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Life-span development

begins with _______ and


ends with _______.

A)birth; death

B)conception; old age

C)infancy; old age

D)conception; death

Parents adhering to the fundamental premise of Jean-Jacques


2INCORRECT
Rousseau's "innate goodness" argument would:

A)reject the need to "teach" language since speech is


inherited.

B)provide their children with little monitoring and few


constraints.

C)view their child as intellectually indistinguishable from


themselves.

D)argue that their newborn's brain is like a "blank slate."

3INCORRECT Which view of children is stated in the doctrine of "original sin"?

A)Children, although born good, are destined to become


evil.

B)Evil children are born only to parents who have sinned.

C)Children are basically bad, and are born as evil beings.

D)Children are born good and remain that way until


adulthood.

Which philosophical view assumes that the child's mind at birth is a


4INCORRECT
"blank tablet"?

A)original sin

B)tabula rasa
C)determinism

D)innate goodness

5INCORRECT Contrary to the view held centuries ago, today we believe that:

A)children are miniature adults.

B)childhood is a unique and important period in life.

C)children ought to be treated as small adults in need of


training but little else.

D)children are autonomous and may be expected to grow


and develop with very little parental support.

6INCORRECT The traditional approach to development emphasizes:

A)little change from birth through old age.

B)extensive change from birth to adolescence, adulthood,


and old age.

C)extensive change from birth to adulthood, then little


change for the rest of the life span.

D)extensive change from birth to adolescence, little or no


change in adulthood, then decline in late old age.

The traditional and life-span perspectives are contrasting views of


7INCORRECT developmental change. According to the life-span perspective,
when do developmental changes occur?

A)during infancy and early childhood

B)during adolescence and early adulthood

C)during middle and late adulthood

D)throughout the entire life cycle


Allan spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his
career. He also has been thinking about how his personal
8INCORRECT
relationship is going and considering whether it could be long-term
and lead to establishing a family. Allan is MOST LIKELY in:

A)late adolescence.

B)early adulthood.

C)middle adulthood.

D)late adulthood

The period of development during which school readiness skills are


9INCORRECT
developed and most free time is spent playing with friends is called:

A)infancy.

B)early childhood.

C)middle childhood.

D)late childhood.

Paul depends almost completely on his parents. He is just learning


10INCORRECT to recognize things that he wants and how to get them. Paul is in the
development period called:

A)late childhood.

B)middle childhood.

C)early childhood.

D)infancy.

Which period of development is characterized by establishing


11INCORRECT independence, developing an identity, and thinking more
abstractly?

A)middle childhood

B)late childhood

C)adolescence
D)early adulthood

Many older persons become wiser with age, yet perform more
12INCORRECT poorly on cognitive speed tests. This supports the life-span
perspective notion that development is:

A)multidirectional.

B)multidimensional.

C)lifelong.

D)plastic.

Development consists of many aspects: biological, cognitive,


13INCORRECT socioemotional, etc. This statement supports Baltes' assertion that
development is:

A)contextual.

B)multidirectional.

C)multidimensional.

D)plastic.

Development is characterized by growth and decline. This


14INCORRECT
statement supports Baltes' assertion that development is:

A)contextual.

B)multidirectional.

C)multidimensional.

D)plastic.

In one study, the reasoning abilities of older adults were improved


15INCORRECT
through retraining. This is an example of how development is:
A)contextual.

B)multidirectional.

C)multidimensional.

D)plastic.

Differences in families, neighborhoods, cultures, and even time


16CORRECT periods affect development. This statement supports Baltes'
assertion that development is:

A)contextual.

B)multidirectional.

C)multidimensional.

D)plastic.

In many cultures, people retire from their careers in their fifties or


17CORRECT
sixties. This is an example of a:

A)normative age-graded influence.

B)normative history-graded influence.

C)nonnormative life event.

D)nonnormative socioemotional event.

Like many others her age, Velma does not know how to use a
computer, but her six-year-old grandson has no problem navigating
18INCORRECT
the Internet and using a word processing program. This is an
example of a:

A)normative age-graded influence.

B)normative history-graded influence.

C)nonnormative life event.

D)nonnormative socioemotional event.


When Ben was thirteen when his father was killed in a car accident.
19INCORRECT
This is an example of a:

A)normative age-graded influence.

B)normative history-graded influence.

C)nonnormative life event.

D)nonnormative socioemotional event.

20CORRECT The onset of puberty is an example of:

A)normative age-graded influences.

B)normative history-graded influences.

C)nonnormative life events.

D)storm-and-stress events.

21INCORRECT The AIDS epidemic in the United States would be an example of a:

A)normative age-graded influence.

B)normative history-graded influence.

C)nonnormative life event.

D)storm-and-stress event.

The number of years since a person was born is a key element in


22CORRECT
the definition of:

A)chronological age.

B)biological age.

C)psychological age.

D)developmental age.
The expectations society has that a person will act his or her age
23INCORRECT
refers to:

A)biological age.

B)social age.

C)psychological age.

D)historical age.

Rozee is 86 years young. She continues to learn phrases in new


languages, she writes poetry, and she enjoys going to museums to
24INCORRECT
see the latest up-and-coming artists. These examples of her adaptive
capacities demonstrate:

A)chronological age.

B)biological age.

C)psychological age.

D)social age.

As he was studying life-span development, Tyrell had to learn


several interrelated, coherent sets of ideas that would help him
25CORRECT
explain and make predictions about development. Tyrell had to
learn:

A)theories.

B)hypotheses.

C)models.

D)scientific methods.

Which theoretical perspectives describe development as an


26INCORRECT
unconscious process?

A)contextual theories
B)ecological theories

C)psychoanalytical theories

D)ethological theories

Callie is learning about the psychoanalytic perspective and


27INCORRECT understands there are three parts to the personality. According to
Freud, they are the:

A)libido, ego, id.

B)unconscious, conscious, superego.

C)ego, superego, subego.

D)superego, ego, id.

28INCORRECT Erik Erikson's theory emphasized:

A)repeated resolutions of unconscious conflicts about


sexual energy.

B)developmental change throughout the human life span.

C)changes in children's thinking as they mature.

D)the influence of sensitive periods in the various stages of


biological maturation.

29INCORRECT Most life-span developmentalists recognize that:

A)nature, continuity, and stability are the primary


determinants of behavior.

B)nurture, discontinuity, and change are the primary


determinants of behavior.

C)while nurture (the environment) is important, nature


(heredity) plays the stronger role.

D)extreme positions on these issues are unwise.


30INCORRECT The information-processing approach to development emphasizes:

A)the quality of thinking among children of different ages.

B)overcoming certain age-related problems or crises.

C)age-appropriate expressions of sexual energy.

D)perception, memory, reasoning ability, and problem


solving.

31CORRECT From B.F. Skinner's point of view, behavior is explained through:

A)external consequences of that behavior.

B)the self-produced consequences of that behavior.

C)individuals' cognitive interpretations of their


environmental experiences.

D)the biological processes that determine maturation.

According to Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory, the three


32CORRECT
factors that reciprocally influence development involve:

A)behavior, the person, and the environment.

B)punishment, reward, and reinforcement.

C)memory, problem solving, and reasoning.

D)cognition, reward, and observation.

Because Dr. Samuels is a cognitive theorist, we know that she


33CORRECT
stresses the importance of _______ for understanding development.

A)thought processes

B)repressed memories

C)reciprocal interactions
D)biologically determined critical periods

Which theory would be BEST to consider if you wanted to


34INCORRECT understand how and why children copy the behaviors they see in
TV cartoons?

A)Skinner's behaviorism

B)Piaget's cognitive theory

C)Erikson's psychosocial stages

D)Bandura and Mischel's social cognitive theory

35CORRECT Which theory believes there are sensitive periods of development?

A)ethological theory

B)ecological theory

C)behavioral theory

D)social cognition theory

36CORRECT In Bronfenbrenner's theory, the microsystem refers to the:

A)contexts in which the individual lives and plays an active


role.

B)b contexts in which the individual lives but does not play
an active role.

C)cultural context within which an individual is raised.

D)changes in one's culture over time.

In Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of development, family is to


37INCORRECT
time as _______is to _______.

A)macrosystem; mesosystem
B)exosystem; microsystem

C)exosystem; chronosystem

D)microsystem; chronosystem

Alex believes people are primarily influenced by the environment


38CORRECT and learned experiences, so he believes _______ plays a more
powerful role in human development.

A)nurture

B)maturation

C)change

D)nature

39INCORRECT Which statement BEST resolves the nature-nurture controversy?

A)Nature is clearly more important in development.

B)The interaction between nature and nurture is most


important in development.

C)Nurture is clearly more important in development.

D)Neither plays a particularly strong role in development.

A major strength of ecological theory is its framework for


40CORRECT
explaining:

A)environmental influences on development.

B)biological influences on development.

C)cognitive development.

D)affective processes in development.


An approach consisting of several different theoretical perspectives
41INCORRECT
is referred to as:

A)nondescript.

B)eclectic.

C)quasi-experimental.

D)pseudoscientific.

One difficulty of conducting research in the laboratory setting is


42CORRECT
that:

A)it is artificial.

B)random assignment is impossible.

C)extraneous factors are difficult to control.

D)participants tend to be unaware that they are in an


experiment.

The main advantage of the naturalistic observation technique


43CORRECT
involves:

A)real-world validity.

B)great control over extraneous variables.

C)the ability to utilize inferential statistics.

D)a lack of ethical controls.

An important part of an observational measure is that it be


44UNANSWERED
conducted:

A)in a real-world setting rather than a laboratory.

B)in a laboratory rather than a real-world setting.

C)in a way that is systematic and planned carefully in


advance.
D)with the consent and prior knowledge of all people being
observed.

Dr. Somberg is using a method of gathering information that gives


45INCORRECT
an in-depth look at one individual. She is using the:

A)interview.

B)emic approach.

C)participant observation.

D)case study.

46INCORRECT A common caution for correlational research is:

A)it is difficult to administer.

B)correlation does not equal causation.

C)correlations do not tell direction of relationship.

D)correlations do not indicate the strength of a relationship.

Experimental designs are superior to correlational approaches when


47INCORRECT
dealing with:

A)concepts that have not been studied in any great detail.

B)variables that need to be manipulated.

C)variables that are unethical to manipulate.

D)variables that can be controlled easily.

A _______ design compares individuals of different ages (e.g., 30-


48CORRECT
year-olds, 40-year-olds, and 50-year-olds) at one testing time.

A)cross-sectional

B)longitudinal

C)Latin squares
D)correlational

Which measure allows a researcher to compare one person's score


49INCORRECT
with the scores of a large group of similar people?

A)case study

B)questionnaire

C)standardized test

D)naturalistic observation

Which method of collecting information about life-span


50CORRECT
development is most likely to include a life calendar?

A)life-history record

B)case study

C)sequential approach

D)interview

Which research strategy is the BEST for determining cause-and-


51CORRECT
effect relationships?

A)experimental

B)correlational

C)observational

D)standardized test