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How to become

7 Important things every aspiring CCNA needs to know

Billy Ramirez
About Billy Ramirez

Before we dive in sa mga tips and important things you need to know in
becoming CCNA, let me just share some info about myself.

I’m Billy Ramirez, the founder and author of ccnaphilippines.

This blog, helped and inspired hundreds of aspiring networking engineers

aiming to become CCNA.

I’m also the author of CCNA Basic and Fundamentals Ebook.

The ebook teach more key topics na wala sa blog and was bought by more than
1 thousand aspiring CCNA in the country and abroad.

I used to work as a Sr. Network Administrator in one of the largest foreign BPO
operating in the Philippines. I’m CCNA and CCNP(S).

I’m sharing all the lessons and knowledge I gained over the years to help those
who are just starting out in this career.

My mission is to help you and other aspiring CCNA learn the networking and
become CCNA without being information overload.

Now, this guide is not about me.

It’s all about how you can become CCNA and all the important things you need
to know in order to become one.

Below are all the important things you need to know (for now) in order to start
your journey in the Cisco certifications.

Let’s start.
1# What is CCNA?

Ang CCNA or Cisco Certified Network Associate ay isa sa mga certification na

ino-offer ni Cisco para sa mga entry-level or beginner sa networking.

Ang CCNA certification din ay pwedeng magsilbing katibayan at batayan na

nakaka-intindi at nakaka-unawa ang isang I.T person ng basic at foundation
ng networking specifically the foundation of Cisco technologies.

Ito ang certification na nababagay kunin kung bago ka pa lamang magsisimula

sa iyong computer networking career. Dito mo matututunan ang mga basic at
fundamentals ng networking at ng Cisco technology.

Kung pano gumana, ioptimize, itroubleshoot at imaintain ang isang network at

mga Cisco devices.

Si Cisco or ang Cisco Systems Inc. ay ang pinaka-malaking company na

nagbebenta or nagmamanufacture ng mga networking devices and other
technologies related to computer networking.

At ang mga certification programs nila (kagaya ng CCNA), ang isa sa mga ways
para mas matutunan natin kung pano isusupport ang kanilang product and

Bukod sa CCNA marami pang mga certification programs si Cisco kagaya ng

CCENT (Cisco Certified Entry Level), CCNP (Cisco Certified Network
Professional) at CCIE (Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert).

At ang mga ito ay may kanya-kanya pang specialization.

Ang guide na ito ay magfofocus sa basic and foundation level ng CCNA(Routing

and Switching).
#2 Two ways to obtain CCNA certification

Sa ngayon, meron 2 paraan para ikaw ay maging CCNA certifed.

1. Maipasa mo yung ICND1 and ICND2 exam ni Cisco.

Ito yung ICND1 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 and ICND2
Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 .

Ibig sabihin kelangan mong maipasa ang dalawang sets ng exam na ito bago
ka ma-certify bilang CCNA. Dahil ito ay entry-level, medyo madali pero mahaba
ang mga topics dito.

You will earn CCENT certification kapag naipasa mo ang isa sa mga ICND
exams(ICND1), then CCNA kapag pareho mong naipasa.
Hindi kailangan na sabay mo silang itake. Pwede mong itake ang ICND2 bago
ma-expire ang iyong ICND1 certification. Basta ang requirements, maipasa mo
sila pareho.

Ang mga exam numbers nito ay 100-105 ICND1 and 200-105 ICND2. Each
exam costs $150 each. Kapag naipasa mo ang 2 exams na ito, ikaw ay isa ng
CCNA certified.

2. Pangalawa, maipasa mo yung CCNA composite exam.

Ito yung Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices: Accelerated (CCNAX).

Exam number: 200-125 CCNA. Ang cost ng exam ay $325.

Dito naman sa CCNAX, isang exam lang ang kailangan mong maipasa para
ma-certify ka bilang CCNA.

Since ito ay associate level na, medyo mas advance and topic at discussion dito
kumpara sa ICND. Pero kasama pa rin ang basic at foundations ng networking
at Cisco technology.
Para sa akin, ito ang mas practical na way para maging certified. Ito ang inaral
at kinuha ko last 2013.

FYI, ang CCNA at iba pang Cisco certification ay nag-eexpire every 3 years.

Kelangan mong magtake ulit ng same certification to renew your current

certification or take an upper level of certification para ma-renew and then ma-
certify to the higher level.

For example, bago ma-expire ang aking CCNA certification, I have the option to
take CCNA certification again or take the CCNP certification or pwede rin na
other CCNA specialized certification.

Kung maipapasa ko ang CCNP or new CCNA exam, automatic ng mare-renew

ang aking CCNA certification plus CCNP certified or CCNA xxxx certified na rin
ako. At ganun din sa iba pang level.

Okay, so ngayong alam mo na kung ano at pano maging Cisco Certified

Network Associate, hopefully meron ka ng idea kung papaano at saan ka

#3 CCNA (200-125) Exam Topics

1.0 Network Fundamentals (15%)

1.1 Compare and contrast OSI and TCP/IP models

1.2 Compare and contrast TCP and UDP protocols
1.3 Describe the impact of infrastructure components in an enterprise
1.3.a Firewalls
1.3.b Access points
1.3.c Wireless controllers
1.4 Describe the effects of cloud resources on enterprise network
1.4.a Traffic path to internal and external cloud services
1.4.b Virtual services
1.4.c Basic virtual network infrastructure
1.5 Compare and contrast collapsed core and three-tier architectures
1.6 Compare and contrast network topologies
1.6.a Star
1.6.b Mesh
1.6.c Hybrid
1.7 Select the appropriate cabling type based on implementation
1.8 Apply troubleshooting methodologies to resolve problems
1.8.a Perform and document fault isolation
1.8.b Resolve or escalate
1.8.c Verify and monitor resolution
1.9 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting
1.10 Compare and contrast IPv4 address types
1.10.a Unicast
1.10.b Broadcast
1.10.c Multicast
1.11 Describe the need for private IPv4 addressing
1.12 Identify the appropriate IPv6 addressing scheme to satisfy
addressing requirements in a LAN/WAN environment
1.13 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv6 addressing
1.14 Configure and verify IPv6 Stateless Address Auto Configuration
1.15 Compare and contrast IPv6 address types
1.15.a Global unicast
1.15.b Unique local
1.15.c Link local
1.15.d Multicast
1.15.e Modified EUI 64
1.15.f Autoconfiguration
1.15.g Anycast
2.0 LAN Switching Technologies (21%)

2.1 Describe and verify switching concepts

2.1.a MAC learning and aging
2.1.b Frame switching
2.1.c Frame flooding
2.1.d MAC address table
2.2 Interpret Ethernet frame format
2.3 Troubleshoot interface and cable issues (collisions, errors, duplex,
2.4 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VLANs (normal/extended range)
spanning multiple switches
2.4.a Access ports (data and voice)
2.4.b Default VLAN
2.5 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot interswitch connectivity
2.5.a Trunk ports
2.5.b Add and remove VLANs on a trunk
2.5.c DTP, VTP (v1&v2), and 802.1Q
2.5.d Native VLAN
2.6 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot STP protocols
2.6.a STP mode (PVST+ and RPVST+)
2.6.b STP root bridge selection
2.7 Configure, verify and troubleshoot STP related optional features
2.7.a PortFast
2.7.b BPDU guard
2.8 Configure and verify Layer 2 protocols
2.8.a Cisco Discovery Protocol
2.8.b LLDP
2.9 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot (Layer 2/Layer 3) EtherChannel
2.9.a Static
2.9.b PAGP
2.9.c LACP
2.10 Describe the benefits of switch stacking and chassis aggregation
3.0 Routing Technologies (23%)

3.1 Describe the routing concepts

3.1.a Packet handling along the path through a network
3.1.b Forwarding decision based on route lookup
3.1.c Frame rewrite
3.2 Interpret the components of a routing table
3.2.a Prefix
3.2.b Network mask
3.2.c Next hop
3.2.d Routing protocol code
3.2.e Administrative distance
3.2.f Metric
3.2.g Gateway of last resort
3.3 Describe how a routing table is populated by different routing
information sources
3.3.a Admin distance
3.4 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot inter-VLAN routing
3.4.a Router on a stick
3.4.b SVI
3.5 Compare and contrast static routing and dynamic routing
3.6 Compare and contrast distance vector and link state routing
3.7 Compare and contrast interior and exterior routing protocols
3.8 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv4 and IPv6 static routing
3.8.a Default route
3.8.b Network route
3.8.c Host route
3.8.d Floating static
3.9 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot single area and multi-area
OSPFv2 for IPv4 (excluding authentication, filtering, manual
summarization, redistribution, stub, virtual-link, and LSAs)
3.10 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot single area and multi-area
OSPFv3 for IPv6 (excluding authentication, filtering, manual
summarization, redistribution, stub, virtual-link, and LSAs)
3.11 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot EIGRP for IPv4 (excluding
authentication, filtering, manual summarization, redistribution, stub)
3.12 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot EIGRP for IPv6 (excluding
authentication, filtering, manual summarization, redistribution, stub)
3.13 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RIPv2 for IPv4 (excluding
authentication, filtering, manual summarization, redistribution)
3.14 Troubleshoot basic Layer 3 end-to-end connectivity issues

4.0 WAN Technologies (10%)

4.1 Configure and verify PPP and MLPPP on WAN interfaces using local
4.2 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot PPPoE client-side interfaces using
local authentication
4.3 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot GRE tunnel connectivity
4.4 Describe WAN topology options
4.4.a Point-to-point
4.4.b Hub and spoke
4.4.c Full mesh
4.4.d Single vs dual-homed
4.5 Describe WAN access connectivity options
4.5.a MPLS
4.5.b Metro Ethernet
4.5.c Broadband PPPoE
4.5.d Internet VPN (DMVPN, site-to-site VPN, client VPN)
4.6 Configure and verify single-homed branch connectivity using eBGP
IPv4 (limited to peering and route advertisement using Network
command only)
4.7 Describe basic QoS concepts
4.7.a Marking
4.7.b Device trust
4.7.c Prioritization
4.7.c. [i] Voice
4.7.c. [ii] Video
4.7.c. [iii] Data
4.7.d Shaping
4.7.e Policing
4.7.f Congestion management
5.0 Infrastructure Services (10%)

5.1 Describe DNS lookup operation

5.2 Troubleshoot client connectivity issues involving DNS
5.3 Configure and verify DHCP on a router (excluding static reservations)
5.3.a Server
5.3.b Relay
5.3.c Client
5.3.d TFTP, DNS, and gateway options
5.4 Troubleshoot client- and router-based DHCP connectivity issues
5.5 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic HSRP
5.5.a Priority
5.5.b Preemption
5.5.c Version
5.6 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot inside source NAT
5.6.a Static
5.6.b Pool
5.6.c PAT
5.7 Configure and verify NTP operating in a client/server mode

6.0 Infrastructure Security (11%)

6.1 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot port security

6.1.a Static
6.1.b Dynamic
6.1.c Sticky
6.1.d Max MAC addresses
6.1.e Violation actions
6.1.f Err-disable recovery
6.2 Describe common access layer threat mitigation techniques
6.2.a 802.1x
6.2.b DHCP snooping
6.2.c Nondefault native VLAN
6.3 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot IPv4 and IPv6 access list for
traffic filtering
6.3.a Standard
6.3.b Extended
6.3.c Named
6.4 Verify ACLs using the APIC-EM Path Trace ACL analysis tool
6.5 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic device hardening
6.5.a Local authentication
6.5.b Secure password
6.5.c Access to device
6.5.c. [i] Source address
6.5.c. [ii] Telnet/SSH
6.5.d Login banner
6.6 Describe device security using AAA with TACACS+ and RADIUS

7.0 Infrastructure Management (10%)

7.1 Configure and verify device-monitoring protocols

7.1.a SNMPv2
7.1.b SNMPv3
7.1.c Syslog
7.2 Troubleshoot network connectivity issues using ICMP echo-based IP
7.3 Configure and verify device management
7.3.a Backup and restore device configuration
7.3.b Using Cisco Discovery Protocol or LLDP for device discovery
7.3.c Licensing
7.3.d Logging
7.3.e Timezone
7.3.f Loopback
7.4 Configure and verify initial device configuration
7.5 Perform device maintenance
7.5.a Cisco IOS upgrades and recovery (SCP, FTP, TFTP, and MD5 verify)
7.5.b Password recovery and configuration register
7.5.c File system management
7.6 Use Cisco IOS tools to troubleshoot and resolve problems
7.6.a Ping and traceroute with extended option
7.6.b Terminal monitor
7.6.c Log events
7.6.d Local SPAN
7.7 Describe network programmability in enterprise network architecture
7.7.a Function of a controller
7.7.b Separation of control plane and data plane
7.7.c Northbound and southbound APIs

#4 How to Register for an Exam?

Ok, so now you know the meaning of CCNA, the exam fees, ways of becoming
CCNA and the exam coverage, let’s also take a look on how you can register for
the exam in case you are ready.

The process is so simple.

Decide which exam to take, noting the exam name and number. Refer to
the Current Exam List webpage for exam details.

Gather personal information prior to exam registration.

 Legal name (from government issued ID)

 Cisco Certification ID (i.e. CSCO00000001) or Test ID number
 Company name
 Valid email address
 Method of payment
If you have ever taken a Cisco exam before, please locate your Cisco
Certification ID (i.e. CSCO00000001) before continuing with your registration
to avoid duplicate records and delays in receiving proper credit for your exams.
A valid email is required during exam registration.

Cisco requires a valid email to send email reminders when a candidate's

certification is about to expire, confirm the mailing address before shipping out
the certificate and to inform candidates if their certificate was returned due to
an incorrect address.

Pearson VUE is the Cisco authorized test delivery partner. You can
register online, by telephone, or by walk in (where available).Additionally, below
are some of the Cisco accredited exam centers in the Philippines. You may
want to contact them and ask them for more info.
Exam Discounts, Vouchers and Promotional Codes
In some cases, you can avail vouchers or promotional codes/coupons for the

Sometimes your company provides you the vouchers or coupons or sometimes

you may have a sponsors.

Sometimes your suppliers can provide it to you.

It’s a case to case basis.

The important thing to remember is to only acquired or get vouchers or

promotional codes from certified Cisco Partners or institution.

In my experience, some companies provide vouchers especially if they are “gold

partner” with Cisco.

In my end, our company provides allowances and re-imbursement for training

and certification given that it is related to our role and responsibilities.

Again it’s a case to case basis.

Better to check and ask your company about it.

Neither Cisco nor Pearson VUE, its authorized test delivery partner, guarantees
the authenticity of discount vouchers or promotional codes that are obtained
from any individuals or entities other than Pearson VUE.

Individuals or Cisco affiliated partners who use certifications discount

vouchers or promotional codes that are fraudulent or otherwise obtained from
an unauthorized source (including legitimate vouchers for attempted re-use)
may risk up to and including a lifetime ban on all future exams, the
nullification of all previous certifications or other program sanctions at the
discretion of Cisco.

Cisco will not compensate candidates for fraudulent vouchers or vouchers

obtained from an unauthorized source.
#5 CCNA Salary in the Philippines
Below is the average salary of I.T professional having CCNA certification in the
Philippines. This report has been generated June 01, 2018.

*Source: Payscale.
#6 Entry-level jobs for CCNA
1. NOC specialist – nasa network command center kayo at nag-momonitor
ng mga network at ibang IT issues

2. Network technician – mostly likely nag-ttroubleshoot kayo ng network or

maybe nag-iinstall ng mga devices

3. Network Admin/Engineer I – nag-mamanage, nag-iinstall, nag-

coconfigure, nag-ttrobleshoot kayo ng mga network issues

4. Tech Support – pwede ka rin naman mag-tech support pero mas maganda
kung “network account” ang mapupuntahan mo para mas mahasa at mas
masanay ka sa networking

#7 Your next step…

Thank you for downloading and reading this guide. I hope at this point, you
already know all the important things about CCNA.

Your next step would be to start learning and practicing the technology to gain
more skills and knowledge.

Everyone starts somewhere.

Whether you’re a 0-knowledge, beginner or career shifter the only best action to
take is to learn and practice.

Don’t worry, I got your back.

In the coming days, I’ll send useful tips and information that can help you in
your CCNA journey.

For the mean time, you can go ahead and check all the FREE CCNA lessons
and video tutorials in the blog. Click here.

Talk to you soon,

Billy “your ccna buddy” Ramirez