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A Report On
By, Rajesh Kasetty
Winter Internship Report
CHAPTER – 2
SAMPLING FLOW CHART
Winter Internship Report PRODUCTION FLOW CHART .
3 KW twin head 18kw 2 4 5 1 1 1 1 Remarks Available 8 Colour 10 Custom Made Para Mount Spetra Vision CHERAN : CHERAN MACHINES INDIA PVT LTD.2002 CF-2003 Custom Make Model 8C /Pallets 12 Colour /Pallets 2. GANAPATHY.Winter Internship Report CHAPTER – 3 MACHINERY INFRASTRUCTURE Qty S. 65/1.0 KW 1.No Machine Carousal Printing 1 machine / T-Shirt Chest Printing machine Heat Transfer Press / 2 Digital Fusing 3 4 5 MAKE SIGMA : SIGMA INDUSTRIAL. CHINNAVEDAMPATTI (PO).5 KW 2.641021 &Exposing Machines Colour Matching Electric Curing Machine Screen Preparation Cheran Cheran Sigma 7 CF-2002 CF. COIMBATORE .641 006 Plant Lay-Out . COIMBATORE . KURICHI INDUSTRIAL ESTATE POST.
Winter Internship Report .
5 feet 4 Feet 7 12 Color 20" x 30" 16 Feet 4 Feet . The double spring model gives the customers a maintenance free performance of the machine. 8. Electric heat panels included in the machine. of Color Printing Area Machine Dia Machine Height 8c 8 colour 20" x 30" 12. Features • • • • • • • • Index pin /Bearing Registration Multi directional Micro registration Double spring Model Sturdy side screen clamps Off contact adjustment Interchangeable pallets Fire/Water proof pallets High energy efficient infra-red Heating Panel o o Easy adjustment Castor wheel mounted for easy mobility Technical Specifications Model No. 10 & 12 multi colour models.Winter Internship Report CAROUSAL PRINTING MACHINE / T-SHIRT CHEST PRINTING MACHINE These machines will be available both in automatic and semi automatic machines andwith 4. 6.
Features • • • • • • • • Used As Heat Transfer Press.50Hz.Winter Internship Report HEAT TRANSFER PRESS / DIGITAL FUSING This range of fusing machines is capable of generating high volume and hard pressing on garments and other fabrics. Designs To Be Transfered To The Garments / Fabrics / Leathers/ Rexin /Nylon / Polyprpelene/ Bags & etc. Automatic Double Stroke operation & production monitoring. pigment & etc Silent operation and easy to maintain MicroSoft based digital temperature & timer controller.2Kw 0 to 8 bar 0 to 99 Sec 2500C . Can be used for fusing like plastisol priniting. These highly powerful machines are planned in way that they would consume very minimal energy and would work with optimum efficiency. Die casted aluminum heater plates are used to assure a long service life and even heat distribution.5.11Amps 2. khadi. Can Be Used As Flat Bed Fusing Machine For Collar And Cuff Fusing Platen Size Can Be Increased Up to 20" X 30".5Amps 1.5 Kw 0 to 8 bar 0 to 99 Sec 2500C CF2003 250mm X 380mm 2 230 V.50Hz. Technical Specifications Model Platen Size Platens Power Heater Air Pressure Timer Temperature CF2002 400mm X 500mm 1 230 V.
5 x 4 feet 440V .26A 18 Kw 900mm x 3000mm 200oC 33 f/min 180V DC 230 / 30 W AC .Winter Internship Report ELECTRIC CURING MACHINE These premium quality machines are equipped with PTFE Teflon Perforated Sheet for Conveyor to give long life and hence have very powerful heating and cooling effects that help in the purpose of drying. Electric Curing • • Radiant Quarts heater for immediate heading and cooling Variable speed control system Technical Specifications Machine Size (l x b x h) Power Heater Working Area Temperature Operating Speed Conveyor Drive Blower 14 x 3.
L/C : 1 Min. AC Single Phase (380 x 380) mm 45° 0 – 10. 50 Hz. The cabinet having five standard light sources. TECHNICAL DETAILS A. (40 W) : 01 Nos. (18 W) : : : : 230V. In order to safeguard the expensive & sensitive tube lights spectraVISION™ is fitted with Electronic/ballasts for Instant start & power saving. EQUIPMENT The equipment wil have all standard tube lights & bulbs for accurate Color Matching. DIMENSIONS Main Supply Size of viewing board Angle of Viewing board Hour totaliser B. LIGHT SOURCES Artificial Daylight Fluorescent Lamps (D-65) Tungsten Filament Lamps (Inc A Lamps) Cool White Fluorescent Lamp (CWF) : 02 Nos.000 Hour.Winter Internship Report SPECTRAVISION spectraVISION™ is an economic colour matching model which provides a standardized and controlled environment for visual assessment of colours with strict adhering to international norms. . (18 W) : 04 Nos.
(18 W) . (18 W) : 01 Nos.Winter Internship Report Triphosphor Fluorescent Lamp (TL-84) Ultra-Violet Black Lamp : 01 Nos.
with the separation. in an exposure unit. This mesh is then coated with a light sensitive emulsion that will become the stencil through which the ink will pass when printed. In its basic form. Original Design Colors Black Yellow Separations The screen is a rigid frame of wood or aluminium that has a fine monofilament nylon mesh stretched over it. Blank Screen Coated Screen The screen is then mounted. Exposing the Screen . Each colour of the design requires an individual screen so we must separate the design into its component colours. where ink is mechanically applied to a substrate via the use of a screen and squeegee.Winter Internship Report CHAPTER – 4 SCREEN PRINTING Screen printing is a process. This is done on the computer and each colour separation is printed to a transparent sheet. screen printing is a very simple process. This machine exposes the screen to high intensity UV light.
individual colours are printed then the shirt is moved to the next colour. The separation acts as a shield to block the light in certain areas of the screen. shirts are loaded one by one and printed. so that each colour prints in the proper location relative to the other colours. The actual printing is accomplished by pushing ink through the screen and onto the shirt with the squeegees. After test prints are run to check alignment. or aligned. As the squeegee scrapes across the screen it fills the stencil with ink while simultaneously bending the mesh down to transfer the ink to the shirt. Ink is loaded into the screens and squeegees are installed. To create the composite image on the shirt. Black Screen Yellow Screen The screens are then mounted in the press and registered. PRINTING MECHANICS . These soft areas are then rinsed away with water to create the open area of the stencil.Winter Internship Report When the UV light hits the emulsion a chemical reaction hardens the emulsion making it water and solvent resistant.
have a relatively large thread diameter and more space between the threads (called "open area" ). This allows for a thicker deposit . 85-110 tpi. Cyan. One drawback to 4-color process is that the garment must be white. Magenta.Winter Internship Report Once all the colours have been applied to the shirt it is removed from the press. Typical mesh counts for screen printing t-shirts range from 85 tpi to 355 tpi. 4-COLOUR PROCESS 4-colour process is a more advanced separation and printing technique that uses 4 colours of transparent ink to produce the colours from the original design. The ink on the shirts is still "wet" at this point and needs to be "dried". 4-color process is used mostly for photographic or digitally created designs because many shades and colors can be created with only four screens. The lower mesh counts. A wide spectrum of colours can be represented but some colours are impossible to produce. The mesh count defines basically two things: The thickness of the ink deposit and the size of halftones that can be printed. are printed as halftones that interact with each other and the white background of the shirt to create colour and tonal values. Yellow. High screen counts and screen frequencies are required to create the tiny halftone dots. The four colours. Original Cyan Magenta Yellow Black Design Colors Separations As Each Color is Printed MESH COUNT The mesh count is the number of threads per inch (tpi) used to weave the mesh. and black (CMYK).
The high mesh counts.Winter Internship Report and more ink to pass through the screen. 4. 6. lower mesh counts are used for specialty inks (like glitter) and when a thick deposit is needed on dark garments. 5. have a very small thread diameter and less open area. These are used when fine detail and high halftone are needed. Mesh Count for Different Garment Prints 1. 8. half-tone Sublimation transfer 25–60 45–125 55–125 80 –110 110 –175 125–305 155–255 195–305 Mesh Specifications Mest count cm mesh/inch 5 12 6 16 7 18 8 20 9 24 10 25 12 30 12 35 14 40 16 40 16 50 20 50 20 50 24 60 28 70 30 76 32 80 36 90 40 100 43 110 48 120 56 140 59 150 64 160 72 180 80 200 100 250 120 305 130 330 Thread diameter Micron 500 400 350 350 250 300 250 300 300 200 250 150 200 150 120 120 100 100 100 80 80 60 60 60 50 50 40 40 40 Mesh opening micron 1500 1267 1079 900 860 700 583 533 414 425 375 350 300 267 237 213 213 178 150 152 130 120 110 100 90 75 60 43 37 Open surface % 56 58 57 52 60 49 49 41 34 46 36 49 36 41 44 41 46 41 36 43 38 44 42 37 41 36 36 25 23 Fabric thickness micron 850 780 675 685 455 576 470 585 595 370 485 375 385 285 215 225 165 178 190 135 145 85 98 105 82 90 65 70 75 Weight g/m2 271 208 186 212 145 195 162 234 273 139 217 98 173 117 87 94 69 78 87 60 62 44 46 50 39 43 35 42 45 . 2. 7. 3. 305-355 tpi. Glitter Flock adhesive Puff-up colors Overprint Pigment ink printing areas/lines Plastisol 1 Pigment inks. Typically.
Winter Internship Report .
it should be ironed or fused with the help of fusing paper only. PVC/ PHALATE FREE Relatively new breed of ink and printing with the benefits of Plastisole but without the two main toxic components . this is banned for Children’s wear. Good colour opacity onto dark garments and clear graphic detail with.soft feeling print. Due to plasticity in the nature it cannot be ironed directly. This print can be made softer with special additives or heavier by adding extra layers of ink. Main thing is curing process in Plastisole printing. WATER-BASED INKS (Pigment Print) These penetrate the fabric more than the Plastisole inks and create a much softer feel. Ideal for printing darker inks onto lighter coloured garments. The print fixation method is similar to transfer printing. They have soft handle and resist cracking when stretched. since this technique can only be used for pigment prints (water based colours). as the name suggests. a more plasticized texture. DISCHARGE INKS Used to print lighter colours onto dark background fabrics. This print method is popular amongst youngsters. Plastisole inks require heat (approx. Some inks require heat or an added catalyst to make the print permanent. So it must be fused for the better finish. Rangolite-C is the main commercially using discharging agent. Due to excess phthalate in PVC. A glue is printed onto the fabric and then foils applied for a mirror finish. 150°C) to cure the print. This gives a much softer texture. FOIL This printing method is based on the use of metallic foil paper of aluminium or copper one. they work by removing the dye already present in the garment and apply new colour. Generally gold or silver foils used.Winter Internship Report TYPES OF PRINTS PLASTISOL The most common ink used in commercial garment decoration. Also useful for larger area prints where texture is important. . The inks contain polyvinyl Chlorides mixed with resins and pigments these inks have got a property by which the prints get dried only with the application of that.
Usually available in gold or silver but can be mixed to make most colours. A glue is printed onto the fabric then a nanoscale fibres applied on it. applying the fiber flock on the gel printed by keeping the fabric on special table (electro statically charged). EXPANDING INK (PUFF) An additive to Plastisole inks which raises the print off the garment. The directions vary .Winter Internship Report FLOCKING This process involves printing of glue on the fabric first. And it requires a little high time for curing than normal prints. GLITTER/SHIMMER Metallic flakes are suspended in the ink base to create this sparkle effect. In this method when the paste is printed and dries it look like normal printing garments but once it is cured the prints gets raised from the surface of fabric. CAVIAR BEADS again a glue is printed in the shape of the design. METALLIC Similar to glitter. With suede additive you can make any colour of Plastisole have ‘suede’ feel. Thereby the print will have the embossed effect. to which small plastic beads are then applied – works well with solid block areas creating an interesting tactile surface. NYLOBOND A special ink additive for printing onto technical or waterproof fabrics. GLOSS A clear base laid over previously printed inks to create a shiny finish. but smaller particles suspended in the ink. SUEDE INK Suede is a milky coloured additive that is added to Plastisole. creating a 3D feel. 120 seconds at 160C will be sufficient for curing. It is actually a puff blowing agent that does not bubble as much as regular puff ink. This print technique will give unique finish of velvet touch.
They are available in 100 to 70 micron thickness and Plastisole inks and printing through these screens and cured then you shall have a thick deposit of the printing ink on the surface of the fabric which gives a three-dimensional effect. It will give better fastness and soft handle. ORGANIC PRINT Organic print range covers the natural dyes. KHADI PRINTING This is done on light or dark coloured grounds.T.T. for Printing Organic Dyes the company/ manufacturer should get the certification from G.O.O. and the other pigment dyes which lies under the specifications made by G. .Winter Internship Report from manufacturer to manufacturer. It consists of titanium dioxide with other auxiliaries.S.S. HIGH DENSITY PRINTING This is one of the recent developments in printing which gives thick prints on the surface of garments which is achieved by using thickener indirect films used for making the screens. The important factor in printing of this is right combination of titanium dioxide and proper choice of binder. but generally 50% suede additive to your normal Plastisole.
• Color fastness : No color migration (passes the 48 hours at 70°C [158°F] test).Winter Internship Report SILICONE PRINT PVC (plastisole) and PA inks have some serious drawbacks – such as inferior wash and weather durability. even between red and white Improved fashion appearance Heat resistant: Ironable. poor hand feel and tackiness – that limit their use. some of these products could contain plasticizers and have other negative environmental effects. phthalate. Features • High elongation content Excellent durability Good hand feel problem upon folding Environmentally sound formaldehyde. To counter these problems. non-sticky handle with no blocking • : Does not contain organotin. printing mills tried silicone inks because of their good washing durability. In addition. elongation properties and environmental friendliness. hand feel. no-melting Suitable for dot printing alternative looks Easier to get 3D effects : More breathable. high resolution and : Semi-gloss finish with no creasing • • • • : Sharp edges and smooth surface . particularly in high-end apparel applications. PVC or solvent : Suitable for fabric with 15-20% spandex • • : Wash-resistant : Soft.
Q 2500 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 1000 500 1000 1000 1000 500 1000 1000 500 1000 2000 Curing Suitability / for Fusing Children Fusing No Fusing No Curing Yes Curing Yes Curing Yes Fusing Curing Curing Curing Curing Curing Curing Curing Curing Curing Curing Fusing Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Durabili ty Rating 1.O.t with the size. density.5 3 2.Winter Internship Report COST.5 5 4 5 3. 5-Excellent . sharpness. The values shown in the table and chart are for the print strike-off attached( having 3 X 4 inches with single colour) Durability Rating : 1-Poor …….5 2.5 2.5 2.r.5 3 2 The cost and moq will change w.5 2 3 3 2 2 2 3.5 3 3 3.5 5 8 6.Q of the Various Types of Prints Print Type Sticker Print Plastisole Print Pigment Print Non-Pvc Print Distressed (Kadi) Print Foil Print Gel Print Discharge Print Glitter Print Sugar Print Metallic Print High Density Print (6 Coats) Puff Print Flock Print Silicone Print Organic Print Bits Printing Cost of Print in Rs. thickness of the print. M.5 4.O.5 4 M.5 3. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 2.
Winter Internship Report .
TYPES .Q. DURABILITY COMARISION CHART FOR DIFF.O.Winter Internship Report COST M.
Smear Causes: Printing is done on seams which will be of different thickness leading in spreading and blurring. Low sharpness Causes: Improper mesh selection . Base fabric not fixed properly. • • • • • • • • • • • • . Doubling or blurring Causes: Improper fixing of base fabric or screen. flock etc. Scrimps Causes: The print is done on folded fabric. Glue streak Causes: The gum which used to stick garment and/or the gel which is printed on fabric (for foil. Distorted print Causes: printing of second coat before drying 1st coat. damaged screen. Colour stains Causes: Improper handling of material. Difference in texture Causes: Improper fusing Improper colour matching Causes: If printed colour is not matching with standard. Stick in Causes: Some dust and lint which get chock in screen holes leads in improper design.) strikes out of fabric through back side. Coloured/White spots Causes: Improper screen preparation. Lint or thread marks Causes: Any loose threads come in print area will lead to thread marks on print.Winter Internship Report Common Defects in Garment Printing • • • Improper alignment Causes: Improper setting of two different screens of different colour Colour spread Causes: Less viscosity of print paste is less. Improper mixing of print paste Causes: As the name itself implies the print paste ingredients are not mixed properly leading to some yellowing or stain marks on print.
Winter Internship Report SCRIMPS Printing done on the Folded fabric causes this Defect .
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