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Author: Asharani P. Mirazkar Vijaylaxmi A. Horakeri
Bluetooth Technology Overview Bluetooth is a Radio Frequency (RF) specification for short-range, point-to-point and point-to-multi-point voice and data transfer. Bluetooth will enable users to connect to a wide range of computing and telecommunications devices without the need for proprietary cables that often fall short in terms of ease-of-use. The technology represents an opportunity for the industry to deliver wireless solutions that are ubiquitous across a broad range of devices. The strength and direction of the underlying Bluetooth standard will ensure that all solutions meet stringent expectations for ease-of-use and interoperability. Bluetooth, named for Denmark's first Christian king and not a dire dental condition, is the name of a technology specification for small form factor, low-cost, short-range radio links between PCs, handhelds, mobile phones, and other computing and electronic devices. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is an industry group consisting of leaders in the telecommunications and computing industries that are driving development of the technology and bringing it to market. Over 2000 companies have executed the Bluetooth adopter’s agreement and are members of the Bluetooth SIG. Bluetooth technology provides a 10-meter personal bubble that supports simultaneous transmission of both voice and data for multiple devices. Bluetooth wireless technology is designed to be as secure as a wire with up to 128-bit public/private key authentication, and streaming cipher up to 64-bit based on A5 security. The encryption strength can be very robust which is good for establishing a secure link, but there may be export problems when shipping from the US. Different hardware with smaller encryption key lengths may be required to meet US export controls. One of the goals of the Bluetooth SIG is to make wireless connections easy and simple to use. To ensure the best possible customer Bluetooth experience as well as interoperability with other Bluetooth devices, the Bluetooth SIG is developed a logo program, which validates compliance with the published Bluetooth specification as well as interoperability with other Bluetooth devices. Bluetooth devices that successfully complete the Bluetooth testing criteria have the right to bear the official Bluetooth logo.
B. V. Bhoomaraddi college of Engineering and Technology.
The radio operates on the globally available unlicensed radio band. The aim of the study was to eliminate cables between mobile phones and PC cards. IBM. Bluetooth radio modules avoid interference from other signals by hopping to a new B. and supports data speeds of up to 723. The idea that resulted in Bluetooth technology arose in 1994. desktop computers. either directly or through an adapter such as a PC Card. keyboards. mice or any other digital device can be part of the Bluetooth system.low cost and low power consumption. It uses a fast acknowledgement and frequency hopping scheme to make the link robust. Nokia. joysticks. For example. Therefore. Bhoomaraddi college of Engineering and Technology. About Bluetooth This Bluetooth technology achieves its goal by embedding small. two in laptop computing and one in digital signal processor technology. fax machines. Bluetooth radio technology built into both the mobile telephone and the laptop could replace the traditional (serial) cable used today to connect these devices. . Printers. a peripheral interface for existing devices. The group contained two market leaders in mobile telephony. In February 1998. Ericsson. Bluetooth technology facilitates the replacement of the cables normally used to connect one device to another. 2. Beyond facilitating the replacement of cables. Due to their dependence on a radio link. low cost radio interface between mobile phones and their accessories. and a mechanism to form small private adhoc groupings of connected devices away from fixed network infrastructures. etc. Two Bluetooth devices can talk to each other when they come within a range of 10 meters to each other. inexpensive. Toshiba and Intel formed a Special Interest Group (SIG).Bluetooth 8 THE BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY Introduction Bluetooth is a global standard for wireless connectivity. short-range radio transceivers into the devices that are available today. with one universal short-range radio link. Bluetooth is based on a short-range radio. V. a laptop could print information on a printer in the adjoining room. Ericsson Mobile Communication initiated a study to investigate the feasibility of a low-power. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). Bluetooth devices do not require a line-ofsight connection in order to communicate. The Bluetooth specification targets very low power consumption (less than 100 mW) in the active state.4 GHz. The Bluetooth radio is designed to operate in a noisy radio frequency environment. or the microwave in the kitchen could send a message to the mobile phone in the living room indicating that the meal is ready. Bluetooth can also support up to three voice channels. Bluetooth technology can also act as a universal medium to bridge the existing data networks. Designwise three main goals of Bluetooth were small size. as opposed to alternate technology such as an infrared connection.2 Kbps. handsets and desktop devices.
In 3 the case of multiple slaves. Compared with other systems operating in the same frequency band. This is referred to as point-to-point. A diagram of a Piconet is provided in the adjoining figure. The host controller interface(HCI) provides the means for a host device to access the Bluetooth hardware capabilities. This makes the Bluetooth radio more robust than other systems.support unit for link management and host terminal interface functions. One of the devices acts as the master and the other as a slave. The simplest scheme is when only two devices are involved. 2. Short packages and fast hopping also limit the impact of domestic and professional microwave ovens. In this case. Several Piconets 1 can be established and linked together in an adhoc manner. Bhoomaraddi college of Engineering and Technology.Bluetooth 8 frequency after transmitting or receiving a packet. a Piconet is any such Bluetooth 2 network with one master 2 and one or 1 1 more slaves. Each of the active slaves B. the 2 communication topology is referred 4 to as point-to-multipoint. a laptop or a personal computer can be a host device and the PC card inserted in the PC is the bluetooth device. All commands from host to the Bluetooth module and events from module to the host got through the HCI interface. This adhoc network is referred to as a Piconet. As a matter of fact.4GHz Bluetooth Radio Bluetooth Link Controller Bluetooth Link Manager and I/O PC MOBILE Network topology The Bluetooth system supports both point-to-point and point-to-multi-point connections. All users participating on the same Piconet are synchronized to this hopping sequence. The bluetooth system consists of a radio unit. V.4 GHz radio band. . The Piconet Bluetooth devices can interact with one or more other Bluetooth devices in several different ways. For eg.link control unit. Each such Piconet is identified by a different frequency hopping sequence. which also operate in the 2. the Bluetooth radio typically hops faster and uses shorter packets. the channel (and bandwidth) is shared among all the devices in the Piconet. There can be up to seven active slaves in a Piconet.
they have overlapping coverage areas. that is. With a fast hop rate (1600 hops per second). In most countries. A Piconet starts with two connected devices. all channel access is regulated by the master. but do not have an Active Member address. one unit will act as a master and the other(s) as slave(s) for the duration of the Piconet connection. good interference protection is B. the two (or more) Piconets are not synchronized in either time or frequency. 1 The Scatternet When two Piconets are close to each other. In the previous example. headset. Once a Piconet has been established. This scenario is provided for in the Bluetooth specification and is referred to as a scatternet. 1. thus limiting the number of parked members to 256. Each of the Piconets operates in its own frequency-hopping channel while any devices in multiple Piconets participate at the appropriate time via time division multiplexing. However. There can be additional slaves. A parked device remains synchronized to the master clock and can quickly become active and begin communicating in the Piconet. master-slave roles can be exchanged. The names ‘master’ and ‘slave’ only refer to the protocol on the channel: the Bluetooth units themselves are identical. V. . which means that every packet is transmitted on a different frequency.Bluetooth 8 has an assigned 3-bit Active Member address. Slaves in one Piconet can participate in another Piconet as either a master or slave. A parked device has an 8-bit Parked Member Address. By definition. A typical example: one might have a Piconet consisting of the mobile phone and the PC in one’s cubicle. This is accomplished through time division multiplexing. Bhoomaraddi college of Engineering and Technology. 79 channels can be used. In a scatternet. and may grow to eight connected devices. For the case of both active and parked units. and business card scanner. A Piconet is a collection of devices connected via Bluetooth technology in an adhoc fashion. the person in cubicle #1 may use the neighbour’s business card scanner on mutually agreed upon terms. while the person in the neighboring cubicle may have a Piconet consisting of a mobile phone. These slaves are not active and are referred to as parked. Frequency Hopping Bluetooth technology uses a frequency hopping technique. 2. when establishing a Piconet. any unit can become a master of a Piconet. which remain synchronized to the master. the Bluetooth unit that initiates the connection (to one or more slave units) represents the master. All Bluetooth devices are peer units and have identical implementations. such as a portable PC and cellular phone.
A packet nominally covers a single slot. If some other device is jamming the transmission of a packet. The error correction algorithms are used to correct the fault caused by jammed transmissions 625µs f(k) f(k+1) f(k+2) f(k+3) f(k+4) f(k+5) f(k+6) 200µs f(k) f(k+3) f(k+4) f(k) f(k+5) f(k+6) Figure 4. Subsequent time slots are used for transmitting and receiving. B. V. The nominal slot length is 625 . the robustness is reduced: in a crowded environment the long packets will more probably be lost. Three-slot and five-slot long packets reduce overhead compared to one-slot packets. On the other hand. Note that this case only refers to situations where there are two or more simultaneous active piconets or a non-Bluetooth device using the same frequency in range. When using a multi-slot packet. the packet is resent in another frequency determined by the frequency scheme of the master. In multi-slot packets the frequency remains the same until the entire packet is sent. Bhoomaraddi college of Engineering and Technology. . 220 switching time s after the packet is needed for changing the frequency. the data rate is higher because the header and a 220 s long switching time after the packet are needed only once in each packet.Bluetooth 8 achieved. but can be extended to cover s three or five slots. as depicted in Figure 4. Another benefit is a short packet length.
and regardless of whether the user is cordlessly connected through a mobile phone (cellular) or through a wireline connection (e. ISDN. LAN. a 28-bit counter is required that wraps around at 2 28 -1. The Bluetooth clock has no relation to the time of day and can therefore be initialized to any value. Applications Home The Three-in-one Phone With Bluetooth support. as soon as one enters his/her office the address list and calendar in the PDA will automatically be updated to agree with the one in the desktop. Bhoomaraddi college of Engineering and Technology. For synchronization with other units.5 s.Bluetooth 8 The Bluetooth Clock Every Bluetooth unit has an internal system clock. The Internet Bridge An extension of this model could be a mobile computer that allows surfing the Internet irrespective of the location of the user. These offsets.5 s. The device will also adjust heat to a preset temperature. Additionally. the data from the individual’s PDA may be exchanged with the home electronic board. it functions as a mobile phone connected to the mobile network. When on the move. V. xDSL). The LSB ticks in units of 312. which is never adjusted and is never turned off. The Bluetooth clock provides the heart beat of the Bluetooth transceiver. or vice versa. which determines the timing and hopping of the transceiver. . The Bluetooth clock is derived from a free running native clock. provide temporary Bluetooth clocks. giving a clock rate of 3. While this is happening. PSTN. Office The Automatic Synchronizer The Bluetooth technology will also allow automatic synchronization of the desktop. For instance. The Bluetooth clock has a cycle of about a day. or 312.g. Smart Home Homes equipped with Bluetooth devices may be able to recognise the arrival of its bonafide residents and unlock the door on their arrival. When at home. the phone functions as a cordless phone. connected to the fixed line.2 KHz. when the phone comes within range of another mobile phone with built-in Bluetooth technology. it functions as a walkie-talkie. Its resolution is at least half the TX or RX slot length. which are mutually synchronized. and the family calendar is updated to reflect the scheduled activities in the office. only offsets are used. If the clock is implemented with a counter. B. PDAs and the mobile phone. mobile computer. one handset will be able to provide multiple functionality. when added to the native clock.
Travelers Automatic Check-in The Bluetooth enabled mobile phone or the PDA can present the electronic ticket to the airline system without one having to go through the queue at the check-in counters. The typical power consumption of these devices is about 100mW. The data rates supported are 1 Mbps or 2 Mbps. Bhoomaraddi college of Engineering and Technology. The minutes of the meeting are also recorded on a PDA and wirelessly transferred to other participants before they leave the meeting. Via these ports. and the network can support up to 127 devices. HomeRF The HomeRF Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) system is designed to carry both voice and data traffic and to inter-operate with the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and the Internet. The typical use of this technology is within the home. one can access one’s PDA to send the presentation to the electronic whiteboard. Like Bluetooth. It also has provision for data security and compression. Each HomeRF device has a 48-bit node ID that allows concurrent operation of multiple co-located networks. In the airport waiting lounge. SWAP supports both a TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) service to provide delivery of interactive voice and other time-critical services. V. and exchange electronic business cards automatically. In another similar application. The HomeRF devices operate in a frequency-hopping network with a hop frequency of 50 hops/s. The HomeRF network can support upto 6 full duplex voice channels. The airlines may also provide free Internet voice call using voice-over IP. kiosks could be equipped with Bluetooth-enabled Internet ports. without any wired connections.Bluetooth 8 The Interactive Conference In meetings and conferences.4 GHz band and uses a digital frequency hopping spread spectrum radio. one could connect the Bluetooth-enabled laptops. depending on the modulation techniques used. The airline's on-line system performs the identification via the ID-tag feature built into the mobile phone or the PDA and confirms the reserved seat. and other devices to access the office or home-based servers via the airline server. it also operates in the 2. The SWAP technology was derived from extensions of existing cordless telephone (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone or DECT ) and wireless LAN technology to enable a new class of home cordless services. B. . one can transfer selected documents instantly with selected participants. PDAs. and a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) service for delivery of high-speed packet data.
On the other hand. Specification of the Bluetooth System v 1. due to the highly directional nature of the transmission (of the IR beam). V. Profiles. December 1999 2.com 6. it has the limitation of line-of-sight communication. With such a potential. IrDA is less prone to interference from similar devices in adjoining areas. value-added services. Bluetooth Special Interest Group. etc. It is also poised to provide a flexible mechanism for adhoc networking of devices. http://www. The Official Bluetooth Site. which is not so in the case of Bluetooth and HomeRF.0 B. Bluetooth is likely to be the standard in tens of millions of mobile phones. IrDA already has an installed base of millions of devices (mobile phones. Version 1. the office. namely IrDA and HomeRF. Infrared Data Association. end-to-end solutions and much more.homerf. Volume 2. Core. the market is going to demand new innovative applications. IrDA Object Exchange Protocol. Infrared and Radio Frequency. The Bluetooth technology is likely to coexist with other wireless technologies.) However. http://www. HomeRF Working Group Site. and because the radio frequency used is globally available. In association with other industry initiatives. blurring the boundaries between the home. References 1. Volume 1. . December 1999 3.org/ B. Bluetooth can offer fast and secure access to wireless connectivity all over the world. The possibilities opened up really are limitless. laptops and a whole range of other electronic devices. PCs. Bluetooth is likely to become the fastest adopted technology in history.com/mobile/bluetooth/ 7. Infrared Data Association. As a result. Bhoomaraddi college of Engineering and Technology. A Wireless Connectivity Technologies Comparison.intel. and the outside world. Bluetooth is one of the key technologies that can make the mobile information society possible. PDAs. http://www. Specification of the Bluetooth System v 1.Bluetooth 8 Summary In the future.bluetooth. Bluetooth will have tremendous effects on everyday life. March 1999 4.2. such as WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and Symbian. Bluetooth Special Interest Group.0 B. IrOBEX. September 1998 5.
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