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Original Title: Solving Image Thresholding Problem Using Hybrid Algorithm

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International Open Access Journal

ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volume - 2 | Issue – 1

Solving

ing Image Thresholding Problem u

using

sing Hybrid Algorithm

Assistant Professor, Dept of Computer Science Assistant Professor, Dept of Computer Science

VFSTR, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India VFSTR, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Indi

ABSTRACT

Thresholding is a reputed image segmentation technique been proposed and implemented by most of the

used to obtain binary image from the gray level image. In researchers [1-3].

3]. Among them, global thresholding

thres is

this paper, histogram based bi–level

level and multi

multi-level considered as the most efficient procedure for image

segmentation is proposed using Improved Particle segmentation, because of its simplicity, robustness,

Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Enhanced Bacterial accuracy and competence [4]. Based on the

Foraging Optimization (EBFO) based hybrid algorithm. segmentation method, global thresholding is

The optimal thresholds for input images are attained by categorized as parametric and nonparametric

maximizing

aximizing Otsu’s between class variance function. The technique.. In existing parametric thresholding

performance of proposed method is demonstrated on four procedures, the statistical parameters of the image are

benchmark images and compared with the existing PSO estimated using standard strategies. Hence, this

and BFO algorithms. An assessment between HA, PSO, approach is computationally expensive, time

and BFO is carried using prevailing paramete

parameters such as consuming, and some times the performance degrades

objective function, convergence rate, PSNR, and based on the imagee quality [5, 6]. The nonparametric

DSSIM. traditional approaches such as Otsu, Kapur, Tsai, and

Kittler are uncomplicated and successful in bi-level

bi

Keywords: Otsu; Hybrid algorithm; Segmentation thresholding.

1. Introduction Traditional methods work well for a bi-level bi

thresholding problem, when the number of threshold

In imaging science, image processing plays a vital role in

level

vel increases, complexity of the thresholding

the analysis and interpretation of images in fields such as

problem also will increase and the traditional method

medical discipline, navigation, environment modelling,

requires more computational time. Hence, in recent

automatic event detection, surveillance, texture and

years, softcomputing algorithm based multi-level

multi

pattern recognition, and damage ge detection. The

image thresholding procedure is widely proposed by

development of digital imaging techniques and

the researchers [7-9].

computing technology increased the potential of imaging

science. In this work, a novel hybrid algorithm is proposed to

solve the image thresholding problem by maximising

Image segmentation is one of pre-processing

processing technique

Otsu’s between-class

class variance function. The proposed

widely employed in imaging science to extract key

technique is tested on four standard test images and

features from input image.

age. Segmentation is judged as an

compared with the Particle Swarm Optimization

important procedure for significant examination and

(PSO) and Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO)

interpretation of images.

based image segmentation techniques.

2. Methodology

In the literature, many segmentation procedures have

Dec 2017 Page: 730

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

Otsu based image thresholding is initially proposed in Maximize J(t) = σ0 + σ1 (3)

the year 1979 [10]. The research findings by Sathya and 2 2

Kayalvizhi shows that, Otsu offers better separation Where σ0=ω0( μ0- μt) and σ1=ω1( μ1- μt)

between the object and background compared to Kapur’s

The above discussed procedure can be extended to a

method [4, 9]. In this work, Otsu’s nonparametric

multilevel thresholding problem for various ‘m’

segmentation method known as between-class variance

values as follows;

is considered. This method finds the optimal threshold

values of test image by maximizing the objective Let us consider that there are ‘m’ thresholds (t1, t2, …,

function. A detailed description of the between-class tm), which divide the input image into ‘m’ classes: C0

variance method is broadly addressed by several with gray levels in the range 0 to t-1, C1 with enclosed

researchers. In Otsu’s bi-level thresholding technique, gray levels in the range t1 to t2-1, …, and Cm includes

input image is divided into two classes such as C0 and C1 gray levels from tm to L – 1.

(background and objects) by a threshold at a level‘t’. As

depicted in Fig 1, the class C0 encloses the gray levels in The objective function for the multi-level thresholding

the range 0 to t-1 and class C1 encloses the gray levels problem can be expressed as;

from t to L – 1.

Maximize J(t) = σ0 + σ1+...+ σm (4)

Number of pixels

μm – μt)2.

C0 C1

* in the proposed work, objective functions are

assigned for m=2, m=3, m=4, and m=5.

0 t -1 t L-1

3. Hybrid Algorithm

Gray levels

thresholding can be minimized with hybridization techniques.

Recently a class of hybridization techniques are

The probability distributions for the gray levels C 0 and proposed and implemented for a class of engineering

C1 can be expressed as; optimization problems. The hybrid algorithm is

formed by combining two existing evolutionary

p0 p optimization algorithms.

C0 ... t 1

0 (t ) 0 (t ) and (a) PSO-constant weight (PSO1): Recent study by

pt p Latha et al. reported that, PSO with constant inertia

C1 ... L 1 weight offers improved speed in algorithm

1 (t ) 1(t ) (1) convergence by maintaining good accuracy in

L 1

optimized parameters for PID controller design

t 1

0 ( t ) pi 1 (t ) p i problem [11, 12]. In the proposed work, Eqn. (5) and

Where i 0 , i t and L=256 (6) are adopted and the inertia weight (WT) in is

chosen as 0.75.

The mean levels μ0 and μ1 for C0 and C1 can be

expressed as; (b) Enhanced BFO (EBFO): EBFO is a modified

form of classical BFO algorithm, proposed by

t 1 L 1

ipi ip i Rajinikanth and Latha [13]. The initial algorithm

0 1

i 0 0 ( t ) 1(t ) parameters are assigned as follows;

and i t (2)

Number of E.Coli bacteria = 10 < N < 30 ;

The mean intensity (μt)of the entire image can be

represented as; N N N N

T 0 0 11 and 0 1 1 Nc = 2 ; Ns = Nre 3 ; Ned 4 ; Nr = 2

problem can be expressed as;

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 1 | Nov-Dec 2017 Page: 731

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

N ed [15].

Ns

N Nr

Ped = ; dattractant = Wattractant = N ; and The PSNR is mathematically represented as;

Nc

255

hrepellant = Wrepellent = N . PSNR(x, y) 20 log 10

MSE( x , y ) (9)

The main advantage of EBFO compared to the classical

BFO is, the number of initializing parameters to be The SSIM is normally used to estimate the image

assigned for the search in EBFO is reduced to just two quality and inter dependencies between the original

i.e. N (E. Coli size) and D (search dimension). and processed image.

SSIM(x, y)

algorithm with EBFO, inorder to increase the search ( x y 2 C1 )( x 2 y 2 C 2 )

2

(10)

speed and optimization accuracy. The PSO+BFO based

hybrid method is initially proposed by Wael et al (2008) Where μx = average of x, μy = average of y, σx2 =

to improve the performance of classical BFO algorithm variance of x, σy2 = variance of y, σxy = covariance of

[14]. x and y, C1= (k1L)2 and C2= (k1L)2 stabilize the

division with weak denominator, L = 256, k1 = 0.01,

In this, the Objective Function (OF) is applied for both

and k2 = 0.03.

the PSO and EBFO algorithm. The PSO algorithm

monitors the EBFO to achieve a minimum convergence In heuristic algorithm based optimization practice,

time with optimized parameters. In hybrid algorithm, dimension of heuristic search varies from 2 to 5

after undergoing a chemo tactic step, each bacterium gets depending on ‘m’ levels. When, m = 2, it is a simple

mutated by a PSO operator. two dimensional optimization problem and heuristic

During this operation, the bacterium is stochastically search may offer better result with lesser iterations.

attracted towards the global best position obtained so far When ‘m’ increases, complexity of optimization

in the entire population. The PSO operator uses only the problem also increases and the algorithm requires

social component and eliminates the cognitive more computation time to offer the optimal threshold.

component to support the local search. The velocity

operator of PSO is used to activate the tumble operator The algorithm, initially analyze the histogram of the

of EBFO. In this algorithm, due to the information input image and finds the threshold levels arbitrarily

sharing between the PSO and EBFO, better optimized based on the assigned guiding parameters. When the

solutions are obtained with minimal convergence time objective function is satisfied, the algorithm displays

compared to a conventional BFO algorithm. the essential parameters like Otsu’s objective

function, optimal threshold based on ‘m’, PSNR, and

4. Implementation SSIM.

The multi-level thresholding problem deals with finding 5. Results and Discussion

optimal thresholds within the gray scale range [0, L−1]

that maximize a fitness criterion J(t). Otsu’s between Otsu guided multi-level thresholding techniques have

class variance function is employed to find the threshold been initially tested on standard 512 x 512 test images

values. The search dimension of the optimization such as Lena, Lake, Car, and Pirate from the image

problem is assigned based on the number of thresholds database existing in the literature. In this paper, a

(m) considered. In this paper, optimal multi-level proposal is made to find the optimal multilevel

thresholding has been carried out by an unsupervised thresholds for the above said images using a novel

global-level nonparametric approach. In this work, LF hybrid algorithm.

driven BFO algorithm is employed to find the optimal

threshold values by maximizing the Otsu’s objective The PSO parameters are assigned as discussed in [12]

function. and the BFO parameters are assigned as discussed in

[13]; the total number of run is chosen as 300. During

The performance of the hybrid algorithm is assessed the experiment, each image is examined with a

using the well known parameters such as peak-to-signal number of thresholds such as m = 2 to 5. The

ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity indices (SSIM) simulation study is repeated 10 times individually and

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 1 | Nov-Dec 2017 Page: 732

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

the best value among the search is recorded as the Fig. 3 (a) – (d) represents the segmented histrogram of

optimal threshold value. the Lena image for m= 2 to 5. Table 1 represents the

original test image, histogram, and segmented image

Initially, the proposed method is tested on the Lena for various ‘m’ values.

image. Fig .2 (a) shows the convergence of the search

with PSO, BFO and HA for m=2. Where, HA converged Table 2 depicts various performance measure values

at 33th iteration, PSO and BFO converges at 78th and obtained during the image segmentation process. For

82nd iterations respectively. From this, it is observed smaller threshold values (m=2 and 3), the proposed

that, hybrid algorithm converges fast compared to the algorithm shows better PSNR and SSIM value. For

considered PSO and BFO algorithm. Similar results are higher threshold values (m=4 and 5), the proposed

obtained for other considered images as depicted in Fig algorithm provides a satisfactory PSNR and SSIM.

.2 (b) to (d).

2100 1500

2050

1000 PSO

2000 PSO

CF

BFO

CF

BFO

1950 HA

HA 500

1900

0

1850 25 50 75 100 125

50 100 150 200 250 No. of iterations

No. of iterations

(a) (b)

1500 1000

800

1000

PSO 600 PSO

CF

CF

BFO BFO

400

500 HA HA

200

0 0

25 50 75 100 125 150 25 50 75 100 125

No. of iterations No.of iterations

(c) (d)

Figure 2. Convergence of cost function for PSO, BFO, and hybrid algorithm

m= 2 m= 3 m=4 m=5

3000 3000 3000 3000

Number of pixels

Number of pixels

Number of pixels

Number of pixels

0 0 0 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250

Gray levels Gray levels Gray levels Gray levels

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 1 | Nov-Dec 2017 Page: 733

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

Image m Optimal threshold OF Iteration PSNR SSIM

4 76, 111, 148, 196 1921.25 120 18.172 0.803

5 67, 96, 132, 166, 198 1923.44 133 21.035 0.821

Lake 2 93, 122 3473.46 37 17.002 0.725

4 101, 117, 126, 136 3477.46 146 19.835 0.796

5 81, 89, 117, 124, 133 3476.55 172 21.931 0.804

Car 2 134, 206 1583.06 62 18.193 0.809

4 114, 140, 142, 161 1583.00 88 23.701 0.832

5 108, 136, 139, 141, 1583.06 129 24.014 0.826

226

Pirate 2 124, 138 2063.55 48 19.530 0.752

4 90, 106, 135, 158 2067.58 99 22.741 0.855

5 113, 116, 124, 138, 2068.02 131 24.193 0.858

146

Performance Evaluation,” Journal of Electronic

In this paper, optimal multi-level image thresholding Imaging, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 146 - 165, 2004.

problem is addressed using Otsu guided hybrid

algorithm. The performance of the proposed method 4. Sathya, P.D. and Kayalvizhi, R., “Modified

is validated using four standard images. When the bacterial foraging algorithm based multilevel

assigned threshold level is two (m = 2), the number of thresholding for image segmentation”,

iteration taken by the algorithm is small and the Engineering Applications of Artificial

iteration value increases with increase in threshold Intelligence, Vol. 24, pp. 595–615, 2011.

levels. The convergence of proposed algorithm is 5. Rutuparna Panda, Sanjay Agrawal, and Sudipta

better compared to the considered PSO and BFO Bhuyan, “Edge magnitude based multilevel

algorithm for various ‘m’ levels. thresholding using Cuckoo search technique”,

Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 40 , pp.

References 7617–7628, 2013.

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