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1. Ans: b


Poly metallic nodules (also known as manganese nodules) are potato-shaped,

largely porous nodules found in abundance carpeting the sea floor of world oceAns
in deep sea. Besides manganese and iron, they contain nickel, copper, cobalt, lead,
molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium, of which nickel, cobalt and copper
are considered to be of economic and strategic importance.

Plutonium is radio active material, you could easily eliminated this option find
correct Answer.


2. Ans: a


Actual resources are those resources whose quantity is known. These resources
are being used in the present. The rich deposits of coal in Ruhr region of Germany
and petroleum in the West Asia, the dark soils of the Deccan plateau in
Maharashtra are all actual resources.

Potential resources are those whose entire quantity may not be known and these
are not being used at present. These resources could be used in the future. The
level of technology we have at present may not be advanced enough to easily utilise
these resources. The uranium found in Ladakh is an example of potential resource
that could be used in the future.

High speed winds were a potential resource two hundred years ago. Today they are
an actual resource and wind farms generate energy using windmills like in

3. Ans: b


Aleppo is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most
populous Syrian governorate. Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the Syrian
Civil War, however, now Aleppo is likely the second-largest city in Syria after the
capital Damascus.

Prepare for such questions as this area is very much in news due to Syrian crisis.

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4. Ans : b


Gujarat has the longest coastline. So statement one is incorrect.

The Tropic of Cancer marks the northern edge, whereas the Tropic of Capricorn
marks the southern edge. Kori creek and Sir creek (both, Gujarat) area fall in the
subtropical region, viz. beyond the Tropic of Cancer.

5. Ans : a


“Shri Narayana Guru, proclaimed the ideals of unity for his people. He argued
against treating people unequally on the basis of caste differences. According to
him, all humankind belonged to the same caste.”

Page 116, Our Pasts – III Part 2, NCERT Class 8

6. Ans : d


The 16th Summit was held in Iran in 2012. It assumed the chair then from Egypt,
and the latest summit – the 17th NAM Summit – recently concluded in Venezuela,
has resulted in Venezuela occupying the chair.

Pakistan is one of the member country of NAM out of 120 members.

7. Ans : d


Resource distribution refers to the geographic occurrence or spatial arrangement of

resources on earth. In other words, where resources are located. Any one place may
be rich in the resources people desire and poor in others.
Low latitudes (latitudes close to the equator) receive more of the sun's energy and
much precipitation, while higher latitudes (latitudes closer to the poles) receive less
of the sun's energy and too little precipitation. The temperate deciduous forest

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biome provides a more moderate climate, along with fertile soil, timber, and
abundant wildlife.
The plains offers flat landscapes and fertile soil for growing crops, while steep
mountains and dry deserts are more challenging. Metallic minerals are most
abundant in areas with strong tectonic activity, while fossil fuels are found in rocks
formed by deposition (sedimentary rocks).
These are just a few of the differences in the environment that result from different
natural conditions. As a result, resources are distributed unevenly across the

8. Ans : d


Some Principles of Sustainable Development:

 Respect and care for all forms of life

 Improve the quality of human life
 Conserve the earth‘s vitality and diversity
 Minimise the depletion of natural resources
 Change personal attitude and practices toward the environment
 Enable communities to care for their own environment.

9. Ans : d


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10. Ans: d


Following are major factors for soil formation.

11. Ans: d


Mulching is one of the simplest and most beneficial practices you can use in the
garden. Mulch is simply a protective layer of a material that is spread on top of the
soil. Mulches can either be organic - such as grass clippings, straw, bark chips,
and similar materials or inorganic -- such as stones, brick chips, and plastic. Both
organic and inorganic mulches have numerous benefits.

 Protects the soil from erosion

 Reduces compaction from the impact of heavy rains
 Conserves moisture, reducing the need for frequent watering
 Maintains a more even soil temperature
 Prevents weed growth
 Keeps fruits and vegetables clean
 Keeps feet clean, allowing access to garden even when damp
 Provides a "finished" look to the garden

12. Ans : d

Explanation: both statements are correct

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After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the Company appointed Residents in Indian
states. They were political or commercial agents and their job was to serve and
further the interests of the Company.

Through the Residents, the Company officials began interfering in the internal
affairs of Indian states. They tried to decide who was to be the successor to the
throne, and who was to be appointed in administrative posts. Sometimes the
Company forced the states into a “subsidiary alliance”.

According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have
their independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, but
had to pay for the “subsidiary forces” that the Company was supposed to maintain
for the purpose of this protection. If the Indian rulers failed to make the
payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty.

13. Ans: c

Explanation :

 With their defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Marathas’ dream
of ruling from Delhi was shattered.

 They were divided into many states under different chiefs (sardars) belonging
to dynasties such as Sindhia, Holkar, Gaikwad and Bhonsle.

 These chiefs were held together in a confederacy under a Peshwa (Principal

Minister) who became its effective military and administrative head based in
Pune. Mahadji Sindhia and Nana Phadnis were two famous Maratha soldiers
and statesmen of the late eighteenth century.

14. Ans: d


 The Doctrine of Lapse - The final wave of annexations occurred under Lord
Dalhousie who was the Governor-General from 1848 to 1856.

 He devised a policy that came to be known as the Doctrine of Lapse.

 The doctrine declared that if an Indian ruler died without a male heir his
kingdom would “lapse”, that is, become part of Company territory.

 One kingdom after another was annexed simply by applying this doctrine:
Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853) and
JhAnsi (1854).

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15. Ans: c


Bitcoin is a consensus network that enables a new payment system and a

completely digital money.

It is the first decentralized peer-to-peer payment network that is powered by its

users with no central authority or middlemen. No one controls the bitcoins so
second statement is incorrect.

Bitcoins are not illegal in India, the RBI is “watching and learning about the
developments in bitcoin” even though it has no intention of regulating it right now.
But the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) seems to have put a damper on things with its
recent press release cautioning against the use of virtual currencies. Since then, a
number of bitcoin operators have shut shop. Although the central bank has not
established any regulatory framework applicable to bitcoins, it has repeatedly
stated that it is examining the issue.

Within Bitcoin network people can trade without actually disclosing who they are in
real lives.It is just like cash where nobody needs to disclose identity (ex. bank
account details) , unlike in other options like paypal or e-cheques where one needs
to tie bank account details while trAnsacting.

It’s not an income-generating asset class suitable for most investors. Its value,
in dollars, fluctuates wildly from one minute to the next. And while it can be a
cheap way of trAnsferring money, there are too many glitches in its emerging
network for bitcoin to be entirely reliable.

16. Ans: d

All are correct

17. Ans: a


 Some plants like sun hemp or guar are grown and then mulched by
ploughing them into the soil which becomes green manure enriching the
soil in nitrogen and phosphorus.
 The process in which farm waste material like livestock excreta (cow dung
etc.), vegetable waste, animal refuse, domestic waste, sewage waste, straw,
eradicated weeds etc. is decomposed in pits is known as composting.

18. Ans: d


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Ladhak’s freezing high altitudes are a home to yak, the shaggy horned wild ox
weighing around one tonne, the Tibetan antelope, the bharal (blue sheep), wild
sheep, and the kiang (Tibetan wild ass). Furthermore, the ibex, bear, snow-leopard
and very rare red panda are found in certain pockets.

19. Ans: a


 The iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the
diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the

 The cornea is the trAnsparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil,
and anterior chamber. The cornea, with the anterior chamber and lens,
refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the
eye's total optical power.

 The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light
to enter the retina

20. Ans: c


 One way of incorporating desirable characters into crop varieties is by

 It is not the only way, so statement two is incorrect. Desirable characters
can be introduced by genetically modifying the crops too.
 Hybridisation refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar plants. This
crossing may be intervarietal (between different varieties), interspecific
(between two different species of the same genus) or intergeneric (between
different genera).

21. Ans : a


 The loudness of sound depends on its amplitude.

 When the amplitude of vibration is large, the sound produced is loud. When
the amplitude is small, the sound produced is feeble.
 The frequency determines the shrillness or pitch of a sound.
 If the frequency of vibration is higher we say that the sound is shrill and has
a higher pitch. If the frequency of vibration is lower, we say that the sound
has a lower pitch.

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 For example, a drum vibrates with a low frequency. Therefore, it produces a

low-pitched sound. On the other hand, a whistle has a high frequency and
therefore, produces a sound of higher pitch.

22. Ans : b


During the development of a thunderstorm, the air currents move upward while the
water droplets move downward. These vigorous movements cause separation of

By a process, not yet completely understood, the positive charges collect near the
upper edges of the clouds and the negative charges accumulate near the lower
edges. There is accumulation of positive charges near the ground also. When the
magnitude of the accumulated charges becomes very large, the air which is
normally a poor conductor of electricity is no longer able to resist their flow.

Negative and positive charges meet, producing streaks of bright light and sound.
We see streaks as lightning. The process is called an electric discharge.

 Open vehicles, like motorbikes, tractors, construction machinery, open cars

are not safe.
 Open fields, tall trees, shelters in parks, elevated places do not protect us
from lightning strokes.
 Carrying umbrella is not a good idea at all during thunderstorms. If in a
forest, take shelter under shorter trees. If no shelter is available and you are
in an open field, stay far away from all trees. Stay away from poles or other
metal objects.
 Do not lie on the ground. Instead, squat low on the ground. Place your
hands on your knees with your head between the hands.

Inside the house

 Lightning can strike telephone cords, electrical wires and metal pipes.
 During a thunderstorm contact with these should be avoided.
 It is safer to use mobile phones and cordless phones. However, it is not wise
to call up a person who is receiving your phone through a wired phone.
 Bathing should be avoided during thunderstorms to avoid contact with
running water.
 Electrical appliances like computers, TVs, etc., should be unplugged.
Electrical lights can remain on. They do not cause any harm.

23. Ans: d

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 The force exerted by a charged body on another charged or uncharged body

is known as electrostatic force.
 A magnet can exert a force on another magnet without being in contact with
it. The force exerted by a magnet is an example of a non-contact force.
 This force comes into play even when the bodies are not in contact. The
electrostatic force, therefore, is another example of a non-contact force.
 The force of friction always acts on all the moving objects and its direction is
always opposite to the direction of motion. Example, A ball rolling along the
ground gradually slows down and finally comes to rest.

24. Ans: d (Self explanatory)

25. Ans: a

Explanation :

 Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as

crop rotation, green manure, compost, and biological pest control.
 Organic farming uses fertilizers and pesticides (which include herbicides,
insecticides and fungicides) if they are considered natural (such as bone
meal from animals or pyrethrin from flowers),
 But it excludes or strictly limits the use of various methods (including
synthetic petrochemical fertilizers and pesticides; plant growth
regulators such as hormones; antibiotic use in livestock; genetically
modified organisms; human sewage sludge; and nanomaterials.) for
reasons including sustainability, openness, independence, health, and

26. Ans: b


 Fibres are the raw material of textile industry.

 Fibres can be natural or man-made.
 Natural fibres are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute.
 Man made fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon

27. Ans: b

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28. Ans: d


 Council of States is popularly known as Rajya Sabha.

 It should not be confused with the Inter-state Council or any other such
coordination mechanisms between the Centre and State.
 So, option (d) is correct.

29. Ans: c


 The Centre banned it in 2006. Nepal and Pakistan also banned the drug in
2006. Thus, statement 1 is correct.
 Diclofenac was administered to livestock as painkillers/anti-inflammatory
drugs etc, not to vultures. When vulture fed on the carcasses of dead
livestock, diclofenac entered their bodies and killed them. So, statement 2 is
 It is painkiller similar to aspirin and ibuprofen. Only statement 1 and 3 are

30. Ans: a


 BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile, Supersonic meAns faster than the

speed of sound. So, statement correct.
 It can be launched from ships, land as well as submarines. So, statement 2
is correct.
 Its range is only nearly 300 Km. So, it is not designed to engage
intercontinental Targets.
 It has been developed by BrahMos Aerospace, a joint venture of India and
 Missile’s name has been derived from the names of two rivers, India’s
Brahmaputra River and Russia’s Moskva River.
 It is capable of carrying a warhead of 300 kilogram It has top supersonic
speed of Mach 2.8.
 It is a two-stage missile, the first one being solid and the second one ramjet
liquid propellant

31. Ans : b


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 The longer the coastline is, the higher is the potential for salt production.
 Shallow Sea is not a requirement for producing large scale quantities of salt.
 Dry and hot areas promote better evaporation of sea water and greater
production of salt.
 There are three main sources of salt in India:

1)sea water, along the coasts of the Peninsula,

2)brine springs, wells and salt lakes of the arid tracts of Rajasthan,

3) rock-salt deposits of Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh.

 About 75 per cent of the total salt produced in India is manufactured in

marine salt works by the solar evaporation of sea water
 Dry and sunny climate is essential for salt production and the western arid
region of Gujarat along with 1,600 km long coastline provides a conducive
environment, making Gujarat the largest producer of salt in the country.
 The state contributes nearly 70% of the total salt produced in the country.

32. Ans : c


“Delivering the inaugural address, Dr Jitendra Singh called for a “green gold”
revolution through promotion and trade of bamboo which, he said, had a vast
unexplored potential to bring about a quantum jump in the economic growth of
Northeast in particular and whole of India in general.

The expression “green gold” has been coined to refer to bamboo because it is
a miracle plant which is often placed in the category of grass product rather
than forest product and matures faster than its other peers, he added. He said that
there is approximately 8.96 million hectare of forest area of this country which is
covered by bamboo and Northeast is the home for over 60% of India’s bamboo

33. Ans b


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The Global Competitiveness Report 2016-2017 assesses the competitiveness

landscape of 138 economies, providing insight into the drivers of their productivity
and prosperity, is released by

This year’s edition highlights that declining openness is threatening growth and
prosperity. It also highlights that monetary stimulus measures such as quantitative
easing are not enough to sustain growth and must be accompanied by
competitiveness reforms.

Final key finding points to the fact that updated business practices and investment
in innovation are now as important as infrastructure, skills and efficient markets.”

34. Ans a


“Google is to roll out a comprehensive public wi-fi platform in India, as part of its
bid to get more people using its services. Dubbed Google Station, the service will
see wi-fi hotspots rolled out in stations, with plAns to expand this to shopping
malls and cafes at some point. The service will be free to start with, but Google will
be looking to monetise it at some point”.

“Google already offers high-speed free wi-fi access at 52 railway stations across
India. Writing on the official Google blog, chief executive Sundar Pichai said the
project “would rank as the largest public wi-fi project in India, and among the
largest in the world, by number of potential users”.

35. Ans : b

Explanation :

“The house of the Dugars in the posh Mandeville Gardens of south Kolkata has
been seeing an endless number of visitors for the past few days. Amidst chanting of
Jain mantras, people trickle in silently and pay their respects to an elderly lady
who has confined herself in one of the rooms of the house. Sohani Devi Dugar, 83,
chose to embrace santhara — a Jain religious practice of a ritualistic fast unto
death. Thursday was the tenth day of santhara for Ms. Sohani Devi. Her decision
came about after doctors could assure little hope of her recovery from an advanced
stage of throat cancer.”

36. Ans : b


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Indigo planting started in Bengal as early as 1777.

When the British Power expanded, the Indigo planting was emphasized
because of a high demand of the Blue Dye in Europe.
 The peasants were compelled to plant Indigo rather than the food Crops.
 The peasants were provided loAns called “dadon” for indigo planting which
was at a very high interest rate.
 Indigo farmers received very low returns for their crops. The land under
Indigo degraded the land for cultivation of any further crop.
 The contract conditions under which Indigo planters kept the cultivators
were harsh. The loan made the people indebted and resulted in a rebellion.
37. Ans: b


MN Roy had put forth the idea of a Constituent assembly of India in 1934.

Later the INC demanded it. You can eliminate Karachi Session, non-cooperation
movement and Simon Commission, as they all happened before the demand for a

38. Ans: d

Explanation :

In 1919 Gandhiji gave a call for a satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act that
the British had just passed. The Act curbed fundamental rights such as the
freedom of expression and strengthened police powers.
 In April 1919 there were a number of demonstrations and hartals in the
country and the government used brutal measures to suppress them.
 The Jallianwala Bagh atrocities, inflicted by General Dyer in Amritsar on
Baisakhi day were a part of this repression.
 The Khilafat issue was another such cause. In 1920 the British imposed a
harsh treaty on the Turkish Sultan or Khalifa. People were furious about
this as they had been about the Jallianwala massacre. Also, Indian Muslims
were keen that the Khalifa be allowed to retain control over Muslim sacred
places in the erstwhile Ottoman Empire.
 The leaders of the Khilafat agitation, Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali,
wished to initiate a full-fledged Non-Cooperation Movement. Gandhiji
supported their call and urged the Congress to campaign against “Punjab
wrongs” (Jallianwala massacre), the Khilafat wrong and demand swaraj.
39. Ans: c

Explanation :

In 1814 Rammohun came and settled in Calcutta and in 1815 founded the Atmiya
Sabha - an association for the dissemination of the religious truth and the
promotion of free discussions of theological subjects.

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40. Ans c


According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their
independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, but had to
pay for the “subsidiary forces” that the Company was supposed to maintain for the
purpose of this protection. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then
part of their territory was taken away as penalty.

41. Ans: d (self explanatory)

42. Ans: c


Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom,
typically in grey and white. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread was used, as
in the cloth in this picture.

43. Ans : a


Patan is a situated 127 Km North of Ahmedabad in the Indian State of Gujarat.

Inheriting a rich cultural heritage, Patan became famous due to its Patolas (double
ikat) or normally a sacred silk cloth which took to different forms over time.

Another feature that distinguishes hand dyed Patolas from other textiles is that the
silk fabric will wear out or tear but will not fade in its colour or design.

Since its creation and advent more than 700 years back, Patan Patolas today take
form in the shape of handmade saris draped by women and also hand woven in to
stole, scarf, or a handkerchief.

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Before World War II, Indonesia was major buyer of patolas. Historically, the art of
Double Ikat patola weaving dates back to centuries

44. Ans b


Rock-cut Elephant at Dhauli was created during Ashoka’s reign (272-231 BC);
hence, option b

Dhauli is located in the ancient territory of Kalinga, now the state of Orissa, which
the emperor Ashoka Maurya (reigned 272-231 BC) conquered with appalling loss of
life in about 260 BC.

45. Ans: d


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 In 1600, the East India Company acquired a charter from the ruler of
England, Queen Elizabeth I, granting it the sole right to trade with the East.
 This meant that no other trading group in England could compete with the
East India Company.
 With this charter the Company could venture across the oceAns, looking for
new lands from which it could buy goods at a cheap price, and carry them
back to Europe to sell at higher prices.
 The Company did not have to fear competition from other English trading
 Mercantile trading companies in those days made profit primarily by
excluding competition, so that they could buy cheap and sell dear.
 The royal charter, however, could not prevent other European powers from
entering the Eastern markets.

46. Ans: d


 both options are correct. You have to identify incorrect one so option d is
correct Answer.
 Aurangzeb’s farman, for instance, had granted only the Company the right
to trade duty free. But officials of the Company, who were carrying on
private trade on the side, were expected to pay duty. This they refused to
pay, causing an enormous loss of revenue for Bengal.

47. Ans: c


 In the British territories in the south there was a similar move away from the
idea of Permanent Settlement.
 The new system that was devised came to be known as the ryotwar (or
ryotwari ).
 It was tried on a small scale by Captain Alexander Read in some of the areas
that were taken over by the Company after the wars with Tipu Sultan.
 Subsequently developed by Thomas Munro, this system was gradually
extended all over south India.
 Read and Munro felt that in the south there were no traditional zamindars.
 The settlement, they argued, had to be made directly with the cultivators
(ryots) who had tilled the land for generations.
 Their fields had to be carefully and separately surveyed before the revenue
assessment was made.

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 Munro thought that the British should act as paternal father figures
protecting the ryots under their charge.

48. Ans: a


 Dargah – The tomb of a Sufi saint.

 Khanqah – A sufi lodge, often used as a rest house for travellers and a place
where people come to discuss spiritual matters, get the blessings of saints,
and hear sufi music.
 Idgah – An open prayer place of Muslims primarily meant for id prayers
 Cul-de-sac – Street with a dead end

49. Ans: b


Given below are the important changes that were introduced by the British.

1. The British Parliament passed a new Act in 1858 and trAnsferred the powers
of the East India Company to the British Crown in order to ensure a more
responsible management of Indian affairs.
2. A member of the British Cabinet was appointed Secretary of State for India
and made responsible for all matters related to the governance of India.
3. He was given a council to advise him, called the India Council.
4. The Governor-General of India was given the title of Viceroy, that is, a
personal representative of the Crown. Through these measures the British
government accepted direct responsibility for ruling India.
5. All ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territory would never
be annexed in future. They were allowed to pass on their kingdoms to their
heirs, including adopted sons.
6. However, they were made to acknowledge the British Queen as their
Sovereign Paramount. Thus the Indian rulers were to hold their kingdoms as
subordinates of the British Crown.
7. It was decided that the proportion of Indian soldiers in the army would be
reduced and the number of European soldiers would be increased.
8. It was also decided that instead of recruiting soldiers from Awadh, Bihar,
central India and south India, more soldiers would be recruited from among
the Gurkhas, Sikhs and PathAns.
9. The land and property of Muslims was confiscated on a large scale and they
were treated with suspicion and hostility. The British believed that they were
responsible for the rebellion in a big way.

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10. The British decided to respect the customary religious and social practices of
the people in India.

50. Ans: d


 Thanjavur is an example of a temple town.

 Temple towns represent a very important pattern of urbanisation, the
process by which cities develop.
 Temples were often central to the economy and society.
 Rulers built temples to demonstrate their devotion to various deities. They
also endowed temples with grants of land and money to carry out elaborate
rituals, feed pilgrims and priests and celebrate festivals. Pilgrims who
flocked to the temples also made donations. Temple authorities used their
wealth to finance trade and banking. Gradually a large number of priests,
workers, artisAns, traders, etc. settled near the temple to cater to its needs
and those of the pilgrims. Thus grew temple towns.
 Towns emerged around temples such as those of Bhillasvamin (Bhilsaor
Vidisha in Madhya Pradesh), and Somnath in Gujarat.
 Other important temple towns included Kanchipuram and Madurai in Tamil
Nadu, and Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh. Pilgrimage centres also slowly
developed into townships. Vrindavan (Uttar Pradesh) and Tiruvannamalai
(Tamil Nadu) are examples of two such towns.

51. Ans: d


 All options are correct, you have asked to find incorrect one so correct
Answer is d.
 The term kathak is derived from katha, a word used in SAnskrit and other
languages for story.
 The kathaks were originally a caste of story-tellers in temples of north India,
who embellished their performances with gestures and songs.
 Kathak began evolving into a distinct mode of dance in the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries with the spread of the bhakti movement. The legends of
Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays called rasa lila, which combined
folk dance with the basic gestures of the kathak story-tellers.
 Under the Mughal emperors and their nobles, Kathak was performed in the
court, where it acquired its present features and developed into a form of
dance with a distinctive style.

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 Subsequently, it developed in two traditions or gharanas: one in the courts

of Rajasthan (Jaipur) and the other in Lucknow. Under the patronage of
Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, it grew into a major art form.
 Kathak, like several other cultural practices, was viewed with disfavour by
most British administrators in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
However, it survived and continued to be performed by courtesAns, and was
recognised as one of six ―classical‖ forms of dance in the country after

52. Ans :c


 While Akbar was at Fatehpur Sikri during the 1570s he started discussions
on religion with the ulama, Brahmanas, Jesuit priests who were Roman
Catholics, and ZoroastriAns.
 These discussions took place in the ibadat khana.
 He was interested in the religion and social customs of different people.
 It made him realise that religious scholars who emphasised ritual and
dogma were often dogma bigots.

53. Ans: d


Even though President does not attend the Parliamentary sessions, his nod
is required for a bill to become an Act.
 Hence, he is considered an integral part of the Parliament.
54. Ans: c


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55. Ans a


The difference between a Sanctuary and a National Park mainly lies in the
vesting of rights of people living inside. Unlike a Sanctuary, where certain rights
can be allowed, in a National Park, no rights are allowed.
No grazing of any livestock shall also be permitted inside a National Park while
in a Sanctuary, the Chief Wildlife Warden may regulate, control or prohibit it.
In addition, while any removal or exploitation of wildlife or forest produce from a
Sanctuary requires the recommendation of the State Board for Wildlife, removal
etc., from a National Park requires recommendation of the National Board

Q Source: Chapter 7: Science 8th NCERT: Page 79

56. Ans: a


The LPG gas in the stove is a Saturated Hydrocarbon. Being a gas with large
surface area, it gets sufficient oxygen for burning. Paraffin wax in candles is
unsaturated hydrocarbon. Since its a solid, it does not burn completely due to
insufficient oxygen reaching to the fuel (inner portion). This causes a bright yellow
flame to form and release Carbon Dioxide on combustion.

57. Ans: d


To protect our flora and fauna and their habitats, protected areas called
sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves have been earmarked.
Plantation, cultivation, grazing, felling trees, hunting and poaching are prohibited

As per the Wildlife Act, The Chief Wildlife Warden may, on application, grant to any
person a permit to enter or reside in a sanctuary for all or any of the following
purposes, namely:

 Investigation or study of wildlife and purposes ancillary or incidental thereto;

 Photography;
 Scientific research;

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 Tourism;
 TrAnsaction of lawful business with any person residing in the sanctuary.

58. Ans: a


Eyes can be donated by any person to visually challenged persons suffering from
corneal blindness, The person may be male or female of any age; of any social
status; using spectacles; suffering from any normal disease but not AIDS,
Hepatitis B or C, Rabies, Leukemia, Tetanus, Cholera, Encephalitis.

The eyes have to be donated within 4-6 hours after death at any place, home or

Chapter 16: Science 8th NCERT: Page 216

59. Ans: a


 A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are

observed to radiate, or originate, from one point in the night sky.A meteor
shower is the result of an interaction between a planet, such as Earth, and
streams of debris from a comet.

60. Ans: b


 Removal of the top layer of the soil during deforestation exposes the lower,
hard and rocky layers. This soil has less humus and is less fertile.
 Microbial activity in soil actually decreases due to the loss of biodiversity
and the forest.
 As the soil is exposed, rainwater can easily leach washing off nutrients in
run-off water.

61. Ans: c


 Blue-green Algae, also called as Cyanobacteria obtain their energy through


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 Nitrogen-fixation by the cyanobacteria such as (Anabaena, a symbiont of the

aquatic fern Azolla), provides rice plantations with biofertilizer.
 Freeliving cyanobacteria are also present in the water column in rice paddies
Recent studies suggest that significant exposure to high levels of some
species of cyanobacteria producing toxins such as BMAA can cause
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
 The Gulf War veterAns' cluster is a notable example.
 Currently, efforts are underway to commercialize algae-based fuels such as
diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Like fossil fuel, algae fuel releases CO2 when
burnt, but unlike fossil fuel, algae fuel and other biofuels only release CO2
recently removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis as the algae or
plant grew.
 Recent research has suggested the potential application of cyanobacteria to
the generation of renewable energy by converting sunlight into electricity.
Several cases of human poisoning have also been documented due to blue-
green algae, but a lack of knowledge prevents an accurate assessment of the

62. Ans: a


 Saturn has the lowest density of all the planets in the Solar System.
 The actual number is 0.687 grams per cubic centimetre.
 This is actually less dense than water; if you had a large enough pool of
water, Saturn would float.
 Jupiter has an average density of 1.33 grams per cubic centimetre. So it
wouldn’t float on water. And Earth, the densest planet in the Solar System,
measures 5.51 grams/cubic centimetre.

Chapter 17: Science 8th NCERT: Page 231

63. Ans c


 Any hydrocarbon fuel when oxidized in low presence of oxygen, it forms

carbon monoxide instead of dioxide.
 Carbon dioxide (not carbon monoxide) is found naturally in groundwater, ice
caps, glaciers etc. Option 2 is incorrect.
 The principal components of volcanic gases are water vapour (H2O), CO2,
CO, SO2 or hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane and

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64. Ans: d


 When objects move through fluids (e.g. air), they have to overcome friction
acting on them. Their bodies must be designed in shapes which would make
them not to lose much energy in overcoming friction. A body that is poorly
designed will lose a lot of fuel in just overcoming the drag exerted on it. Its
fuel efficiency will be lesser. So, statement 1 is correct.
 Since drag exerts a backward force, it reduces the speed of the vehicle. So,
statement 2 is correct.
 The above also affect a vehicle’s acceleration, wear and tear etc, and thus
affect the vehicle’s overall performance. So, statement 3 is also correct.

Chapter 11: Science 8th NCERT: Page 154

65. Ans: a


 You can apply elimination by just knowing that Greenpeace cannot

contribute to a Red List.
 It only focuses its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change,
 Birdlife International contributes to the threatened Bird List.
 The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List
or Red Data List), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive
inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
 The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's
main authority on the conservation status of species Major species assessors
 Include BirdLife International, the Institute of Zoology (the research division
of the Zoological Society of London), the World Conservation Monitoring
Centre, and many Specialist Groups within the IUCN Species Survival
Commission (SSC).
 Collectively, assessments by these organizations and groups account for
nearly half the species on the Red List.

Chapter 7: Science 8th NCERT: Page 79

66. Ans b


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Nitrous oxides are greenhouse gases, not nitrogen itself. Similarly, other major
atmospheric constituents, like oxygen and argon (Ar), are not greenhouse gases.
You can apply elimination method to get Ans.

67. Ans: c


There are 4 fundamental forces that have been identified. In our present

Universe they have rather different properties.

Properties of the Fundamental Forces

 The strong interaction is very strong, but very short-ranged. It acts only over
ranges of order 10-13 cm and is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms
together. It is basically attractive, but can be effectively repulsive in some
 The electromagnetic force causes electric and magnetic effects such as the
repulsion between like electrical charges or the interaction of bar magnets. It
is long-ranged, but much weaker than the strong force. It can be attractive
or repulsive, and acts only between pieces of matter carrying electrical
 The weak force is responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino
interactions. It has a very short range and, as its name indicates, it is very
 The gravitational force is weak, but very long ranged. Furthermore, it is
always attractive, and acts between any two pieces of matter in the Universe
since mass is its source

68. Ans: b


Starch is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units. It is not

useful is checking quality of seeds. Option (a) is wrong.

Damaged seeds become hollow and are thus lighter. Therefore, they float on water.
This is a good method for separating good, healthy seeds from the damaged ones.
Option (b) is correct.

Even healthy seeds of peculiar type may have sharp ends. They cannot be
separated this way. Option (c) is wrong.

Chapter 1: Science 8th NCERT: Page 4

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69. Ans: d


All three are caused due to electromagnetism, a fundamental force in nature.

70. Ans b


Products obtained from coal tar are used as starting materials for manufacturing
various substances used in everyday life and in industry, like synthetic dyes,
drugs, explosives, perfumes, plastics, paints, photographic materials, roofing
materials, etc. Interestingly, naphthalene balls used to repel moths and other
insects are also obtained from coal tar.

71. Ans: c


72. Ans: a


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 Antioxidants are intimately involved in the prevention of cellular damage --

the common pathway for cancer, aging, and a variety of diseases. The
scientific community has begun to unveil some of the mysteries surrounding
this topic, and the media has begun whetting our thirst for knowledge.
Athletes have a keen interest because of health concerns and the prospect of
enhanced performance and/or recovery from exercise. The purpose of this
article is to serve as a beginners guide to what antioxidants are and to briefly
review their role in exercise and general health. What follows is only the tip
of the iceberg in this dynamic and interesting subject.
 Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number
of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain
molecules. Once formed these highly reactive radicals can start a chain
reaction, like dominoes. Their chief danger comes from the damage they can
do when they react with important cellular components such as DNA, or the
cell membrane. Cells may function poorly or die if this occurs. To prevent
free radical damage the body has a defense system of antioxidants.
 Antioxidants are molecules which can safely interact with free radicals and
terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. Although
there are several enzyme systems within the body that scavenge free
radicals, the principle micronutrient (vitamin) antioxidants are vitamin E,
beta-carotene, and vitamin C. Additionally, selenium, a trace metal that is
required for proper function of one of the body's antioxidant enzyme
systems, is sometimes included in this category. The body cannot
manufacture these micronutrients so they must be supplied in the diet.
 Vitamin E : d-alpha tocopherol. A fat soluble vitamin present in nuts, seeds,
vegetable and fish oils, whole grains (esp. wheat germ), fortified cereals, and
apricots. Current recommended dailyallowance (RDA) is 15 IU per day for
men and 12 IU per day for women.
 Vitamin C : Ascorbic acid is a water soluble vitamin present in citrus fruits
and juices, green peppers, cabbage, spinach, broccoli, kale, cantaloupe,
kiwi, and strawberries. The RDA is 60 mg per day. Intake above 2000 mg
may be associated with adverse side effects in some individuals.
 Beta-carotene is a precursor to vitamin A (retinol) and is present in liver, egg
yolk, milk, butter, spinach, carrots, squash, broccoli, yams, tomato,
cantaloupe, peaches, and grains. Because beta-carotene is converted to
vitamin A by the body there is no set requirement. Instead the RDA is
expressed as retinol equivalents (RE), to clarify the relationship. (NOTE:
Vitamin A has no antioxidant properties and can be quite toxic when taken
in excess.)

73. Ans: a

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74. Ans : c

75. Ans: d


 Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found
exclusively in a particular area.
 They are not naturally found anywhere else.
 A particular type of animal or plant may be endemic to a zone, a state or a
country. The above mentioned species are all endemic to Panchmarhi
Biospehre Reserve.

76. Ans. A


The state depended on local bankers and mahajAns for loAns. It sold the right to
collect tax to the highest bidders. These ―revenue farmers‖ (ijaradars) agreed to pay
the state a fixed sum of money. Local bankers guaranteed the payment of this
contracted amount to the state. In turn, the revenue-farmers were give
considerable freedom in the assessment and collection of taxes. These
developments allowed new social groups, like moneylenders and bankers, to
influence the management of the state‘s revenue system, something which had not
occurred in the past.

77. Ans d:


Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects started adding more rooms,
doors and windows to buildings. Roofs, doors and windows were still made by
placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns, a style of architecture called
―trabeate‖ or ―corbelled‖. Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries the trabeate
style was used in the construction of temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings
attached to large stepped-wells (baolis)

78. Ans: c


 While Akbar was at Fatehpur Sikri during the 1570s he started discussions
on religion with the ulama, Brahmanas, Jesuit priests who were Roman
Catholics, and ZoroastriAns. These discussions took place in the ibadat

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 He was interested in the religion and social customs of different people. It

made him realise that religious scholars who emphasised ritual and dogma
were often dogma bigots.
 Their bigots teachings created divisions and disharmony amongst his
subjects. This eventually led Akbar to the idea of sulh-i kul or ―universal
 This idea of tolerance did not discriminate between people of different
religions in his realm.
 Instead it focused on a system of ethics – honesty, justice, peace – that was
universally applicable.
 Abul Fazl helped Akbar in framing a vision of governance around this idea of
sulh-i kul. This principle of governance was followed by Jahangir and Shah
Jahan as well.

79. Ans: d


Mars Orbiter Mission is India's first interplanetary mission to planet Mars with an
orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit. The Mission is primarily
technological mission considering the critical mission operations and stringent
requirements on propulsion and other bus systems of spacecraft.

Mission Objectives One of the main objectives of the first Indian mission to Mars
is to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and
operations of an interplanetary mission. Following are the major objectives of the
mission: A. Technological Objectives:

 Design and realisation of a Mars orbiter with a capability to survive and

perform Earth bound manoeuvres, cruise phase of 300 days, Mars orbit
insertion / capture, and on-orbit phase around Mars.
 Deep space communication, navigation, mission planning and management.
 Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations.

B. Scientific Objectives:

 Exploration of Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian

atmosphere by indigenous scientific instruments.

80. Ans c


 The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of rulers.

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 From their mother‘s side they were descendants of Genghis Khan (died
1227), ruler of the Mongol tribes, China and Central Asia.
 From their father‘s side they were the successors of Timur (died 1404), the
ruler of Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey.
 However, the Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol.
 This was because Genghis Khan‘s memory was associated with the massacre
of innumerable people.
 It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol competitors. On the other
hand, the Mughals were proud of their Timurid ancestry, not least of all
because their great ancestor had captured Delhi in 1398.
 They celebrated their genealogy pictorially, each ruler getting a picture made
of Timur and himself.

81. Ans b


The consolidation of a kingdom as vast as the Delhi Sultanate needed reliable

governors and administrators. Rather than appointing aristocrats and landed
chieftains as governors, the early Delhi SultAns, especially Iltutmish, favoured their
special slaves purchased for military service, called bandagan in Persian.

They were carefully trained to man some of the most important political offices in
the kingdom. Since they were totally dependent upon their master, the Sultan
could trust and rely upon them.

82. Ans a


Brahmanas often received land grants or brahmadeya. As a result, a large number

of Brahmana settlements emerged in the Kaveri valley as in other parts of south
India. Each brahmadeya was looked after by an assembly or sabha of prominent
Brahmana landholders. These assemblies worked very efficiently. Their decisions
were recorded in detail in inscriptions, often on the stone walls of temples.
Associations of traders known as nagarams also occasionally performed
administrative functions in towns.

Inscriptions from Uttaramerur in Chingleput district, Tamil Nadu, provide details of

the way in which the sabha was organised. The sabha had separate committees to
look after irrigation works, gardens, temples, etc. Names of those eligible to be
members of these committees were written on small tickets of palm leaf and kept in
an earthenware pot, from which a young boy was asked to pick the tickets, one by
one for each committee.

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83. Ans a


 The Vishwakarma (Cave 10) is the only chaitya griha amongst the Buddhist
group of caves at Ellora.
 It is locally known as Vishwakarma or Sutar ka jhopda "carpenter's hut". It
follows the pattern of construction of Caves 19 and 26 of Ajanta.
 On stylistic grounds, the date of construction of this cave is assigned to 700
A.D. The chaitya once had a high screen wall, which is ruined at present.
 At the front is a rock-cut court, which is entered through a flight of steps.
On either side are pillared porticos with chambers in their back walls.
 These were probably intended to have subsidiary shrines but not completed.
The pillared verandah of the chaitya has a small shrine at either end and a
single cell in the far end of the back wall.
 The corridor columns have massive squarish shafts and ghata-pallava (vase
and foliage) capitals. The main hall is apsidal on plan and is divided into a
central nave and side aisles by 28 octagonal columns with plain bracket
 In the apsidal end of the chaitya hall is a stupa on the face of which a
colossal 3.30 m high seated Buddha in vyakhyana mudra (teaching posture)
is carved. A large Bodhi tree is carved at the back. The hall has a vaulted
roof in which ribs have been carved in the rock imitating the wooden ones.

84. Ans a


 Statement one is correct. Other two schools of thought are: Hanbali and
 The Shafi'i school is the dominant school of jurisprudence amongst Muslims
in the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, the Palestinian territories,
Jordan, Egypt, Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Brunei, the North Caucasus, Kurdistan and Maldives.
 It is also practised by large communities in Saudi Arabia (in the Tihamah
and Asir), Kuwait, Iraq, the Swahili Coast, South Africa, Thailand, Vietnam,
Cambodia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Kazakhstan (by Chechens) and parts
of India (by Mappila).

85. Ans: a


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 As the Delhi Sultanate brought the hinterland of the cities under their
control, they forced the landed chieftains — the samanta aristocrats — and
rich landlords to accept their authority.
 Under Alauddin Khalji the state brought the assessment and collection of
land revenue under its own control. The rights of the local chieftains to levy
taxes were cancelled and they were also forced to pay taxes.
 The Sultan‘s administrators measured the land and kept careful accounts.
Some of the old chieftains and landlords served the Sultanate as revenue
collectors and assessors.
 There were three types of taxes – (1) on cultivation called kharaj and
amounting to about 50 per cent of the peasant‘s produce, (2) on cattle and
(3) on houses.

86. Ans d


Although inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of information,

especially valuable are ―histories‖, tarikh (singular) / tawarikh (plural),
written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi
 The authors of tawarikh were learned men: secretaries, administrators,
poets and courtiers, who both recounted events and advised rulers on
governance, emphasising the importance of just rule.
 Keep the following additional details in mind: (1) the authors of tawarikh
lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages. (2) They often wrote
their histories for Sultnate in the hope of rich rewards. (3) These authors
advised rulers on the need to preserve an ―ideal‖ social order based on
birthright and gender distinctions. Their ideas were not shared by
87. Ans c


CO2, Nitrous Oxide and Methane will have an growing influence on the ozone layer.
What happens to the ozone layer in the second half of the 21st century will mostly
be determined by the concentrations of CO2, methane and nitrous oxide – the 3
key long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In general, CO2 and methane
lead to increase global ozone levels. By contrast, nitrous oxide, a by-product of food
production, is both a strong greenhouse gas and an ozone depleting gas, and is
expected to become more significant in future ozone depletion.

88. Ans b


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Under a number of able leaders in the eighteenth century, the Sikhs organized
themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls. Their
combined forces were known as the grand army (dal khalsa). The entire body used
to meet at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions
known as ―resolutions of the Guru (gurmatas)‖. A system called rakhi was
introduced, offering protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 per cent
of the produce.

89. Ans c


Surat in Gujarat was the emporium of western trade during the Mughal
period along with Cambay (present- day Khambat) and somewhat later,
Ahmedabad. Surat was the gateway for trade with West Asia via the Gulf of
Ormuz. Surat has also been called the gate to Mecca because many pilgrim
ships set sail from here.
 The city was cosmopolitan and people of all castes and creeds lived there. In
the seventeenth century the Portuguese, Dutch and English had their
factories and warehouses at Surat. According to the English chronicler
Ovington who wrote an account of the port in 1689, on average a hundred
ships of different countries could be found anchored at the port at any given
 There were also several retail and wholesale shops selling cotton textiles. The
textiles of Surat were famous for their gold lace borders (zari) and had a
market in West Asia, Africa and Europe. The state built numerous rest-
houses to take care of the needs of people from all over the world who came
to the city. There were magnificent buildings and innumerable pleasure
parks. The Kathiawad seths or mahaj (moneychangers) had huge banking
houses at Surat. It is noteworthy that the Surat hundis were honoured in
the far-off markets of Cairo in Egypt, Basra in Iraq and Antwerp in Belgium.
 However, Surat began to decline towards the end of the seventeenth century.
This was because of many factors: the loss of markets and productivity
because of the decline of the Mughal Empire, control of the sea routes by the
Portuguese and competition from Bombay (present-day Mumbai) where the
English East India Company shifted its headquarters in 1668. Today, Surat
is a bustling commercial centre.
90. Ans c


Normally, the Rajya Sabha is as powerful as the Lok Sabha when passing the
legislations. If the Rajya Sabha rejects the bill passed by Lok Sabha then the
President has to call for a joint sitting of both the houses.

91. Ans. B

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The Paik system was a type of corvee labor system on which the Ahom
kingdom of medieval Assam was based.
 The origin of the word paik is unknown and it is believed that the system is
based on the South-East Asian legacy the Ahoms brought with them in
 The mature structure was designed by Momai Tamuli Borbarua in 1609.
 The system continued to evolve over time to meet the needs of the Ahom
state and in time began to accumulate contradictions.
 Scholars believe that a major reason for the collapse of the Ahom kingdom
was that the Paik system had outlived itself by the 18th century.
 Every male in the Ahom kingdom between the ages of fifteen and fifty who
was not a noble, a priest, a high caste or a slave was a paik.
 According to Guha (1991), about 90% of the population belonged to this
class at the time of Rudra Singha, around 1714. The top landed aristocracy
was about 1% and the rest constituted the servile class.
92. Ans d


 Societal ideals like fraternity, harmony, justice etc. are enshrined in the
Preamble and DPSP.
 Nature of society is to be secular, liberal and socialist. It is mentioned in the
Preamble, DPSP and Fundamental Rights.
 Political system is republic democratic mentioned in the constitution in the

93. Ans d


In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market.
The area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large. Most of the work is
done by machines. Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, mixed
farming and plantation agriculture.

94. Ans b


Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy. Tidal energy can be harnessed
by building dams at narrow openings of the sea. During high tide the energy of the
tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity. Russia,
France and the Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.

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95. Ans b


The Benami TrAnsactions (Prohibition) Amendment Act will come into force on
November 1, 2016.

Following this, the existing Benami TrAnsactions (Prohibition) Act will be renamed
as the Prohibition of Benami Property TrAnsactions Act (PBPT Act).


 Benami TrAnsactions (Prohibition) Act 1988 had several loopholes such as lack of
proper implementation machinery, absence of appellate mechanism, lack of
provision with centre for vesting confiscated property etc.

 The current government had introduced Benami TrAnsactions (Prohibition)

Amendment Bill in July 2016 in parliament. This bill has been now passed in both
the houses of parliament and will come into effect from 1 November 2016. Features
of the bill


The main aim is to route the unaccounted money into the financial system and
seize Benami properties and punish those who are involved in these properties.

 The Act defines benami trAnsactions, prohibits them and further provides that
violation of the PBPT Act is punishable with imprisonment up to 7 years and fine.

 It also prohibits recovery of the property held benami from benamidar by the real

 Properties held benami are liable for confiscation by the Government without
payment of compensation.

 An appellate mechanism has been provided under the PBPT Act in the form of
Adjudicating Authority and Appellate Tribunal.

 The Adjudicating Authority and the Appellate Tribunal have been notified on
similar lines from Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA).


 This law will have long term impacts on real estate industry in the country.

It will increase the practice of including the correct name in property trAnsactions.
This in turn would bring trAnsparency in residential market.

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The stringent law would also bring down the prices of real estate because such
trAnsactions are done by cash rich investors to park their unaccounted wealth in
real estate.

It will also boost the confidence of lenders esp banks and also private individuals

96. Ans d


 It comprises of seven Member States lying in the littoral and adjacent areas
of the Bay of Bengal.
 Five deriving from South Asia, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal,
Sri Lanka, and Two from Southeast Asia, including Myanmar and Thailand

97. Ans a

98. Ans a


The objective of the scheme was “Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik”.

Key Features

 UDAN will be applicable on flights which cover between 200 km and 800 km with
no lower limit set for hilly, remote, island and security sensitive regions.  The
scheme seeks to reserve a minimum number of UDAN seats i.e. seats at subsidized
rates and also cap the fare for short distance flights.

 This would be achieved through two meAns: o A financial stimulus in the form of
concessions from Central and State governments and airport operators like tax
concessions, exemptions from parking and landing charges etc. o A Viability Gap
Funding to the interested airlines to kick-off operations from such airports so that
the passenger fares are kept affordable.

The VGF would be provided by a market based model. The operators would submit
their proposals to the implementing agencies would then be offered for competitive
bidding through a reverse bidding mechanism and the route would be awarded to
the participant quoting the lowest VGF per Seat.

Such support would be withdrawn after a three year period, as by that time, the
route is expected to become self-sustainable.

99. Ans b

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 A high-altitude research station in Himalaya called HIMANSH has been

established by the National Centre for Antartic and Ocean Research, under
the Ministry of Earth Sciences at 13,500 ft (4000m) in a remote region in
Sipti in Himachal Pradesh.
 The centre has been established as a part of Indian government’s initiative to
study and quantify the Himalayan glacier responses towards the climate
 Help researchers to quantify the glacier melting and its relation to changing
 For undertaking surveys using Terrestrial Laser Scanners(TLS) and
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV).
 Help in digitizing the glacier motion and snow cover variations with utmost
 Some of the glacier that are already being studied under this project include
Bada Shigri, Samudra Tapu, Sutri Dhaka, Batal, Gepang Gath and Kunzam.

100. Ans: b


 Gonds lived in a vast forested region called Gondwana or country inhabited

by Gonds‖. They practised shifting cultivation.
 The large Gond tribe was further divided into many smaller clans.
 Each clan had its own raja or rai. About the time that the power of the Delhi
Sultans was declining, a few large Gond kingdoms were beginning to
dominate the smaller Gond chiefs. The Akbar Nama, a history of Akbar‘s
reign, mentions the Gond kingdom of Garha Katanga that had 70,000
 Garha Katanga was a rich state. It earned much wealth by trapping and
exporting wild elephants to other kingdoms. When the Mughals defeated the
Gonds, they captured a huge booty of precious coins and elephants.

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