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Global Border Management Solutions

September 2008

Advanced Passenger Analysis:

Helping governments transform
border management
Advanced Passenger Analysis
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Table of contents Faced with growing threats from organized crime, illegal immigration and
terrorism, governments around the world are increasingly seeking new and
Introduction 2 more effective ways to secure their borders. Many are considering how to move
Business operating model 3 their border controls as far as possible from their national frontiers by checking
Key attributes of APA 4 visitors in advance of arrival. This technique, known as Advanced Passenger
Data collection 5 Analysis (APA) is becoming a vital element of border management programs.
Data privacy 5
Benefits 6 Using Advanced Passenger Information (API) and Passenger Name Record
How IBM can help 7 (PNR) data collected by carriers in advance of arrival at the border, IBM has
For more information 7 helped clients make key decisions before passengers arrive at their destination,
enhancing security and speeding up the processing of the vast majority of bona
fide visitors and citizens.

This has transformed the way nations manage their borders. Resources can be
deployed more effectively, and interventions can be planned and undertaken
at less cost. In some cases, those who would pose a risk can be prevented from

In this paper, we will explain the key issues to be addressed when implement-
ing Advanced Passenger Analysis solutions. From low-cost methods of collect-
ing API/PNR to sophisticated analytic tools, from data privacy to collaboration,
from operational and systems integration to stakeholder engagement and part-
ner management, we will share our experience gained in live projects.
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Business operating model

Highlights First, we provide an overview of the key elements of an APA solution.

A real-time risk assessment is performed by collecting passenger information

(API and PNR) from the airlines or their agents and comparing it with various
databases and profiles with resulting probability of a “match.” System assess-
ment is then backed up by human validation to determine whether a “match”
This paper explains the key issues should be regarded as genuine and thus become a “hit” and potential “alert.”
with regard to an IBM Advanced Alerts will be passed on to the appropriate border control agencies for action.
Passenger Analysis solution. The concept is to clear as many low-risk passengers as early as possible in the
travel process, so that the agencies can focus their attentions on those who
generate a hit.

API/PNR Alerts

Carriers Operations Border

Board/ Center Control
No Board Intelligence

Watch lists
Entry/exit records
Other government agencies
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Key attributes of APA

The bulleted points below show the key attributes of a successful APA system.

• APA needs a coordinated approach between airlines, border control, police,
customs and legislators.

Data collection
• IBM works with airline clients all over the world, giving us a valuable insight
into the way airline systems are built and operate. IBM’s experience in
Key attributes of an APA system connecting over 90 airlines to one government’s collection system shows that
include: we can manage the process change and stakeholder relations in addition to
• Collaboration handling the technological aspects of the project.
• Data collection
• Data analysis Data analysis
• Operational and system IBM has a range of software products that enable the required data analysis
integration capabilities:
• Stakeholder management • IBM Relationship Resolution extends the value of existing information assets by
• Supply partner management linking unique resolved identities to outside entities to establish relationships
and uncover links.
• IBM Identity Resolution resolves inconsistent, ambiguous identity and attribute
information into a single resolved entity across multiple data sets.
• IBM Anonymous Resolution enables multiple organizations to selectively share
data and leverage proprietary data in a manner that never exposes sensitive

Operational and systems integration

• The role of the operations center is to add a human decision-making process to
the automated analytic process.
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Stakeholder management
• Without a rigorous agreed set of shared values and objectives between the
stakeholders, individual priorities will take precedence during the lifetime of
the project and make it likely to fail to deliver its full potential.

Supply partner management

• This is an area of constant innovation where new technologies can enhance
current systems. IBM supports clients in a dialog with vendors to select the
optimal mix going forward.

IBM has developed a new approach Data collection

to collect data through a private API data is the information contained in the machine-readable zone (MRZ) of
network that offers both a secure the travel document and includes the document number and its validity dates,
and low-cost method of capturing the name, nationality and date of birth of the holder. This information can
API/PNR data. be used to check against watchlists of wanted or suspected persons as well as
against records of lost and stolen travel documents. This data can also be used
to form the basis of an entry/exit system.

PNR data is the data contained in carrier reservation systems and departure
control systems. It includes information about the ticket and how it was pur-
chased, the routing, baggage and seating. This data can be used to look for sus-
picious characteristics in peoples’ reservations and journeys.

Guidelines for the use of API and PNR data are set out by the International
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The European Union has also produced a
directive on the use of API for border control. IBM solutions comply with these
guidelines and laws.

Data privacy
Data privacy is a critical issue for governments and citizens alike. IBM has
developed a new approach to collect data from carriers through a private net-
work offering our clients both a secure and low-cost method of capturing API/
PNR data. This ensures that only those with a lawful right to see the data can
have access to it. Data access and usage can also be managed and monitored so
that data privacy regimes are adhered to.
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Business benefits will depend on the uses made of the solution and may vary
from nation to nation but can include:

• The system automates complex and error-prone manual tasks, giving

government agencies early warning of who is planning to travel to their
country (or leave) so they can plan accordingly.
• Although no new information is created, passengers are being compared
with databases that have never been used in this context before (e.g., police
and intelligence databases).
• The system provides improved information regarding the number of people
entering and leaving a country (on the routes being processed).
• Data is available for further analysis to improve profiles and provide further
pattern analysis. This benefits a number of border control agencies.
• For incident prevention, real-time processing provides immediate alerts for
high-risk passengers intending to travel.
• Improved operational intelligence for customs, police and immigration
officials can identify chains of relationships amongst passengers and persons
on watch lists.
• For increased national security, the solution automatically uses the latest
watchlists and profiles with matching rules.
• To help reduce complexity, a single IBM solution supports multicultural
names, various spellings and dates of birth, and all networks and airlines.
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How IBM can help

Homeland security organizations require more than just new technology;
they require a comprehensive approach based on a clear understanding of the
issues, a deep understanding of the airline business, advanced business and
technological thinking, and talented professionals who are passionate about
what they do.

IBM is committed to supporting and assisting governments and partner

organizations as they address the challenge of improving border security. We
IBM is committed to supporting and have invested in a dedicated global team of industry consultants, subject matter
assisting governments and partner experts and solution developers that is focused on homeland security.
organizations as they address the
challenge of improving border Our solutions combine IBM’s unique insight into homeland security
security. organizations, with leading strategic consulting skills and unparalleled
technical assets to help our clients forge a new path to more effective, efficient
and responsive border management. Our success is accomplished by building
strong relationships with our clients and their partners, by completing
complex systems integration projects on time and within budget, by providing
consulting services, and by introducing innovative solutions that are backed
by IBM’s extensive research and development capabilities and underpinned by
IBM’s broad portfolio of technology offerings.

For more information

To learn more, contact: Peter Graham,, or
Paul McKeown,
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