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Elements of Strong and Weak Dual Language/Bilingual Programs

Strong Programs Weak Programs

1. Additive + Subtractive - (ESL)
2. late-exit (minimum of 5 years) Early-exit (mainstream)
3. Consistent biliteracy instruction Sporadic/Inconsistent
4. Continue biliteracy instruction Stop instruction in L1
5. Supported by research due to biliteracy support Not supported
6. Reinforce metalinguistic awareness Focus on English only
7. Increase the status of L1 No value for L1
8. Acknowledge EL uses of L1 and L2 View L1 as deficiency
9. Integrates language and content English skills are taught
10. Use themes for biliteracy units No themes are used