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Dicussion Questions:

3. A) When was the first lift installed?


- The very first commercial lift installation was on March 23, 1857, at a five-story
department store at Broadway and Broome Street in what is now New York City’s SoHo
district.

B) How did this first lift works?


- An operator device engages knurled rollers that raised, lowered and stopped the lift,
operator also locks the elevator if the elevator starts to descend at excessive speed.
Individual Background (Lee Yu Xuan 15WTD02154)
A lift is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or
goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel or other structures. Elevators
are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables or
counterweight systems like a hoist, or pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston
like a jack.
There are three types of convoying methods in buildings, Elevators & Escalators
& Ramps, and they have different dimensions and uses according to building type &
number of users in it.
Lifts will be classified according to hoist mechanism to 4 main types as follows:
 Hydraulic Elevators
 Traction Elevators
 Climbing elevator
 Pneumatic Elevators

Figure 1: Hydraulic elevator

Hydraulic elevators are supported by a piston at the bottom of the elevator that
pushes the elevator up. They are used for low-rise applications of 2-8 stories and travel
at a maximum speed of 200 feet per minute. The machine room for hydraulic elevators
is located at the lowest level adjacent to the elevator shaft. (Larry, 2009)

Figure 2: traction elevator


Besides that, traction elevators are lifted by ropes, which pass over a wheel attached
to an electric motor above the elevator shaft. They are used for mid and high-rise
applications and have much higher travel speeds than hydraulic elevators. A counter
weight makes the elevators more efficient.

Figure 3: Climbing elevator

Climbing elevators hold their own power device on them, mostly electric or
combustion engine. Climbing elevators are often used in work and construction areas.

Figure 4: pneumatic elevator

Lastly, pneumatic elevators are raised and lowered by controlling air pressure in a
chamber in which the elevator sits. By simple principles of physics; the difference in
air pressure above and beneath the vacuum elevator cab literally transports cab by air.
It is the vacuum pumps or turbines that pull cab up to the next Floor and the slow release
of air pressure that floats cab down. They are especially ideal for existing homes due to
their compact design because excavating a pit and hoist way are not required. (James,
2015)
References
James. (2015, November). Pneumatic Elevators. Retrieved June 24, 2016, from Elevator Study.Com:
http://www.elevatorstudy.com/2015/11/pneumatic-elevators.html
Larry, P. (2009). Elevator Construction. In Elevators in Emergencies:The Firefighter’s Perspective (p.
6). Knox Company. Retrieved June 24, 2016, from
http://www.knoxbox.com/assets/media/pdf/ElevatorsInEmergencies_Pigg.pdf