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List of Abbreviations

ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
ACTM Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting
AEPS Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy
ALI American Law Institute
ALIDES Central American Alliance for Sustainable Development
AMCEN African Ministerial Conference on the Environment
AOSIS Alliance of Small Island States
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ATO African Timber Organization
ATS Antarctic Treaty System
ATTO Asian-Pacific Timber Trade Organization
AVR Archiv des Völkerrechts
BAT Best available technologies
Benelux Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg
BNA Bureau of National Affairs (Washington, DC)
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CCAMLR Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine
Living Resources
CC:TRAIN Training Programme to Support the Implementation of the
CCAD Central American Commission of Environment and
CDM Clean development mechanism
CE Council of Europe
CEC Commission for Environmental Cooperation
(North American)
CEE Central and eastern Europe
CEL Commission on Environmental Law (IUCN)
CEPA Canadian Environmental Protection Act
CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons
CIESIN Consortium for International Earth Science Information
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CIT Countries in transition

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indd xii 11/30/2009 11:52:00 AM . xii LIST OF ABBREV IATIONS CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora COP Conference of the Parties CRAMRA Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities CSD Commission on Sustainable Development DDT Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane DSU Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (WTO) EB Executive body EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development EC European Community ECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa ECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe ECJ European Court of Justice ECLAC United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ECOSOC UN Economic and Social Council EEA Agreement on the European Economic Area EEZ Exclusive economic zone EIA Environmental impact assessment EIONET European Environment Information and Observation Network ELC Environmental Law Centre (IUCN) ELI/PAC Environmental Law and Institutions Programme Activity Centre (UNEP) ELIS Environmental Law Information System (IUCN) ELP Environmental Law Programme (IUCN) EMS Environmental management system EnvLNI Environmental Law Network International EPA Environmental Protection Agency (USA) ESA European Space Agency ESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission on Asia and the Pacific ESTs Environmentally sound technologies EU European Union EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community FAO United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GC Governing Council GDP Gross domestic product GEF Global Environment Facility 00-Fauschauld_prelims.

indd xiii 11/30/2009 11:52:01 AM . Italy) ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Seas ICJ International Court of Justice ICM Integrated Coastal Management IDB Inter-American Development Bank IDI Institut de Droit International IET International emissions trading IFCS Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety IFF Intergovernmental Forum on Forests IGO Intergovernmental organization IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis ILA International Law Association ILC International Law Commission ILO International Labour Organization IMCAM Integrated Marine and Coastal Area Management IMF International Monetary Fund IMO International Maritime Organization INC Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee INF Irradiated Nuclear Fuel IO International organization IOMC Inter-Organizational Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPF Intergovernmental Panel on Forests IPPC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (now called UNEP Chemicals) 00-Fauschauld_prelims. LIST OF ABBREV IATIONS xiii GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring Service GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection GHG Greenhouse gas GMOs Genetically modified organisms GNP Gross national product Habitat II UN Conference on Human Settlements HCE Hexachloroethane HCFCs Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HELCOM Helsinki Commission—Baltic Marine Environment Protection Committee HMS Highly migratory fish stocks IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICCOPS International Centre for Coastal and Ocean Policy Studies (Genoa.

indd xiv 11/30/2009 11:52:01 AM . xiv LIST OF ABBREV IATIONS ISA International Seabed Authority ISM International Safety Management ISO International Organization for Standardization ITFF Inter-agency Task Force on Forests ITTA International Tropical Timber Agreement ITTC International Tropical Timber Council ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources IWC International Whaling Commission JI Joint implementation JPAC Joint Public Advisory Committee (CEC) LBMP Land-based marine pollution LMOs Living modified organisms LOSC UN Convention on the Law of the Sea MAI Multilateral Agreement on Investment (OECD) MBr Methyl bromide MEAs Multilateral environmental agreements MFMP Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol MIF Multilateral Investment Fund MOP Meeting of the Parties MOU Memorandum of understanding NAAEC North American Agreement for Environmental Cooperation NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NEA Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD) NEAFC North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission NEPA National Environmental Policy Act (USA) NGO Non-governmental organization OAS Organization of American States OAU Organization of African Unity OCM Ocean and Coastal Management ODSs Ozone-depleting substances OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OSCOM Oslo Commission (for the Oslo Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft) OSPARCOM Oslo and Paris Commission (for the OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic) PAHs Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 00-Fauschauld_prelims.

Research and Training TAC Total allowable catch TBT Technical barriers to trade TRAFFIC Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce TRIPS WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights UN United Nations UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development UNCHS United Nations Center for Human Settlements UNCLOS United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea UNCOPUOS United Nations Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 00-Fauschauld_prelims. Technical and Technological Advice (UNFCCC) SC Security Council SCAR Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research SDR Special drawing right SEAFO Southeast Atlantic Fisheries Organization SIDS Small island developing states SMA Specially managed area (Antarctic) SPREP South Pacific Regional Environment Programme SPS Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (WTO) START Global Change System for Analysis.indd xv 11/30/2009 11:52:01 AM . LIST OF ABBREV IATIONS xv PAHO Pan-American Health Organization PARCOM Paris Commission (for the Paris Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-based Sources) PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls PFCs Perfluorocarbons PIC Prior informed consent POPs Persistent organic pollutants PPP Polluter pays principle PVC Polyvinyl chloride QELRC Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment RECIEL Review of European Community and International Environmental Law ROLAC Regional Office of Latin America and the Caribbean (UNEP) SBC Secretariat of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal SBI Subsidiary Body on Implementation (UNFCCC) SBSTTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific.

xvi LIST OF ABBREV IATIONS UNDP United Nations Development Program UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organization UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Progress Achieved Towards Meeting Objectives of the Earth Summit UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research VOCs Volatile organic compounds WCFSD World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development WCO World Customs Organization WHA World Health Assembly (annual meeting of WHO) WHO World Health Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute WTO World Trade Organization WWF Worldwide Fund for Nature (also known as the World Wildlife Fund) YbIEL Yearbook of International Environmental Law 00-Fauschauld_prelims.indd xvi 11/30/2009 11:52:01 AM .