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Haldia Institute of Technology

Department of Food Technology

Course Code: FT 601
Course Name: Food Process Technology III (Milk and Milk Products)
Contacts: 4h (3 lectures & 1 tutorial)
Credits: 4

Dr. Sumita Das
Contact: 9474447755

At the end of this course, the incumbent will be able to:

FT601.1 Understand and apply knowledge of mathematics, natural science and

engineering fundamentals in the formulation of various milk and milk
FT601.2 Identify, formulate, research, review literature, and analyze complex
engineering and technological problems in dairy processing lines reaching
substantiated solution or conclusion
FT601.3 Develop solution for practical problems of dairy industries and design
system components or processes that meet specified needs with appropriate
consideration for public health and safety, cultural, societal and
environmental issues
FT601.4 Conduct analytical experiments, interprete data, and synthecize information
to reach a reasonable and valid conclusion
FT601.5 Select and apply effective techniques, resources, and modern engineering
and computational tools including predictive interpretations to food industry
problem solving with due understanding of limitation(s)
FT601.6 Communicate effectively on professional activities with the engineering
community and with the society and to sustain as independent in changing
technological scenario

To understand this course, the learner must have idea of:

 Chemistry of food and chemical deterioration

 Principles of food preservation
 Unit operations
 Heat transfer and mass transfer
 Concept of food process engineering
Module I: Composition of milk; Varieties of milk; Checks for purity of milk; Handling of
freshly produced milk; Cleaning and sanitization.
Module II: Thermal processing of fluid milk – Pasteurization (LTLT and HTST), sterilization
and UHT techniques; Packaging of fluid milk; Fermentation of milk and fermented milk
products – Cheese, yogurt, etc including probiotic dairy products.
Module III: Processing of evaporated and dried milk products – Milk powder, SCM, etc.;
Cream, butter, ghee, Ice-cream, Infant formulae, Stabilizers and emulsifiers as additives in milk
Module IV: Traditional Indian sweets; dairy processing by-products – Fermented, condensed
and dried products from whey, Production of lactose and protein from whey.
 Definition and formation of milk in mammary gland from feed of the animal
 Important physical properties of milk which affects quality and processing
 Spoilage and pathogenic organisms present in milk
 Mastitis
 Flavoured milk
 Heat treatments like vacreation, uperization

Lecture Handout, Lecture Notes,
Details of coverage
No. Links etc.
General introduction of the subject, Definition of milk
1 Lecture Notes
Dairy Science and Technology
2 Formation of milk, Components of milk (Water, Lipid) by P. Walstra, Jan T.M.
Wouters and T.J. Geurts
3 Components: Protein, Carbohydrate Lecture Notes
4 Components: Salts, Vitamins, Enzymes, other substances Lecture Notes
Factors affecting composition of milk; PFA standards of different Outlines of Dairy Technology,
types of milk De S
Varieties of milk: Toned, Double Toned, Recombined,
6 Lecture Notes
Reconstituted, Fflavoured, Skim milk etc.
7 Physical properties of milk Lecture Notes
8 Microbiology of milk & Mastitis milk Lecture Notes
9 Adulterants in milk & their detection Lecture Notes
Processing of raw milk: Receiving, Platform tests, Preheating, Outlines of Dairy Technology,
Filtration/ clarification De S
Outlines of Dairy Technology,
11 Standardization, Pasteurization (importance, LTLT pasteurizer)
De S
12 HTST pasteurization system Lecture Notes
13 Homogenization, Packaging of Pasteurized milk, Aseptic Lecture Notes
Other heat treatments to milk (UHT, Sterilization, Vacreation,
14 Lecture Notes
Uperization) , Flavoured Milk
15 Detergents & sanitizers: Classification, Properties Lecture Notes
Milk stone, CIP cleaning of equipments, Dairy plant sanitation
16 Lecture Notes
Advantages & classification of fermented milks; Therapeutic and
17 Lecture Notes
nutritional value; Probiotics & Prebiotics
18 Cultured buttermilk, Acidophilus milk, Yoghurt Lecture Notes
19 Dahi, Srikhand, Shrikhand wadi, Lassi, Kefir, Kumiss, Lecture Notes
Composition of cream, Method of manufacture, Centrifugal cream Outlines of Dairy Technology,
separator De S
Outlines of Dairy Technology,
21 Creaming efficiency, Sterilized cream
De S
22 PFA Specification of butter, Method of manufacture, Butter churns Lecture Notes
23 Washing, Working, Continuous butter making, Desi butter Lecture Notes
24 Theories of butter churning, Properties of butter, Defects Lecture Notes
25 PFA & AGMARK standards of ghee, Physico-chemical constants Lecture Notes
Outlines of Dairy Technology,
26 Method of manufacture of ghee, Adulteration of ghee
De S
Ice Cream: Definition, ISI specification, Types, Ingredients & their
27 Lecture Notes
28 Properties of ice cream mix, Flow diagram, Standardization Lecture Notes
Preparation of mix, Pasteurization, Homogenization, Cooling &
29 Lecture Notes
ageing, Freezing
30 Packaging, Hardening, Overrun, Defects Lecture Notes
Cheese: Introduction, PFA specification, Classification; Flow
31 Lecture Notes
diagram for manufacturing of Cheddar cheese
32 Standardization, Addition of starter culture, Rennet action Lecture Notes
Purpose of cutting, cooking, cheddaring, salting, Paraffinning, Outlines of Dairy Technology,
Curing De S
34 Changes during ripening of cheese, Processed cheese Lecture Notes
PFA & ISI specification of concentrated milk products, Heat Outlines of Dairy Technology,
stability of milk De S
36 Manufacture of sweetened condensed milk Lecture Notes
37 Manufacture of evaporated milk, Defects Lecture Notes
Standards for milk powder, Different milk drying systems, Roller
38 Lecture Notes
drying system, Quality of Roller dried milk powder
Spray dried milk powder: Atomization, Heating of air, Air powder
39 Lecture Notes
Inastantization of spray dried milk powder, packaging of milk
40 Lecture Notes
41 Physico-chemical properties of milk powder Lecture Notes
Weaning food, Specification of infant milk foods, Method of
42 Lecture Notes
Chhana, Khoa, Rasogolla, Sandesh & other chhana and khoa based Outlines of Dairy Technology,
sweets De S
Definition and important byproducts and their utilization,
44 Lecture Notes
Utilization of whey: Whey beverages & drinks
45 Whevit, Acidowhey , Whey Cheeses: Ricotta, Mysost, Primost; Lecture Notes
46 Condensed and dried products from whey Lecture Notes
Manufacturing of lactose from whey, Manufacturing of whey
47 Lecture Notes
protein concentrate and whey protein isolate
48 Course summary and queries on problems

1. Outlines of Dairy Technology, De S; Oxford.
2. Robinson RK; 1996; Modern Dairy Technology, Vol 1 & 2; Elsevier Applied Science
1. Dairy Science and Technology by P. Walstra, Jan T.M. Wouters and T.J. Geurts . Second
Edn. CRC Press. Taylor and Fransis
2. Milk & Milk Processing; Herrington BL; 1948, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
3. Modern Dairy Products, Lampert LH; 1970, Chemical Publishing Company.
4. Developments in Dairy Chemistry – Vol 1 & 2; Fox PF; Applied Science Pub Ltd.