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Tupi National High School

Senior High School Department


Clyde Jefferson Denila Esperat July 30, 2018
Grade 11 Reaction Paper #1&#2
Humanities and Social Studies Activity

Title:
Partisan Goals, Emotions, and Political Mobilization: The Role of Motivated
Reasoning in Pressuring Others to Vote

Author:
Andrew W. Delton, Michael Bang Petersen and Theresa E. Robertson

Origin:
Stony Brook University
Aarhus University
Stony Brook University
The Journal of Politics

Article:
Vol. 80: , Issue. 3, : Pages. 890-902
(Issue publication date: July 2018)

Link:
https://doi.org/10.1086/697124

Summary and Reaction:


Direct political action appears irrational because it is costly yet cannot
meaningfully affect political outcomes. Research shows that social pressure can solve
this problem: the social costs of not voting often outweigh the personal costs of voting.
But this creates another puzzle, one that is our focus: why do citizens pressure each
other? Drawing on theories of partisanship and partisan-motivated reasoning, we test
whether social pressure is motivated by partisan goals. First, in a population-based US
sample, we compare party members versus independents. Second, in a Danish student
sample, we experimentally manipulate partisan motivation. We use and validate
emotions—anger and gratitude—as an index of motivation to engage in social pressure.
In both studies we find identical effects: partisan-motivated reasoners are more likely to
be motivated to pressure others and to direct such motivations toward in-group (and not
out-group) members. Partisan goals help explain social pressure.
Tupi National High School
Senior High School Department
Clyde Jefferson Denila Esperat July 30, 2018
Grade 11 Reaction Paper #1&#2
Humanities and Social Studies Activity

Title:
Race and Social Problems

Author:
Simon OutramJoseph L. GravesJill PowellChantelle WolpertKerry L.
HaynieMorris W. FosterJessica W. BlanchardAnna HoffmeyerRobert P.
AgansCharmaine D. M. Royal

Origin:
June 2018, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 79–90| Cite as
Genes, Race, and Causation: US Public Perspectives About Racial Difference

Article:
First Online: 23 February 2018
1Shares 167Downloads

Link:
1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.

Summary and Reaction:


Concerns have been raised that the increase in popular interest
in genetics may herald a new era within which racial inequities are seen as “natural” or
immutable. In the following study, we provide data from a nationally representative
survey on how the US population perceives general ability, athleticism, and intellect
being determined by race and/or genetics and whether they believe racial health
inequities to be primarily the product of genetic or social factors. We find that self-
described race is of primary importance in attributing general ability to race, increasing
age is a significant factor in attributing athleticism and intellect to genes and race, and
education is a significant factor in decreasing such racially and genetically deterministic
views. Beliefs about the meaning of race are statistically significantly associated with
respect to the perception of athletic abilities and marginally associated with the
perception of racial health inequalities being either socially or genetically derived. Race,
education, socioeconomic status, and concepts of race were frequently found to be
multiplicative in their statistical effects. The persistent acceptance of a genetically and
racially deterministic view of athleticism among the White and older population group is
discussed with respect to its social impact, as is the high level of agreement that
general abilities are determined by race among non-White respondents and those of
lower socioeconomic status. We argue that these
and non-biological forms of understanding race continue to play a role into the politics of
race and social difference within contemporary US society.