the d iv in e s p a rk s . in fa ct. n. the use o f th e life -g iv in g p la n t h as b e e n re je c te d in the later A k k a d ia n v e rsio n . W h e re a s b a p tis m in w a te r s e rv e d as a p u rify in g e le m e n t in G n o s tic is m .1 4 5 . 79. 161 n. is a sy m b o l fo r im m e rsin g o n e s e lf in the p u rify in g w aters o f the “ o c e a n o f lig h t/w is d o m . and n. A fte r d e c o ra tin g the th re s h o ld s w ith c o w rie -s h e lls . 42.9 9 ). W h a t is th e “ w a te r o f life ” ? S o m e sch o la rs h a v e a s s u m e d th a t the w a te rs k in m e n tio n e d in th e A k k a d ia n v e rsio n m u st h a v e c o n ta in e d this w a te r. Z ostrianos. built by him by an order o f Ea. is n e c e s sa ry fo r th e r e b irth an d c le a n s in g o f the s o u l. h o w e v e r . P a rp o la th a t the sp rin k lin g o f I n a n n a ’s co rp se (= the sp iritu ally d e a d sou l) w ith the w a te r o f life co rre s p o n d s to th e act o f b a p tis m w h ich .5 2 ). in the Trimorphic P roten n oia (N H C X III.e. in the E x e g e s is on the S o u l . the r e fe re n c e to th e “ g o ld en th r o n e s ” on w h ic h th e A n n u n a tak e th eir seat m ay also sim p ly d e s c rib e the im p o rta n c e and d ig n ity o f th e se g o ds. 4 0 2 f). H eidel 1963. 4 0 -4 1 . A t le a s t in the S u m e ria n v e rs io n . 1 8 8 . is e v id e n t. 126. the chair is a gift to Ereskigal from her father A nu. m e n tio n a n y o n e a c tu a lly p o u rin g o u t w a te r f ro m the w a te rs k in an d sp rin k lin g Ista r w ith it. N a m ta r is su p p o se d to “ sp rin k le Is ta r w ith the w a te r o f life ” and ta k e h er b a c k to E re s k ig a l. th ro u g h w h ich the G n o s tic o b tain ed his “ im m o rta l g a rm e n t o f lig h t.296 I f the w a te rs k in is in d e e d Is ta r. o r ig in a te d in th e p u re k in g d o m o f lig h t (P le r o m a ).g . 2 5 2. 1. 13-20. a lth o u g h the sto ry d o e s not s p e c ific a lly m en tio n it (see also b elo w ). fo r 294 D ailey 2 0 0 0 .” i. and it w ould ensure N ergal admittance to the netherw orld as A nu ’s m essenger. X X X II. Further. The chair that N ergal takes with him is. she w ould thereby resign from her status as the queen o f the N etherw orld (R einer 1 9 8 5 . and a fter b r in g in g o u t the j u d g e s and h a v in g s eated th e m on the g o ld e n th ro n e s . R einer. w h ic h w o u ld suit the c o n te x t in the sto ry (se e th e c o m m e n t fo r lin es 9 8 .297 S in ce G n o s tic s b e lie v e d th a t h u m a n so u ls. 18. m e b a la ti. when Ereskigal w ould lea v e her old throne to occupy the new on e. 298 E . 4 8 . the s w eet w a te r.1 1 -1 4 (R obinson 1988). 51 If).295 T h e sto ry d o es n o t.29-30. 88 . T h e w a te r is p o s s ib ly b ro u g h t d o w n b y A s u s u .2 2 6 f. sin ce the th ro n e s o r the c h a irs a p p e a r at the p o in t w h e re Ista r is g o in g to be re v iv e d . O ppenheim 1950.298 In o rd er to serv e this p u rp o se . H o w e v e r .”299 B ap tism o r d re ssin g o n e s e lf w ith th e “ im m o rta l g a rm e n t o f lig h t.” I n te re s tin g ly .. 1 (R obinson 1988.. 295 E . 29‫ ל‬See Parpola 1997a. T h e c o rre s p o n d in g “o c e a n o f lig h t or w is d o m ” in the M e so p o - tam ian c o n te x t w o u ld h av e b een A p su (see the c o m m e n t fo r line 27). A ccording to E. in fa c t. In the S u m e ria n v e rsio n (1. a n d it is h e re a s su m e d so. 13-35) (R obinson 1988.n a m ir.” e n a c te d by im m e rsio n in w a te r.g .6 131. see also the com m ent for lin es 93-99. It has b e e n n o te d by S. P le r o m a . th e G n o s tic s u sed b a p tis m (or an o in tin g ). the p u rg a to ry n a tu re o f the w a te rs o f A p s u .

Lines 119-125 (see also th e c o m m e n t fo r lin es 4 2 -6 2 ): T h e g o d w h o esco rts Is ta r th ro u g h th e g ates m u s t b e N a m ta r . N o te that the name o f the goddess is written in the translation Inanna. sm all (g a l5. those who accompanied Inanna. it w as also th e so u rce o f life . this in s tr u c tio n o c c u rs la te r in the te x t. a lso th e a d d itio n o f the A s s u r re c e n s io n . A lso . They never enjoy the pleasures of the marital embrace. an d as s u c h . f ro m the P re- S a rg o n ic u n til the U r III p e r io d . In g e n e ra l. T h u s th e d e a d g o d d e s s. w ho w as Inanna’s rescuer in the Sum erian version o f the D escen t. In the N in e v e h v e rs io n . In a n n a is e s c o rte d by a g ro u p o f d em o n s (g a l5-la ). 301 N ote that the sm all dem on. who accompanied Inanna. it was. 302 ETCSL: In a n a ’s d escen t to the n eth er w o rld . They snatch the son from a m an ’s knee. and they are not sp ec ifica lly marked. They make the bride leave the house of her father-indaw. restrained her on all sides. In the S u m e ria n v ersio n it w as the A n u n n a w h o d e m a n d e d that th e g o d d e s s m u st g iv e s o m e o n e in h er stea d . the g a lla (g a l l u ) are a g ro u p o f d e m o n s or m e s s e n g e rs o f the N e th e r w o r ld . like the reeds of a fence. It w as also c o m m o n to th ro w the m a le v o le n t o b je c t o r its su b stitu te in to th e riv e r so th a t it w o u ld be lo st in th e w atery d e p th s .tu r ) 301 an d b ig (g a l5-la -g al) (11. w h o are r e s p o n s ib le fo r s e iz in g and c a rry in g u n fo rtu n a te souls to th e r e a lm o f th e d e a d . held a scepter in his hand. th e g a lla g a l w e re state o ffic ia ls . gal5-la-tur. They tear away the wife from a m an’s embrace. a n d h e n c e b a la n c e th e s itu a tio n . w h ic h i ts e lf w as so m e tim e s re fe rre d to b y the n a m e o f A p s u (see th e c o m m e n t fo r line 27). th a t th e w a te r o f life in the D e s c e n t was the w a te r o f A p su . and not Inana as in the ETC SL.300 C o u ld it be th e n . Those who accompanied her. the one in front of her. They accept no pleasant gifts.la . They take away the child hanging on a w et-nurse’s breasts. T h e n e e d e d w a te r c o u ld h a v e b e e n b r o u g h t d o w n b y th e a s s i n n u . th e w a te r fro m the o c e a n o f w is d o m an d lig h t? F u r th e r m o r e . o r th e d e a d so u l. 89 . fo r w h ich see line 126. eat no flour offering and drink no libation. know no food. as his n a m e h as b e e n m e n tio n e d im m e d ia te ly b e fo re (cf. w o u ld h a v e b e e n c le a n s e d an d p r o v id e d w ith the n e c e s sa ry w is d o m f o r h e r re b irth an d re d e m p tio n f ro m the fa lle n state. P u r if ic a tio n c o u ld also b e d o n e as a c o n c lu d in g ritu a l a f te r the a p o tro p a ic rite s . the additional lin es o f different m anuscripts are in clu d ed in the translation. while the small demons. know no drink. T h e p r o o f 300 C aplice 1974. They eat no fish. In th e S u m e ria n v e r s io n . is not the sam e as gala-tur. They. in the n a m b u r b i-te x ts (fro m the e ig h th -s ix th c e n tu rie s BCE) w h ere it is a c o m m o n p ra c tic e to p u r if y the th re a te n e d p e rso n w ith w a te r b e fo re a p o tr o p a ic rites can w o rk . in h isto ric a l re a lity . O r ig in a lly . Lines 118a-118c: T h e A s s u r v e rs io n ad ds h e re th re e m o re lin es th a t in stru c t N a m t a r o n ly to re le a s e I s ta r i f she p ro v id e s a s u b stitu te to re p la c e her. o r p e rh a p s it w as in d e e d d o w n in th e N e th e r w o r ld . the w a te r o f life. since A p su w as u n d e r s to o d as the s u b te r r a n e a n s o u rc e o f fre s h w a te r . though not an escort. never have any sweet children to kiss. carried a mace at his hip. They crush no bitter garlic. They take the wife away from a m an’s embrace. CO M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS in s ta n c e . 2 9 0 . though not a minister. see lines 1 1 8 a -1 1 8 c ). they eat no leeks. like a reed enclosure. T h e s p e a k e r o f th e se lin e s m a y be e ith e r E r e s k ig a l o r the A n u n n a . and the big demons.3 0 5 ) :302 So when Inanna left the underworld. the one behind her. e x a c tly as in the S u m e ria n v e rs io n .

For D umuzi a n d Gestinanna. F ro m the O ld B a b y lo n ia n p e rio d o n w a rd s. 126-170. C A D G. on th e o th e r h a n d .g . and th e ir actio n s w e r e n o t y e t a rb itra ry . b u t on the o th e r h a n d th e y are c la s sifie d as d e m o n s . it is N a m ta r w ho is a s k e d to b rin g Istar b a c k d o w n b e lo w if th e re is no s u b stitu te (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 1 1 8 a -l 18c). on the o th e r h a n d . 5 6 -8 4 . 305 D ailey 2 0 0 0 . 18-19. it is N a m ta r w h o is a s k e d to b ath e T a m m u z . see Sladek 1974. is a m b ig u o u s . I s t a r ’s lo v e r an d h u s b a n d .” In the S u m e ria n v e r s io n . w h o m ay ra n d o m ly a s s a u lt a n y o n e and ca u se his o r h e r d e a th . c a re fu lly s e p a ra te d fro m th e h u m a n s.d eath in o rd e r to sav e s o m e o n e else. S till. as they in sist on I n a n n a ’s r e p la c e m e n t in the S u m erian v e rsio n .304 Lines 126-130: T h is p a s sa g e starts w ith the c o m m a n d to b rin g Ista r b a c k if she do es n o t g iv e a su b stitu te f o r h e r s e lf (see the c o m m e n t fo r lin es 118a- 118c). It is p ro b a b le th a t th e p la y in g o f the flu te and th e p ro stitu te s c h a n g in g his m o o d are m e n tio n e d h e re to tu rn h is m in d o f f the tra g ic fate . Edina-usagake. it w as re p la c e d b y th a t o f g a lla g a l alre a d y by the e n d o f th ird m ille n n iu m . u n le ss B e lili is a n o th e r n a m e fo r G e stin a n n a . an d she w as th e one w h o trie d to save D u m u z i f ro m th e g a lla p u rsu in g h im an d try in g to tak e h im to th e N e th e r w o rld (see D u m u zi’s Dream o r Dumuzi and Gestinanna ). an d he h as no s is te r c a lle d B elili else- w h e re . th e g a lla w ere r e s p o n s ib le fo r c a p tu rin g the y o u n g d y in g g o d s . In m y th o lo g y . a n o in t h im w ith g o o d o il. see ETC SL. 2 2 5 -2 3 9 . 162. as in th e tra d itio n s h o w n in the in c a n ta tio n s . Ning iszid a’s Journey to the N e th e rw orld . Lines 131-134: T h e la st p a rt o f the sto ry in tro d u c e s th e g o d d e s s B elili. the le x ic a l lists an d in c a n ta tio n s in c lu d e the g a lla a m o n g the s ev en ev il d e m o n s o f th e N e th e r w o rld . th e ir ta rg e t w as c a u tio u sly c h o s e n . H e is a lso a llo w e d to p lay the lapis la z u li p ip e . n. N o te th at in the S u m e ria n v e rsio n o f th e Descent. b a s e d on p u re w ic k e d n e s s . O b v i o u s ly . A c c o r d in g ly . 85-86. see A lster 1972. e. T ra d itio n a lly . G e s tin a n n a h ad a c lo se re la tio n s h ip w ith h e r b r o th e r.. s. T h e A k k a d ia n v e rs io n m ake3 a sh o rtcu t a n d in sta n tly d ecid es on the re p la c e m e n t.303 T h is fu n c tio n w as p ro b a b ly in flu e n c e d by the real o ffic e o f the h isto ric a l g a lla g a l (o r g a lla ). IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION fo r the o ffic e o f g a lla . or ETCSL: D u m u zid and G estin-ana. or ETCSL: D u m u zid ’s D ream . and c lo th e h im w ith th e red g a rm e n t. e x c a v a tio n s h a v e sh o w n that c o rp s e s w ere w ra p p e d in red clo th for b u r ia l. T h e on es u tte rin g the c o m m a n d are p r o b a b ly the A n u n n a .305 T a m m u z w as thus p re p a re d fo r his fu n e ra l. w ho is here re fe rre d to as th e sister o f T a m m u z . D u m u zi’s D r e a m . th e su b stitu te is in te n d e d to be T a m m u z (= D u m u z i ) . a fte r c o n s id e rin g v a rio u s p o s sib ilitie s fo r h e r s u b stitu te . 90 . T h e v ic tim is th u s ritu a lis tic a lly p u r if ie d and clo th e d . For D u m u z i’s D rea m and N in g is z id a ’s Journey to the N eth erw orld . . I n a n n a o n ly at th e e n d d e c id e s to g iv e D u m u z i to th e N e th e r w o rld . a n d i f it e v e r e x iste d .v . 304 Katz 2 0 0 3 . S. in th e S u m e ria n Descent. a lso B lack and Green 1 992. the g a lla ca p tu rin g I n a n n a ’s su b stitu te are o n o n e h a n d d e s c rib e d as d e p u tie s carry in g out th e la w . 2 1 . w h o is h e re c a lle d the “lo v er o f h e r y o u th . 2 8 0 -2 8 7 . gallu . 306 For D um uzi's D rea m . and p a s s i m . D u m u z i ’s sister is G e s tin a n n a (“ H e a v e n ly V in e /W in e ” ). w ho are a s su m e d to h a v e fu n c tio n e d as d e p u tie s or as p o lic e o ffic e rs. F o llo w in g the a d d itio n o f th e A s s u r r e c e n s io n . D a ile y n o tes th a t.306 T h e id e n tific a tio n o f B e lili 303 For E dina-usagake. see Jacobsen 1987b.

in tu rn .” w h ose city w as K ua(ra). w as a cu lt c e n te r o f D u m u z i. known as the “Fisherm an. for in s ta n c e . S K . 160-188. n. 5. 5 2 -7 1 .b 1-lu -lu k u -g al ld -d a ). SK 27 f ro m K is (col. J a c o b s e n s u g g e sts th a t p e rh a p s B ilu lu ap- p e a r e d . the other.e b e -b e -li-li-s e in S K 2 7 .307 B elili is also m e n tio n e d in an O ld B a b y lo n ia n ta b le t.” H e “ le ft s c a tte re d in th e fie ld s his v ic tim s (cattle ) stru ck d o w n w ith the m a c e . see ib id . If B ilu lu w as u n d e r s to o d as a t h u n d e r c lo u d .” w h ic h w o u ld c o m p o r t w ith lig h tn in g strik in g d o w n s o m eo n e . S ee Jacobsen 1939. su cceed ed Lugalbanda as king o f Uruk in the second dynasty after the F lood . h o w e v e r .g .308 T h e re is an old w o m a n c a lle d B e lili (u m -m a db e -li-li) in D u m u zi’s D r e a m . is also c o n n e c te d w ith w a te r. esp . 30 9 . w h o a p p e a rs . F o r in s ta n c e . b u t it a lso a p p e a rs as a n a m e fo r M a r d u k o f B a b y lo n in the Epic o f Creation (Enuma elis ). c f. B ilu lu c h a n g in g into a w a te r s k in w o u ld m a k e s e n s e .s e . 1. or ETCSL: Enki a n d the w o r ld order. ii 8 -1 7 ).311 E n b ilu lu . T h e e y e s to n e s w ere c u t in a w a y th e y re s e m b le d an e y e . 107 and 7 0 . so p e r h a p s the tw o lad ies w e re the o n e an d the sam e. se e.8 2 -1 6 0 . ii). 309 ETCSL: D u m u z id ’s d re a m . 272) an d Enlil a ndN in lil (1. “L o rd B ilu lu . Edina-usagake . 52-71. 11. n. 312 Jacobsen 1970.IGI.310 B ilu lu (u m -m a db i-lu -lu ) is the o ld w o m a n w h o is tu rn e d into a w a te rsk in by Ista r b e c a u s e she th in k s B ilu lu is to b la m e fo r D u m u z i ’s d eath . Jacobsen and Kramer 1953.0 0 0 years. se e . 91 .e . s in c e he w as a s s o c ia te d w ith th u n d e r s to r m s th ro u g h his very n a m e . th e “ fla s h o f lig h tn in g . in th e f o rm o f a r a in /th u n d e r c lo u d fro m w h ic h I n a n n a c h a n g e d h e r in to a w a te rsk in . S in c e E n b ilu lu w as a s s o c ia te d w ith w a te r an d c a n a ls .” 312 T h is B e lili/B ilu lu . For Enlil a n d N inlil. w ith th e w h ite or the lig h te r c o lo r aro u n d th e d a r k p u p il. T h .g . e . “fla sh o f lig h tn in g . she w o u ld h a v e b e e n an ap p ro - p ria te m o th e r for h e r so n .li-s e . 88. u r u .” w as a f o rm o f the w e a th e r g od A d a d /I s k u r . I. w h ic h b e lo n g s to th e la m e n t fo r th e d y in g g o d s . u ru -s i-b i b i-li. B elili o f the Desc ent is m o st lik ely o n ly a n o th e r n a m e for G e s tin a n n a . F o u r g o ld c u f f b ra c e le ts in la id w ith 307 A ccording to the Sumerian King L ist. 308 S ee Katz 2 0 0 3 . 5 7-59. the in s p e c to r o f c a n a ls (de n .. 311 For Enki a n d the W orld O rd e r . B ehrens 1978. or ETCSL: Enlil a n d Nin lil. 310 Jacobsen 1970. iii 14. G ir g ir e (g fr-g ir-e).f CO M M EN TA R Y A N D AN ALYSIS as D u m u z i ’s s is te r fin d s c o n f irm a tio n in the fa c t th a t B e lili h a d a sa n c tu a ry in th e to w n c a lle d u r u -s ig 4. T h e je w e lr y m a d e o f eyestones (m ate[N A 4. b u ilt b y A s s u r n a s ir p a l II ( 8 8 3 -8 5 9 BCE). e x c a v a to rs h a v e f o u n d a g o ld e n d ia d e m e m b e l- lish e d w ith m e d a llio n s in la id w ith b a n d e d ag a te e y e -b e a d s in o n e o f th e three ro y a l to m b s th a t w e re fo u n d in th e N o r th -W e s t P a la c e in K a lh u (N im ru d ).MES]) th a t B elili tears is p r o b a b ly a n e c k la c e m a d e o f b e a d s o f b a n d e d ag ates or s im ila r sto n es. In Inanna and Bilulu. e . an d as a “ g o d o f a b u n d a n c e ” s p e c ific a lly w ith fru c tif y in g w aters (ra in s ). B ilu lu also has a son c alled G irg ire.” and w as said to have ruled the antediluvian dynasty o f Bad-Tibira for 3 6 . O n e o f th e m a n u sc rip ts w rite s B ilu lu as B e lili. For Kuara = Eridu. in fa c t. w h ic h seem s to h av e b e e n lo c a te d n ear B a d .T ib ir a .. in Enki and the World O rder (1. 5 8 . w h o fo r in sta n c e in D u m u z i ’s Dream is c le a rly a se p a ra te c h a r a c te r . n. 1 9 9-2 3 4 . T h e r e f o r e . is h a rd ly D u m u z i ’s s is te r. A t le a s t th e y are b o th r e fe r r e d to as th e “ old w o m a n ” an d th ey o c c u r in s im ila r c o n te x ts .. 1 4 2 ).309 In a n o th e r m y th c a lle d Inanna and Bilulu. B en ito 1 9 6 9 .2. H e r so n . J a c o b s e n h a s s u g g e s te d th a t B ilu lu is the fe m in in e a s p e c t o f th e god E n b ilu lu . ETCSL: Inana an d Bilulu. w h ic h . to w h o m D u m u z i e s c a p e s w h ile r u n n in g aw ay fro m the d e m o n s try in g to c a p tu re h im . there were tw o D um uzis: one was called the “Shepherd. T h e se p o ly c h r o m e sto n es w e re u se d fo r m a k in g je w e lr y .db e -li-li (cf.

“b o s o m . sin ce th ey w e re o fte n in sc rib e d w ith th e n a m e o f the ro y a l d o n o r.” an d remtu = “b o s o m . sin ce th e n e a r e s t s o u rc e o f ag ates w as in In d ia . /-sa/ ( “h e r b o s o m ” ) w a s o m itte d by scrib al e r r o r . n. b u t in th is c o n te x t it m u s t r e fe r to B elili h e rse lf. 171. R aw linson et a l. S om e o f the e y e s to n e s seem to h a v e b e e n som e k in d o f v o tiv e o b je c ts . 3 5 9 . 1. the b e s t f o u n d at R a ta n p u r in R a jp ip la . 77': b e iz-bu re-m a-as-su nu-uk-ku-pa-[at. p e rh a p s also in a n g e r.v. 11th ed... 1909. cf.313 T h e e a rlie st e x a m p le s o f th e ey e sto n e s co m e f ro m th e O ld B a b y lo n ia n p e r io d .m e $ Meluhha 5R 33 ii 39: C A D I-J. In C A D R .” 92 . J. D ra ffk o rn K ilm e r.” w hich w o u ld m e a n th a t B elili filled h e r b o s o m w ith e y e s to n e s. e s p e c ia lly In a n n a /Is ta r an d M u l- lissu . 3 2 0 the m e a n in g “b o s o m ” is o n ly c o n je c tu r a l (see C A D R . g e n ita ls . birka . a c c o rd in g to th e S u m e ria n v e rs io n . 318 Bottero 1 971-72. 25 9). “ c o w . 1.314 A n early K a s s ite k in g A g u m . w h o n otes th a t su ch a c u s to m is p r a c tic e d in m a n y c u ltu re s. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION ro u n d b a n d e d a g a te e y e -b e a d s w e re also fo u n d in the sa m e to m b . A c c o rd in g to B o tte ro . g e n itiv e o f rimtu. “A gum -K akrim e and the Return o f Marduk” in Foster 1996. he w ill rise f ro m th e r e a lm o f death: 313 Bahrani 1995.v . T h e te a rin g o f je w e lr y is also u n d e rs to o d as an e x p re s s io n o f g rie f. 2 50 and 2 6 2 ...” or ri'm-te. s. 25. 1638.315 T h e re fe re n c e to th e tra d e b e tw e e n M e lu h h a and M e s o p o ta m ia is in an y case v a lid .318 S lad ek h as f u rth e r s u g g e s te d th a t B elili p la c e s h e r je w e lr y on b o d y p arts w h ic h m ay re fe r to s e x u a lity . “ w ild c o w ” (lo g o g ra p h ic a lly w ritte n SUN). s p e c ific a lly as a sign o f w o m e n ’s g rie f.g . w o m b . 3f.B a b y lo n ia n p e rio d . g e n itiv e o f litu / littu. to h o n o r th e re c o v e ry o f th e c u lt statu es o f M a rd u k an d Z a rp a n itu o f B a b y lo n f ro m the H ittites. w h ic h .k a k rim e sp eak s o f im p o rtin g e y e s to n e s fro m the land o f M e lu h h a (In d u s V a lle y ). an d it is u n c e rta in w h e th e r th e te x t w as c o m p o s e d d u rin g th e K a s s ite p e rio d . 75 k m f ro m th e G u lf o f C a m b a y ( K h a m b h a t).316 It is o b v io u s th a t B e lili tears h e r n e c k la c e as an act o f g rie f. 304. 305-310. cf. 65-71. the p a s s a g e is tra n sla te d a n d re n d e re d : “ the e y e s to n e s w h ic h d e c o ra te d the w ild co w ( B e lili).. see also Howard-Carter 1986.“ la p . s.. p o ss. an d th e re fo re the e x a c t m e a n in g o f B e l i l i ’s>act rem ain s s o m e w h a t u n clear. in I n d ia . 320 L eichty 1970. n.i g i . 319 Sladek 1974. T h e p ro b le m o f the te x t is th at the m a n u s c rip t co m e s f ro m th e lib rary o f A s s u r b a n ip a l. n. 33 ii 39. fo r the lo ss o f h e r b ro th e r. B o tte ro h as su g g e ste d th a t th e r e a d in g ri'm-te w o u ld allo w an in te rp re ta - tion o f th e w o rd as remtu. 316 Howard-Carter 1986. E n cy clo p ed ia B ritannica. w h ic h h a d the re m a in s o f tw o ro y al w o m e n . 315 n a 4 . 27 4 -2 7 8 . suff. by A. is h a l f a y e a r. T h e last w o rd is p o s s ib le to re a d lit-te. Line 136: B elili states th a t a fte r h e r b ro th e r has had h is a llo tte d tim e in the N e th e r w o rld . rimtu.” inati sa undalla pan rimte. th e e x p e c te d sg. 317 Draffkorn K ilm er 1971. T h e latter is fre q u e n tly u s e d as an e p ith e t o f a g o d d e s s . ca.317 T h e la s t w o rd o f lin e 134 is le g ib le o n ly in the A s s u r re c e n s io n (C ).”319 T h e w o rd remtu h as the m e a n in g “ w o m b ” fo r in s ta n c e in the o m en series Summa izbu but . as w e ll as the n am e o f a g o d to w h o m the g ift w a s p r e s e n te d . 2. and th eir e x is te n c e c o n tin u e s un til the N e o . esp e- cially sin ce th e k in g in q u e s tio n is n o t k n o w n o u tsid e this d o c u m e n t. 158. Inu. 306. 314 Lambert 1969b.] “If an anom aly’s w om b is p erforated . e. 93.

the rin g (HAR) o ccu rs as p a rt o f th e g o d d e s s ’ attire: in the A k k a d ia n v e rsio n th ey are “the b an g les o f I s t a r ’s w rists and a n k le ts o f h e r a n k le s . N o te th at D u m u z i/T a m m u z w as id e n tifie d w ith th e M e s o p o ta m ia n k in g . 322 S ig n ific a n tly .. 322 C f.321 In s te a d . now at the L ou vre). a n d th e rin g ( s e m e r u [ HAR]) is m ad e o f c a rn e lia n ( s a m t u [ NA4. s tr ik e ” d o es n o t m a k e s en se w h e n u s e d w ith w in d in s tr u m e n ts . a slu a n d g in in d a n a k k u ) . 53 -6 6 + Plate A . a n d a llo w e d to . s tic k . an d clo th ed w ith a red g a rm e n t ( s u b a t u [ TUG] /ttm w [H U S . T h u s it is p r o b a b le th a t h e. i. p i p e ” ) m e n tio n e d by B e lili is m a d e o f lapis lazu li ( u q n u [NA4. T h e c a r n e lia n rin g (HAR) th at T a m m u z w ill b rin g up w ith h im is n o t th e sam e “r in g ” as the d iv in e s y m b o l. in fa c t. T h e p ip e . to me). 105. w hich show s that the rod is blue and the circle is red (personal com m unication o f B eatrice M uller.GID] = “f lu te ” / m a l i l u [ GI.323 T his w o u ld suit v ery w e ll w ith th e e n d in g o f D e s c e n t : T a m m u z w ill b rin g w ith h im a re d rin g an d a b lu e s tic k /ro d w h e n he a s c e n d s f ro m the N e th e r w o rld . or th e flu te ( e b b u b u [ GI. a “ ro d . n. see Parrot 1958. In b o th v e r s io n s o f th e D e s c e n t.) n in d a re sp e c tiv e ly (A k k .4 2 -4 3 ).GIN]). B o tte ro has s u g g e s te d th a t th e m u s ic a l in s tru m e n t GI..” T h e s e tw o o b je c ts are really a (co ile d ) m e a s u rin g line an d a m e a s u rin g ro d . M iiller 2 0 0 3 . th e tw o sym b ols Is ta r h o ld s in h e r h a n d w ith th e in te n tio n o f g ra n tin g th e m to the k in g . Lines 137-138: S ee th e c o m m e n t fo r lin es 81-84. B e fo re d e s c e n d in g to the N e th e r w o r ld . in S u m e ria n e s . C assin 1968. w h o w as e n title d to h o ld the s y m b o ls o f d iv in e ju s tic e (cf. T h e sa m e c o lo r s .p la y the lapis la z u li p ip e (see th e c o m m e n t fo r lin es 1 2 6 -1 3 0 ). l . he tra n s la te s th e w o rd as a “b a g u e tt e .e. 321 A ccord ing to D raffkorn K ilm er ( 1 9 9 5 . G U G ]).” b e c a u s e the verb m a h a s u = “to hit. beat. it is b lu e . 8. Istar. are p a in te d w ith th e tw o co lo rs in q u e s tio n : th e rin g re d an d the ro d b lu e . 9 1 -9 2 . red an d b lu e . o c c u r e a r lie r in the tex t. w h e n T a m m u z is o r d e re d to be I s t a r ’s su b stitu te. tap” is used for p layin g percussion instrum ents and reed p ipes.GID] = “reed flu te . i.g a n a and g i-(d is .” i. it is re d . cf. he is to be b a th e d . C O M M EN TARY A N D AN A LY SIS When Tammuz rises (lit. in a m u ra l fro m the r o y a l p a la c e at M a r i.e . b u t th e s h ap e w o u ld h a v e b e e n th e s a m e . w h ich m u s t h a v e b e e n g iv e n to h im b y his w ife . n . w h ic h d e p ic ts th e in v e s titu r e o f th e k in g Z im rilim . for the m ural.” in the S u m e ria n v e rs io n it is the “ g o ld e n r in g /b r a c e le t” th a t is r e m o v e d f ro m h e r h a n d . for w hich I am grateful. B o tte ro n o tes th a t gold as a c o lo r is n e a r to r e d .A ]).e .2 6 0 6 ) . the lapis lazuli pipe and the carnelian ring will rise with him (lit. 323 B ottero 1 9 7 1 -7 2 . has th e sy m b o ls o f d iv in e ju s tic e w ith h im . th ey are m a d e o f lap is la z u li (z a -g in ) an d b e lo n g to I n a n n a ’s d iv in e p o w e rs. D esp ite the quality o f the colors in Parrot’s b ook..ZA. B ottero’s observation on the colors has been proven correct through the recent restoration o f the “In vestiture” (A O 19826. 12. a n o in te d . 93 . J.” and su g g e sts it sho uld b e u n d e r s to o d as o n e o f th e tw o sy m b o ls o f d iv in e p o w e r and j u s t i c e . n am ely th e “ro d an d th e r in g . th e c o ile d m e a s u rin g lin e .GID sh o u ld p erh ap s n o t be in te rp re te d h e r e as the “ f lu te . Z im r ilim ab o v e ). In th e S u m e ria n v ersio n o f th e D e s c e n t. the verb tuku!mahasu “to strike. to me).

.

as opposed to the adjectival plural of ptc. “to see” (var. -me.” 11 sabuh = stat. 15 luruba = prec. from erebu. “ when she reached. n i n d a . l c -a[m].9. sg. suff. “in her reach in g . sg. 3f -sina. the suffix h i . sg. o f p e tu . 3. “to en ter” 16 tapatta = pres. sg. hi-a “m ixed”) was in s a h a r . com pare with lines 21 A. izzakkar = pres.v. often attached to collective nouns w ithout im- plying a gram m atical plural. “ h ey !” (CDA s. C: s a h a r . mss D and E ) .. of ak(a)lu. the ptc. (a N eo-A ssyrianism . G A G § 123d). 8 = epru. erruba = pres. sg. B: ipusm a iqabbi). CO M M EN TARY A N D AN ALYSIS Grammatical Commentary 2 T he idiom uzna sakanu (lit.h i . “bread. var. lu + pret. 5 eribusu = ptc. and 109A. suff. 95 . -ma). listen to . like Hi. and pron. am ata(m ) “w ord ” . “to settle (said of dust)” . proper (erib utu ). m. 12 ina kasadlsa = ina “in ” + inf. st. “to place the ear”) m eans “to pay attention. cstr. 3f + encl. “w ing.” 9 immaru = pres. 1 (erru b) 4‫ ־‬vent. cf. 3m o f sab ah u. “to speak. sg. gen. epru (var. 3 (ipus) of epesu. the plural sign m e s was. cstr. pres. suff. akalsunu (var. “dust” .. -a(m). fo o d ” + poss. ptcl. gen.” 13 a -m a -tum = nom . ipusu = pret. 3m of a m a ru . see SAAS 13. 3m -su. so also in lines 21C and 109C: ip-pu-su. note that w hen used as a noun. 14 -me = after voc. ptcl. acc. a N eo-A ssyrianism . “and. h i .” an infinitive construction equivalent to a finite tem poral clause. 66A . 3c o f zakaru Gt. pi. sg. C: isabbuh = pres. D: im m aram a. suff.m e s ): in N A orthography. m.-acc. “to do” + anaptyctic vowel (-u) replacing coordinative encl. sg. “to do the m o u th ”) is a poetic expression for “to speak.A (from Sum. p ita = im p. l c -a[m]. sg. pi. f r o m akalu. -a(m ). l c (erub) + vent. “for m e” . sg. sg. 10 gappi (C: agappi) = sg. pi. “to open” (NA form. to say” (< *iztakkar). nom. “to op en ” (pite) + dat. also” . sg. sg. + poss. The final -m in in a-ma-tum is orthographic only (used as a stylistic device) and was not pronounced.a N eo -A ssyrian orthography frequently used as a determ inative o f collective nouns. 206. 3.a -sina ms E) = st. sg. sg. 3 f -sa. lit.1) for SB acc. -ma. pi. o f p u. “to enter” + poss. 3m -sunu (var. “m outh” + poss. 3f -sa. plum age. sg.” 12a p is a = N A st. T he idiom p a epesu (lit. cstr. a -m a-tam (C). pi. o f erebu.. may have the plural ending o f nouns ( erib u ). SB tepette) + dat. 2m o f p e tu .” 3 iskunm a: the enclilic particle -ma indicates repetition and has no lexical m eaning here. “to eat.a (see note on line 8). N A by-form of (a )ka p p u .

3f -sa. keppe = pi. pron. nom . ^ eriqu (var. pi. “to be great. saptasu = dual nom . o f q u 33u. referring to daltu “d o o r” . to fell”). sg. edge. gro w ” (var. o f keppu. wait fo r” . nom .) + (w )abalu = “to want. sg. sg. 3 o f i/uzuzzu. D. sg. o f zikru (NA siqru). 29 niksu = “stum p o f a tree. C: elluni = pres. da liha t = ptc.” Ass. roil (w ater)” . IS T A R ’S DESC EN T A N D RESURRECTION 17 asabbir = pres. pi. suffixal form o f SB sem u “to hear. acc. “to g o ” . sg. 3 (ip p e d ) of petu N. sg. sg. f. 20 eli (u g u ) = prep. to yearn for. bound form . usabalkat = NA pres. lip ped = prec. upon. -a{m) (var. libbu (subj. C: siqirki) = st. zakaru = “to pronounce. 22 r a b id = sg. im a33idu = pres. form ): pret.-acc. sm ash.” gen. pi. suff. “to be(com e) green. sg. dem . 3 (e r u b ) o f erebu. l c -anni (< ventive -am + -ni). f. pi. sg. sg. f. 24 lullik = prec. “to th ro w ” + vent. 19 usella — pres. “ to break. yellow . 25 erum m a = pret. E: irqu stat. 3m -su (C: sabatusa Ass. suff. 27 m ukiltu = ptc. suff. pi. izzaz = pres. bound form o f dalahu./acc. 2 f -ki. “to be opened” . “to enter” + encl. “more than” (see G A G § 68 a). 3m o f madu (m a3ad u). C: ba’latu = “lady. rim ” (C: sabat Ass. 1 o f m a 3adu S (sum ’udu). “to await. acc. gen . cstr. + poss. o f rabu. to turn p ale” (var. A: eruqu A ss. form (SB asebber). o f kullu. overthrow ” (Bab. pi. sg. o f saptu + poss. “to stand” . m. 3m [ellu] o f elu = “to go u p ” + vent. 3m). “to becom e dark. 18 sippum m a = N A sg. m. o f rabu “ great. 3 f -sa). sg. -ni[m]). tanaddassi = pres.v. cstr. 45]. nam e” . sg. islima = pret. note on line 12a).” v. to d eterm in e” 96 . of. 26 annitu = sg. ba’latu. annu “th is” (for A: annitum e see note on line 14). 3f o f salam u. -ma (= Bab. suff. f. adj. note that the w ord has the divine determ inative (d) in front o f it. 28 sam isa = NA inf. sip p a m m a . 30 sa pa t = sg. ptcl. sg. lu + pret. “on. sg. nom . belatu [CAD B s. the m im ation is preserved before -ma). 23 iziz = imp. 1 o f seberu. o f i/uzuzzu. sg. “to disturb. sg. 1 o f nabalkutu S “to overturn. + encl. sg. f. “to hold” . to desire. sg. “to carry” (ubil) + acc. “to increase”) 21 p a su = SB st. “nam e” + poss. nakasu = “to cut. stir up. u s b a la kk a t). sg. 3m o f (w )a ra q u . sg.” but see the com m entary for the translation “whip to p ” . ptcl. nom. generally translated as “skipping rope. E: usam?ad = pres. “m outh” + poss. sg. gen. form ). suff. utter. turn black” . 31 ublanni = pret. m. cf.” in com parative use. cf. cu t-o ff piece o f w ood” (nikis sg. “to stand” . m istress. 3f -si. nom . 3 o f (w )a b a lu . bound form o f saptu “lip. o f pu. 1 (allik) o f alaku.” W Sem word. 1 (u sella) o f elu S “to raise u p ” + vent. “to be(com e) num erous” (var. sg. 2 f (ta naddi) of nadu. lu + pret. here the word m ay also be a mistake or a by-form o f Ass. -a(m) + acc. 23a q a 33i = NA imp. + poss. 3m -su (cf. sg. zikirki (var. -ma “and” .

sg. von Soden.v. -a(m) + dat. m arker -ni. f o f erebu “to en ter” . vertigo. an Assyrianism fo r SB sallupa. and trem b ling ” (M aqlu V III 41). I have retained the long final vowel and therefore the transcription has erbi. 2 f -ki. m arker is actually -u. liriski = prec. 3f).+ N A acc. in the place o f honor due to Ereskigal).-dat. sg. 97 . how ever. up on ” . m ood. 37 p ita ssi = im p.ni. m. CA D E 85a (s. concerning” is an A ssyrianism fo r SB eli. -ma. e.e. 65 usbi = pret. suff. s. o f asu S + vent. 3 f o f salapu + Ass. thus also Oppen- heim . sg. The Ass. “let them loose against her body” (susassunu = imp.” or “ should I w eep?” ina m uhhi (ms C) “on. over..v. p. subj. elenu 2'c) correctly translates (with a question m ark )... “may (Ea) cover her with epilep- sy. m in d ” + poss. on top of. o f epesu D “to treat” (uppis) + acc.. sg. 38 uppissim a = imp. suff. ptcl. sg. sg.1 2 . 3 o f hadu “to be jo y fu l. sg. 256 n. -ma. 3 o f (w )asabu “to sit (dow n)” . -a(m). “to cry. NA form due to syllable m etathesis (usib > usbi). -a(m). Sladek 1974. m. 3f -si(m). 69 susassi = im p. its m eaning is unkn ow n . sg. suggests that it could be a scribal error for usib or alternatively a form o f the verb su b e}u. 1 -anni + encl. sg. f. 409. tem p er. subj. sg. F or the present edition. sg. sg. sg. pron. sg. Gilga- m esh 124:65. 36 tardu = stat. e. but the -u is dropped after a vowel except w hen the vowel is part of the root. [li-s]a-hi-ip-si benna tesa ra'iba. B orger. ptcl. “over. pi. 2 and CA D A/2 389a. P arpola (oral com m unication) suggests that the sg.3 . 3m o f fa radu “to send aw ay” (tarid) + subj. sg. dat. 1 o f baku. s. 3f -si [sibilant + s o f pron.g. Ass. to m ake cheerful” (S stem o f SB neperdu.” “let me w eep. > 5s] + encl. “Istar gave the m atter no thought but sat down(?) above h e r” (i. see SAAS 13 p. 41 lihdu = prec. 35 sallupani = D stat. m. 2 f verbal forms should in fact have a short final vow el l-il. T he form has hitherto rem ained a crux. because the form s take the ventive ending -(a)m . CA D K 300f. katam u. acc. sg. 3f -sa (+ encl. n a p ardu ) + acc.. According to F oster 1996. rejoice” (lu + ihdu). and not -n i(m ) as the plural form s with a long final vow el. B A L 116). H eidel. 3m o f sahapu “to o verw helm ”) cf. u sperdannim a = pret. -sunu). sg. C O M M ENTARY A N D A N A LY SIS kabtassa (C: kabattasdm a) = sg. 3m suff.g. 38. A nother possibility would be liktumu (with the same m eaning).4 . erbi. see SAAS 1 3 .v. sg. S. ptcl. 34 lubki = prec. Speiser A N E T 108:65. that elenu does not really co m plem ent su be’u. He notes. T he translation of the passage is uncertain. 1. see SAAS 13. above. 3 o f riasu “to rejoice” (lu + iris) + acc. 3 f -si. -u. F or the restoration lishupu (prec. pi. “to rush u p o n ” (cf. -ma). cf. 3c o f supardu “to lighten. 40 erbi = imp. G A G 109j. 44. o f petu “to op en” (pite) + vent. o f asu S “to let go out” (susi) + vent. w eep ” (< lu + abki). m. pi. asabu lb . as the verbal form is am biguous and could be rendered eith er “ I w ould like to w eep . “liver.+ acc. bound form o f kabattu. T he destroyed end o f the line could be tentatively restored [su (zum ri)-sa su -sa -su -n u]. 75 sasa = N A form for SB sdsi “to h er” (pers. OrNS 19 (1950) 141 n.

97a b d n a t = bound form o f b a n i t u . “his heart w orried. “creatress” (< b a n i a t . 1 -anni. 100. decree” + acc. 3m of k ata m u “to cover”). how ever. C: im h a s is the corresponding SB form . but a sexless. dirty h a ir” (pi. o f epi nnu (= e p i n n e t = e-pi-<ne>-et 98 . z a k a r u “to speak. For the reading a .p i . p.15 and 969 r. sg.h i . 82 m a l u “unkem pt. sg. -u. -ma. 3m o f n a d a n u / t a d a n u “to give” + . 3m o f p e t u / p a t u N “to be o p en ed ” . “The Esoteric M eaning o f the N am e of G ilg a m e sh . m ale” (usually zi k a r u ) . for zikru referring to Enkidu as “the word o f E a” (also = ha ssi nnu . pi. see G A G .h i.” a pun for a s s i n n u ) in the Epic o f G ilgam esh. 3m -su. C: i p p e r d u ) = pret.). 94 l i p p e tu (var C: l i p p a tu . lult atti (var. A susu-nam ir was n o t a m an. t a s s u k a = NA pret. o f d i m t u “tear”+ poss. ahu “ side. 81 Instead o f katmu (stat. pi. m ake d irty ” . 96 inuhu = pret. 3. 3 f o f m a h a s u “to beat.til a r . 103a lu s i m k a m a = prec. sg. sg.” SAA Gilg. 97 t u m m e s i m a = imp. “ on her side” > “alone”) see CA D A/I 207. s.v. sg. effem inate as sin nu (see the com m ent for lines 91-92). sg.+ encl. o f tam u D “to adjure” + acc.e t in C can be taken as g i s . suff. 3 o f n e p e r d u N “to shine. where there could be space for one sign betw een hi and -sa. how ever suggests reading a . sg. prec. 3 o f nahu “to be(com e) restful” + subj. sg.s a (lit. 119. u tter” ) or “man. “to drink (habitually)” (< lu + a l t a t t i ~ a s ta tt i) 101 t a m h a s = NA pret. 7*). with NA reduction or syncope o f the prestressed syllable ( l i d (i)n u n i ) .” B orger. also attested in CT 53 24 r . ptcl. 2m o f e r e s u = “to request” + acc. 2m -ka. var. sg. o f s a q u D “to raise u p ” . M A form ) = prec. sg. Since. 104 “seeder p lou gh ” ? the variant e .[ x ] . com - parable to the G nostic l o g o s .[ t i ( l ) ] . sg.h i . and SAA 9 p . form ) = prec. sg. M A . 3f -si. This makes the a s s i n n u a personification o f the word o f Ea. 1 o f s i a m u “to fix. “(in her) hiding.t u m i-na a . 3 f o f n as d ku “to bite” + vent. 84 d l m a s u = dual nom. sg. becom e c h eerful” + subj. Parpola. XCII n. 1 o f e z e r u “to curse” + acc. IST A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 80 R estored from line 90 ( it .s d .d a .. i p p e r e d d u (var. arm .15. I 102. to darken”).s a ). 99 li d -n u -n i = liddinuni. his face grew d ark .+ encl. 98 s u q q i = imp. m. sg. sg. N om inal- p aradigm a 4.-acc. gen. l c of sa tu Gtn. one could also consider restoring a rp u (stat. pi. the m eaning “w ord” is certainly to be preferred here. cf. ptcl. lc suff. p.” C R R A I 43 (1998) 318-319. sg.) is derived from the verb lu‫ ״‬u (D only) “ to sully. BAL I (1979). to strike” . var. See also S. 102 t e t e r s a n n i = perf. sg. 2m -ka. C: la l ta tt i. secrecy ” . m. a p i n = epi nnu a defective syllabic spelling for the pi. 91 T he word zikru is am biguous and can in principle mean either “w ord” (cf. pi. 103 luzir ka = prec. C: it t a s a k = SB perf. “axe. [lummun] li b b a s u p a n u s u a r p u . -ma. 3m o f a r a p u / e r e p u = “ to cloud over. -u. -a(m).m (dat.

j e s t” (CAD N / l 255b s. 130 li n a }>d = prec. m i n (= “ditto ”). note on line 118b above. sg. o f r a m a k u D “to wash” (SB r u m m i k ). m. is a badly copied sign of repetition.+ encl. a p i n . follow ed by the sign o f separation. pi. 3 f o f t a d a n u “to give” + acc. n a d a n u “to give”) + NA acc. 2m suff. 118b i d d a n a k k a = i d d a n (pres. m e s ) . -ma. o f tar u D + vent. nu’u t u ^ a ^ t u “jo ke. -ma. m.e . m e s is a pseu do -log og ram to be read as ia A-a r a ti.a ( m ) . I assume that the sign lu. 3m o f elu = “to go up. ptcl. pi./dat.v. It is also possible to read u n -t a l.” The syllabic spelling IA. of a ja r tu ~ “ (cow rie-)shell. p. sg. n a m u tu and C A D E 239b s. 138 li l u n i m m a = prec.( ak )k a . m. 134 u n d a l l a [< u m t a l l a ] = perf. rise” + vent. . ptcl. pi. [SP] 133 t a s m e = Ass. f. 3f -si. sg. p a . m. 99 . 161. CO M M EN TARY A N D A N A LY SIS = g i s . 3f m a lu D “to fill u p ” (with the M B/NB/SB change m t > n d ) . sg.” in w hich case one would have to translate “bread o f the c ity ’s (w om an) b ak ers. 2m . 112 n A 4 .+ encl. of ep u “to b ak e. / dat. sg. -ma. o f s a la h u ( s a l a ’u D) “to sprinkle” + acc.r e . for the reading p [ u s ] . who is under orders to bring som eone on Is ta r’s behalf to the N etherw orld.” as opposed to in a d d in . sg. ptcl. 126 C om pare line 118b. and the first legible sign is lu. but also as the pi. sg. t a d d i n a k k a m m a = pret. 120 In m anuscript C the first signs are destroyed. sg. k i .” Dailey (2000. 128 r a m m i k = NA imp. 3 f of se mu (Ass. e p i s n u ’uti. sg. ta d an u “to give. Z A 58 (1963) 193. the ptc. cf.v. 3f o f n u }>u “to am use. s a m u ) “to hear” . 3 o f Ass. n.” cf. of p a s a s u D “to anoint” . 16) suggests that the variant “c ity ’s bak ers” instead o f the “c ity ’s ploughs” may be due to m ishearing by oral tradition.i s see von Soden. pret. t i r r a s s i = imp. sg. by-form *ijertu. sg. 3 o f Bab.+ acc. 3 f -si. 135 It is assum ed that Belili is here speaking to N am tar. pres. o f e p i t u “w om an baker” ( e p e t ).la . -ni(m) + encl. pi. -(a k) ka .a (with the M A/NA change m t > nt ). sg. p u s s i s = imp. which apparently also occurs in the follow ing line.t e (= ij er et e) ij ar tu ~ j a r t u in C presum es an Ass.s i . 114 s u l u h s i m a (C: s u ll i’s i m a ) = imp.

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AGA ‫ ״־‬agu BA. 6 -* sessu.ZA ‫ *־־‬kussu. SU .n u .A ‫ *־־‬L a . UR pem u. GIS. KA ‫ *־־‬babu‫׳‬.libbu.za. n in d a .mursu.AP1N ‫ ♦־־‬epinnu‫׳‬. n a 4. NA4.G 14. k u ‫ *״־‬akalu LUGAL -» sarru.kurummatu. LU.KUL . a -* epru.g u g ‫ *־־‬samtu. n a 4.kima. GIS. sA . G1S. n a 4. s u -* zumru.gi'd ‫ »־־‬malilu.‫ ״‬mitu. G1S. 3 -* salsu. GLOSSARY AND INDICES Logograms and Their Readings A.GAL ‫ *־־‬ekallu GABA ‫־‬. KI. MUSEN . k ur. GIS.g i4. dl5 ‫ *־־‬/. g i. G1R. 4 -* rebu.tO r .SiKlL -‫ *־‬ardatu‫׳‬. GIG .qablu. k a s k a l ‫ »־־‬harranu.dib ‫ *־‬askuppatu. Suk . SAG.G I.‫ י‬me. dNlN—Ki .ER ‫ ״־־‬bakkitw. GARZA -» parsu. 1G1 -‫ *־‬panu. Ml'. 5 ‫ *־‬hamsu.m es .IG ‫ *־־־‬daltu‫׳‬.G1N -* uqnu. k a s ‫ *־־־‬sikaru‫׳‬.GI ‫ *״־‬hurasu. GU -» kisadu.nu.2 qatu.sikkuru .pa ‫ *־־‬aiartu.TAR * N am taru. 2 -* sanu.DAR. n a 4. d u 8 ‫ *־‬atu .i . u s -» mitu 1 -‫ י‬isten. n a 4 ‫ *־־‬abnu. HUS. BAD ‫ *־־‬duru . zikru.n u .2 ‫ *־־‬inu. d+lNN1N -* 75Mr.issuru n a m . k u r .A -* russu ^ _ IG ‫ ״־־‬daltu .irtu. ki. g u . g u 4 ‫ ׳‬alpu HAR -* semeru.MI ‫ *־־‬sillu.sin ig -* binu.SIKIL -‫ »־‬ardatu. TULA ‫ *־־‬balatu.m in sanis.2 ‫ *־־‬uznu SAG -* resu.i. MU -* nis. NIN * beltu. Mi'.US . u r u .h i .a ‫*־־‬ aklu PI. t a r ‫ *־־‬Namtaru. e r ‫ * ־‬bakka’u. DUMU.nisi. MUL .HUB ‫ »־־‬atanu. Mf. 1G1.2 -+ sepu. UGU . d30 -> Sin DINGIR ‫ י־‬iltu. Ki -* ersetu.MI .alu.sassuru. s a h a r . KUG. dERES. GAL -* rabu.Kl. l d u 8 -‫ ך‬atu KA ‫ *־־‬pu. G1S. IM ‫ *־־‬tuppu.kakkabu.zi ‫ *־‬Dum uzi .a ‫ ♦־־־‬kurnugu. n u n u z ‫ *־־‬erimmatu.SAG. Mf.GU. s u . TUG subatu UD .K1.s7ar. ilu. dNAM.2 ‫ * ־‬inu.MES .martu fi -* bitu. E. s u k k a l -* sukkallu v SA .a . dE.igi. du. n in d a ‫ *־־‬kusapu. l l i . AD ‫ י־‬abu.etlu. g is.DAL ‫ *־־‬tallu'.GA -* samnu tabu. SU.TUR .kissatu TA -* istu. GIR. _ dDUMU. sunu.n a -* kinu. s i l a ‫ *־־‬suqu. i-DUG. s a h a r . l u . zakaru. TU ‫ ♦־־‬aladu.eli. gi. n a 4. gim .DU ‫ *־־‬qaqqadu.ANSE -‫ ♦־‬atanu.d u 8. un . k u r. 7 -» sebu 101 .GAL ‫ *־‬Ereskigal .k i ‫ *־‬Kutu. MURUB4 .sehru MAN ‫ *־‬sarru‫׳‬.H I. k u r ‫ *־־‬matu. GURUS .umu.

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m es 116A . [k a ] 26C .m e s 35C . a-hi. C 1 1 3 A . a-lik 3 7 A .m e s 19A te 112C . B .i. D . B . i. 5 5 A .B . l i-mur-ka-ma 9 5 A . ia-e-re-[te] 116C r a 7 8 A . C 8 A . 5 1 A . a-l ak-t a-su 6D . 12 1 A . effem in ate m a n . 9 7 C .D a m a r u “to see . u-sa-ra] 77A . 3 7 C . C 32A a b u “fa th e r” : A[D-5a] 27 C . u-sa-a M A 8. C . [x] 6C B . a la k u “ to go. u-ri-du] 76A a h a tu “ s is te r” : a-ha-at -ki 26C . 4. 103A . n in d a . a -s i . 3 9 A . 105A . B . n a 4.DVs-me-e 14C.t a m 13C . u-sa-ra-a 78C a k a lu “to e a t.p i IOC. 2 9 C . 9 4 A . su-sa-[x 6 9 C . B .s ik il. m a tte r” : a -m a. u-se-sa-a g o )” : a-l ak-t a-s a 6 A . sla b .d ] u 8 43C . 9 5 C . 123A . [i]l-lik 9A . 122A . 9 3 C . DU s-me-e 14A 4 6 A . 13C .m es 1 12A . 60A . a m m tn i “w h y ? w h at fo r? ” : a m .ma 15A. 85A . B . s u-s a-ma 113C . 1 3 A .an se 7 7 A . an-ni-ta 2 8 A . 4 3 A .ab.i. 1 1 1 A . p lu m a g e ” : a . 1 2 6 A .n i 4 3 A . tia ra ” : a-gu-u 125A . 118C {ana) M A 6. m i. 87A .C . C a tu “ g a te -g u a rd ” : L d u 8 13C .) to c o m e ” : al -ka 9 3 A . w e e p e r.m es 112A . C. su-sib 1 13A . u-se-[sib] a lik u “ g o e r. 35 A . 1 1 0 A . a-hi -sa 133A .7 2 A .m e s 35A a j a r t u “ (c o w rie -)sh e ll” : n a 4. u-se. (c o sm ic) u n d e rg ro u n d w a te r” : ap- p u 10E.C . C 13 7 A . ba-ab-[su] 39A . 5 8 A . su-[sib] 1 15B. 116B .[m es] 1 12B . th o se w ho su-nu] 75A . ar-da-t um 7 8 A . B . a-lak]-ta.m e s a n a k u “I” : a-na-ku 15A . v illa g e ” : u r u 1 04A . a g a 4 2 A . 9 4 C . sit.D . [ l u . B . C a g a p p u “w in g . 37A .7 3 A .n i 46B b a b u “g a te . a-lik-ma 118C . Glossary a b d lu “to b rin g ” : ub-l a-an-ni 31 A . C . u-se-sa. [a-n]a . C . t[a] 67A .i. l u . tra ffic . n i n d a . b a-a -bu 16A . 4 2 A . C . s e ttle ” : as-ba 9D . 9 8 C . 87A . k i. w a ile r” : l u . k a -ma 15C. a-ha-t a-ki 26A a r a q u “to b e(com e) g re e n . 8 8 A . 3 9 C . to tu rn p a le ” : e-ri-qu a h u “b ro th e r” : a-hi 135A .a m 16C. 12 5 A . d o o rw a y ” : b a. gap-[pi] 10A .p a. C . ba- 103C . B . 2 4 A . 4 5 A . 7 0 A . a r u B “to be p reg n an t. 87A a s r u “p la c e . C .B . B . 12 2 A . n a 4. an-ni-tu-me-e 2 6 A .si -si -ma 119A . 1 2 0 A . c o u rse . to w n . n a 4. 1 2 5 A .D . a-hi -s a 9 0 A . 4 9 A .s ik il. 1 2 iA . LU. 5 5 A .d ] u 8 21C . 119A .ta 91 C . 9 0 A . l. 87 A .D . co n su m e” : a-kal 33A . ik-kal-[lu 19C.DUg 13A . 4 1 C . a t a n u “ sh e -d o n k ey .[p ]a. g irl” : ar-da-t u 78C . k ] a 119C . im-ma-ra-ma 9D . D. 7 5 A . a[r- a h u B “ arm .as-sin-nu 9 2 A [m es 33B a§u “to co m e ou t. 100A .m es 116B na 8C . 'l [ d u 8 43 B . a b n u “s to n e ” : n a 4 5 4 A . ub-la-an-ni. a [ m . B . 3 6 A . a-s[u-u] 5A . a s k u p p a tu “ th re sh o ld . ba-ab- a n a “to ” : ana 12C .b a 9. [a i ] . a p s u “ ab y ss. a-kal-su-nu 8A . kA 12A . 7 6 A .su 81 A .i.7 A . b e h o ld ” : i m.4 A . 4 8 A . C . a d .D . B .5 A . B . [a-na 2 5 A . 6 8 C . 13A l u . ak-su-pa-tu 107C . (v e n t.e r .m e . fo o d ” : a-kal -ka 104A . im]-ma. su-sa-a a l a d u “to g iv e b irth ” : TU 5 4 A . 88A . 2 1 A . site. a-l[ik a s a b u “to sit do w n . 117B a-li-ku-u-tu-sa M A 11 a s ib u “in h a b ita n t” : a-si-bu-su 7D a lp u “ o x ” : g u 4 77A . 6 3 A . 61A . 57A . 16A . a-ma-t um C . im-ma-ru 9A . k[a] 37A .m e s 3 3 A . B . a-ma. 86A . lu-ul-lik 24A 113B .s u 83A a p p u “n o s e ” : ap-pa. 1 A . [ n ] a 4. C . su-sa- a l a k t u “ro a d .m e . 127A .d ib . tra n sv e stite ” : l i j . (S) to e n th ro n e . da-tu 80C . 124A .g a p . 2 5 A .ta 1 10A . C. 1 2 0 A . kA]. 85C . 5 2 A . l u . d w ell. B . 4 6 A . a. 5 4 A. as -[ bu ] il-lik 3 9 A . i-mur-si. as- ak ap p u see a g a p p u kup-pa-tu 107A . 6 7 A . B . (S) to im p re g n a te ” : u-sd- te 1 1 2 C . d o o r sill” : ak-su-pa- ik-ka-lu 19D.A-[ si.d ib . (in st. B . m. il-la-ka 8 4 A . a r k i “ a fte r” : ar-ki 7 6 A . b a. em erg e. m an -w o m a n .er. C. C pa. C . C . [ana 24 C .ma 117C . C. ra 9C . m I. C . u-se-sib 117A . m a 31C C . a k lu “b re a d . 32C . k u . 25C . a-na a -b a . C . [an-n]i-t[u 32B .) w h e re ” : a -s a r a lu “ city . u-ri- 43A du 6 3 A . u-se-su-si-ma 119C al -kam 103C . B . 9 3 A . ak-su-pa-ti 116C . [il]-lik 39C . e-ka-la 33C . 104A .C . 1 23A . go o u t. 124A . a r a d u “to d esc en d . B . see also k a p p u si-i 27C a g u “ cro w n . 1 21A . (S) to b rin g ak su p p a tu see a s k u p p a tu o u t. P-ir-qu 29E h\ i.b a t M A 2. a-hi ]-sd 7 1 A 8 0A . a-kal-si-na 8D . 5 2 A .sd 133B a r d a t u “ y o u n g w o m an .B .ma -r a 9D .[d u 8] 39C . 7 7 A . 116A . 3 2 A . as -b[a] 9C . 12A . B . a -m a . ba-a. 14C . w a y . 1 1 7 A . 5 5 A . B . re le a s e ” : a-su-u 5 C . 3 5 C .[ i. B . 1 0 4 C .hEb 77C ma 6 4 A .B . 61A .ab -k a 14A . 5 8 A . B . 8 3 C . 121 A . B. m a re ” : m i'.bi 13A.i .ka. 9 8 A . a s s in n u “ she-m an. 115A . ia-e-re. e-ru-[qu 29A . a-kal-[s]i-i. [a-li]k 37B . a -[ ma. n in d a . c o n str. 5 5 A . a . sid e” : a-hi 7 1 A .[ n a 7 1 A . B . a m a tu “ w o rd . us-bi 6 5 A . 83A .2 2 A .6 A .k i. B a n h is “ w e a rily ” : an-his 83A b a k k itu “ w a ilin g w o m an ” : m i'. m es 118C 127B b a k k a !u “ m o u rn er. a-kap. 3 4 A . 6 8 A . a[r-da-tum sd] 8 0 A .C .m es 137A 103 . 118C .n] a 8.B . [a-na] 2 5 C . go d o w n ” : u-ri d 85A . p a sse n g e r” : a-li-ku-tu-su M A 5. 49A . a n n u “th is ” : an-nu-u 2 6 C . s u-sa-as-si 6 9 A. B. 8 6 A . B.

hi-[x 34A . 4 4 A . C. ta-hab-bil-[an-ni] 135B 1G 23C habannatu (a container): d u g .ME§ 11C in§abtu “earring” : in-sa-ba-te 45A . w a y . B 41 A . cry . gisrinnu “ scales. 36A . M A 7. 9 9 A . D bltu “h o u s e ” : E 4 A . 87A lam-ma 19D.2 70A . 9 3 A . e-re-si ti 6 0 A . e]-ri-bu-su 5C .IG 11 A .Gl 117C eli “o n . elenu “ a b o v e . ro il (w a te r)” : da-li-ha. s u ste n a n c e ” : bu-bu-us ]. turn 102A ta-ni 9 1 A er§etu “ e a rth ” : Ki-ti 85C . bu-bu-us-si-na-ma 8D .ha-i-ri-si-tt[a 35A daltu “d o o r” : dal-tum 17A . D . ib-ni-ma 92A . 5 6 A .. sp o u s e ” : hi-re-ti 34C . 2 6 C . d i . i-pu-us-ma 2 8 C . balance. 35 A . g ]i3 . 60A balapi “life ” : t i . 99C .MES 18C. KUS. SAHAR . e^u “d a rk . 5 7 A .m e]s-?c 132 b HI . B . B . e-ru-um-ma 2 5 A. 7 8 C . i-la-a 85A . et-l[u blnu “ ta m a ris k ” : bi-i-ni 29C . [lu-ub]-ki ru-ub 15C . b lu rry .GAL-/a 111C ML[x 35B ekletu “ d a rk n e ss” : ek-le-ti 4 D . 4 5 A . pu-su 2 1 C . B. E. C . b rin g in. d im ” : e-te-e 4A a-sa] 132A ejutu “ d a rk n e ss” : e-tu-ti 9A . habalu “ to d e p riv e . d isreg a rd . 5-su 5 4 A . n a 4. D .MES] 18D. 20D iaertu see ajartu ellu “ p u re . fo o d . C halziqqu “w a te rsk in ” : hal-zi-iq-qi 9 8 C . hadu “to be g la d .hal-zi-qi 98A . D . 5 6 A . [lu-u]b-ki 34B 5 4 A . B. 4 8 A . stir. g u r u s . 79A . co m e u p . [‫י‬e -du ] 135B KASKAL 6D ekallu “p a la c e ” : E. [bal-t]u-t[i\ 20C . 6 4 A . 111A . p rid e. 1G1. LU. 7 9 A . eru see aru B 4 7 A . [up]-pi-si 38C i-n[a 2 8 A . 7A . u[p-pi. 46A . GIS. e§enu “ to sm ell” : [ lis-si-nu ] 138C . 34A . C . ba]l-tu. up-pi-is-si-ma 38A . u n k n o w n ): d i . sh am e” : bal]-te 119C . l i 111C . (D ) to re je c t” : e-zi-bu bubutu “h u n g e r. 8 4 A . d e m a n d ” : e-ris-ta 102C . B . 137A . 12C . tu rb id .L[1 115C h am iru see h a’iru 6 “ n o !” : e 9 9 A . hussu see russu UGU 2 0 A . inu “eye. 124A . 83A . 4 0 A . k u s .MES 97A .g in 129A bu-su 5D . e-la-a 136C . B . 9 9 C . GIS.z a .m e s 4 8 A . 117C . ‫י‬ iqnu “ lap is la z u li” : n a 4. u-sel.a 8 A. 91A . i-[na 74A epinnu “ (se ed er) p lo u g h ” : e-pi-(ne-)et 104C . 3 6 A .C . 115B . B. [ina 114A . 1 19A . n in 23C . see also Balatu etlu “ y o u n g m a n ” : et-lu 89A . C .1G1. [e]l. (S ) to b rin g ikkillu “ scream . jo u rn e y ” : har-ra-ni 6A .lu-u-ni 19C. 5 3 A . GABA-sa 51 A . ip-pu-u-su 12C.IG. bal-tu-u-ti 19D 123A . 123A 6du “ sin g le . 4 7 A . 7 6 A . D .B . [N1]N-fi 4 0 C .[ g a l ] 115A . p erfo rm . C hansu “ fifth ” : [5]-su 123B . i]s-si-ma 38B . 5A . 5 3 A . D.g i 1 13B . 9 5 A. g u [ r u s 7 9 C . 61 A . bal. o v e r” : e-le-nu-us-sa 65A G[1] 113A . B . ra is e ” : el-la-an-ni 136A .ME§-te 132A . [h\a- hu-te 33C mi-ri-si-na 35C . C . e-ris- banu “ to c re a te ” : ib-ni] 91C . 4 4 A . Gi§. 20 A . 62A . M A 1. dim tu “ te a r” : di-ma-a-[su\ 84A [h]a-ba-na-at 105C dudittu “ d re s s-p in . C . l a 1 14A . 95A . 4 9 A . 139B . C.igi. lu-ub-ki 3 4 A . 10 9 A . li-lu-nim-ma ilu “ g o d ” : DINGIR. et-lu] 7 8 A .MES-te 134B . ui. h o ly ” : el-lu-ti 128A . C . m a k e . 89A .GAL 4 1 A .2. m o u rn ” : i-ba[k-ki] e-ru-ub 25C . lGl. C .MES 104 A n a 4JGl.ha-ba-na-at 105A. 5 0 A . em -qi 91C 7 8 A .MES-re 134A . w a il. [KUGl. 114B . 1 17A . rise . (S ) to m ake e n te r. l i (read in g an d m ng. 6 6 A . epfesu “ to d o . u-se-rib-si-ma 42A . lu- 83A . e y e -sto n e ” : 1G1. [er]-bi 4 0 C . 8 0 A . 9 1 C . e-ri. li-is-$i-nu 3. 9 0 A . 100A . lo n e.2]-sd 70A . part o f a door. 5 9 A . B banitu “c re a tre s s” : ba-a-na-at 97C eristu “ re q u e st. 5 9 A . w ish” : e-re-se 102C. u-[sel\-el-ma 19. te-ter-sa-an-ni 102A baltu “liv in g ” : bal-tu-ti 19A . gabbu “ a ll” : gab-bi-sa-m a 75A 87A gappu see agappu dalahu “to d is tu rb .bi-[n]i 29A .z [a . b e re a v e ” : ta-hab-bil-an-[ni ] G13. B 102A. ascen d . te-tar-[s]a-ni-ma 102C.MES 18A.2. lu-ru-ba 15A . 20E .IG . 7A . 104 . e-ri-bu-su 5 A . 11 A . harranu “ro a d . jo y fu l. GIS. 100C . b[ir-ka. e .2. iptiru “ra n so m (m o n ey )” : ip-ti-ri-sa 118C in tro d u c e ” : er-bi 4 0 A . [ n ] a 4. bu-bu-us-su-nu 8A ezeru “ to c u rse ” : lu-zir-ka 103A burtu “ (y o u n g ) c o w ” : bur-te 77C . 88A . irtu “b re a st” : GABA-ia 52A .hal-zi-qu 99A DI. D e z e b u “to le a v e . KUG. to re jo ic e ” : li-ih-du 5 2 A . 3 4 C . B . b o lt(?)” : at 27C gis-ri-na-am-ma 18C dalhu “m ix ed u p . o n ly ” : e-du 135A . 1 3 6 A . 2 1 A . [li-ih-d]u 4 1 C duru “ city w a ll” : bAd 106A . C birku “ k n e e . imfiru “ d o n k e y . B erfebu “to e n ter. 109C .g in 129B . c ry . m istre ss” : be-el-ti 23A . ass” : a n s e 7 7 A . 122A . B . D .IG. i[k-kil u p . s o lita ry . ib.m e [ s ] 81 a 138A. 3 5 C . lo v e r” : ha-mir 127A . 117A . (D ) to tre a t” : ip. be-e[l-ti 4 4 B . N[A4. 122A . el-la-an-ni ] 133B 136B . hirtu “ w ife . er-ru-ba 16A . 135A . 51 A . 62A . eresu “to request. [t]i 19C. b ro o c h ” : du-di-na-te 51 A . 99A . KI-tim 85A beltu “ lad y . 9 4 A . C ereq u see ardqu baltu “ d ig n ity . ep-ru 8D . 118A . w a il” : ik-kil 133A . [l]i-lu-ni-ma 138C . be-el-t[i 4 0 B . B ijertu see ajartu elu “ to go u p . el-la-a]n-ni 136B . la p ” : bir-k[a-a-sa] 132B . m u d d y ” : dal. B. B . em qu “w ise ” : em-qi 91A . C . m ore th a n ” : el 2 0 C . NlN-n' 138A 9 9 C . el-la-an]-ni 137B .n u n u z . 4 1 A . [GIS]. d in g ir.s in ig 29 m es 3 4 A . iltu “ g o d d e ss” : DlNGlR-tam M A 1 . 136A . 5 0 A . [ n a 4. 12A . SAHAR. IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION baku “ to w e ep . 113B . ek-le-tu M A 8 hura$u “ g o ld ” : k u g .APIN. o v e r. C . [e]t-lu 88A . 1 1 3 A . uz-zu-bu 34C si-na 8. et-[lu] 78C . epru “ d u st” : ep-ri M A 7. u-se-el-la-a 19A ina “in ” : ina 9 A . bur-ti 7 7 A . h a ’iru “ h u sb a n d . u p o n . i-na 9 C . 35B . erim m atu “b e a d ” : n a 4.

) u n k em p t. 2 9 A . s a -bi 7 3 A .n u . a fte r” : t a 3 5 A .MES] 128B il-tu 27C m lna “w h y ? ” : mi-i-na-a 31C . SA-bi-su 4 2 A . a-ma-has 18C . la-a 5 C . as 17D . see also ultu ullanum m a lu-u 104C . 7 6 A . 1-en 9 6 A . la-bis 82A . C . k u r .n a ] 11 IB ka 105 A kisadu “ n e c k ” : Gt)-ia 4 9 A . ma-al-ti-it- 115C . la-bi. B . ka 104C 5 1 A . sta tio n . [i]s-te-na 42C 9 1 A . see also laku nad an u see tadanu labasu “ to d re ss. ku-ni-ni 3 0 A . 3 3 C . 1 18A . lim-has 129B \lim -ha-su 108 A . C . C . in c re a se ” : i-ma-H-du 2 0 A . 12A . G LO SSA RY G[ABA5‫־‬fl] 122B 118C i$$ttru “ b ird ” : is-su-ri 10A . le-[et-ka] 108B 10D . 94A 7 2 A . C 107C . p riv a te ro o m ” : 138B . B .meS 10C libbu “ h e a rt” : sk-ba-sa 31C . B. k u r . d irty h a ir” : ma- klam “ so . ru-t[i ] 38A [i]t-til 7 9 C . 18A . C . [i]l-q 1-si-ma 118C . lab. 5 0 A . 4 5 A . C . D . m ah-ri\-ia-ma 68A . C . sk-ba-sa 31A . C m artu “ d a u g h te r” : dum u. u- izru “c u rs e ” : iz-ra 103A sam -ad 20. 8 9 A . u-sam-[a]-du 20D izu zz u see uzuzzu maha$u “to strik e. b e it” : lu 104A . D . mah]-ri-ia 114A . m lnu “ n u m b e r” : m[i]-i-na 31C >a-[a] 92C m itu “ d e a d ” : ba.m e[S kum m u “ c e ll. ku-[ni-n]i 30 m uhhu “to p . B .m eS 32C .g i 4. is-s]u-ru 10. p re se n c e . 41 A . in fa n t” : la-a-H 36C . in fa n t” : la-ke-e 3 6 A . n u m ero u s. b e fo re ” : mah-r[i-ia] kappu “w in g ” : kap-pi 10D . C .z a 113A . 4 8A . C . c o u n se l. B . to ste e r” : mu-kil-tu 2 7 A . fu l” : ip-per-du 96C . B. 90A . lik e ” : ki-i 2 9 C . p o s itio n ” : man-za-zu- kim a “a s. tam-ha-as 101 A . B . SA-bi-sa] 73A . [1 -en] 119B . n u . in stru m e n t” : a-mah-ha-as 17A . nahu “to re s t. 2 3 C . im-ha-as 101C . C. 115A . C . mi-tu-ti 19A .0S . h it. u-sa-bal-kat 6 . ra d ia te . B.g Id 1 2 9 A . c lo th e ” : lab-sa-ma 10D . le-e 82A . me-tu-te 20C . u s . lik e ” : gim 10A . 54A . u n iv e rse ” : Su 139A me “ w a te r” : a. kunlnu “ tro u g h (m ad e o f b u tu m e n -c o a te d MES-ma 19C re e d s )” : ku-ni-i-ni 30C . B . 36A . c a s t” : ta-na-da-as-si 2 3 A su-ma 10A . kab-ta-a[s-su ] 130B . malilu “reed flute.B ka-sa-di-sa 12A maltxtu see m astltu katUmu “to c o v e r” : kat-mu] A 81. displace” : 102A . m u p “ to re m o v e ” : um-ta-si 4 2 A .B ki “ as. B . mu-sa-[x 107B la “ n o t” : la 5 A .g i 12C . B . ka-bat-ta-su 96C ma-ha-as 111A . keppu “ w h ip to p ” : kep-pe-e 21 A . m a tte d . i[t-ti-su 136B m a ’adu “ to b e(co m e) m u c h . ma-l[e-e 82C 5 6 a 59A 62A m anzazu “ stan d . il-qa-as-[si] ‫י‬ n a p a r d u “to shine.m eS 69A kurum m atu “ fo o d a llo c a tio n .g u . C . m3 “th u s ” : ma-a 99 C . u p p er p a rt” : u g u 11 A . 30. firs t” : [1 -en 119C . C . n u . (N ) to tak e co u n sel. 9 9 A . g[ig. overthrow . p ip e” : g i. 9 3 A . 3 0 C . o ld ” : la-a-be-ru-u-ti 38C . 6 A . nadu “to th ro w . li-q]i-si-ma 9 5 C . m ay . 137A . lab. 115A . n a lu “to lie ” : it-til 7 9 A . 118C . m o o d ” : kab-ta-as-sa 96A . C un-dal-la-a 1 3 4 A . mi-tu-su kum-mi-su ] 7 9 A . a rriv e ” : ka-sa-di-i-sa 12C. 107A . 16A . 135A . ba. 68A . ra tio n ” : S uK -ar. [kab-ta-as-su\ 130A .g [ i 4 1 B . li-per-du as-si 1 14A . k ] u r . se a t” : g i s . kab. see also ultu littu “ co w ” : lit-te 134C istu ullanum m a “ as soon a s ” : is-tu ul-la-nu-um. k u r . ma- karru “k n o b ” : k]a-ar-ra 18C har TIC karru B “ m o u rn in g g a rm e n t” : kar-ru 82A m alaku “to a d v ise . 7 7 C .a I A . l[a 1 A. 107C itti “ w ith ” : it-ti 32A . 133A . ma 6 3 A .uS . 30A m alu B “ (pi. 53A . 9 9 A . m asu “to fo rg e t” : ma-se-e 103C g [u -M ] 123B m atu “ lan d . kum-[m]i-su 89A M A 7. 3 3 A . kurnugu “ n e th e rw o rld ” : k u r .g [ i ] 4 1 C . 103C . kullu “ to h o ld . [it]-til 80A .B . B kakkabu “ s ta r” : m u l M A 8 m ahru “ fro n t. ch eer- 118B . OS. 35C . 128A . B . to b e(co m e) p le a se d . g [ i.[n a ] 115B . in n e rm o st ro o m . ka-b[at-t]a-sa-ma im-ta-has 1 15C. 9 D . m U sa b u “ d w e llin g ” : mu-sab 4D . 105A . GU-sd 4 8 A . 123A . li-qa.m ! 2 A . tru e ” : g l n a 111A . 20A . re le n t b ec o m e re s tfu l” : i-nu-uh-hu bis 82C 96A Iablru “ a n c ie n t. C. [ma]-a 1 18C it-ti-[su 137B . to play a m usical kabattu “ m in d . B . s]k-bu-su 96C istu “ fro m . C. (D ) to f ill” : ma-la-a 132A . 1 1 . 6 C . mu-sa-bu-u-ka 107A . ma-za-zu-ka 106C 10C . [i]l-qa-si 118C .m eS 138A . C . c o u n try ” : k u r 139A kissatu “ w o rld . it-ti-su 136A . 3 8 A . n u . 1 26A . 136A . illn e ss ” : g ig 7 0 A . 34C . D . g i. lu-ub-bis-su 1 2 9 A .n a ] m astltu “ d rin k ” : mal-ti-it-ka 105C . 3A klnu “firm . B. see also n a m a r u “ to b ea m . kasa “y o u ” : ka-a-sa 94C re a so n ” : im-ma-lik 65A kasddu “to re a c h . [gi]m 29. 80C laku “b a b y . 2 3 A . C . su 130C . mu-ki. 36C 18A la ’u “b a b y . 5 7 A . [li-q]a-as-[si 68A . 20D . [A. 73A . m u r$ u “ d ise a se . b e(co m e) b rig h t” : la ’u im-mer-su 96C lequ “to ta k e ” : il-qa-as-si 118A .meS 19D . 7 4 A . 86A . kab-t]a-(as). m u k iltu see kullu g i4 6 3 a . m alu “to b e full. [UGU 11C 93C . a-mah-[ha- t[a-as-sa 3 1 A . 105C . u-sab-la-kat 18D. b e a t. n a b a lk u tu “(S) to overturn. 16C . m[e-tu\-tu 138C . 10 “ let. 31C . m uSen . isten “o n e. M A 5. 119A . mi-na-a 31A k u lu ’u (a n em a sc u la te d d e v o te e o f Istar): ku-lu. see also agappu 114B . B . us-ba-lak-ka-ta 18C. 4 7 A . B . 7 1 A . 60A kussu “th ro n e . (S) to itu lu see nalu m ak e n u m ero u s. m uSen letu “ch e e k ” : le-et-ka 108A . ip-pe-red-du-u 96A .n u . g i. 106A . us-per-da-an-ni-m‘a 31C 105 . 1 14A . th u s ” : ki-a-am 4 4 A . ki-ma ka 106A . mu-sa-ba-ka 1 17A . C .

b ig ” : GAL-a 4 2 A . 5 2A .B is 2 9C . s i q r u “ n am e” : si-qir-ki 24C pa-[ni-ka] 93C . l]i-na-}a-a 130A se b u “ se v e n th ” : [7]-u 125B. sa-km M A 6. 1 2 1 A . 61 A . 134A . UR-sa 101A . pa-ni-ka 4 1 C . soil e a rth .A 129B s a h a p u “ to o v e rw h e lm ” : li-is-hu-pu ] 6 9A sah- 101A n a s u “to lift. GAL-MES 2 7 A . g a 128B . B also s u n u § e h r u tu “ (tim e o f) y o u th ” : se-eh-ru-[ti-sa] 127B. su-ba-at 10C. 8 1 A . B .Mi 106C . ni-k[i-is 29 s a m tu “ c a rn e lia n ” : n a 4.MES 3 8 A . 130B . s ip p u “ d o o rja m b ” : si-ip-pa 18C . pa-nu. 4 8 A . rite . lGl-5d 118C . cu lt. 6 2A . 124A .[ d u . ip-ta-as-si 39A .) fa ce” : ig i 83 C . s a g . ritu a l” : sflq u “ stre e t” : s[u-qi\ 78C .g u g 136A . m u r ] u b 4. (D ) to b e n d 123A . w hich. i-sah-hi-i[t 77A q e r b u “in s id e . 35A . GAL-turn M A 3. q u ” u “to w a it” : qa-’i-i 23C u-sa-as-km M A 10 q u d d u d u see q a d a d u s a k r u “ d ru n k . 1 5 A . B . g a rm e n t” : su-bat 10A . D . pi-i-ta-a 14C. 125A .DU 7 4 A . to th irs t” : sa-mu-u 108A . 139B . la p . 50A . 5 5 A . pa. C. 121C . fly a t. 122A 121 A . GAL. ni-ki. [sa] 119C . 6 A . SAG. sa-bu-uh 11A sd] 125B . 8 4 A . g a l-/m [w ] M A 1. SU. q a q q a r u “ g ro u n d . to d e te rm in e (d e s tin ie s )” : lu- 106 . ju m p o n . 1 19A . in te rio r” : qer-bi M A 4. [ t u g p u “m o u th ” : KA-i-su 2 1 C .[MES] 2 7 C . par-si-ka 38C [ma 30A . to tre m b le 35C (fro m em o tio n )” : ir-’u-ub 64A s a ls u “ th ird ” : [3 -sd 121C . 134A . 4 3 A .M ES-5a 120C . sm ash ” : a-sab-bir 17A . SAG. 5 3 A . c a rry . 4 2 A . i - 125A . 5 9 A .B . b e(co m e) angry. p la c e . nu-ru M A 6. MU[RUB4.m es-M 5 4 A . 13C . is-kun- MA 2 ma 3A . is-li- 5 3 A . s a m h a tu “p ro s titu te ” : M[f . 133A . na-d[s-si] hu-pu M A 7 82A s a l a ’u “ to sp rin k le ” : is-lu-u’-si-ma 118C . 1 1 9 C . 34A . lo c k ” : g i s . su- n ik s u “ cu ttin g . 3-su 48A r a b u B “g re a t. a 16A. p u ll o ff. w h o . 94A . ip-te-ma M A 10. 2 3 C . su-kun 9 3 A . 4 9 A . 6 2 A . 4 4 A . B us 29 s u n u “ lo in .mi 106A. m e §-ia 55A . C p a r$ u “ fu n c tio n . in clin e . sik-ku-ru 17A . c u t-o ff p ie c e ” : ni-kis 29A. s u b a tu “ c lo th . s a g . d ru n k a rd ” : sak-ru 108A .MES-^a 98A s a m u “to d e s tin e . pi-ta-as-si 3 7 A . 9 7 A . C . m u r u b 4. pa-an 83A . 6 0 A . pa-a-su 21A . p[a-an 134B . B. 6 6 A . w a ist” : m u r u b 4.1 2 9 B 109A . lip-pa-tu-u §illu “ sh ad e . MES-M 121C . 1 1 6 A . [3 -sd] 121B . ch ild ” : l u . 4 6 A . su-ul- n azaru see e z e ru li-V-si-ma 114C n ep erd u see n a p a r d u s a la h u “to sp rin k le ” : is-luh-si-ma 118A . i-qab-bi 12C .[g a 128A r a m a k u “ to w a sh . s a g . 4 5 A . S [a g . s ik k u r u “ d o o r b o lt.C . 4 3 A . lip-pe-tu-u 9 4 A . D p a n u “fro n t. pa.DU-5<2 4 2 A . 9D . 109C . C . 18A a]n 134C. 103A . b a th e ” : ra-am-mi-ik 128A . pa-nu-su 81 A . 12 0 A . sd 5 D . k u l 11 A. qaq-qi-ri M A 3. i[s-l]i-ma 30 p a s a s u “ to a n o in t” : pus]-si-is 128C . see also n u ” u “ (D ) to a m u se . 60A . d e ta c h ” : a-sa-[ha- q a t u “h a n d ” : su.DU-ia s a b a h u “ to settle (said o f d u st)” : i-sa-bu-uh 11C.sam]-ha-[te 130A . (p i. 5 9 A . s a g . set” : [is-kun] 2A . 1 1 2 A . [sak]-ru q u t r i n n u “ in cen se (o ffe rin g )” : qut-ri-in 138A . s i l a 7 8 A . 121A . w e a r” : na-si] 8 2 C . p le a s e ” : li-na-’a-a z a k a ru . 110A. d iv e rt.B . [q]er-bi s a k a n u “ to p u t.2-ia 58A . n ] a 4. pi-i-sa 12C s a “ th at. q a d a d u “ to b o w (d o w n ). ta-pa-ta-a 16C 61 A . te ll” : iq-ta-bi 25C . B . o rd in an c e. GARZA. p]a-ni-ka 95A . 108B qut-ri-na 138C s a la p u “ (D ) to p u ll o u t. 2 7 C . l-u 60A n a r u “ lig h t” : nu-ra 7. s u k k a l - ni-sa 64A . 6D . t u r 3 6 A . TUG 129A . nu-u-ra 7D . M A d o w n ” : qu-ud-du-ud 81A 5 . m inister” : s u k k a l 81 A. tas-su-ka r u s s u “(g lo w in g ) red ” : h u s . r a ] 134B q a q q a d u “ h e a d ” : SAG. 1 2 2 A . p re sen ce . 27A .B . N e th e rw o rld ” : a-sab-bir] 17D . B. ra-ba-a s a m n u $ ab u “ sw ee t o il” : i—d u g . C . o f ’: sa 5 A . 4 7 A . see 128B also z u m m u patu see p e tu $ a tu “e te rn ity ” : sa-a-ti 103C p e m u “ th ig h ” : pe-en-sa 101C . B . l[i-pe-ti] 23C .MES-5d] 121B 102C . B sam u see s e m u re s u “h e a d ” : re-si-ka-ma 98C . s u k k a llu “vizier. te a r aw ay ” : sal-lu-pa-ni r a ’a b u “ to ra g e. 36 A . § a la m u “ to b e(co m e) b la c k ” : is-li-ma 30C . p e tu “to o p en . nu-u-ru 9A sik-ku-ri 11C. (N ) to b e o p e n e d ” : ip-ta-as-se se-eh-[ru-ti-sa ] 127A 39C . SU. 4 3 A . igi. th ig h ” : UR 35A . B s a h a tu B “ to le a p .d u -M ] 125A s a b a r u “to b re a k . sa 1 IOC. B r i a s u “ to re jo ic e ” : li-ris-ki 4 0 A . i-[qab-bi] 109B 5 4 A . 50A . 7D . 18C. IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION n a p f lr u “ ra n so m ” : nap-ti-ri-sa 126A . 119A . C .C .a 129A. l-u 125A . q a b lu “ m id d le (p a rts). lo in s. 3-sd r a b u “ fo u rth ” : [4]-u 122B . si-ip-pu-ma ka 9 5C . 5 6 A . B d (jg . ta-pat-ta. p[us-si-is] s a m u “ th irsty . 88A GARZA. C. 2 1 A . pa-nu-s[a] 29 C . 9 3 A . luh-si-ma 1 1 4 A . SUKKAL-M 67A . 4 7 A . B . q[aq]-q 1-ri M A 1 s a h a f u “to tak e o ff. 4-u 5 1 A . sh a d o w . C. see § e h ru “ sm all. 9 4C . pa-a-sa 66A . 51 A .B . 5 6 A . at 18C 2-sa 5 7A . q a b u “ to say . si-il-li 106D pi-ta-a 14A . 7A .MES-sd 4 4 A . g a l -ti [Mi\.m es-5m M A 6 136C n ls “by (th e life o f)” : ne-es 97C s a q a r u “ to m e n tio n ” : iz-za-qa-ra 2 2 C . C . a-sab-[bir 18D qaq-qa-ri 1A.g u g n is i “ p e o p le ” : un. pa-ni-ki 4 1 A . w hat. nu-[u-ra] 7A .s]am-ha-te 130B 22A . m o u n t” : q e r b is “ n e a rb y . B . 9 8 A . H U js. B . D . B. in sid e ” : qer-bi-is 23C i-sah-hi-it 87A . p ro te c tio n ” : GIS. C n a s a k u “to b ite ” : it-ta-sa-ak 101C . 109A .d u -M J 74A . [GjlS.

123A . se-mi-sa] 28A .J2 -a ] 120B 9 7 A . [sum-m]a 112C 118C . 139A tar-[dju ] 36A s a s s u r u “w o m b.MES5‫־‬d 120C . ti-ia-a-[rat] 6C s a n is “d itto ” : k i].m e s 3 3 A . m an. u-zu-un-sa 2 A . lis te n ” : sa-mi-i-[sa] 28C . a fte r” : ul-tu 96A . to h o ld . D. re m o v e ” : it-ta-bal 4 2 A . rim ” : sap-ta-su 30. B . 121A . 8 5 A . 122A . uz-na 9 8 A . 6-su 5 7 A . lal-ta-ti 99C . 124A u m u “day. M A 10. B. [ul 78A 133A . GlR. se c o n d ” : 2 -a 4 5 A . C 4 5 A . B . ut-tir-[se 120C. lu-ul-ta-ti 99A u “ an d ” : u 11A .B . se-mi-sa 100A .2-ia 4 6 A . d e c o ra te ” : u-za-H-i-na B.2 72A .2-sa] 124B . 126A . sa 100C . UD-mi-su siam u see s a m u 3 6 C . 108A . lu-sa-an-ni 24A b ac k . t a r u “to return. g irdle” : sib-bu 54 A . see 7 2 C .B . 25A . h a r. 4 5 A . PL2-s[d] 124A.m es-M s i k a r u “b e e r” : k a s . B ( h a r ) 136B. tir-r[a-si ] 126B. ud. 5 7 A . 6 5 A . MU‫־‬d r 13C.b rin g na-a 24C . 11C . 58A . s a r r u “k in g ” : l u g a l 84A . say . d riv e a w a y ” : tar-du 36C . zu-H-in s u m m a “if ” : sum-ma 16A . a tte n tio n ” : p i. la d y ” : sar-ra-ti 24A t a r a d u “to d riv e o ff. z[i]k-ru 9 1 A 4 6 A . m o th er g o d d e s s ” : s A . la c k ” : zu-u]m- t a d a n u “to g iv e ” : id-da-[na-ka 118C . u z u z z u “ to stand. sa-pat 30A 120A .m es-sm 36A s ib b u “b elt. re p o rt” : lu-sa. p ro n o u n c e . (D ) to ra ise u p . 61A z u m m u “to be d ep riv e d o f. B .s d ] 133A . [ut-tir-se 121C. s lm tu “fa te . w o rd . zu-um-mu-u 7 A . 51 A . [l]u-sim-ka-ma 103C 6A .tO r 97C ti d d u “c la y ” : ti-id-da 33C . see also is tu u lla n u m m a se ssu “six th ” : [6]-M 124B . [tir-ra-si] 126A. tu p p u “ ta b le t” : im 33A a-sat-t[i 33A . ra-si 118C. tas-me M A 8. GlR. 120A . k Ji. bracelet. ti-id-di 8D . 126A .m in 120C ta llu “ c ro ssb a r” : g i ] s . ta-at-bal 4 3 A .s a 119C . B . B . e d g e . 120C . tim e ” : UD-me 136A . d a l 11C s a n u “ a n o th e r. g[1r. [ul-tu 96C . 120A . an k let” : h a r 136A.2-5a 5 7 A . sa-ba-at 30C . G LO SSA R Y sim-ka 103C. ut-te-er-si 119A. B. C u b a n u “fin g e r” : u-ba-an-sa 101A . [tu]m-mi-su-ma 97C s a n u B “ to ch a n g e. [s]u-u[q]-qi 98C .2‫־‬ia 58A . t a i a r u “ re tu rn in g ” : ta-a-a-rat 6D . B. ti-i[d-du] 8A s a tu “ to d rin k ” : a-sat-ta-a 33C . tore. B .m e S 57A . B . iz-zak-ka- su s i “ six ty ” : su-si 6 9 A ra 2 2 A .ma 8 6 A. [M]U‫־‬d [r] 21 C . 124A . C s e m u “to h e a r.2]-5a also is tu 7 2 A . C u z n u “ear. 4 9 A . m a le ” : MU-ki 24A . ti-id-du s a s a “ h e r” : sa-a-sa 75A . sa-ba-tu-s[a] 30C . u ltu u lla n u m m a s e p u “ fo o t” : GiR. ta-a-a-r[u] M A 5. iz-z[ak-kar] 11 OB. u l “n o t” : ul 9 A . (D ) to a d ju re ” : tum-me-si-ma 1 2 0 C . zu-[um-ri-sa] 119B 107 . (D ) to re p e a t. d w e llin g ” : su-bat 4 A . sa-mi. B ullanum m a see istu u lla n u m m a . B. se-mer 120A . su-kut-ta-sa 131B . u-saq-[qa-a] 131B 119C s a r r a t u “ q u e e n . sto p ” : iz-za-a[z] 26C . 7 7 A . zu-um-ri-sa 6 0A . 5 5 A . 120A . u-za-in 1 16C. d e c o ra tio n ” : su-kut-ta 133A . u] s e m e ru “rin g .2-5d] 120B u ltu u lla n u m m a “ as so o n a s” : ul-tu ul-la-nu- s e r r u “sm all c h ild . 5 4 A . p[1. ta-ad-di-nak-kam -m a z u m r u “b o d y ” : s u . m a n 9 1 C . i-zi-zi 23A s u k u t t u “je w e lry . [su]-um-ma 16C z a k a r u “ to sp eak . lid-nu-ni-ma 99C . pi. [n a m ] 97C u-za-an-sa M A 10. s a q u “to be h ig h . su-kut-ta-[x 131A 11 6 A . ti]r- s a p tu “ lip . 1 10A. u 9D . D u[n-sa] 3A s u h a r r a t u “ sile n c e . B [S U -s a 75A . zu-um-ri-ia 61A . (D) to return (tr. a b o d e . com e back. 4 8 A . lid-nu-ni mu-u 7. sap-ti 30. B 8D . [2-a ta m u “to sw ear. d e s tin y ” : sim-ti 103C . ta-a-a-[rat] 1 19A .2 u ltu “ from . 5 2 A . 55A . c a ll” : iz-zak- sum u see z i k r u kar 13A . 5 8 A . see also § am u 99 A . [ut-tir]-se 9 8 A . 126B . lo g o s. 87 A . B. 60A . u tte ra n c e . 88A .m in 121C . 5 7 A . 5 8 A . z a ’a n u “ (D) to ad o rn . m iss. g ir .). tu 11C i-ziz-zi 23C . za-’i-i-na 1 12A . z i k r u “nam e. MU-ra ta b a k u “ to p o u r” : tab-ka-at 11C 110C ta b a l u “ to carry aw ay . 121A . sa-sa-ma 126A . ti-id-[du] 8C . C. S [u . in fa n t” : ser-ri 36C um. 67A . 137A . lift u p ” : su-qi 1 2 5 A . Gl[R.2. 36C . GlR. d e a d ly h u s h ” : su-har-ra-a. 7 8 C . u-zu- s u b tu “ sea t. a-sat-ti 32C . B . send b ack ” : ta-a-ri ] IA .

1 18A . B . 114A . B elili (a nam e o f h eav en ly Istar): dbe-li-li 131 A . C . 62A TAR 6 7 A . &ir- A nunnakkl (d e sig n a tio n o f the in fe rn a l gods): [kal-la] 4A .[GA]L 2 8 A . C . 8 5 A . Ea (c rea tio n god): d]fi.KI. 1 1 0 A . NAM. d u 8. B alatu (“ L a d y . [du. s a r . 1 17A .KI. 118C .k i GAL] 25C .TAR 118C B . B .7 6 A . ku-tu-u 40 C 109B . 1A tN .ZI 136B S in (m o o n god): d30 2 A . Hs-tar 2 2 A . 2 6 A . 6 3 A . na-me-er 103C . [1] a y .a . [dERES]. d[u ].GA]L 25A . ia): 1a n . 5 0 A . 1E-su -n a -m ir 103A E reskigal (q u een o f th e n e th erw o rld ): dERES. dERES. 81A 83C d[DUMU. H e ll” : dir-kal-la 4 D . 5 6 A . 100A . B . 1as-na-m e-er 92C . dERES.D A R te 2 2 C . A ssur-bani-apli (A ssu rb a n ip a l. B . 53A . 4 . du.[KI. C .d C j . 6 4 A .A 91C 93C . na-ki 117B 6 9 A .” an u n d e rw o rld g o d ): dNAM. B .GAL 40A .KI. 8 3 A .K]LGAL 24A . dl5 M A 2 .D [A R ] 2 2 C . N am taru (“ F a te .a n . la ]s-na-m e-er 9 1A . 7 6 C . 136A . city in B ab y lo n ia): g u . 4 7 A .1 3 3 A . dE[RES. 6 5 A . IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION Index of Names A$(usu)-nam er: (*)a s-na-m e-er 102C . 8 4A . K utu (C u th a. s A r .sA R -D ti-A 139B dERES. B . 6 6 A . [da]-nun.D A R] 85C . 93A . k i 139a Irkallu “ N e th e rw o rld . 1 1 5 A. ir-kal-li M A 2 . B P apsukkal (I s ta r’s m essen g e r): *1p a p .GAL 95C m at A ssur “ A s s y ria ” : k u r . 114C . 5 da-nun-na-ki 3 2 C . GAL 2 8 C .s u k k a l D um uzi (T am m u z): dDUMU.a 139A .KI. 12A . 109A . [di]s-tar 1 18B . d(u ). 1 1 1 A . C .A 84C . d+lN N l[N] 26C . 9 5 A . 8 6 A .K1. dir]-kal-[la ] 4C . Istar (g o d d e ss o f love): d+1NNlN 2 A .D [A R B elet er§eti (“L ady o f the E a rth . 5 9 A . see also bfiltu: 12C .6 8 A . C . C . [DERES. dE. C . 1E-su-na-m ir 9 2 A .” an a p p e lla tiv e 118C . 118C . [d6].” an a p p e lla tiv e o f Ista r): dba-la.z1 127A . 3A . k in g o f A ssy r. 4 o f E re sk ig a l): dNlN-Kl-U‘m 4 4 A . 1 13A . M A 9 108 .A 2 7 C .

SIGN LIST .

.

I dal 3 re 2 059 le 3 ri 20 li 18 DAL 1 060 PA P 1 087 ►w nun 3 111 . SIG N LIST 001 ina 13 060b pus 1 002 ►*‫־־‬ hal 2 061 mu 5 MU 2 005 ba 16 BA 1 062 qa 6 006 zu 8 063c kat 2 007 ‫ז ^י‬ su 4 068 2m ru 11 KUS 2 069 bat 5 009 bal 20 be 13 til 4 012 has 1 US 1 kut 2 qut 1 070 .‫ז‬ na 70 tar 7 NA 2 tar 1 072 *‫י?ר‬ zir 1 S IL A 2 KUL 1 TAR 7 073 ti 35 013 an 17 d TI 2 45 AN 2 075 V. nu 13 D IN G IR 2 NU 8 015 ka 25 077 kun 4 035 nak 1 078 HWf bak 1 hu 3 038 URU 2 079 NAM 8 053 sah 2 080 HPT* ik 3 055 la 26 IG 3 LA 2 083 rat 1 056 A P IN 1 084 zi 5 057 ►01 mah 4 ZI 2 MAH 1 085 GI 7 058 tu 11 TU 3 086 HT.

^ BAD 1 114 -4AI DA R 1 167 gab 1 115 ris 2 gap 1 sak 1 qab 4 saq 1 du 8 14 SAG 7 GABA 3 124 tab 1 16 170 am 126 sum 3 172 bil 1 128 sj ab 3 hum 2 ap 2 190 zik 1 129 nap 1 2 191 ► —►‫־‬-> qu 131 as 5 203 UR 1 S3I as 6 az 1 205 tt‫ח‬ il 7 133 k A 20 206 SI du 14 kup 1 134 anr um 15 DU 5 139 m ta 44 207 ► — turn 8 TA 2 208 ANSE 3 142 i 34 1 2 211 si US 6 142a ia 10 212 SI is 12 SAHAR 1 143 kam 1 112 . IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 087a ‫ח » י‬ TU R l 144 DUMU 4 TUR 1 088 kab 3 HUB 1 145 ad 1 at 11 090 H[ kat 1 at 1 094 tim 8 AD 2 099 *a en 3 147 ‫ ^־‬1 se 1 si 15 103 d+IN N IN 5 148 in 4 104 sa 2 151 LUGAL 1 106 GU 4 152 sar 2 112 ‫זז ל‬ si 3 153 .

SIGN LIST > 214 ► ‫>־־‬ bi 22 319 GA 1 KA S 1 321 m luh 2 228 kep 1 SU K K A L 4 229 na 4 15 322 m kal 4 lab 1 230 bb qaq 1 rib 7 DU 1 : G U RU S 1 231 ni 33 324 B in E 9 i 14 326 g i4 7 232 ►SB er 16 ir 2 328 BBT ra 17 295 pa 16 330 LU 17 PA 2 332 zak 5 295b GARZA 8 334 et 1 295k sab 2 et 4 sap 1 id 2 it 15 296 B gis 1 it 2 is 3 is 3 335 b ji da 8 iz 7 3 37 BM m urub 4 3 GIS 9 ✓V 339 s as 9 297 gu 4 2 342 B ma 64 298 BJ al 3 343 Bh GAL 18 306 dr 1 ub 5 346 bis 1 up 1 bis 1 qer 1 308 e 19 347 m mer 1 309 DU G 1 mir 4 312 m un 3 AGA 2 314 m lak 1 349 ^ ‫־‬t bur 2 red 1 353 BT sa 32 rid 1 3 54 su 17 318 BIT. sam 1 SU+2 3 u 42 113 .

pe 5 turn 434 ‫►*־‬Mj 1 pi 6 ‫ ד‬. IS T A R ’S DESCENT A N D RESURRECTION 355 lip 1 398 eh 1 ih 2 366 sat 2 uh 2 GIN 2 KU R 10 399 em 1 V‫׳‬ im 3 367 se 19 IM 1 371 bu 12 bir 400 3 pu 6 G ID 2 401 har 3 mur 2 372 *H i us 1 HAR 3 uz 1 402 HUS 1 375 ter 1 tir 2 411 < u 9 u 1 376 *‫ז‬ te 19 412 UGU 3 377 * ‫זו ד‬ kar 4 420 <Zz lid 1 381 ‫ד‬ his 1 lit 1 tarn 2 ud 2 425 kis 1 ut 7 i S: mi 8 427 UD 2 MI 1 382 *Of E 3 433 nim 1 383 ‫ ד‬.‫זז‬ PI+2 3 441 ul 15 384 JTfT sA 7 444 >^‫זז‬ G IR + 2 5 393 *‫ד‬ per 1 446 <® A G IG 6 394 NUNUZ 3 449 lim 2 si 41 396 hi 9 IG I 2 ti 1 >1-‫זז‬ IGI+2 3 DUG 1 HI 1 451 ar 5 SA R 2 455 u 2 397 >a 1 6 457 <w di n 4 te 1 ’u 1 ti 2 114 .

me 13 586 ff sa mi 1 za sib 5 ZA 533 M ES 48 589 w ha 535 ep 1 591 fra r GUG ib 2 592 n sik ip 5 593 ‫זזז‬ 3 536 m ku 5 ub 1 595 TO tu TUG 1 TT T 597 T 4 537 w lu 21 v sa / DIB 2 N IN D A TTT 538 m qi 4 598a ‫זז‬ 5 V X TTT 545 1 SU 20 598b ‫זזז‬ 6 su 1 TTT 598c TTT T 7 554 1. SIGN LIST 461 ke 1 555 SU ki 26 556 & ‫ז‬ ERES qi 1 N IN KI 19 559 gu 468 KUG 2 qu 469 <v pat 2 GU 471 « man 1 564 el MAN 2 SIK IL 472 <« 30 3 570 ‫זז‬ 2 sin 1 575 IH lik 480 ‫ז‬ 1 7 tas ana 1 579 ‫ץז‬ a 483 a hab 1 A kil 1 ER 532 ‫ז‬. sal 1 MI 8 115 .

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M. P-S.STATE ARCHIVES OF ASSYRIA LITERARY TEXTS 1. A-G. 2007 . October 8-11. Mythology and Mythologies: Methodological Approaches to Inter cultural Influences. Parpola and R. July 2-6. edited by Raija Mattila. edited by S. edited by S. Rencontre Assyriologique Inter- nationale 47. M. Proceedings o f the 10th Annivesary Symposium o f The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. Proceedings o f the Second Annual Symposium o f The Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage Project H eld in Paris. edited by Sanna Aro and R.1999. Whiting. edited by R. 612 BC: The Glory and Fall o f the Assyrian Empire. 2000/2001 3/1. Compte rendu. M. The Heirs o f Assyria. 1997 N i n e v e h . 2002 Assyrian-English-Assyrian Dictionary. 1995. Helsinki. 2002 O t h e r T it l e s A ssyria 1995. 2001 Sex and Gender in the Ancient Near East. 2000 2. September 7-11. 2001 THE PROSOPOGRAPHY OF THE NEO-ASSYRIAN EMPIRE 1. Baker. by Bradley J. Helsinki. 1998. Whiting. edited by S. W hiting. Parpola and R. edited by Heather D. 1998/99 2. Parker. H-N. Proceedings o f the Opening Symposium o f The Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage Project Held in Tvarminne. 1995 The Mechanics o f Empire: The Northern Frontier o f Assyria as a Case Study in Imperial Dynamics. 2001. M. Parpola and R. Whiting. Finland. edited by Karen Radner. Proceedings o f the 47th Rencontre Assyriolgique Internationale. France. Catalogue o f the 10th Anniversary Exhibition o f the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. by Christopher Walker and Michael Dick. The Induction o f the Cult Image in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Mesopotamian Mis P! Ritual. October 4-7. Whiting. 2001 m elam m u Sy m p o s ia 1. M. edited by Heather D. Baker.