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Special Report

Spandrel Beam Behavior
and Design

Charles H. Raths
Senior Principal
Raths, Raths & Johnson, Inc.
Structural Engineers
Willowbrook, Illinois

Presents common precast spandrel beam distress
causes, discusses types of loads applied to spandrel
beams and overall torsion equilibrium requirements,
provides design relationships for spandrel beams,
offers design criteria for spandrel beam connections,
sets forth basic good design practices for spandrel
beams, and gives design examples.



Pastand Current Problems ... ............................. 64
Types of Problems Actual Problems

Typesof Applied Loads ................................... 70
Gravity Loads—General
Beam Loading Spandrel Ledges
Horizontal Loads Volume Change Forces
Beam End Connections Frame Moment Forces

General Design Requirements ............................. 79
Internal Torsion and Shear
Beam End Torsion Web Flexure
Ledge Attachment Corbel End Behavior
Ledge Load Transfer Beam Flexure

Considerations for Connnection Design ..................... 92
Connection Systems Frame Connections
Connection Materials Reinforcement Considerations
Connection Interfacing Column Influence

Good Design Practice ...... .............................114
Cross-Sectional Dimensions Connections
Reinforcement Bearing Considerations
Tolerances and Clearances Ultimate Load Factors
Corrosion Protection Supporting Columns
Loads Inspections

ClosingComments .......................................120




Appendix—Design Examples ..............................124

PCI JCURNALJMarch-April 1984 63

S pandrel beams, reinforced or pre-
stressed, are important and func-
tional elements of precast concrete
substantial repair costs, construction
delays, temporary loss of facility use,
and various legal entanglements.
structures. Given the current design
knowledge presented by the PCI Design Types of Problems
Handbook , and the PCI Connections
The types of problems experienced by
Manual,' and basic fundamentals of
spandrel beams can be categorized as
structural engineering mechanics, it
would seem the topic of spandrel beam
• Overall torsional equilibrium of
design does not merit further review.
the spandrel beam as a whole.
Yet, considering the number of precast
• Internal torsion resulting from
framed structures experiencing various
beams not being loaded directly
types of problems and distress with
through their shear center.
spandrel beams, something is amiss re-
• Member end connection.
garding the designer's understanding of
• Capability of the spandrel beam's
spandrel beam behavior and design re-
ledge and web to support vertical
The purpose of this paper is to review
• Volume change restraint forces in-
some of the common problems typically
duced into spandrel beams.
associated with spandrel beams, and to
suggest design requirements for them.
Towards this end, discussions herein Actual Problems
are devoted to actual problems experi- The fallowing discussion of actual
enced by spandrel beams, load sup- case histories relates to projects where
porting functions, general design re- photographs can be used to illustrate the
quirements, connections, and good de- problems associated with the above
sign practice. While spandrel beams are listed items. This is not meant to imply
used to satisfy a variety of structural that aspects not covered by the ease
functions, this presentation will em- histories are less significant than those
phasize simple span load supporting considered.
members. The conditions associated with lack of
overall beam torsion equilibrium are
shown in Fig. 1. The non-alignment of
PAST AND CURRENT applied loads and beam end reactions
PROBLEMS can be seen in Fig. Ia. Fig. lb shows the
beam rotation crushing of the topping
Difficulties related to spandrel beams concrete caused by the lack of beam and
occur for members supporting floor torsional equilibrium connections. In
loads, those which are part of a moment Fig. 1, the torsional rotation problem is
frame, or members that are neither compounded by the presence of neo-
gravity supporting nor part of a moment prene type bearing pads at the beam and
resisting frame. Typically, simple span tee bearings where the pad deformation
spandrel beams as utilized in parking causes further torsional roll. Generally,
garages appear to be the most problem the problem of overall spandrel beam
prone although similar troubles develop torsional equilibrium represents the
in office or other "building" type struc- majority of the difficulties experienced
tures. by spandrel beams.
The difficulties and problems dis- Internal spandrel beam torsion dis-
cussed usually do not result in the col- tress, frequently within distance "d" of
lapse of spandrel beam members. the spandrel beam's ends, is often ob-
Nevertheless, these problems can create served.* Fig. 2a illustrates a spandrel


umn corbel failures. sented by Fig. Torsion distress (cracking) at as reflected by Fig. same problems caused by spandrel fecting spandrel beams when designs do beam torsion roll (lack of beam end tor- not consider the influence of loads sion equilibrium connections) is pre- within distance "d" or torsion equilib. 4h indicates the magnitudes of torsion roll that can develop bearing distress when the 'Note: "d" denotes the distarive from the extreme compression fiber of the member to the centroid of necessary torsion equilibrium connec- flexural tension reinforcement. 3h. Lack of overall torsion equilibrium: underside view showing non-alignment of top view showing beam rotation and applied loads and end reaction. beam loaded eccentric to its shear The lack of overall spandrel beam tor- center and shows the beam's torsional sion equilibrium is often reflected at equilibrium connections (note the tee column support connections resulting in legs on either side of the column result high nonuniform bearing stresses in a concentrated load within distance caused by spandrel beam torsion roll. lb. crushing of topping (arrows). A variation of the beam ends is a common problem af. 1 a. "d"). 2b. 3a shows the applied tee loads not spandrel beam web can be observed in aligning with the support column reac- Fig. Lack of overall torsion equilibrium: Fig. These torsion cracks result from tion. 4a which produced col- rium connection forces. tions are not provided.Fig. PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 65 . Internal torsion cracks in the Fig. Lack of required overall beam tor- a combination of internal beam torsion sion equilibrium connections during and the flexural behavior influence of erection often results in excessively the beam end torsion equilibrium con. Fig. high (usually localized) bearing distress nections.

2b. Fig. Top view of end cracks (arrows).Fig. 66 . 2a. Underside view of beam end torsion cracking within distance "d" caused by equilibrium connections and internal torsion (arrow indicates location of reaction).

4a (left). Underside view of bea •ing distress resulting from torsional roll duo to lack of erection connections (left arrow points to beam reaction and right arrow indicates applied loads).N / çc •C . 3b. Upward view of column corbel failure caused by lack of any overall torsion equilibrium connections. Fig. Close-up of typical bearing distress. Example of torsional roll magnitude at a non-distressed corbel. 3a. Fig. PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 67 . Fig.3 TOP Fig. 4b (above).

Fig. 5. Overall view of torsion equilibrium when not reinforced to resist the entire tension insert connection (top arrow beam reaction. Close-up view of failure (left arrow points to insert and right arrow indicates shear cone crack failure plane). 6b. 5. 6a.Fig. even though overall torsion equilibrium is assured by applied loads and beam reactions aligning. An example of distress resulting from inadequate considerations of structural behavior. as in Fig. is given by Fig. Beam ledge end corbel failure (applied loads and reaction in alignment). 68 . distress or indicates bearing pad location and lower failure develops. and Fig. The spandrel beam haunch. arrow points to failed tension insert). acts like a corbel. 5. at the beam end.

40 and the Notation for the full meaning ofA. AIA . End support dap distress caused by geographic area. 6a and 6b show yet another vari- ation of spandrel distress resulting from a failure of the overall torsion equilib- rium tension insert connection.h). 8. indi- cate that some designers do not under- stand the entire behavior of spandrel beams. Spandrel beams employing relatively thin webs have. [1 Figs. and many others not commented upon. The ledge transfer mechanism re- sembles a dap (an upside down dap) subject to both flexure and direct tension. reinforcement. was used (refer to Fig. The dap behavior of spandrel beam haunches (or ledges). (upper arrow indicates epoxied dap cracks gineering fundamentals are missed or and lower arrow points to modified end ignored. 7. 7) failed because the necessary reinforce- ment was not present at the beam end. 9. depending on the web thickness and the type of web rein- forcement (shear and torsion). The non-alignment of the beam end reaction and the applied tee loads causing tor- sion were resisted by a horizontal couple developed by a steel bolted insert ten- sion connection near the top ofthe ledge and bearing of the beam web against the column top. 7. sometimes is neglected re- sulting in haunch failures as shown in Fig. are not confined to any one Fig. This particular member (Fig. The actual case histories reviewed. and because the concrete acting as plain concrete did not have the necessary capacity to resist applied shear and flex- ure forces. where insufficient dap Fig. This type of distress results from inadequate con- siderations of how tee reaction loads to the ledge are transmitted into the beam web. particularly at beam ends. suffered separation of the entire ledge from the beam as illustrated by Fig. PCI JOURNAUMarcn-April 1984 69 . Ledge failure near beam end. support). 8. Another category of span- drel dap and internal torsion problems is shown by Fig. The problems related to span- drel behavior occur in all types of structures. and inevitably result insufficient dap and torsion reinforcement when one or more of the basic en.

relative to spandrel concentrated loads applied to a simple beam design. ACI 318-77 3 Sections Gravity Loads — General Beam 11.Fig. caused by gravity loads eccentric to the beam's Spandrel beams are subjected to a va. sponse of spandrel beams.3. Relative to end connections. for non- sult principally from its tee legs as prestressed members. The influence of loads acting as simple span load supporting within distance "d" for spandrel beams members.1. 10b and 10c. necessary for overall gravity torsion herein relate to precast spandrel beams equilibrium. need only he con- shown in Fig. e.6.g. volume reactions align with applied loads when change forces. Figs. ledges transmitting Fig.1 and 11. (end loads to the spandrel beam. The discussions T. 10 shows the elements which are applied gravity forces. Fig. 11.. The overall equilibrium requirements for ACI 318-77 Code.2 indicate that the Loading design for shear need only consider The gravity loads of a precast spandrel shears at "d" or "d/2" while Section beam are typically concentrated and re. 10a. then no connections are re- These loading cases can act separately quired to develop the resisting torque or in combination. TYPES OF APPLIED LOADS internal torsion. respectively. is incorrect (though not span spandrel beam. horizontal impact fundamental to the load behavior re- forces (e. parking garage spandrels). 9. = e2 ). shear center. These loads result from Fig. riety of loads.3. ife e equals or exceeds e. lob and 10c the Commentary) since using the Code show the resulting beam shear and procedures can result in precast span- 70 .1. of significant height is shown in Figs..4 indicates that torsion. and frame moments. I(1a presents the sidered at distance "d" or beyond. Complete separation failure of ledge from beam web. 10.

P6 TB P (NOT SHOWN) J er Pq RB P6 P2 j IP1 SHEAR CENTER ALL LOADS EQUAL AND T AUNIFORMALLY SPACED RA (a) Loads 1 UNIFORM LOAD = LP ` 2 d. 10. PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 71 . 6 (c) Applied Torsion Fig. General gravity loads showing applied shear and torsion diagrams. RA 3 d. RB 4 5 6 \ (b) Applied Shear UNIFORM LOAD = SPe-l- 2 Tp=RAe 1 3 TB =Rse.


nation of the torsion equilibrium web flexural stresses. and internal torsion stresses results in the Horizontal Loads 45-deg cracking repeatedly observed in Spandrel beams. as used in parking spandrel beams as illustrated in Fig. shear stresses. Also.drel members being designed for only acting upon the beam. horizontal loads can be resisted by the spandrel beam acting as a simple span between its end supports providing that torsional equilibrium is maintained by the required number of connections. and the third pertains to dapped end support. cated "d/2" or "d" beyond the end sup- sion load in the end regions. can he required to restrain au. not just those lo- two-thirds of the applied shear and tor. the top H force concentrated influence of torsion of the couple is developed by flexural equilibrium connections at the beam behavior of the beam web. and the port reaction. 11b illustrates the "cantilever' method of resisting horizontal loads which requires the floor diaphragm (force H. Both load support. 12. 11. garages. Overall torsion equilibrium ofthe ing spandrels and non-load supporting spandrel beam is achieved by the reac- spandrels can be subjected to these tion force R aligning with the applied horizontal loads. The H forces applied by overall beam torsion equilibrium end connections are shown in Fig. the 45-deg cracking is affected by tomobiles which result in horizontal ledge concentrated P loads located near impact loads as demonstrated in Fig. Beam End Connections Spandrel beam end connections which induce forces into the beam can. ha can the spandrel end reaction acts upon the vary from zero to L.) and the bearn's haunch acting as a horizontal beam (force HQ ) to be the load resisting elements. for the sake of simplicity. or by the beam having adequate torsional strength to transmit the torsion loading to the end torsion equilibrium connec- tions. be applied at any location along the A different force pattern results when beam's span where "a" of Fig. be divided into three types. The first type is that associated with the beam's overall tor- sional equilibrium. the second type deals with "corbel" support behavior. Typically. Alternately. the beam's end inducing additional web Horizontal loads to spandrel beams can stresses. ledge. Fig. The combi- end being neglected. 12. The magnitude of the horizontal force couple H providing equilibrium results from all the loads PCI JOURNAUMarch-April 1984 ^3 .

13. 74 . Fig. creep. 12) require complete understanding by the de- signer. and tem- ure but also create a state of direct ten. and the counted for. Both force paths must he ac. 17. ledge's ability to transmit load gener- and web direct tension. ledge concentrated loads P (neglecting the beam weight). Volume Change Forces zontal plane through the spandrel web Volume change forces resulting from in line with the top surface of the ledge. restraint of concrete deformations The forces P and N not only induce flex. 14 illustrates the combined action of all forces when a spandrel end support dap is present and the cracking which can develop. ated forces. one path is at drel's end and away from the end. direct shear. the vertical interface of the ledge and beam web while the other is at a hori. or being beyond the load P. 15. The projecting beam ledge acts like an "upside down" corbel. these factors are more appropriately dis- cussed elsewhere in this paper. Fig. caused by shrinkage. the spandrel support reaction. punching shear. of a spandrel beam is the usual mechanism for trans- fer of the applied concentrated loads to the beam web where the web in turn punching shear which also could be transmits these concentrated loads to considered as "upside down" dap shear. or haunch. The ends of spandrel beams are sometimes dapped. Spandrel Ledges The ledge. End connection forces applied to simple span spandrel beams also can re- sult from forces necessary to achieve column equilibrium and concrete vol- ume change deformations. However. perature can occur at the beam's sup- sion. As shown in Fig. and the applied concentrated ledge loads P do not align with the reaction R. 16 illustrates the Two flexure behavior paths exist for punching shear transfer of ledge loads to transfer of ledge loads to the spandrel the web for loads applied near the span- web. The volume The dominant shear transfer mode of change forces can be axial or rotational ledge loads to the beam web is by as reflected in Fig. the forces and stresses resulting from the combined action of the dap and the equilibrium forces (Fig. When daps exist. beam end bearing support. porting ledge. all connections. The The location of a concentrated load Iedge transfers load to the beam web via along the beam's ledge influences the flexure. and the projecting ledge must be treated as a corbel if the applied end forces are to be properly considered. as shown in Fig.

R H 30 TO 45 CRACK P R Fig. 15. PCI JOURNAL/March -April 1984 75 . Combined action of dap and torsion equilibrium forces. COMBINED WEB FLEXURE P AND DIRECT TENSION LEDGE FLEXURE AND DIRECT TENSION Fig. Ledge to beam flexural and tension paths. 14.

Fig. because: minute deformations of the fluencing axial volume change forces in connections themselves relieve the ro- a spandrel is the location of the beam tational restraint. re- and vertically in addition to the location straint of shrinkage and creep contrac- . forces perature is greater than the bottom. rigid. Axial volume change forces producing of the frame's stiffness center position tension in members generally exist. the forces of the rially reduce the beam's shear and tor. and vertical force couples as shown in pending on their magnitude can mate. forces acting on spandrel beams veloped by a combination of horizontal can control connection designs. forces. drel beam. 17b. between the top and bottom of a span- nections or hard high friction connec. and (position where horizontal volume their magnitude depends on the rigidity change movements are zero). The positive end moment is de- The N. couple typically can be neglected for sion strength if the N. For example. can whereas members joining one another create a positive end moment if the through bearing pads (soft connections) beam's end connections are actually can result in only minimal N. and de. However. of restraint to the volume change Sun induced temperature differences movements. welded con. force acts parallel spandrels since in reality they are small to the beam's length. Another factor in. where the top surface tem- tions can develop large N. restraint to expansion within the building frame horizontally reduces the horizontal couple force.


78 . gravity loads. the gravity loads produce ture. Frame Moment Forces Gravity dead loads may or may not cause end moments. can be of varying magnitude and direc- ence is of greatest concern to members tion depending upon the mode of the having a wide top flange width com. deformations. temperature camber influ.1 . for nar. 18. additional moments which must be combined with other frame moments. common application. If the moment average temperature being 30 deg F (17 frame spandrel beam also supports deg C) greater than the web tempera. When spandrels row width beam tops. the internal top to are part of a moment frame. connections bottom temperature variations are small at the beam's end are used to develop resulting in very minor beam axial and horizontal couple forces as shown in rotational deformations. tion produces rotations opposite to the of a rigid frame although this is not a temperature end rotations. Moment frame connections. and type of pared to its bottom flange such as dou. sun in. frame's sway. spandrel's end(s) when determining duced temperatures result in the flange overall design forces. lateral load applied. 18. . horizontal couple forces are additive or tions when rigid end connections exist. depending upon when Spandrel beams can serve as members frame connections are made. The moment frame ble or single tee type beam cross sec. The horizontal couple forces Normally. and. Fig.^_ H M M(_ OHM (a) (b) Fig. subtractive to the other forces at the Typically (in northern climates).


T i

'ep eH

i Nu

TORQUE = Puep- HueH - NueN

Fig. 19. Torque forces.

GENERAL DESIGN Internal Torsion and Shear

REQUIREMENTS Spandrel beam torsion results when
applied horizontal and vertical loads do
Spandrel beam design requires con- not pass through the beam's shear cen-
sideration of how all the various applied ter. The resulting torsion to the beam, at
loadings are transmitted from their point any cross section, is the sum of the
of application to the beam and then sub- torques (shear force times distance from
sequently to the structural element(s) the shear center) acting at that cross
supporting the spandrel itself. Basic de- section. Moreover, it is possible that the
sign requirements, exclusive of the con- loads acting on the spandrel can vary
nections to columns or other supporting from the time of erection to when all
structural elements, are: time-dependent volume change loads
• Internal torsion and shear act. Each loading case requires evalua-
• Beam end torsion tion to determine which controls the de-
• Ledge attachment to the web sign.
• Ledge load transfer Fig. 19 shows the loads applied to a
• Web flexure resulting from torsion spandrel beam eccentric to the shear
equilibrium center. The determination of the shear
• Ledge acting as a corbel at beam center is provided by Fig. 20 4 for a ho-
end reaction mogeneous uncracked section. Once the
• Beam flexure applied torsion and shear are known, the

PCI JOURNAL./March-April 1984 79

internal torsion and shear reinforcement force is in lbs or kips, the stress is in psi
can he determined following ACT 3183 or ksi, and = 0.85.
requirements for reinforced members or Note that equal to 0.85 results from
employing other relationships 9' for pre- using 0 = 0.90 for flexure and j„ = 0.94
stressed members. If only vertical loads such that the denominator for Eq. (1) is:
are applied to the spandrel, the shear
center can quite conservatively be as- Oi ti d^f, = 0.9 (0.94) df, = 0.85 d^f^,
sumed to align with the beam's web
vertical centerline. The spacing of the A,, reinforcement,
horizontally and vertically, should not
be greater than 12 in. (305 mm).
Beam End Torsion
If the amounts of the vertical stirrups
Beam end torsion is defined as the and horizontal bars distributed about
torsion at the beam's end, within the the spandrel's perimeter differ, the
distance "d" or "d/2," resulting from the quantity ofA, L, available depends on the
torsion equilibrium end connections. lesser amount of A, rD and A" (see Fig.
Typically, beam end torsion created by 21b):
top and bottom connections is charac-
terized by a single crack, inclined at A. = 2 (1 Al )
about 45 deg, having a nominal width of V2
0.015 in. (0,38 mm) or greater. The 45-
deg crack results from flexure in the or
spandrel's web induced by the beam top
A 2C A) (3)
Ha connection force (see Fig. 21a) re-
quired to maintain overall torsion equi- ^2
librium. The magnitude of the H. forces whichever results in the smaller value
is that required to resist all loads eccen- forA^.. The I A., or!. A,,., represents the
tric to the shear center, and not just total amount of reinforcing steel within
those loads at and beyond "d" or the effective dimensions defined by Fig.
from the beam's vertical end support. 21c. Anchorage of the A. and A 1 rein-
The end of the beam length required to forcing bars is important. Both ends of
transfer the H. equilibrium forces to in- the, steel must be anchored by hooks
ternal torsion behavior can be consid- or closed stirrups. The A,, bars require
ered to be within the distance "d" from hooking at the end of the beam or a "U"
the beam's end. shape for proper anchorage.
Beam end reinforcement to resist the The vertical and horizontal rein-
web flexure caused by the H. forces can forcement comprising the A steel at the
be supplied by horizontal and vertical beam's end is in addition to any other
bars. The orthogonal bars consist of steel reinforcement necessary to resist shear
areas A,, A., and A, (according to ACI since the A, and shear reinforcement
318-77) located on the ]edge side of the share a common crack plane.
beam's web (see Fig. 21b). The end Another type of special beam end tor-
reinforcement effective in providing the sion is discussed in a following section
necessary 45-deg A u steel of Fig. 21d is titled "Corbel End Behavior." This spe-
given by Fig. 21c. The web A,, rein- cial case, as for the above, requires the
forcing steel required for ultimate beam's end to be designed to resist the
strength is: total torsion acting at the beam's sup-
A. = H€',(1)
04J, Ledge Attachment
where all dimensions are in inches, the Attachment of the spandrel beam


'.EG 1 - RECTANGLE w 1 by


( Y-Y & x-x )


DOTE: IF W, AND W 2 SMALL. ex .ey -O.


h2 I2
J+J2) h2 h2w/12
eX 2 ( 2 +h2w/i2J

h2 h2w2'
ex= 2 [Wlh,3+h2w2]


h1 I^ h1 h1wj /12
ey 7T
+12) ! 2 [hiw13 /12+w2h2/12

h 1h1w 1a
a 2 h l w l' + w2hz

Fig. 20. Calculation of spandrel beam shear center.

PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 $1

VERTICAL REINF. f ^I HORIZONTAL REINF. 82 . 21. EFFECTIVE OVER THIS DIMENSION (c) Orthogonal End Reinforcement Fig. U 45 CRACK H . 45C H N. Beam end torsion equilibrium reinforcement. Hu (a) End Web Cracking H U CENTROID cAwv^2 +At) t A Hu Awt -L 2 W d ww e e #/ Hu (b) End Torsion Nomenclature (d) End Aw TYPICAL A1 REINF. EFFECTIVE OVER THIS DIMENSION TYPICAL Av + At REINF.

22c. The posi- 3a f}.4 mm) for usual design ledge attachment also must consider conditions. Uniform loads would centroid is at 0. and The ft maximum value at ultimate of magnitude of the ledge load. where 0 = 0. attachment aration would occur along the entire reinforcement is required.65) for ment is considered similar to the be- unreinforced concrete flexure at ulti- havior of two rigid bodies where sep- mate. (5) can in accordance with Fig.. 22a. Nate that: reinforcement usually is not additive to m = s for inner concentrated loads shear and torsion reinforcing because m = d. = 3. where s and de have maximum values in The Ag reinforcement of Eq. the reinforcement for at- The ultimate attachment strength of a taching the ledge to the web is: non-reinforced ledge depends on the tensile strength of the concrete. (25. consid- terfacing erection tolerances.'s equal to the uniform load Fig.o/2 + 3/4 1 p) (4) web reinforcement is uniformly dis- bum barn tributed over the length m as previously defined. ledge. If fg exceeds 3A . + 6 V„ (b. The concentrated loads the depth of the ultimate stress block is acting are shown in Fig. in. and de. . Assuming the stress block uniform loads. The spacing of A. results from a combination of direct ten. and is: are in inches.. and the ledge to f = V. the force is in lbs or kips. the value of 3X . ering the nominal reinforcements which formation characteristics of the ledge usually exist in both the beam web and supported member. = ni times hined shear and torsion or ledge attach- unit uniform load ment. vrT psi tension maximum at exceed 18 in. and summing moments about times the ledge length being examined. concrete unit weight. 22.. PCI JOURNAL. = q55 f f (0 = 0. (457 mm).. The amount of beam web reinforcing will be controlled by the m = length selected for analysis of greater of the requirements for comn- uniform load and V.IMarch-April 1984 83 . the stress is in psi or ksi. length of the beam's web on the attach- Reinforcement for attachment of the ment plane of Fig. and concern an end load (near the rameters for determining the amount of beam's end) or an inner load (away from reinforcing steel required..85 far forcing steel depending upon the beam sand lightweight concrete dimensions.' for ff is derived from the tradi- tion of the load Vu also can have an in- tional concrete cone punching shear di- fluence on the ledge to web capacity. the position of V. all dimensional units sion and flexure. concrete strength. shown in Fig. considering the fabrication factor of 0.5 in.7 mm) (a/2) per produce V. All dimen- part or whole be supplied by web stir- sional units are in inches and the force is rups in the beam. mal weight concrete and 0.75 and k to account for the tolerances of the framing members. The __ V„ (b.. f { using a phi Accordingly. Typically. + sl2 for end concentrated the A. f is a lower (see Fig. bars should not f. 22. but the less than 1 in. The maximum stress f. 322-72 8 allows f. Moreover. the beam's end). along with the pa- 22a. web steel reinforces a different loads crack plane. this centroid. The ledge attachment in lbs or kips.ledge to the web can be either by the ultimate where k = 1 for nor- strength of plain concrete or by rein. — dA — 1/2) (see Fig. 22b). Two separate spandrel ledge to the beam's web is conditions can exist as shown by Fig.85. 22) should be located at ^ hound value when ACT 318-77 or ACI The ledge to web horizontal attach. 22c. + 3/a 1p – '/s) point of maximum ultimate tension is A (5) Ae 0 Jv (b. rect tension limit of 4 . (12.

84 . 22_ Beam ledge attachment for non-reinforced and reinforced sections. EN° Nu s Nu de { 1h de h (a) Punching Shear Transfer —Ash THIS LEG ONLY 3/4 L p 3^4 p VU vu As DAP N JV SHEAR ^` ^' u PLANE• HAIRPINSAT VERTICAL BEAM END ^ SHEAR PLANE Ah = Ash/2 (b) Dap Shear (c) Ledge Transfer Reinforcing Fig.

A (see Fig. the ultimate capacity for uniform beam's ledge should he. forces in excess of the un- reinforcement is not to be used. ff is in psi. capacity for end ledge mining the vertical shear plane area for loading.. (11) should be totally with bt+ h for inner and end loads. + h)12 + d e ] (8) for end loads when d. capacities determined by portrays concentrated loads applied to Eqs. = 0 shA (7) steel is used (see Fig.. force is in lbs or V. A value of 3. (6) and (7). where de is less than 2h. in the loads. is: other loadings. 23b) should not exceed 10 k. and h is as previ.' with some 5000 psi (34 MPa) and the load applied variations. The ultimate V. (11) v Fors>b. +2h where 0 = 0. 23c).f7 .. + 2h is h (b r +h).85. The neces- shear pattern..b. vertical shear plane as the measure. (8) uses a value of 2. which for an s of 1 ft ment over its distribution width is en- (0. is neering procedures presented for 1. The longitudinal reinforcement V„=th12hAvf. reinforce- given by Eq. 23b. and the stress f. + h) (6) kips. and within s for closely spaced concentrated loads or uniform loads V„ = 0hx VT..305 m) provides: gaged.2X[J for normal weight and sand transfer. ously defined. The engi. . the V. d. loads applied to the ledge is the same as equal to A.85. (6) while beam design. As for closely spaced concentrated Longitudinal reinforcement. 23c. further apart than b. when using the web by shear and flexure. + 2h h)/2. to resist the applied V.1l (2lp + b. Unpublished Fig.Ledge Load Transfer tests by the author have indicated that The spandrel beam's ledge transfers the ultimate dap unreinforced concrete uniform and concentrated loads to the shear stress capacity./7 on the vertical shear cated near the ledge top as shown in plane shown in Fig. + h)/4 V. is in psi or ksi. Fig. = 4hx7 [21k + (b.' (10) distributes concentrated ledge loads along the ledge by both dowel shear and Eqs. concentrated load. + (b. at a minimum. 23a reinforced V. V. The A Rh reinforcement determined Fors>b. and are restated to keep this on the ledge at 3/alp . is less than (b t + For s _. PCI JOURNALIMarch-April 1984 B5 .Al2 to insure all A. Fig.of the ledge loads are based on lightweight concretes having an f = the PCI Design Handbook. concrete punching shear if special shear Applied V. (7). = 30hx. (6) through (10) require dap rein- the ledge and the ultimate punching forcement. all dimension units are plane area for concentrated loads spaced in inches. The vertical shear where 0 = 0. The ultimate shearing stress on the Fors -_b. is presentation all inclusive for spandrel used on all shear planes in Eq. +2h ledge vertical shear plane when A.fJ on the pro- The ledge load transfer must satisfy jecting ledge shear area hI. +2h from Eq. is: for inner ledge loadings and end load- ings when de equals or exceeds 2h is: A. 23 can be used as a guide in deter- The ultimate V.A h . Eq. capacity sary A.. (dd + sf2) (9) unless a greater spacing can be justified by the longitudinal reinforcement in the where the notation is the same as for spandrel ledge laterally distributing the Eqs. (7) through (10) use an ultimate flexure when the reinforcement is lo- shear stress of 1.

Nu N de42h ee h (a) Punching Shear Transfer 3I Ash THIS LEG ONLY ^41p 3I4Lp V Vu DAP AS N N SHEAR _ PLANE HAIRPINS AT VERTICAL SHEAR PLANE REAM END Ah = Ash/2 (b) Dap Shear (c) Ledge Transfer Reinforcing Fig. 86 . 23. Ledge load transfer.

ment. which is in addition to that re- ment. 24e). beam having equal tee stem reactions quired to resist the applied V„ and N.= -/. 23c does not pro. However. Note that T in Eq. reinforcing of Eq. web is given by Fig. quired for vertical flexure (see Fig. then the w developed by the topping carefully anchored separate reinforce. and the f„ stress is in psi or ksi.85. 24 where there is no top end con- quired by Eq. Fig. In turn. (11) is not additive to the nection to provide the necessary overall stirrups required to resist web shear and torsion equilibrium. 24h for a spandrel Ledge flexural reinforcement is re. 11b). 24c) may Web Flexure be necessary to resist the . (13) represents the The A. Depending upon force magnitudes. 24b.web flexure Two instances of web flexure can de. beam. direction opposite of those resulting tions so the total steel area provides the from vertical load torsion equilibrium. The lower web por- as the A. V against the should be used. The distribution ment on the ledge side of the web of the unit torsion load w. more stirrups may be Fig. special reinforcement in accor- dance with the PCI Design Handbook' Fig. hut not exceeding b t + h. unless: velop if the spandrel beam's overall tor- sion equilibrium is generated by the = w2J(2 `) ' 3 A v7' (15) f^ beam web acting against the top of the w PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 87 . The height of the The A. and typically nections at the spandrel's end vertical have a hairpin configuration which laps reaction. beam and then by the lower web portion to the beam's ends. reinforcing steel using the bent total overturning torque for half the configuration of Fig. this horizontal ulti- spacing should not exceed h nor 18 in. steel (see Fig. except that the forces have a necessary at the concentrated V„ loca.^ is: loads. (457 mm). H = w.-CV_Q4d )+N„( where ¢ = 0. If rein- The w^„ force acting against the web forced bearing confinement steel is nec- can be transferred by web flexure (see essary. acting against the web. If A sh is tion away from the beam ends showing not provided by additional stirrups. The A. when loads are applied to the beam web (see A. transfers w. The steel re. 23c) can be selected from: T iUty (13) (L/2) h„ )1 (12) and A. (12) should be centered on the load and distributed lower web portion h u. reinforcing bars for inner and tion h. is shown in Figs. and uniform stem spacing where w. within the ledge over the same distance 24b. 24a presents a typical cross sec- lengths previously discussed. 24d. forces are in lbs or kips. i.„ (L/2) (14) dimensions are in inches. vide bearing confinement steel. The A h at the end of the beam should members it supports and bottom con- confine the end of ledge. and the other variables are de- fined in Fig.^. is required. calculated A 3h distributed over the Fig. web reinforcement (see Fig. to beam ends by end loads. 24d. It is suggested that #3 bars at mate flexural behavior of the lower web the maximum spacing he provided as a portion can be resisted by reinforce- minimum for ledge flexural reinforce. and 24e. 24c) to the lower web portion of the is required. This condition is illustrated in to the continuous ledge A. A similar loading torsion since it basically reinforces a condition can occur when horizontal different crack plane. Bar horizontal flexure as demonstrated in Fig.

(e) Ledge Horizontal Beam Fig. 88 . Hu—WtuL/2 k hh (b) Torsion Equilibrium Forces Hu WEB FLEXURE AS hµ. SPANDREL Wtu LOCATED 1' BELOW TOP OF TOPPING OR CURB Bt TOPPING NO TOP T TEE CONNECTIONS (a) Construction Arrangement // Hu i \ LEDGE et h wl >J .--i-----. <_ 2bw+h THIS LEG ONLY dL Ti `et/2 Wtu et Web Flexure EFFECTIVE HORIZONTAL BEAM TENSION REINF. 24. Torsion equilibrium web flexure.

the ledge acts like an up. steel resulting from Eq. (16) is ad. V. is in lbs per linear foot at ul. but is not ad. 24. overall fined. 4. 0 is 0. selected using: side down corbel as previously dis- cussed for Fig. f„ is in ksi. d.85. 25 shows the usual variables and forcementA. 13. and fd is in psi. at ultimate is in lbs per linear internal reinforcement.f = dt (A. A„ = (17) to common crack planes. or Usual web torsion steel would not be required if the spandrel beam's torsional _ V" (18) equilibrium is provided by the behavior A 91 Of^. but only A nh . the beam bottom is determined from: forcement.08b. Fig. Fig. torsion equilibrium connections (see and all dimensions are in inches. corbels with some modifications. (5) and/or the A.) (22) ledge corbel can be designed to support PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 89 . (457 of at least: mm) nor 3h.d1 rium can be provided by a modified be. (11) due 3 V„l.4x2b. is: a limited portion of the topping at the beam end is involved in developing H. is in inches. 25a for inter- nal reinforcing bars and by Fig. dures of the PCI Design Handbook' for and A and f are as previously defined. This Y modified behavior follows when the where in the above equations A„ 1 is in spandrel beam has adequate torsion square inches. 25c. torsional equilib. f (19) havior to that shown in Fig. but a minimum web A. 25b which represents a combination of a where all dimensional units are in steel bearing plate providingA. the web rein. the end reaction by following the proce- timate. 25a) is required to deliver the corbel moment. or a minimum of at least: quires special attention to the connec- tion of the column to the topping. using identical notation. the end corbel rein- AS = w (es) qb d fY (16) forcement is given by Fig.'. and the inches. is in kips. As.where w.fYdl ditive to the web shear reinforcement which reinforces a different crack plane. The upside down A. An elevation of foot. If fo exceeds 3X til f. depicted in Fig.04 b1d. e. 24b). w. should nut exceed 18 in. This 0 . trated in Fig. 25.. The corbel A„ steel at ditive to the ledge attachment rein.. This When the end support reaction of a reinforcing steel can be approximately spandrel beam aligns with the applied ledge loads. (21) consideration is discussed more fully in ADn = I'd a following part of the paper.d.. and the top connection is at The additional ledge reinforcement the topping level (see Fig.. per foot of length is: parameters affecting corbel end behav- ior.. The spacing of the whichever is the greater. determined by Eq. Reinforcement A„ in the beam web at Corbel End Behavior the corbel end (see Fig. In actual practice.85.. A is as previously de- reinforcement.4. b is in inches. 24a). 2x2b . calculated by Eq. q5 is 0. the end corbel reinforcement is illus- The A. 24. In Fig. = 0 . proper bottom H.. the horizontal force components for overall beam torsion equilibrium re. A cn V2 ^ (20) Using the topping to provide one of of.

Corbel end reinforcement. 25. ^b w d2 A S2 THIS _ L LEG ONLY AT END ONLY A1— I 3/4 p 3^a l P OTHER REINF. - ^u Vu= bids ^800p51 (c) Fig. Ip SAME AS (g) P Avh 1 d^ d1=h As ) (WELDED CROSS-BARS) 4 A51 (STEEL PLATE) I R R (a) (b) 11. 90 .5 A vh P çztir y h __ 2h PACIN @ h/2 MAX.

[mar = S y+ r 2 'l ) + J 2 (2 vides overall torsion equilibrium. And.5h. The principle nonuniform bearing stresses at the ledge face. ments pertaining to strain compatability If connections between the spandrel where it is desired to account for all the beam and the structural units supported reinforcements relative to their dis- by the spandrel do not prevent torsional tributions in both the tension and com- PCI JOURNAL'March-April 1984 91 . The analytic reinforcing bars or prestressing strands. the spandrel web beyond 1. Chapter 10. of inertia relative to service loads. and the support. 26 presents the concept of to all steel anchorages to insure that the principle axes of inertia found in most bars will develop their strength at criti. sional roll of the beam may result from (24) the pad's deformation depending on the type of bearing pad employed. Depending upon the Flexural analysis of spandrel beams at beam's cross-sectional dimensions. The orientation of the principle Also. then it may be necessary to units. Span- ment (Fig. textbooks on strength of materials. and particularly those Experience indicates that the unit end employing prestressing. consider the influence of principle axes Proper distribution of the reinforce. principle mo- corbel shear stress at ultimate should ments of inertia may require considera- not generally exceed 800 psi (5. 25b. then when be located within 1.5h but also should determining elastic stresses at service be distributed from the beam end to a level.5 MPa). 1 and A. Fig.5h axes is: from the beam's end should be designed 2I. . in degrees.. is posi- When corbel end behavior is used to tive counterclockwise for the dimen- provide overall torsion equilibrium. 26. to resist the total torsion developed by B – ya tan ' f 1 (23) the end reaction acting eccentric to the shear center. moments of inertia are: ing column member. should likewise depth of the beam is shallow. tion. needs the correct ertia can typically be neglected for deep number of'headed studs for anchorage to spandrel beams.where all variables are in the same rotations. if the 1. and ultimate should fellow the requirements whether or not the spandrel employs of ACT 318-77. the orientation support. for small develop the plate strength. The influence of principle axes of in- if used to provide A 1 . However. and -F Beam Flexure Ima„ = Ir 2 2y + 12 [ffl General spandrel beam flexure in- volves two distinct loading conditions . If bearing pads are z used where corbel end behavior pro. and should not be spaced of the principle axes possibly can be greater than h12. the bearing pad. depth spandrels. 25) is important. For exam. tor.. A. for either reinforcing bars or pre- distance of 2h beyond the beam reaction stressed reinforcement. drel beams usually do not have sym- ple.2 should be placed within metry about either axis. where the angle B. Attention must he paid critical. (25) one at service level and the other at ul- timate state. The steel plate in Fig. cal sections. procedures can be based upon approxi- the methods of analysis can be basically mate methods or the specific require- the same or fundamentally different. sional orientation (the ledge to the right careful evaluation must be given to side) given in Fig. The required A^.

26. service (or ultimate) loads. and evaluating the beam's reinforcements which are required to loading history from the time it is first provide for torsion and torsional erected through application of in-use equilibrium. ORIENTATION OF PRINCIPLE)AXES Sbp Ybp Fig. All of ternal connection reinforcement. connection inter- similar to the design for other precast facing. This discussion on spandrel connec- tions is intended to supplement the PCI connection design requirements by re- CONSIDERATIONS FOR viewing the concepts and parameters CONNECTION DESIGN involved. and therefore cannot con. connection design are understanding mate flexural analysis. consideration the concepts. Y Yp y^+e . tribute to the flexural strength. and the PCI requirements'.p C. Orientation of prrindpll of inertia. pression zones.' apply to con. 92 . Spandrel beam connection design is connection materials. Discussions on connections herein relate to connection systems. +8 X -X Xp Yl Y p XpAND YpDEFINE1 _ IMAX.G. frame moment connections. When making an ulti. connection loads resulting from equilib- nections associated with spandrel rium requirements of the column sup- beams. in- prestressed concrete connections. The critical aspects of spandrel porting the spandrel beam. accounting for all connec- must be given to those longitudinal tion forces.

and its use is gen. 28. shown in Fig. 28b. A36 steel which limits the attachment umn face shown in the Fig. 27d uses a modification to plate cross section (Fig. the column to the top of the beam is re- tions use inserts and bearing pads to de. The equilibrium connec. also part of the overall connection sys. The ment plate connections of Fig. the magnitude of the volume created by the gravity loads. or for temporary forces induced into the connections. tion. and those connections re.Connection Systems plate's yield stress force by controlling the cross section of the attaching plate Spandrel connection systems can be and placing welds only at the plates' separated into three groups. 27c and 27d depict spandrel end of this type of spandrel connection is connections where the applied ledge shown in Fig. connections. spandrel that is additive to the torsion tions. The top connections used at method of achieving the same result the floor and roof levels employ welds would be to use an angle welded only at requiring special details to limit the its toes. dictate the need for connections be- and requirements for erection connec. These ends to allow for deformation strain be- groups are the basic beam-to-column yond yield.3 x 51 x 102 mm). Figs. 27d eleva. 2 in. This modification requires volume change or other structural de- careful consideration of the tee leg formation tensile forces which can be spacing [5 ft (1. quired to achieve the spandrel torsion velop the horizontal force couples. An example Figs. If Some of the more common spandrel the building spandrel-to-beam detail is beam-to-column arrangements are similar to Fig. 29. Regarding the attach- loads and column reactions align. connections between the plus holes in the plate if required to spandrel and the members supported by limit its tension yield capacity. can column lateral equilibrium reactions. a and layout of the tees. erection stability and equilibrium. 29) should be the beam end to insure load and reaction limited to control the magnitude of the alignment. 27a and 27b result in non-align. The attachment plate width. This type of controlled yield design is Spandrel beam-to-column arrange. thickness should only be that necessary quired at the time of erection. 27. 27a and 27b column top with the necessary horizon- are for parking garages where the curb is tal reaction for its lateral equilibrium. wide and 4 in. i/a in. the dap of Fig. and the beam. thick plate. beyond initial yield. erally limited to a maximum column di. the column is shown as ment of applied ledge loads and the col. The equilibrium in addition to providing the conditions reflected in Figs. torsion equilibrium shown in Fig. achieved with welds only at the plate ments for a building. Structural design requirements for tem and influences the volume change in-place conditions. to resist the torsion couple shear force. In Fig. projecting to the top of the spandrel umn reaction thereby requiring con. The projection of equilibrium. tween the spandrel beam and the mem- tions. induces torsion into the welded torsion equilibrium connec. hers the spandrel supports. long (6. (457 mm) for the col. Generally. change force can be limited to the Erection connections can be part of PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 93 . forces). 29. When using top (N.52 m) spacings typically] attracted to the connection. 28. The attachment plate of Fig. beam rather than having the beams bear nections to achieve overall torsion upon the column top. magnitude of the volume change forces when in tension due to volume changes to the connections. The conditions of connections are not required. 27c. can be used for mension of 18 in. An alternate nections. ends to insure adequate deformation require overall torsion equilibrium con. plate's yield force to 18 kips (80 kN).

94 .^n OR WELDED (OMIT IF WELDED) PLATE CONNECTION Elevation Section (b) Fig. BEARING CONNECTION li TOP OF CURB II OR TQ ING CURB (SHOWN) L x II TENSION CONNECTION 1• BEARING PAD Elevation Section (a) IjF . Parking garage beam-column connections. { 0L ^_ TENSION CONNECTION x I I I ^ I-- BEARING PAD I^1 BEARING CONN. V . 27.

__ _ I STEEL SECTION CONCRETE ENCASED IN CORBEL V CONCRETE Elevation Section (C) 8" MAX.). Elevation Section (d) Fag. 27 (cont. PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 95 . Parking garage beam-column connections.

Building spandrels_ 96 . 28. WELD PLAN OF LOCATIONS TOPPING BEARING P AD ^AIJpLE WELDED TO BEAM Elevation Section (a) Floor Level WELD LOCATIONS PLAN OF FE TEES (NOT SHOWN) Elevation Section (b) Roof Level Fig.

and concrete. Tee to spandrel connection. Among some of the (such as topping. The erection connec. Most bear- tions for spandrels and other members ing pads (rubber. pads. coil or threaded rods. for umn or to transfer loads to the spandrel providing necessary structural ties he. and above ceil. curbs. steel plates. reinforcing nections tying the spandrel to the col. WELDS AT ENDS CURB HAIRPIN REBAR EACH STEM TOPPING INTO CURB TEE FLANGE Fig. in torsion equilibrium connections (see velop the stability of the erection brac. common materials used in spandrel or ings). can remain in-place behavior characteristics of spandrel and be hidden within later construction beam connections. concrete inserts. the final permanent connection system. strength of the pad. ledge from the members supported by tween beams and columns and beams to the beam. March-April 1984 97 I . Fig. 29. the pad's ability to accommodate non- duce forces into connections which are parallel bearing interfacing surfaces and greater at the time of erection than the to minimize the development of volume ultimate in-place Ioads to the completed change forces because of the pad's shear frame. neoprene. umn. bars or stud type anchors. if temporary. force depends on the shear behavior or tions. deformation characteristics. 27). The main functions of hearing ing. The stability requirements of the pads are to provide uniform bearing by framing system during erection can in. Bearing pads are used to transmit the Erection connections are needed to spandrel reaction to the supporting col- satisfy overall torsion equilibrium. and fabric reinforced rubber types) can- sive understanding of structural design not be relied upon to develop torsional and the criteria for the design than does equilibrium couple forces if the couple just the design hr final in-place condi. Pads likewise are employed tees (slab type members). and to de. left exposed to view. can be used to satisfy the forces and the tion. Connection Materials or they can be connections which are temporary and serve only during the A variety of readily available materials erection process. moved also can serve as secondary con. or removed. other connection assemblies are bearing Erection connections that are not re. welds. generally requires a more comprehen. PC! JOURNAL. The design of erection connec. cotton duck.

curbs. bent bar anchors or headed concrete anchors plates. The plates can serve selected for connections in cast-in-place as a means to transfer or develop bear. and to attach rein- forcing bars to plates. If welds are to serve their intended purpose. ings. generally ½and 3 in. Corrosion evalua. ? being ing). to the influence of the bend radius (no tions can result in the plate(s) not having rebar is bent at a right angle). in addition to con- dium. weld. cast-in-place con- moisture. Coil and whether the insert's capacity is con. forces from being induced into the con- pable of resisting the specific chemical nections between spandrels and col- attack. and pre-heat- coats) and surface preparations. or Concrete is often selected for con- being stainless steel. tion device requires it to have the drel beam connections. plete connections between concrete durability. type of many different connection functions. rebar cover. The use of concrete as a connec- Welds are important in making span. concrete because oftheir coarse threads. the bar configuration. to com. fabricate connection hardware. or plates exposed to salt water crete curbs and topping serve not only air (coastal regions). having properly quirements (bar chemical composition. environmental tempera. attention must be paid possible corrosion. embedded plates. purposes. webs. weld re- any protective coating. nections. threaded rods are used with concrete in- trolled by the mechanical properties of serts requiring the insert capacity to he the insert steel or the insert's concrete matched with the capacity of the rod. farce couple as illustrated in Fig. can serve the same spandrel connection The use of plates requires considera. plates exposed to members. necessary galvanized thickness. and mix quality. or stainless such as ledges. or in connecting spandrels to concrete where concrete is the connecting me. should be galva. and steels (generally AISI 304). reinforcement. constructability. Plates used in other mechanism but also constitute the more aggressive conditions should be of means to prevent axial volume change stainless steel or be a suitable metal ca. deformed definition can mean flat plates. Concrete inserts can be used to satisfy tures at the time of welding. (12. 27. or angles. higher strength steels. spandrel beams require inter- 98 . shear cone (full or partial). Coil rods. curbs and topping. weld shrink- Inserts commonly are employed to pro. Alternately. pre-heating re. tension. or shear Reinforcing bars are the main part of a forces. or Coil and threaded rods are selected to to tie spandrel beams and columns to a make many connection types. daps. selected paints (primers and second low hydrogen electrodes. Typically. The horizontal diaphragm using threaded coarse threaded coil rods find wide use rods into concrete topping. the type Connection Interfacing of the weld electrode. strength. These plates can be made of A36 large number of spandrel connections steel. Plates used in necting spandrels to other structural parking garages. the designer must consider to horizontal diaphragms. When selecting inserts for use in necting columns supporting spandrels spandrels. are most frequently in spandrel beams. bearing. age (cooling). They are used to proper cross section. When using reinforcing bars tion of environmental factors relative to for connections. Similar to all precast concrete con- quirements.7 and Metal plates have a multitude of uses 19 mm) in diameter. weld heat distortion. and inspection (quality vide the torsion equilibrium tension control) all must be considered. Plates by plate anchorages. umns. compression. and place- galvanized (per ASTM A153) with the ment tolerances. as the connection load transfer nized at a minimum.

and b.4 mm). The critical tension erance variations of each dimension in- insert. and PCI JOURNALJMarch-April 1984 99 . overall torsion equilibrium of Figs. 27a and some variations offset others. € But. (25. must be considered when de- the footing's location or the posi.facing of the connection(s) with other • The tolerance variations in dimen- parts of the beam and other structural sions a. The skew tion of anchor bolts within the can result in highly nonuniform bearing footing. The tolerances and their related clearances. plus or minus. that cannot physically be made inforcements within the beam. is sible maximum of% to' in. (82. thus can vary by tion of applied loads to ledges or the yi to 1 in. (12. Fig. b. and masonry). lected once the insert rod diameter D . however. mm) results for a tin. between the rod and the hole of the hole in the as-made beam side is determined. The insert tolerance circle of column insert as defined by di. steel. insert location tolerances are 12. combined with in- with tolerances. thus result in a connection conflicts between connections and re.. eral (such as precast.7 mm). plus or minus. in. can vary a pos.5 mm) insert tolerance. (9.7 mm) or interfacing conditions. even though all tolerances are sat- Recommended tolerances for con. and position skew. x and y skew of the hole Connection plates embedded into in the beam can occur. becoming 3'/4 in. Bearing plate more causing the centerline of the skew. skews. 30 that must be reviewed Interfacing tolerances are usually ac- are: counted for by selecting appropriate • The as-fabricated location of the clearances. Allowing the y directions that cause the insert beam hole to also have a location toler- centerline to vary by as much as a ance variation of % in. Similarly.7 mm). Normally. A D a of 21/2 in. tural members encounter a variety of can vary up to '/s in.. in D. nections are given in the PCI Design The foregoing pertains to any span- Handbook. alter significantly the loca- tion dimension c. a % (9. cast-in-place garding the cumulative effect of all the concrete. as shown in different than planned because of Fig. for an experienced engineer to review volved is the size of the insert hole in the design when selecting connections the beam (see Fig. 30 provides an illustration of clear- mensions a.5 mm) results ya in.5 to known. (9. and b. The hole diameter D. The column erection posi. shown in Fig. isfied. (63. can he se- position ofa.5 may vary a maximum of % to ' in. pad stresses. clearances. dimen. drel connection and connections in gen- erances. connection supporting the spandrel. signing spandrel connections. 31. does.5 to 12. and clear- • Skew of the insert in both the x and ance D. tol- tolerances involved. when considering tol. spandrel beams or other precast struc- • The length of the spandrel beam c.6 mm). serves as an interfacing exam. and the clearance dimen- • The a. The and 27h. and c can be in opposite members. spandrel equilibrium tension inserts The element which must be adjust. (9. (12. jority of interfacing concerns. (9. location dimensions sion D. and b. Connection interfacing deals directions and.3 mm) at the beam face. previous tolerance example regarding ple. positioning tolerances. 30). providing part of the spandrel volved do not occur all at the same time. • The location of the column can be Skewed bearing plates.7 to 25. evaluations must be made re. The planned ances.5 mm). demonstrate the need able to accommodate the tolerances in. established. of % in. sert and beam hole centerline sional variations. (6.4 mm) D 5 . and plate beam hole to change relative to the anchor interference represent the ma- column insert by the same amount.

100 . 30. as aC Y X X Cs Y i e i ^ I Cc (a) Elevation Y SKEW I I +1/4 SHOWN VARIATION rb D 45* Da /1 Op P P INSERT (c) Tolerance Circle (b) Section Fig. Tolerance interfacing.

Fig. dimensional size. forces on account of the plate skew cutting the bearing pad causing steel to concrete or steel edge loading with its increased friction coef- ficient. like all other practical real world tolerances. (12. An example of cumulative tolerances compromising the effectiveness of a spandrel connection is shown in Fig. 32h should he used since they are not tolerance sensitive. level. Plate skew. (3. (25. Concerning the bearing plate skew. Details similar to Fig.2 mm)] are absolutely assured. and no anchor interference develops. At a minimum. 32a where it is incorrectly assumed that LOAD POSITION both beam and column plates will he flat.8 mm) should be considered between any two corners of the plate. and the location of anchors should he evaluated at the time of design to determine if conflicts exist between any of the anchors and other materials or reinforcements within the beam. are cumulative.7 mm) and the other by – '/z in. 33 presents the bearing pad interfacing between the spandrel ledge and a long span prestressed dou- PCI JOURNAtlMarch-Aprik 1984 101 . Positioning tolerances.4 mm). variations. creating a combined misalignment of 1 in. Proper planning and consideration of tolerance can elim- inate most tolerance interfacing prob- lems. and aligned. (12. a skew of 1/s to %a in. 31. When plates are positioned in beams. ^^ 70 ^16 (3. a plate position tolerance in plan or ele- vation of ± 1/z in. (12. The type. Position (a) Beam End Bearing Skew tolerances for plates apply to plates on both sides of the connection. (b) Ledge Bearing Skew Connection interfacing difficulties can develop independent of tolerance Fig. It is not unusual to observe one plate being out of position by +½ in. (19 mm) from any other if items in the adjacent concrete area un- less rigid placement tolerances [± Vs in.7 mm).2 to 4. plate anchors require a clear- ance of 3 in. Plate positioning and the related tol- erances are influenced by plate anchor interference.7 mm) in any direc- tion can be expected to occur. increase N.

32. LOOSE WELD PLATE fL A Ip B VERTICAL MISALIGNMENT OF S%POSSIBLE - (a) Accumulative Tolerances (b) Detail Providing Interfacing Fig. 102 . Tolerance interfacing.

8 Chapter 6. other materials within the beam is only ber rotation results in nonuniform pad one type of connection component in- bearing. ACI 315-74. ing both the concrete and steel in the the details must illustrate the items oc- hearing area. the detail plane. excellent summary of interfacing. Fig. shared bear. Camber interfacing. such as inserts and reinforcements. 34h shows the method to prevent it. Proper connection internal fit-up in- erances is shown in Fig. 33. A variation of the plate interfacing tol. details. 34a relates to shared bearing difficulties while Fig. terfacing. in most instances are the direct result of Camber interfacing requires the design inadequate design planning and the anticipating nonuniform bearing and preparation of improper schematic type selecting the proper type of bearing pad. Further. Plates cast in ously discussed. Spandrel beam connections nitude of the nonuniform stress can employ a range of materials as previ- damage the bearing pad. Con. nection. pare details showing all materials which ing consists of the bearing pad contact. and depending upon the mag. thereby reducing their evaluations of all materials of the con- effectiveness or causing damage. STRESS ROTATION BEARING PAD Fig. All of these materials. ROTATION BEARING PAD CAMBER . Commonly. Connection fit-up in- ing creates distortions and distress in terfacing requires three-dimensional hearing pads. hie tee's end camber rotation. must ther increasing the nonuniform hearing fit together. TEE ENO I. the tee end can be skewed thereby fur. The use of shared bearing curring in the plane of the detail in ad- can he satisfactory only when interfac. beams and columns can be achieved by Interference of plate anchors with post-tensioning. re- ditions which can result in shared garding design guidelines provides an bearing should always he avoided. reinforcement and PCI JOURNALJMarch-April 1984 103 . 34 where terfacing requires the designer to pre- shared bearing develops. exist at the connection location. Shared bear. Interfacing fit-up problems stress or exaggerating the camber effect. The cam. Frame Connections 34b employs a plate in the beam's end Frame connections between spandrel larger than the one in the column corbel. The common bearing of Fig. dition to other items perpendicular to ing is perfect.

BEAM END - STEEL {^ BEARING PAD COLUMN STEEL I. . Shared support. 34. - (a) Shared Bearing r ^L (b) Common Bearing Fig.

tolerance variations such as dimensional rosion protective coating has been offsets in the placement of the connec- applied.cast-in-place concrete. Different proper specifications are required to sized plates are required to accommo. Both types can pro. Welding destroys whatever cor. variation of V in. 36. 35a) has plate force may not he even to the em- several disadvantages as discussed bedded reinforcing bars considering below. welded frame con- etration welds allow for a dimensional nections should not be used. vide the same moment capacity. 36b) welded to the embedment forces attracted to the connections be. 3½. and hence 35) are illustrated in Fig. and stability connections should not be based on actual experience the filler made until all or most of the dead load is needs periodic maintenance. and 114 mm) plate reinforcing bar chemical composition widths] .3 to 9. The sequence of making the The vertical plate connection (Fig. A drawback to the vertical related testing must be applied to the plate connection is the dimensional parts embedded in the beams and col- variation in the 4-in. and procedures as controlled by the and 4½-in. usual method is by welding. 35a requires a filler. This criterion is based upon created by the eccentricity of the H the greater costs associated with frame forces. sary lateral stability require their tion or elastic and creep deformations of welded frame connections to be prop- the thin [ 1/4 to % in. (6.5 mm)] erly inspected. rigorous welding inspection and testing ances. plate (Fig. and weld electrodes employed. The constituting the frame connections (Fig. in place. but also nections is to use only those needed and additional bars to counter the moment no more. or 4 x 8 in. the distribution of the loose The flat plate type (see Fig. 35. 36a) requires not only rein- A basic criterion of precast frame con. the emphasizes the need to consider the se- flat plate connection results in hard quence of the beam-to-column welded bearing creating the possible need of connections and at what stage of the some internal bearing reinforcement to construction these connections will be provide for bearing stress concen. The weld inspection and bearing pad. (102 x tions should be that which minimizes 152 min or 102 x 203 mm) grout column the frame's volume change forces re- to provide for shear transfer and also sulting from weld shrinkage. made. Back-up bars used with full pen. The tee stein or fixity stiffness. The details of the embedded plates Frame analysis to determine forces in PCI JOURNA11March-April 1984 105 . 4. or welding. should employ a structural steel tee or a cause of increased column and beam flat plate with stiffeners. Two types of full frame stiffeners are necessary to transfer the beam-to-column moment connections loose plate force directly to the rein- am given in Fig. (6. which does not have the same protective The use of welded frame connections ability as the original coating. forcing bars of the embedment. (89. If caused by member and erection toler. determine the welding requirements date the tolerance variations [ viz. the frame lateral shown in Fig. (102 mm) gap umns in addition to the field welds. The angle only welding will be discussed. if the beam is sub- trations.3 mm). Likewise. thus requiring field touch-up tion hardware in the beam and column. Typically. 102. The vertical or horizontal plate connections and the volume change (Fig. beam-to-column frame welded connec- 35b) employs a 4 x 6 in.. The grout shear keys minimize other beams in a moment frame to resist reaction shear to the vertical connection lateral loads and to provide the neces- plates which can result from frame ac. give corrosion protection to the weld Structures which use spandrels or plates. Moreover. The top connection pocket jected to gravity loads. are not employed. Also. forcing bars to resist the H force.

EPDXY FILL OR _ EPOxY GROUT . 35. 106 ._~`- BLOCKOUT It (a) Flat Plate Connection SHEAR KEYS THIN BEARING PAD SECTION (b) Vertical Plate Connection Fig. Welded frame connections.

6H ca OD F=H1 TOLERANCE VARIATIONS N STRUCTURAL POSSIBLE STEEL TEE (a) Angie Plate (b) Vertical or Horizontal Plate q I Fig.aH C) H 2 BARS H HACK-UP (Q ^^ H. . 36.. OR O..-D C) ^ V C Z C LOOSE _____ H^2 OR o. Frame weld plate details.

37c would he 10 ft (3. if the spandrel is ex- and be correctly oriented if it is to per. Anchorage for bear- the effect of the various member sizes.4 by corrosion demand increased attention. (6. drel's reinforcement design. bend radius. 38. (31. 37a and 37h reflect the manner that will provide the positive computer analysis models for the Fig. sion protection for steel. specified di- difference in the column height of 3. if the specified. and the bearing design based on structural design. selection of crete analysis methods since the critical bar sizes.8 mm) 3 for #5 bars and bearings must have proper anchorage smaller. A sign strength. severe exposure may spandrel is used in an exterior environ. should employ plain con. Reinforcement Considerations The concrete cover dimension c for Spandrel beam ledge and end support precast spandrel beams produced connections use internal reinforcement under plant controlled conditions and in connections. weight 9 to provide the necessary corro- Ledge reinforcement. to develop the required con- produce erroneous results. 38b. to the connection in developing its de- 37a and 37b could be only 6. supplemental bearing frame connections. mined. 39. Therefore. sions as can the width of the compres- mate bearing stresses exceed that al. Additionally. fined bearing capacity.5 ft (2 m). 108 . The span- for V. must consider shown in Fig.3 mm) as shown in Fig. and interfacing of all the the reinforcing steel because of its end beam's steel can control or dictate the bend radius. 37c cannot and deformed bar anchors. (57. A realistic tolerance for control- ling critical rebar positions should be ±' in. and sitioning tolerances must be deter- upon the beam and column forces. For example. as given in be used since it is incorrect and will Fig. posed to a severe corrosive environment form its function. The reinforcement of Fig. and N. the con.3 mm) tolerance is and shear reinforcement. Along with provid- magnitude of the volume change forces ing the steel's location. can serve solely as flexural steel or as The design planning of re info rcernent combined flexural and confined bearing for connections and other reinforcing steel.1 m) has a significant influence on the ment are essential. The location of the ledge connection umn is 10 ft (3. (chloride salts) the minimum cover nection steel requires more accurate should he 2% in.1 mm) forconnection placement than the usual beam flexural rebars if a ' in. The reinforcement exposed to weather should not be less across critical crack planes and for than 1i in. specific po- induced into the frame connections. Often. And. and to calculate proper anchorage must he insured as the frame deformations.05 m) connection reinforcing bars is important whereas the clear column height of Figs. reinforcement is supplied using plates nient analysis model of Fig. The more conve. Figs. (width = span/50). if the floor-to-floor dimension of the col. (6. 35 anchorage.5 ft mensions for positioning the reinforce- (1. 38. Also. ing can be achieved either by welded This is necessary if the proper stiffness cross-bars or alternate methods using of the column is to be correctly reinforcing bars bent and placed in a evaluated. However. If the ledge reinforcement spandrel beam's cross-sectional dimen- is also to accommodate bearing (ulti. concrete cover bearing failure crack plane can by-pass requirements. as shown in Fig. the column length reinforcement and all other spandrel for Fig. concrete cover and reinforcement maximum water-cement ratio of 0.05 m). require the spandrel's concrete to have a ment. sion flange relative to the beam's span lowed by plain concrete bearing). 38a bars in spandrel beams requires equal or should be considered only in providing greater skill than the reinforcement for ledge flexure.the beams and columns.

DISTANCE BETWEEN 1 CONNECTIONS C-DISTANCE t BEAM TO BEAM BOTTOM Q (c) Centerline Model Fig. Computer analysis models. COLUMN 3 //JOINT NO. 35b Model a= DISTANCE 0. ^} ^5 1r ^ 1 Ib BEAM 20Ib 2 2 a (a) Fig. PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1964 109 . COLUMN 3 TO BEAM REACTION b. 3 \® / MEMBER NO. 35a Model COLUMN QQ 7 Ib 7 6 201b b [^j 1 1 Yb 5®2 C BEAM 5 Ib O Ib ®4 3® Ib 30lb Q 4 a (b) Fig. 37.

c±t14' POSITIONING BEARING CRACK Alternate Ledge BARS (REINF. 38. Ledge reinforcement. 110 . vu N C}I/4• BEARING CRACK P POSITIONING y (PLAIN BEARING) BARRS CRITICAL CRACK PLANES C C f '/4 ° (a) Ledge Flexure Only VU WELDE CROSS-BAR 3 ►u -. BEARING) Rebar Details CRITICAL CRACK PLANES C (b) Ledge Flexure & Bearing Fig.

Another in. nificantly out of position. ance for stirrups and ledge A. as must ing radius limit the locations of other the bars' having an outside diameter of steels. The 2-in. (12. rangements without any provisions for The reinforcement considerations PCI JOURNAUMarch-April 1984 111 . 39. horizontal sweep of the beam. bars is Vs forcing bars can be positioned. 40 shows a typical arrangement of tolerance. the po. emphasizes the regarding the influence of the rein. fact that the designer must select the forcement dictating. A cause of many spandrel beam strand's centroid with respect to the problems and distresses is that beam spandrel's principle Y. such as the ledge A s bars. vu Ne C C Fig. three-dimensional reinforcements and sitioning of the prestressing strands (see make sure his design can actually be Fig. (51 mm) grid for locat. Fig. Tolerances for locating the reinforcement. reinforcements are selected without any 26). and the many criteria An additional factor to be evaluated the bars must satisfy.2 mm) greater than their normal ing the prestressing strands is not com. The fabrication toler- bar bends influence where other rein. (12. It becomes immediately various bars within the cage and within apparent that concrete cover and bend.7 mm) on specified dimensions reinforcing bar consideration relates to plus another Vs in. 40) is the non-alignment of the built. Study of reinforcing tolerances for individual bent bars must bar bends can be important because the also he evaluated. Fabrication pletely available. Vs in. (3. in part. the beam must be considered. axis (see Fig. 40 shows reinforcement ar. This non-alignment can result in concern for interfacing between them. Supplemental ledge bearing reinforcement. and critical reinforcements end up sig- Fig. provide for dimensional positioning of The preceding discussion on spandrel key steel.7 mm) for out of some bars being necessary to secure or square configuration. size on account of the ribs. reinforcements.

presented herein relate to ledge and The influence of column equilibrium web reinforcement alone. additional horizontal forces are cal when they interface with all rein. loads on the spandrel torsion stability forcement concepts discussed apply connections is even more pronounced if equally to spandrel beam ends with re. Spandrel con- Connections which attach the span. In this in- reinforcement details can only he typi. induced into the beam end torsion forcement conditions. ledge corbel behavior. The rein. stance. 10" A t TORSION BARS --" . equilibrium connections which can rep- resent a marked increase in the required Column Influences connection design load. 40. or the column and the horizontal dia- beam end torsion. AV. Depending upon the framing ar- 112 . no direct connection is made between gard to daps. additional column equilibrium loads. nection designs which do not consider drel beam to the column for the basic the additional column equilibrium purpose of supplying the beam's overall forces have resulted in connection fail- torsion equilibrium can be subjected to ures and expensive connection repairs. Reinforcement interfacing. A t OR A sh BARS 1 11J2COVER TYP g SHOWN _ LEDGE A5 BAR POSITION BARS & / 3/4k BEARING A t BARS CHAMFER CS d f •• `" Ah '12' N CAGE AND /OR P/S STRANDS BEAM A 5 BARS 2 STRAND GRID Fig. Typical connection phragm (floor or roof level).

diaphragm connection is used. beam. the analyses to determine beam end connection forces can be very com. The beam-to-column con. Among diaphragm horizontal connections are the many aspects involved in spandrel achieved with inserts. may ceiving any additional loadings from control the cross-sectional dimen- volume change movements providing a sions if all internal components are direct column-to-diaphragm connection to he properly integrated within exists. (254 torsion equilibrium and column equilib.Sectional Dimensions The analysis to determine the con. those set forth represent concrete topping. • The horizontal ledge projection ments of the model to duplicate the ac. both good and bad.rangement of the spandrels to the col. particu- nections can be considered as not re. The analytical model and require. Fig. Fig. larly moment frame beams. phragm is in turn laterally supported by shear walls or moment frames. The spandrel beam vertical • The vertical height of the ledge span properties (see Fig. In addition to the lowing outline on general design end connections. coil rods. mm). and are framing members. mm). GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE umn. and never less than 8 in. should not be less than 6 in. some of the more pertinent factors. The horizontal dia. Reinforcement zontal supports of Fig. PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 113 . horizontal • Bars have a radius at bends. the column is attached guidelines for spandrels is based in directly to the horizontal diaphragms as large part upon observations of past is the beam for its lateral support. • The final beam cross-sectional di- The model (Fig. 41a illustrates the framing and compasses not only an understanding of pertinent dimensions for a two-story engineering fundamentals but also parking garage where the spandrel properly requires an appreciation of beam torsional equilibrium is provided practicality and experience. change deformations acting parallel to • Blockout and connection fit-up re- the tee span. ods. 41c) can be should not be less than 10 in. • The spandrel web width generally nection forces resulting from both beam should not be less than 10 in. 42. The fol- by end connections. (152 tual frame behavior are presented in mm). The design of spandrel beams en- plex. Cross. Instead of the rigid hori. tically built within its selected di- viewed is that resulting from volume mensions. 41b. (254 determined from the web width of 8 in. should be not bent at a sharp 90-deg angle. used to simulate the volume change • Fabricated reinforcing bar config- deformations so the total forces to the orations have tolerances and usu- connections can be determined. Another sure the spandrel can be realis- loading condition which must he re. quirements in spandrels. when no column-to. However. ally will be out of square. The performance. 41b. (356 mm) height or greater is width or the total height of the spandrel realistic. (203 rium is best made using computer meth. and for beams supporting (203 mm) acting over the lesser hori. the ad- ditional connection forces must be ac- counted for. 41b) deals only with mensions may be dictated by the the additional column equilibrium needs of practical non-congested forces to which the beam-to-column reinforcement arrangements to in- connections are subjected. large concentrated reactions a zontal length of eight times the web 14-in. per Fig. mm). the beam's final dimensions. and beam design.

11181 CURB TOPPING F ^. Connection loads induced by column equilibrium. TIE F `p O 18'x 18 COL.0' o COLUMN t. Rt . TIE BEAM R't O HORIZ. 114 . CURB TIED TO BEAM AND COLUMN BY GRADE SLAB THREADED RODS .--. 41.TEE STEM REACTION iy Rb = SEAM END REACTION (a) Framing Arrangement Fig. 4^4 B* 5 ° 24 DOUBLE TEE °p COLUMN C7 HORIZ. ° 8w AT 24'.


y roller * Couple acts counter-clockwise 17 pin .I** 9000* pin each end S 15.11 9()00* 0.-K 5 pin .12 2731 512 pin @ I N 12. Data used in computer model for analyzing connection loads induced by column equilibrium.9 8748/2 324/2 none 1 9.4 8148/2 324/2 none D 4.y roller Couple* = 28 Ft. 116 .13 2731 512 none 0 13. No.16 0.y roller II BP=56Kand 2 pin .1** 9000* pin @ each end R 10. 41 (cont. I .18 0.15 9000* 0.in4 A .in 2 Joint Releases A 1.18 2731 512 none * Arbitrarily selected small to simulate an x-roller or to simulate no flexural stiffness ** Arbitrarily selected large to simulate axially rigid connection or to simulate flexural rigidity (c) Analysis Data Fig.2 8748/2 324/2 none 8 2.5 874812 324/2 none E 5. SUPPORT JOINTS JOINT LOADS (Service Loads) Jt. rollers Couple* = 28 Ft.7 8748/2 324/2 none G 7.-K 13 pin .y roller MEMBER PROPERTIES Member End Jts.1** none K 4.16 2731 512 pin (al 16 T 16.).14 2731 512 none P 7.14 0. Loads I pin .17 2731 512 none U 17.1** 9000* pin @ each end L 6. Type Jt.y roller IS EP=56Kand 9 pin .3 8748/2 32412 none C 3.8 8748/2 324/2 none H 8.12 0.1** 9000* pin @ each end M 11.6 8748/2 324/2 none F 6.1** none a 8.10 874812 324/2 none J 3.

MEMBERS V. REMAINDER THE SAME AS FIG. PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 117 .W.13 & 17 EQUAL TO THE DESIGN VALUE. 42. T 16 S 15 14 20 2.X & Y WHICH CAUSE A DISPLACEMENT AT JOINTS 5. VOLUME CHANGE INFLUENCE RESULTS FROM ASSIGNING A DECREASE IN LENGTH TO MEMBERS V. Computer mode! for analyzing connection loads induced by column equilibrium and volume change deformations. 2.X & Y HAVE ARBITRARILY LARGE AREAS.W.9.25' lZ NOTE: 1. 41b Fig. 3.

(1. • Connections or other means must ance and clearance requirements. ered.22 m) and greater].15%x. which produce the greatest forces. tension force equal to 0. be used to provide for spandrel 118 . combined effect of the different spandrels of large depth [48 in. • Coatings to metal plates should he struct them. • The influence of volume change drels supporting members span. tolerance fit-up interfacing. All connections should be de- other structural components of up to 1 1/2 in.4 mm) minimum clear. • Spandrel internal reinforcement • Designs should be based upon the for connections typically should be tolerances and clearances selected #3. #4. considering placement tolerances. different planes should be planned • Welding to hardware in beams that to accommodate reinforcing bar have corrosion protective coatings tolerances and interfacing. ur#5 bars. Long span spandrels. • Details should be prepared during design to check that the three- dimensional interfacing require- Corrosion Protection ments for reinforcing bars are • Concrete cover to reinforcing bars. (25. should be done prior to the coating • Special welding requirements and application.3 m) or more may other deformation caused loads. possible loading cases. and should never be tack-welded. specified in detail and not he refer- • Clearances of 3/4 in. enced as simply rust inhibitive tween spandrel reinforcements in paint or galvanized. quire all plates to be galvanized at • Reinforcing bars should not be a minimum. loads axially and rotationally. and ning 60 ft (18. (38 mm) to provide for signed for a minimum N. • Actual bar diameters. • The arrangements and positions of should be selected considering all the steel must he such that ordinary influencing factors. satisified. all other framing members should • The design should consider the be selected. procedures should be determined • Parking garages using metal plates whenever welded reinforcing bars exposed to the elements should re- are used at critical connections. are about ' in. welded near cold bends.2 mm) and this effect should be consid- greater than their nominal size. and span. (19 mm) be. • Separate evaluations of fabrication • Loads to spandrels generated by the beam's torsional equilibrium and erection tolerances should be requirements and by the support- made for each design rather than ing column's lateral equilibrium relying solely on "usual" industry forces should be determined. (3. considering • Tolerances generally accumulate ribs. tolerances. be greater than the permanent de- ance between spandrel beams and sign loads. workmen can fabricate and con. require clearances between the should be accounted for in the de- sign. • The influence of structural defor- mations during erection should be Connections considered when selecting toler. Loads • Loads to spandrel beams and their Tolerances and Clearances connections during erection may • A 1-in.

deformations (not at expansion • Evaluate the influence of toler. • All spandrel beam connections • Connections using loose field should use a load factor of at least 2 welded plates or threaded bars (2 = 4/3 the usual combined ulti- should require the anchoring mate dead and live load factor of hardware embedded in the beam 1.5 to 12. for most bearing condi- rium because of tolerances.7 for spandrel beam torsion equilib. instead be supported upon column PCI JOURNAL/March-April 1984 119 .9 MPa) range. a lower load factor of 2. joints) is a critical design parame- ances on all the various spandrel ter. (9. • Loads to the column resulting from spandrel beam torsion equilibrium connections and the beam reaction Bearing Considerations should be analyzed to insure that • Employ plain concrete bearing in the column is correctly designed. should be developed for each con- nection design to insure that all forces are accounted for and that Supporting Columns statics are satisfied. within the beam. • Consider all load combinations • Avoid using neoprene pads for from construction to final in-place general bearing conditions except forces when designing and detail. sist N. mm) thick.5). forces. terline dimensions for the analysis. always provide some mini. mercial structural neoprene grades • Do not count on hearing pad shear satisfying AASHTO specifications. nominal PIA spandrel's actual size be consid- bearing stresses for ledges and ered by the analysis rather than just beam ends should be in the 800 to using simple beam-to-column cen- 1000-psi (5.7 the spandrel without interference load factor as required for live or conflict with other materials loads. avoid using ten. tions. % to 'A in. • Avoid using plates for bearing sur. combination with bearing pads • Column design requires that the whenever possible. or elsewhere. • Loads resulting from volume • Insure that connection hardware change deformations should can he practically integrated into employ the same ACI Code 1. composed of synthetic fibers and a sion insert connections to provide rubber body.5 can be • Complete free-body diagrams prudently justified. • Consider using preformed pads • Where possible. hear directly upon column tops but ing. level. • Select connection details which are Ultimate Load Factors not tolerance sensitive.5 to 6. • Spandrel beams at the uppermost faces whenever practically possible. and then use only non-com- connections. place permanent conditions. and/or the adjoining member to • Connections which rely upon con- have a load capacity one-third crete shear cones for capacity greater than the loose connecting should use a load factor of 3 unless plate. should not • When using plain concrete bear. influence of the column's and the • At service load levels. beam overall torsion equilibrium at mum internal reinforcement to re- the time of erection and for the in. when control of volume change ing spandrel connections. behavior as a means of providing overall beam torsion equilibrium.

reviewed his manuscript and who Each project's design requires the supplied many constructive comments. ditions have been evaluated. if it is to be Johnson. Kamal R. that deformation and restraint con- tion and arrangement by the de. engineer to evaluate all the cir. and the connec- • Welded moment frame connection tions have been correctly inte- hardware embedded in spandrels grated. Arthur R. and develop the appropri. Fattah ate solutions. Inc. Steven E. quirements reviewed for spandrel beam design apply equally to all aspects of precast prestressed concrete design. Please submit your discussion to PCI Headquarters by November 1. thereby pro. there must be approximately level with the top be "one" in-charge designer to in- of the beam. are satisfactory. Adams of Raths. Cleland. Inspections that building frame interfacing • Connection reinforcements should structural requirements are met. The behavior. designer he meticulous regarding • Field welds employed to complete requirements and details. Edward R. he wishes to thank Alex cumstances. design considerations. Rather. failure investigation. considered as only a simple com- viding for the top of the column to ponent design. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS sented are based upon the author's de- sign. Sturm and H. requires consideration of the The author wishes to express his ap- following items: preciation to the many individuals who • No magic details or solutions exist. sure that the spandrel beam's de- sign satisfies the overall criteria. and general guidelines on spandrel beams as pre. Raths & Spandrel beam design. construction. Carl • Spandrel beam design cannot be Walker. and CLOSING COMMENTS to engineering design in general. determine the design Aswad. be inspected for placement posi. se- signer or his representative during lected tolerances and clearances spandrel beam fabrication. A. successful. The graphic figures were prepared by and repair experience. moment frame connections require The concepts discussed and the re- weld inspection and testing. haunches or corbels. 120 . • The hindsight key to good spandrel spection and testing of the rebar beam design is that the in-charge and plate welds. Shaikh. criteria. Ned M. In particular. Meenen. (and columns) requires weld in. 1984. Chaudhari. design relationships. Note: Discussion of this paper in invited.

318-77). "Building Code Re- Institute. Keane. Note: An Appendix giving design examples is included following the Notation Section. 32-100. quirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI Pennsylvania." Chapter 6. Chapter 7. "Beam. P. Michigan.. pp.. Chicago. Structures Painting Council. J. 2 (Third Edition). 5. crete Structures (ACI 315-74). PCI Design Handbook—Precast Pre. pp. 7 pp.. AC! Committee 318." McGraw-Hill. M. 1977. 1973. Illinois. Prestressed tute. Pittsburgh. "Guide to Durable and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Concrete (ACT 201. New York. 7. Michigan. V. Detroit. Michigan. V. and Mitchell. Steel 3. 1974. PCI JOURNAUMarch-April 1984 121 . D. and Young. American Concrete Institute. Formulas Practice for Detailing Reinforced Con- for Stress and Strain." American Concrete Insti- Precast Prestressed Concrete. Michigan. 8. REFERENCES 1. stressed Concrete.. 369 pp. "Manual of Standard 4. Illinois. 103 pp. Detroit. 1977. No. 1971. 1978. AC! Committee 315. 25." American Concrete Institute. JOURNAL.. N. J.2R-77). AC! Committee 332. 20-23. 1982. 382 pp. Detroit. Prestressed Concrete 6." Inc. Chicago.." American Non-Prestressed Concrete Beams. 54-59. W. September-Oc. PCI Manual on Design of Connections for (ACI 332-72). R. Concrete Institute. 99 pp.Y. Flexure of Straight Bars. 624 pp." PCI Concrete Institute. C. 1975 (Fifth Edition). 5. tober 1980. "Shear 9. "Building Code Re. quirements for Structural Plain Concrete 2. Collins. Roark. pp. D. "Structural Design Details for Buildings. Steel Structures Painting Manual.. AC! Committee 201. Systems and Specifications. Detroit.

in. = beam torsion reinforcement. and/or direct tension. sq in. concrete.. in. d 1 .. troid to the inclined 45 deg line nent of A. sq in. at beam end support. = beam end 45 deg torsional equi. psi at beam end support..2 vertical web reinforce- ledge side.' = distance from centroid of tension AA = longitudinal reinforcement in reinforcement to extreme ten- beam ledge near ledge top. sq es = distance from beam end reaction in. bt = bearing width of concentrated = compressive strength of beam ledge load. sq in. reinforcement ledge side of 21b). tangular stress block d.. H. AvA = corbel type reinforcement.4 mm) ledge. equilibrium connection cen- A = beam end longitudinal compo. bl = effective width of ledge corbel fl = beam concrete combined flexural and tension stress. to centroid of corbel A. ment. in. = distance from non-ledge side of beam web to centroid of 45 deg ment about beam perimeter.. in. port. scl sion fiber. to the beam shear center. H.d 2 = distance from beam web face. beam ledge. = yield strength of reinforcement sion fiber to centroid of flexural or steel. 122 .. = beam end vertical component of uniform or concentrated. web. psi d – distance from extreme compres. in. = web shear stirrup reinforcement. Ad1 = corbel type reinforcement. A. = longitudinal torsion reinforce. ledge side. in. at beam end sup. in. beam end. end A. = reinforcement to resist flexure tioned closest to ledge side of beam. ledge along an inclined 45 deg closed stirrups. topping to the top surface of the A. sq in. 21b). = width of. to the A. in.beam web. non. srq in. beam er = distance from 1 in. in.. e d = distance from beam end at top of A. in. equilibrium connection cen- sq in. torsional equilibrium rein.. = beam web reinforcement. in. web reinforcement posi- in. forcement ledge side of web.. librium reinforcement ledge e m = perpendicular distance from the side of web.. psi or ksi tension reinforcement. sq in. A. NOTATION = distance from end of beam to d. in. at beam end support. = distance from centroid of A + . psi b. A1. torsional equilibrium along which e Q is measured (Fig. in. sq in. beam shear center. A. ment. to top of ledge for corbel end sup- across inclined dap crack. = hanger shear reinforcement d. e l = distance from beam ledge load. troid (Fig. secting line passing through the A. sq A. h = vertical height of beam ledge.f = beam web flexure tension stress. port. in. in. C = clear concrete cover to reinforce. in. ledge side of line on the web to a 90 deg inter- web. sq below the top of the concrete in. = distance from end of beam to horizontally applied load or end concentrated load closest to height of ultimate strength rec. (25. beam ledge bottom. in.

-lbs or ft-kips = maximum principle moment of V„ = ultimate shear load applied to inertia. in. Ra = beam end support reaction. in. TB = beam end equilibrium lbs or kips torque. lbs or kips h. lbs or kips inertia axes PCI JOURNAilMarch-April 1984 123 . and 0. T.h h = vertical distance from 1 in.4 tom fiber along inclined vertical axis. 24h). lbs or kips beam (Figs..4 Ybp = distance from beam cross-sec- I„ = moment of inertia about y axis. working or ulti.85 for sand- ledge from web. in. in. in. TA.4 beam ledge.s = spacing between concentrated nection force. lbs or kips = minimum principle moment of = ultimate lateral loads per unit inertia. weight of concrete.o = vertical height of beam lower P„ = ultimate concentrated load ap- portion acting as a horizontal plied to beam ledge. = ultimate volume change hori- mm) below concrete topping to zontal load applied to beam.3 equilibrium connection force.65 for plain concrete ten- ledge attachment to web de. 1„ = ratio of ultimate internal mo- = coefficient based upon unit ment resisting arm to d. beam ledge. tional centroid to extreme bot- in. = ultimate strength reduction fac- m = variable defining length of beam tor. = ultimate beam end horizontal beam bottom. 0. H = horizontal applied load or hori. (25. 24).0 for nor- 1 p = horizontal projection of beam mal weight and 0. mate. lbs or kips zontal torsion equilibrium con.90 for pending upon type and location reinforced flexure of ledge load = summation symbol N = volume change horizontal load = angle of inclination of principle applied to beam. 0.. in. bot.4N. 24b and 24d). or kips tom equilibrium connection at P = concentrated load applied to beam end (Fig. in. in. 1. in. in. lbs force centroid of beam H. sion. R. R. in. in.4 lbs per ft I product of inertia.4 length applied to beam for beam I r = moment of inertia about x axis. loads. lbs or kips S bp = principle section modulus at H.85 for shear. torsional equilibrium (Fig. light-weight L = span ofheam. in.

' = 5000 psi the sketch.for an end support corbel plus a sample ples address the design of a typical calculation for determining the princi- spandrel beam for a parking garage in. (cwT) /O ~3 "TOPPING is 14` S = 4'" WT o. APPENDIX-DESIGN EXAMPLES The following three numerical exam. CP I'_ Q•• ^o"' Io"x 32 "77` 30". EXAMPLE 1 — PARKING GARAGE SPANDREL BEAM Spandrel Beam Data Beam reinforcement f„ =60ksi Normal weight concrete The spandrel beam details are shown in f. 84 k I^' p P P f P P CLEAR /8's- - Spandrel beam details 124 .pie moments of inertia for a building cluding the reinforcement requirements spandrel beam.

) 2. = 25. y = 32.9 kips (working) e„ = 2 + 25.3) = 75. W..84 in.3 kips PD = 15.9 kips Hu ffu N Tp WES 'z Spandrel beam end design PCI JOURNAIJMarch-April 1984 125 . Consider shear center aligns with web centerline.. 20.26 in Find ultimate load factor: Location of beam center of gravity: PD +L = 25. Refer to Fig. Design Loads Live Load = Weight of Cars + '/2 Snow Weight =50+'/2(30)= 65psf SHEAR _ GENTEK Note that there is no live load reduction.3 kips (working) Id Find Shear Center Refer to Fig. e" 2 L65(i0)a+14(11). Determination of shear center h l = 65 in. li e = 11 in. Refer to Fig. W1 = 10 in. 21.26 in.06 in. ZP = 3 (25. = 14 in.4 kips z = 5. 27b for beam-to-column details.060 in. 3. Design data: 65 [ 65 (10) 3 1 1.060 = 5.. Py = 9.26 = 32. _ _ 11 11 (14) 3 es 210(65)+ 11 (14)g Beam End Design = 0. dX Concentrated load per tee stem (D + L) = 25. ex = + 0.97 in.

7 kips Use #4 bars at 12 in. Use #4 closed stirrups at 10 in. Use hairpin bars according to Fig.8 in. spacing: H ' 1. reduction due to torsion.17/2 D+ L = 1.65 ft) Use Fig.65 ft) _ L4(15. horizontally over center about beam perimeter.8 . center to center.9) #4 stirrup spacing: 25. H.. _ 52. A. % i = 4.20 = 10.5 62 12( 55 )= 0.8 in. and A.5= 8. = 0.4)+ 1. to top tension insert at ultimate.30) 1. LF = 1.00sgin. Concrete: A .65 ft = 0.1.92 sq in. factor equal to three..85 (8. 22 and Eq.08/55 Find J1 H a forces to beam web. 4. 126 . 1.-10.32 sq injf Ledge Attachment Design 1. (minimum) 3( 1. (end to 1.92 + 0.3) = 51.7(31. Summary A eon = A k. bar size per 12 in. Concrete punching shear beam web and insert shear cone requires a load 0 -f5+5. center-to- Distribute 0. 3.52 0. (2) and (3).92 + 0. H Steel: Determine A ^.7 kips UseEq.8) U' 0.17sgmill Determine ultimate stem load: Note that the above steel area includes the c.o and A. A=2 =2r (1.20sgin. e^ l 2 5 = 31.(1).5 in. use LF = 1.8) = 35. reinforcement: (4/3) (26.2 in.. = 0.65 to 6. = 17..5 in.8) 9.9 kips = 1. Ao from: End to 1.08 sq in.89)= 77. 2.52.65 R = 0.92 sq in.30 sq in. Select#4 stirrups for A. 2.5) 60 2fi.65to6. Find e d and e: Determine tension insert ultimate loads: ed = 2 (50+5)=38. cen- ter-to-center over a length of 5 ft from beam end.3212 Check end shear V„ for f1 at ultimate: = 1. 3.d.7L Am„ + A.52 (75. Use #4 bars for A! at 12 in. (1.7 (9..52 Find minimum A.52) (25. Note that other design cases may control reinforcement. 25 at beam end.4D+ 1. = (4/3) (1.1: Use Eqs. (4).3 = 1. V. Steel ultimate = (4/3) (LF) (Working Load) 2 ed = 2(38. 2 (2 ea) = 55 in.17. I.891n.3 kips Am „ + Ad = 0.

ment is required.75 in. Vq-3.2 (14) = 32.76/0.20 = 262. Select end V. = 51. for end V. no reinforcement per Eq.75 + 14)12+ 19. from each end.75 in. Therefore. (5) and previous example. Therefore.300)(10/2 + 4.. m = d..75 in.. #4 bars with a spacing of: Shear Area = h (b.20 = 5. (8): Use #4 stirrups at 6 in.5 sq in.75 + 14) = 6. Therefore.6 kips V. controls forcement spacing is required. < 2 li. over length m = 49.60 in.75 in. reinforcement: Check applied shear stress. controls de selection s. (6) Select ledge attachment reinforcement X at end V.3 kips..75 in. + s/2 = 19. Note that other design cases may = 49.3(10+4. Consideration should be given to in- creasing h. center-to-center over a length 4 ft 6 in. 23) 691 psi f i greater than Concrete shear capacity inner V„ s ...751 = 34. control. reinforce- than applied V.76 sq in.76 sq in.^Rr = bt + 4 h = 4. ?CI JOURNAUMarch-April 1984 127 .5. 0. A. + h) 60 = 14 (4. from beam end. Use Eq.6 kips _ 51.: 49. Use Eq.5) Ledge Load Transfer Design f` 10 (49. over length m = 60 in.0. = 51.1.85(60)(10. 51. greater than 3X j7 = 3 (1) 5000 = 212 psi b t + 2 h = 4. and 21: = 28 in. = 1. 1. 1. center-to-center starting at 4 ft 6 in.3 kips per tee stem (see Fig. reinforcement per Eq.75 + 4 (28) Summary = 116.5) greater than applied V.8)14(1)U 100 Use Eq. if greater rein- s = 60 in.o to 12 in. = 1. (5): [2(6) +4.75+ 14] = 77. de = 19.7610. = 51.5) Plain concrete shear capacity is A^ ^ 0. Use #4 stirrups at 7 in.65 in.75 V. 1.3 kips.75 d. if f.75 + 6012 2. ledge reinforcement is re- quired. (11) is required for inner loads.300 6(51.82 in. > 3 X J . #4 bar spacing: Concrete shear capacity end V. (11) is required Use Eq.75 in.3 kips Plain concrete shear capacity is less By inspection. de = 19.d emo.75 i.75) + (10)2 49. = 51.5-0.85(14) V = 1x Determine inner o„ ledge attachment " 1000 reinforcement: 12(6)+ (4. = 2h =2(14) =28 in.

= 262. See Fig.85 (60) = 1.* 1 ft 73/4 in. AYh steel area provided by ledge rein- lorcement at 6 in. (11): d -h . Follow Determine A h = A.6in. Reinforcement details: Location from beam end A.0112 = 0. — #4 barsat12in. c.1.300 Select two #5 bars with end hairpins. + 2A. 0. Use two #4 closed stirrups in addition Design Summary to other reinforcement at each end V. reinforcement.* 4 ft 1% in.5 in.5 = 12. Provide two additional #4 stirrups at each tee stem load for ledge flexural end V. Location from beam end A. Furnish #4 bars at 12 in. This stress is satisfactory since it is less Use Eq.62 = 0. #4 bars at 10. #4 barsat5.6 in. 51. center-to- center plus two additional bars at 1. Additional reinforcement: 2.75 in. 27b for design details.62 sq in.5 = 195 psi Select ledge flexural reinforcement. per tee stem load.20 (18. since de > (b + h)/2 Provide 1. A. center-to-center for Use #4 bars at 12 in.01 .+ 2 A t Ar 0ftto4ft1%in.* Analysis of calculations: A fl includes v.50 ACI 318-77 (Chapter 11) for shear and sq in. + h = 18. 0ftto4ft7in. tee stem loads.0.15 (51.75 in. *At each web face.53 sq in. center-to-center end V. #4 bars at 5.h12 = 1. + 0.8 in.3) 14 12.5 = 14. #4 bars at 12 in.3 ( 4 12. to midspan #4 bars at 6. (12): than lox VT = 707 psi.4 in.1.851 (60)[ 51. in.5 J since d e > (b + h)12.5 1 over length bt + h = 18. _ 51. (see previous calculations) is: with two additional bars at each tee stem distributed over b. reduction due to torsion. #3 bars at 12 in.39 sq in.3 A1= Agh 0.01 sq in. 0 ft to 1 ft 7Y. Use Eq. to 6 ft 7% in. 0.75/6) = 0. of additional steel reinforcement. torsion reinforcement. 128 . = 0.

09 sq in. 25c and consider Ultimate shear load: only one leg (lower) of closed stirrup effective (see Fig.88 sq in.44 - Corbel width = 1. 25d).8 kips Spacing for #4 bars: Ultimate shear stress: 1.08 (21) 12.5 steel: 2.5 in.60 sq in. = 1.nfmY^^ = 60 Design Data = 0. 0. 27c for spandrel beam de. (21): 4.85(60)22(1)21(12.. 0.35 sq in. 0. in.3) = 153. (controls) 3.5) vide 1. over the beam's end 21 = 0.04 (21) 12.5) any end connections. 27c.81 rups plus shear and torsion stirrups pro- `^" 0. = 0. determine A 11 steel: Select #4 bars.09) = 1. The spandrel _ 153.85 (4) 60 (12.1. 25 for corbel require- ments. Find Ledge Corbel Reinforcement Using Eq. 1. determine A1. (18): Add #4 stirrups so that additional stir- _ (153. V. Design corbel end using method based on corbel behavior. Maximum spacing: V. (bar area) _ 21 (0. Using Eq. = 153.5 5. (19): tails.2. Total required = (1.5 h = 1.2 8 5 (1.EXAMPLE 2-PARKING GARAGE SPANDREL BEAM LEDGE CORBEL Refer to Fig.5 in. = (4/3) (1. Refer to Fig.44 sq in. center-to-center 01= 586 psi b.From Eq. (22) determine A ft steel: The calculated shear stress is therefore Estimate d 2 = 10 .18 sq in.6 in. = 0. = 12. Determine Ultimate Applied Loads DistributeA 15 per Fig. satisfactory since it is less than the recommended 800 psi maximum. PCI JOURNAUMarch-April 1984 129 .5) Note that no ledge attachment rein- This steel area controls.800 h/2 = 14/2 = 7 in.5) p Using Eq.5 = 8.5 h = 21 in.20) 9. From Eq.60/0.5 b. Select four #5 forcement is required due to beam reac- bars with welded cross-bars.5 Any «m. Consider ledge corbel loads to result A (minimum) 60 only from applied tee stem loads.5 (14) = 21 in. tion for end tee stem V. c1 21 (12. (17).60 sq in.8 beam is torsionally stable without A "` 0.52) (3) (25. = 1.20) = 8 bars = 3 (153. (20).8) 6 Over 1. Using Eq. Estimate d. A n^ 0. See Example 1 for loads and dimen- sions.85 (60) 4 (1) 21 (12. The beam-to-column details are shown in Fig.5 A.

=7-8. y.66= +1. + xa y z As x. = 13. Analysis of bearing pad bearing reinforcement according to Fig. 3.15. The ultimate concrete bearing stress book requirements and completely on the extreme edge of the ledge may specified.024 in. (23): B= tan' [ 2 (-6394) 2 13.88) x ( 10. the bearing is not uniform- dance with the PCI Design Hand. Divide r beam into two parts. I 54.4 A l = 476 sq in. bars should he in accor. A. xz = 17 – 8.12 in. Cross-harwelds (#5 cross-har) for the• = 75.34) 476 + (+8. A E = 60 sq in.12 = +8. y .12=-1.G•Q Izj = (-1. (25): 130 . require the use of additional bearing 2.66= –10. From strength of materials: IS„= 1xtytAi Isv = x .12 in.283 in.„ Building beam data. y = 15. = 17. 'VfX yZ = 5– 15. 39. Use Eq.3) 1.Design Summary stresses at a working load of 3 (25.' Find Orientation Angle t X Refer to Fig. PARrO Ail Beam Properties x 8.66 in.66 in.4 Sn = 3450 in? ^ I.024 _ + 8.66) 60 = – 6394 in. y_ PARtO ^ X Determine Product of inertial.DETERMINATION OF PRINCIPLE MOMENTS OF INERTIA FOR A BUILDING SPANDREL BEAM Assume a spandrel beam for a build- ing with a configuration and dimensions shown in cross section below.71 deg (counterclockwise) Determination of principle moments of Find 'max Inertia. 26 and use Eq. EXAMPLE 3.34 in.88 in.. C.12) (+ 1.283 – 54.9 kips is required considering four #5 A 8 .

4 ly P Find Sb min Associated With 'max Determination of minimum section a = .47) mended for determining all dimen- = 17. 1 in. = 19.388 mm3 in.304 i. Determine S b mi at Point A Imar b mth = METRIC (SI) CONVERSION FACTORS _ 55.. max — 54.n.4mm 1 sq in. have been calculated.283 ^^ +(_6394)2 2 yi 12.71 rical members can be used generally = 28. L ___7Lp Use Eq. I m .4 = 42.18-8.077 him.003 in Find Imin c.895 MPa nal prestress moment is the product 1 psi = 0. Y bn = (a) cos (ji — B) 3.448 N 1..283 + 2 ( 54. r .283 1IbPX I ^rn = 2 ( 54.. — yF.3 = 16. sions such as ya p once B. 47 deg for all precast prestressed concrete members.003 1 ft = 0. A graphical approach is recom- = 19.66 in. (26): ^Q X `4 54.024 + 13. =25. The above procedure for unsymmet- (3-8=37.448 kN Summary I lb = 4. 11. 1 ksi = 6.024 — 13..006895 MPa of the strand force times the distance 1 psf = 0.0929 m2 = 3188 in. 2.28 in.305 ft 17. and I.04788 kPa PCI JOURNAllMarch-April 1984 131 .024 — 13.88 from the beam center of gravity to the ^3 =sin 1 19.283 )2 + 1P ( .024 + 13.28 1 sq ft = 0.3 for I ." t in. the inter. L kip = 4.88)2 modulus.66 cos (28. (15.66 strand center of gravity where the = 37.6394) l 2 J = 55. = 645. found previously. Ifthe beam is prestressed.18 deg distance is parallel to line y.2 mm2 which is less than the value ofS b = 3450 I in.66) 2 + (11..