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1.1 Background

The condition of road network is of vital importance to the economy of any country. The task of
highway authorities is to maintain the system to those standards that will provide for the lowest cost of
transportation, as related to pavements (Ullidtz, 1987)[1]. Prior to the early 1920’s, pavement thickness
design was based primarily on experience.
Many aspects of road provision in the Southern African Countries were adopted from methods used
in Europe and the USA 30-40 years ago (Pinard, 2004)[7]. Very few methods of pavement design that are
in general use in the world have been devised specifically for the design of pavements in tropical
developing countries (Ellis, 1979)][7]. There is an urgent need to develop similar recommendations for
use in countries with tropical climates. (Rolt et al, 1986)[8].
The methodologies emphasize the use of locally available low cost materials, taking into account
that the pavements in the southern regions of Africa are designed thin due to the existing low traffics,
less than 30 million ESALs. If the traffic is greater than 30 million ESAL, other existing methods such
as those from the USA (AASHTO guide 1993), UK and others empirical methods used in developed
countries with different regional climates, are also often used for the design of pavements in tropical
countries[16] i.e, Southern African countries.
The road note 31 (TRL, 1993)[16] gives recommendations for the design of bitumen-surfaced roads
carrying up to 2.5 million equivalent standard axles per lane in tropical and sub-tropical countries.
Another guide is the Road Note 19 which gives recommendations for the design and construction of
new road pavements and presents recommendations for the HMA designs.


 Pavement types

Historically, pavements are divided into two broad categories: a) Flexible and b) Rigid. Other
references divide pavements into three types a) Flexible; b) Rigid and c) composite or semi-rigid (Yoder
and Witczack, 1975)[3] and (Huang 1993[4], 2004[5]) and (Garber and Hoel, 2002)[95]. Flexible pavements
consist of a relatively thin bituminous wearing surface built over a base and subbase course, and they
rest upon the compacted subgrade. Rigid pavements are made of Portland cement concrete and they
may or may not have a base course between the pavement and the subgrade (Yoder and Witczack, 1975)
. The principal difference between the two pavements, flexible and rigid, is the way in which they
distribute the loads over the subgrade (See Fig. 1). The rigid pavement, because of its rigidity and high
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modulus of elasticity, tends to distribute the load over a relatively wide area of soil and flexible
pavements tend to distribute the load over a relatively small area of subgrade. Esquema representativo
de tensões, deformações e deslocamentos em pontos críticos de um pavimento flexível apresenta-se na
Fig. 2.
Composite or Semi-rigid pavements are characterized when the top layer is composed of both HMA
and the base layer is PCC or more simplified,for the base the addition of cement as is the case with
graded gravel soil cement or cement-treated is used;

Pavimento flexível Pavimento Rigido

Fig. 1 - Distribuição de Tensões em Pavimentos Flexíveis e Rígidos

Fig. 2 - Esquema representativo de tensoõ es, deformaçoõ es e

deslocamentos em pontos crííticos de um pavimento flexíível
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 Design criteria

The thickness design of highway pavements requires that the following large number of complex
factors to be considered (Huang 1993, 2004[4],[5], Yoder and Witkzack, 1975[3], Oglosby, 1982[93], Salter,
1986[94]). The input includes, traffic loading during the design period, material characterization and
Climate. Based on the input information, pavement response is analyzed using the structural model.
Transfer functions relate pavement response to the predicted pavement performance. At the end of the
design period, the predicted pavement performance should not be less than the acceptable level. The
design process is repeated until a pavement structure is identified which provides the required
In pavement design, the elements of the design process are the following(Tjan, 1996)[2] and (Yoder
and Witczack, 1975)[3] and (Huang 1993[4], 2004[5]):
a) Traffic loading (see in Design standards and specifications used in Mozambique);
b) Pavement types;
c) Material characterization;
d) Environmental conditions;
e) Pavement response and mode of failure;
f) Pavement performance models;
g) Pavement life.

 Structural design and evaluation of asphalt pavements

Flexible pavements consist of a bituminous surface course placed over a series of other structural
paving layers. The structural method of design has two main objectives (Croney and Croney, 1997)[79]:
(a) To produce deflection spectra for the axle loading distribution used in deflectograph
(b) To compute stresses and strains in the pavement under the full range of axle loads and
temperature conditions and hence, from fatigue and permanent deformation data, to
determine the potential mode of failure and the potential life.

The proper design of a flexible pavement aims to provide sufficient total pavement thickness above the
subgrade soil in order to: 1) prevent permanent deformation; and 2) provide enough HMA surface,
binder, and stabilized base thickness to limit the development of fatigue (alligator) cracking[24].
The thickness of a flexible pavement is influenced by the strength of the subgrade. An example of a
flexible pavement is given in Fig. 3. The materials mostly common used for surface, base and subbase
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layer are presented in Table 1.


Hot-mix asphalt


Natural soil

Fig. 3 - Distribution of wheel load in a

flexible pavement[24]

The specific types of materials used, their thicknesses, and their relative positions within the pavement
structure have a great influence on the structural response of the pavement and, therefore, its

 Materials characterization for flexible pavements

The design methodology for flexible pavements require an understanding of the important
characteristics of the materials of which the pavement is to be composed and on which it is to be
founded. Depending on the nature of the design procedure, the required material characteristics may
vary, but in general the following are desirable: (a) Asphalt surface; (b) Granular base and subbase; and
(c) Subgrade.

Table 1 - Materials mostly common used for surface, base and subbase layer
Surface Layer Base layer Subbase Layer
Hot-mix asphalt Granular None

Bituminous surface treatment Stabilized (asphalt or cement) Granular

Stabilized (asphalt, cement,

 Elastic modulus

Elastic modulus can be obtained from in-situ measurements by multi-depht deflection equipments
(De Beer et al., 1988)(De Beer, 1997) [10] or from laboratory testing or through the recommendations
available in the guidelines (Charkroborty and Das, 2005) . Elastic moduli of subgrade soil and
granular bases can be determined by repeated triaxial tests; and the dynamic modulus of asphalt
mixtures, can be determined by the repeated flexure or indirect tensile tests (Charkroborty and Das,
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2005) [28]. The CBR values can be converted to E = Elastic modulus or MR = Resilient modulus using
Eq. 4-1 transformed from Huang, 2004[4].

E or MR = 10.3 CBR (MPa) (4-1)

In South Africa the term Effective Elastic Modulus is used to refers the modulus of in-situ
pavements backcalculated from multi-depth deflectometer (MDD) measurements (De Beer et al., 1988)
(De Beer, 1997)[10]; these modulus are different from those backcalculated from full deflection basins;
the modulus of base layers based on the maximum deflections (MDD) are approximately (1/10) of those
backcalculated using the full surface deflection basins (De Beer and Grobler, 1993)(De Beer, 1997) [10].
These differences should be corrected by using the correct transfer functions for design.
For different materials recommended for surfacing, bases, subbases and subgrade layers, exist the
elastic modulus and can be taken directly from technical recommendation.

Poisson’s Ratio

Besides the elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio is another material parameter used in elastic analysis of
pavement systems. Poisson’s ratio may defined as the ratio of transverse to longitudinal strains of a
loaded specimens (De Beer, 1997)[10]. The significance of Poisson’s ratio is that, it defines the three
dimentional state of stress or strain in the material, as described by the Hooke’s for three dimensional
case in elastic layered theory presented in Chapter 6.
For most of the pavement materials, the influence of Poisson’s ratio µ is usually small; this allows use
of typical constant values of µ for analysis rather than direct testing (Mitchell and Monismith, 1977)
(Charkroborty and Das, 2005) [28]. Typical values of Poisson’s ratio used in China and SATCC design are
presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Poisson’s ratio values

Material Poisson’s ratio (µ)

Portland cement concrete (PCC) 0.15-0.20

Cement treated materials (soil cement and cement 0.35
treated base bases)
Asphalt concretre 0.44
Crushed stone, granular bases 0.35
Granular subbases 0.35
Soils (fine-grained) 0.35
Selected subgrade 0.35
Cleyey soils subgrade/foundation 0.35
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The pavement thicknesses suggested in the SATCC specifications are not presented here. The
pavement thicknesses suggested in the Chinese specifications are presented in Table 4.3 above. In both
methods (SATCC and Chinese) the input data are presented in Table 4.8.

 Asphalt surface

The surface layer is the top layer of an asphalt pavement, sometimes called the wearing course
(Huang 1993[4], 2004[5]). Surface layers consisting of HMA are the most common type of pavement
surface used in the world, due to its effective provision of load-carrying capacity, resistance to
distortion, provision of a smooth riding surface, minimization of the intrusion of moisture from the
surface, resistance to traffic wear and retaining its anti-skid properties. It is also comparatively
economical and easy to construct [24].

In the South African code, two tables containing elastic modulus for asphalt materials are suggested,
see De Beer (1997)[10]. The first was suggested by Freeme (1983) based on laboratory testing and the
second by Jordaan (1993), based on backcalculation results from a multi-depth deflectometer (MDD)
giving deflection measurements. The Freeme table presents less elastic modulus values than that
presented by Jordaan. In South Africa the Freme modulus presented in Table 3 is accepted. And the
values assumed for poisson’s ratio is 0.44 or as measured in the Laboratory.

Table 3: Typical asphalt layer type (De Beer 1997)

Code Material layers Elastic modulus, Thickness
Poisson ratio
E (MPa) (mm)
SD Surface treatment - - -
Ultra-thin Asphalt at 40ºC 500-2200 0.44 < 50
Thin Asphalt at 40ºC 500-2200 0.44 0-50
Thick Asphalt at 40ºC 750-5500 0.44 50-150
Very thick Asphalt at 40ºC 750-7500 0.44 150-250

 Composition of HMA

The types of HMA most frequently used in tropical countries are manufactured in an asphalt plant
by hot-mixing appropriate proportions of the following materials(Emery, 2002)[107]: (a) Coarse
aggregate, defined as material having particles larger than 2.36mm; (b) Fine aggregate, defined as
material having particles less than 2.36mm and larger than 0.075mm; (c) Filler, defined as material
having particle sizes less than 0.075mm, which may originate from fines in the aggregate or be added in
the form of cement, lime or ground rock; and (d) Paving grade bitumen with viscosity characteristics
appropriate for the type of HMA, the climate and loading conditions where it will be used, must be
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correct by selected according to the local specifications. In South Africa, the gradation specification is
presented in Table 4.

Table 4: Grading limits for combined aggregate and mix proportions for Asphalt surfaces (SATCC, 1998)[113]

Semi-gape graded for

Continuously graded for surfaces
Sieve size bases
(mm) Coarse
26.5 mm max 19 mm max (19 mm max) Medium Fine
26.5 100 -- 100 -- --
19.0 92-100 100 85-100 -- --
13.2 82-93 82-100 71-84 100 --
9.5 72-87 73-86 62-76 82-100 100
4.75 50-64 45-60 42-60 54-75 64-88
2.36 40-52 40-52 30-48 35-50 45-60
1.18 36-47 36-47 22-38 27-42 35-54
0.600 32-42 32-42 16-28 18-32 24-40
0.300 22-35 22-35 12-20 11-23 16-28
0.150 10-20 10-20 8-15 7-16 10-20
0.075 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-12
Aggregate 93.5% 93.5% 93.5% 93.5% 93.5%
Bitumen 5.5% 5.5% 5.5% 5.5% 5.5%
Active filler 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0%

 Granular base and subbase layers

The base course is the layer of material immediately beneath the surface or binder course (Huang
1993[4], 2004[5]). Base courses (layers) in pavement structures are composed of either granular materials
(aggregates) or soil or granular materials stabilized by an additive (Sargand and Kim, 2001)[96] and
(Atkins, 2003)[97]. Granular base courses are essentially unbound cohesion less layers of aggregate (or
crushed rock) that are uniformly graded and compacted to optimum density. Another type of improved
granular base layer is one in which the gradation is modified to permit improved subsurface drainage
while maintaining the intended load distribution characteristics. Proprieties of aggregates used for
pavement materials play an important role in the quality of pavements.

 Materials for base and subbase

In general, in South Africa, two list of materials are presented for base and subbase construction.
The first is a list of modulus for cement treated materials defined for 3 different phases of material
behavior, and in this work only the values for phase 2 were assumed as presented in Table 5. (see De
Beer 1994, 1997). The value used for Poisson’s ratio is 0.35. The suggested granular materials for
granular bases and subbases is presented in Table 6. The The value used for the Poison’s ratio of
granular material is 0.35.
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Table 5: Suggested elastic modulus for cement stabilized materials for base
or subbase (De Beer, 1997)[10]

Elastic modulus, E
Material Code Material description µ
EG1 Crushed stone G1 800-1000 0.35
EG2 Crushed stone G2
EG2 Crushed stone G2
EG3 Crushed stone G3 500-800 0.35
EG4 Gravel G4
EG4 Gravel G4
EG5 Gravel G5 400-600 0.35
EG6 Gravel G6
EG7 Gravel G7
EG8 Gravel G8

Table 6: Selected ranges of elastic moduli for granular materials (in MPa) with the expected value indicated in brackets (De Beer, 1997)[10]

Elastic modulus, E
Material description
Code Over granular Wet
layer or equivalent
G1 High quality crushed stone 150-600 40-250 0.35
G2 Crushed stone 100-400 40-200 0.35
G3 Crushed stone 100-350 40-150 0.35
G4 Nat. gravel (base quality) 75-350 30-200 0.35
G5 Nat. gravel 40-300 20-150 0.35
G6 Nat. gravel (sub-base quality) 30-200 20-150 0.35

 The subgrade

The purpose of a pavement is to provide a smooth surface over which vehicles can pass under all
climatic conditions. The performance of the pavement is affected by the characteristics of the subgrade.
Desirable properties that the subgrade should possess include strength, drainage and ease of compaction,
and durability of strength (Yoder and Witczack, 1975)[3]. The top of subgrade should be scarified in 6 in
(152 mm) and compacted to the desirable density near the optimum moisture content. This compacted
subgrade may be in-situ soil or a layer of selected material (Huang 1993 [4], 2004[5]. The pavement design
requires an estimate of the strength and stiffness of the subgrade for two purposes:
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(a) Firstly, the strength of the subgrade or subbase must be estimated because it serves as a
construction platform;
(b) Secondly, the long term strength and stiffness of the subgrade after disturbance, during
construction, and when the equilibrium moisture content has been established, needs to be
known to determine performance under traffic loading.
The suggested moduli for selected layers and subgrade materials are listed in Table 7 (Jordaan 1993 )
(De Beer, 1997)[10]. The value used for Poison’s ratio is 0.35.

Table 7: Suggested elastic modulus for selected layers and subgrade material (De Beer, 1997)[10]

Elastic modulus,
Material E (MPa)
Socked CBR Material Region µ
Dry Wet
G7  15 Cravel-soil 30-200 20-120 0.35
G8  10 Gravel-soil 30-180 20-90 0.35
G9 7 Soil 30-140 20-70 0.35
G10 3 Soil 20-90 10-45 0.35

 Subgrade considerations in the design of pavements in Mozambique

Subgrade is also an important layer; it is the part where the traffic loading is transmitted and it
governs the pavement’s structural configuration. In SATCC design methods, the subgrade is classified
in terms of the CBR of soils based on geological and soil property assessments. The subgrade classes
are indicated in Table 8. The subgrade has 2 layers, one with a finite thickness and another with infinite
thickness. The SATCC design methods, generally, use the concept of selected subgrade with finite
thickness; the selected subgrade is built with soils that can be imported from different sites. Thus, the
selected subgrade in the SATCC design method is built thin. The final layer on which the pavement
rests is called the subgrade composed of natural soils with an infinite thickness. The selected subgrade
layer is defined in terms of thickness depending on the type and the bearing capacity strength (CBR) of
borrowed materials or the new strength of local soils after improvements have been made by chemical
stabilization methods.

Table 8: Subgrade class (De Beer, 1997)[10]

Description Subgrade class designation
Subgrade CBR ranges S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
(%) 2 3-4 5-7 8-14 15-29 30+
Minimum depth* 250 250 350 450 550 650
Depths where the engineer should confirm that the nominal strength is present.
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 Pavement life

Different studies suggest that a bituminous road will last, under ordinary circumstances and with
proper maintenance, for a period of 15 to 20 years, but in southern Africa the pavements are designed
for 10 years as a practical limit for economic justification in most cases; in China normally for 12 to 15
years. At the end of this period, it becomes necessary to resurface the pavement so that it can be used for
another 15 to 20 year period. Thus, the total design life (called analysis period) is the sum of the two
stages mentioned above or in this case a maximum of 40 years. The limitation to this type of analysis is
that the analysis is no better than the input of data that goes into it. Therefore, this type of analysis
should be used with caution and that the final decision must depend on an engineer’s experience and
judgment of the area under study (Yoder and Witczack, 1975)[3].

3.1.4 Design standards and specifications used in Mozambique

 Background

The design criteria in use in Mozambique for asphalt pavement design are based on local
experience and common concepts used in the area of asphalt pavement design.

 Design standards used in Mozambique

The asphalt pavement design methodologies used in Mozambique (Diogo, 2007)[11] are based on
SATCC design methodologies (De Beer, 1997)[10]:

a) The South African Mechanistic Design Method (SAMDM);

b) The Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) method;
c) The Elasto-Plastic Design Method (S-N method);
d) The CBR design methods;
e) The AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures;
f) The Design catalogues indicated in SATCC[10-15], and;
(g) Other design methods indicated in TRL[7, 16-20].

The SATCC design methodologies and standards (originating from South Africa (SA))[10] grouped
into two codes:

a) Code for structural design of new asphalt pavements (SATCC, 1998)[12] and;
b) Code for pavement rehabilitation (overlay)(SATCC, 2001)[13].
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 Code for structural design of new asphalt pavements

The current code for designing new roads is based on the use of the design catalogues which enable
the designer to rapidly select possible pavement structures that whould meet the design criteria. The
criterion is based on matching two factors:
a) Traffic class in terms of expected future traffic; and
b) Subgrade class in terms of the CBR of the foundation and the climate region (SATCC, 1998)[12].

 Traffic loading

This refers to the cumulative wheel loadings that are sustained by a pavement over the course of its
life. The determination of a value for traffic loading depends on several factors (Tjan, 1996)[2]:
a) Average daily traffic, ADT (initial number of vehicles per day);
b) Future projection (annual growth rate by vehicle type);
c) Distribution of trucks;
d) Lane distribution (percent of trucks in design lane);
e) Directional distribution (percent of trucks in design direction);
f) Truck factors or load equivalency factors (the means to convert the distribution of vehicle
loads into an equivalent number of load applications that can be used for design).
The combination of the above factors with the design period (usually 10 years to 30 years) derives
from the 80-kN equivalent single axle load (ESAL) applications that will be sustained by the “design
lane”. One of the important factors that influence pavement thickness is traffic loading. The damage that
vehicles do to a road depends very strongly on the axle loads of the vehicles.
The SATCC design methodologies and standards (SATCC, 1998[12], SATCC, 2001[13] and COLTO,
1997[14]) use Eq.3-1. Multiple axles are treated as separate axles for this purpose (Elis, 1979)[7].
�P �
EF = � � (for loads P in kN) (3-1)
�80 �
where, P is vehicle axle load; y = design period (10-20 years); n = damage factor.
The road and traffic categories used for pavement design in Mozambique are from the SATCC
design methodologies and standards (2001) and are classified as A, B, C, and D, which correspond to a
total equivalent traffic loading per lane (E80/lane) over the design period (in millions), 3-100, 0.3-10,
<3, and <1, respectively.
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The formula used by the Overseas Unit, TRRL 31[16], for defining the equivalence factor of any
axle-load traversing typical roads in developing countries is given in Eq. 3-2.
�P �
EF = � � (3-2)
�8,160 �
Where: P is axle load in tonnes.
The SATCC design methodologies and standards (SATCC, 1998)[12] and (SATCC, 2001)[13], take
into consideration the traffic loading as the one very important factor in the pavement design. The total
ESAs (Equivalent Standard Axle of 80 kN) for one direction is computed using Eq. 3-3 from an
estimate average annual daily number (T) of ESAs on one lane at the opening of the new road to traffic,
projected at a selected growth rate (i) and cumulated to the total traffic over the design period.

Ty = T *365* G f * EF (3-3)

[1 + 0.01* i] - 1 (3-4)
Gf =
0.01* i

Where, Gf is a growth factor computed in Eq. 3-3. Gf rates normally ranges between 2 to 15 per
cent per annum and EF is a conversion factor to standards axles in ESAs per vehicle in each direction
for each vehicle class, calculated from the axle load survey in Eq. 3-1 or 3-2. The recommended traffic
class designation and the road categories and traffic used in Mozambique are presented in Tables 9 and
10, respectively.

Table 9 Recommend traffic class designation (CSRA, 1996)

Traffic class designation
Traffic T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
(million < 0.3 0.3-0.7 0.7-1.5 1.5-3 3-6 6-10 10-17 17-30
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Table 10 Recommend road category (CSRA, 1996)

Description A B C D
Major Interurban Lightly Rural access
Interurban collectors trafficked road
and major and rural roads rural roads,
rural roads strategic roads
Importance Very important Important Less important Less important

Service level
Service level 95 90 80 50
Typical pavement characteristics
Very low Low Medium High
95 90 80 50
Total Equivalent traffic 3-100 0.3-10 3 1
loading (106 E80/lane)** Over 20 years Depending on Depending on Depending on
design strategy design strategy design strategy
Typical pavement ES10-ES100 ES1-ES10 ES0003-ES3 ES0.003-ES1
Daily traffic (e.v.u)**** > 4000 600-10 000  600  500
Constructed riding
PSI***** 3.5-4.5 3.0-4.5 2.5-3.5 2.0-3.5
Terminal riding quality
PSI 2.5 2.0 1.8 1.5
Warning Rut level 10 10 10 10
(mm) 20 20 20 20
Terminal rut level (mm)

 Code for the pavement rehabilitation (overlay)

In SATCC standards the main pavement rehabilitations are: a) complete pavement reconstruction; b)
partial reconstruction; c) asphalt or granular overlay; d) surface rehabilitation and; e) provision of
drainage or/improvement of the existing facilities (SATCC, 2001)[13]. Currently Mozambique is using
standards origin from the South African Transportation and Communications (SATCC). In this work, the
simplest design methods i.e the CBR and design catalogues of the Asphalt Institute, the modified
AASHTO methods and design catalogues, which do not require previous expensive pavement testing,
will be presented.

 South African California Bering Ratio (CBR) design method

The CBR (California Bearing Ratio) was the one of the first empirical design methods
developed and used first by the California Division of Highways before World War II (during 1928-29)
for pavement structures (Caputo, 1985)[79] and (Yoder and Witczack, 1975)[3]. The original CBR design
method was developed to provide guidelines for the thickness to protect a subgrade with a certain CBR
value (De Beer et al., 1997)[10]. The first design curves were obtained by testing soils from failed and
from satisfactory pavements(Ulidtz, 1987)[1]. The failed pavements are those showing:
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1) Lateral displacements of the subgrade material as a result of the pavement absorbing water,
2) Excessive deflection of the material under the pavement. All over the world, the design curves
are presented for different subgrade CBR values.

 Subgrade class in terms of the CBR of foundations and climate region.

Subgrade is also important factor, apart from traffic loading which governs the pavement structural
configuration. The CBR method can be based on geological and soil property assessments (SATCC,
1998)[12]. In terms of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR), this is expected to represent realistic
conditions for design. In practice, this means determining the CBR strength for the wettest moisture
conditions likely to occur during the designed life, at the density expected to be achieved in the field.
The subgrade classes used in South Africa (SATCC, 1998) [12] are as indicated in chapter 4.

 The Asphalt Institute (AI) design method based on the measurement of soaked CBR

This design method is based on the measurement of soaked CBR from which a design subgrade is
obtained (SATCC, 2001)[13]. A CBR hereafter called Design subgrade Strength (DSS) should be
representative of the whole length of pavement under study. A representative thickness of the pavement
obtained by converting the layers to the equivalent thicknesses of asphalt that would have the same
strength is calculated by Eq. 3-5.
Te = �ci hi (3-5)
i =1

where, hi = ith layers thickness; ci = conversion thickness factors of existing pavement to effective
thickness assumed as follows: (a) Improved subgrade: 0.0-0.2; (b) Granular subbase or base with CBR
< 20: 0.1-0.3; (c) Ggranular base: non-plastic material and stabilized bases: 0.3 – 0.5; (d) Asphalt
surfaces and asphalt bases with some cracks: 0.5-0.7; (e) Asphalt concrete and asphalt bases with
cracks: 0.7-0.9; and (f) Asphalt concrete and asphalt bases with no cracks: 0.9-1.0.

 The Asphalt Institute (AI) method based on Representative Rebound Deflection (RRD) and
Traffic Load Repetitions

This method is based on measurements of deflections at 21ºC (SATCC, 2001) [13]. RRD refers to
deflections measured during the most critical period (usually after the rainy period). This method
incorporates the graphics for calculating the remaining life and required overlay asphalt pavement
thickness. If the deflections are measured at other time, seasonal adjustment should be applied. The
RRD also can be entered into the appropriate graphic to determine the total number of traffic loadings
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(E80’s) that is carried by the pavement. In another graphic can be entered the RRD and the expected
future traffic to determine the required asphalt overlay thickness. If the past traffic is given, the
remaining life then can be computed by Eq. 3-6,

RLE80 = TE80 – PE80 past (3-6)

Where, RLE80 is remaining life E80’s; TE80 is the total number of traffic E80’s, and PE80 past, is the past
number of traffic E80’s.

 The AASHTO Design Concepts

 Reliability Concept 

AASHTO uses the reliability concept to account for uncertainties in pavement design (Huang 1993,
2004[4],[5] and Yoder and Witczack, 1975)[3]). Reliability can be defined as the probability that a
pavement section designed using the process will perform satisfactorily under the traffic and
environmental conditions for the design period (AASHTO, 1993) [10, 105]. The design period is defined as
the time from the initial construction or rehabilitation to its terminal serviceability index.
The reliability factor comprises two variables: (a) ZR = standard normal deviate. The standard
normal deviate value corresponds to a desired probability level in the expectation that the design does
not last a specified number of years (e.g., 20 years), in percentage; (b) So = combined standard error of
the traffic prediction and performance prediction. This variable defines how widely the two basic design
inputs, traffic and performance, can vary. There are some factors that can affect this number, e.g. the
growth of population. The equation must account for these factors. The more these values vary, the
higher the value of So.

 Recommended Values of ZR and So

The 1993 AASHTO Guide provides some recommended levels (Table 11) (Huang, 1993, 2004)[4],[5]
However each organization or agency can choose their own levels of reliability to use. In 1993 the
AASHTO Guide also included standard normal deviate values that depend on reliability (Table 12) and
typical values of standard errors (Table 13)(Huang, 2004)[5].

Table 11: Suggested Levels of Reliability for Various Functional Classifications

(from AASHTO, 1993)
Page 16 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis
Recommended Level of Reliability
Functional Classification
Urban Rural
Interstate and Other Freeways 85 - 99.9 80 - 99.9
Principal Arterials 80 - 99 75 - 95
Collectors 80 - 95 75 - 95
Local 50 - 80 50 - 80

Table 12: Standard Normal Deviates for Various Levels of Reliability (Huang, 2004)[4]
Reliability Standard normal Reliability Standard normal
(%) deviate (ZR) (%) deviate (ZR)
50 0.000 93 -1.476
60 -0.253 94 -1.555
70 -0.524 95 -1.645
75 -0.674 96 -1.751
80 -0.841 97 -1.881
85 -1.037 98 -2.054
90 -1.282 99 -2.327
91 -1.340 99.9 -3.090
92 -1.405 99.99 -3.750

Table 13 Typical values of Standard error (So)

Typical values of So
For flexible pavements For rigid pavements.
0.35 0.4

 The Structural Number (SN)

The pavement structure is characterized by the Structural Number (SN). The SN is an abstract
number expressing the structural strength of a pavement required for given combinations of soil support
(MR), total traffic expressed in ESALs, terminal serviceability and environment.
The Structural Number is converted to actual layer thicknesses using: (a) a layer coefficient (ai) that
represents the relative strength of the construction materials in that layer; and (b) all layers below the
HMA layer are assigned a drainage coefficient (m i) that represents the relative loss of strength in a layer
due to its drainage characteristics and the total time it is exposed to near-saturation moisture
conditions. Generally, quick-draining layers, unsaturated, can have coefficients as high as 1.4 while
slow-draining layers, often saturated, can have drainage coefficients as low as 0.40.
Because of the errors associated with its use, the drainage coefficient is often neglected (i.e., set as
m = 1.0). The SN also can be obtained from the backcalculation modulus. Eq. 3-19 can be used in the
calculation of SN. Table 14 presents typical layer drainage coefficients.

SN = a1 D1m1 + a2 D2 m2 + a3 D3m3 (3-19)

Page 17

Table 14: Typical pavement layer coefficients

Layer Material Coefficient
Surface Stability flow 4 0.44
Stability flow 2
Bituminous 0.35
Waterbound Macadam 0.22
G1 0.20
G5 0.14
G5 0.12
G7 0.11

 Serviceable life

The serviceable life is defined as the difference present in the serviceability index (PSI) between the
construction and end-of-life. The equation compares this to a default value of 4.2 for the immediately-
after-construction value and 1.5 for end-of-life value (terminal serviceability). Typical values used now
are: (a) Post-construction: 4.0 - 5.0 depending upon construction quality, smoothness, etc; (b) End-of-
life (called "terminal serviceability"): 1.5 - 3.0 depending upon road use (e.g., interstate highway, urban
arterial, residential). The typical serviceability parameters are presented in Table 15.

Table 15: Serviceability parameters

Pavement Use/Type P0 pt ∆PSI
Any Use 4.5 3.0 1.5

 The AASHTO Empirical Equation

There are many different types of empirical equations available today and one of the most widely
used all over the word is the Empirical AASHTO equation presented in the 1993 AASHTO [105] design
equation for flexible pavements. In the rehabilitation design the AASHTO equation can be used to
determine the structural number required to accommodate the expected future traffic. The 1986
AASHTO pavement design guide (AASHTO, 1986) considers the thickness and stiffness of each
pavement layer to define traffic in terms of equivalent 80 KN axle loads. This equation is widely used
and has the following form:
log �
� 4.2 - 1.5 ��
Log (E80) = R 0 + 9.36 log( SN + 1) - 0.2 +
0.4 +
[ SN + 1]

+2.32 log( M R ) - 8.07 (3-21)

where, ZR = Standard normal deviation; S0 = Combined standard error (Default 0.35); SN = Structural
Page 18 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis
Number; ai = i layer coefficient; di = i layer thickness; W18 = Predicted number of E80 load
th th

repetitions; MR = Resilient Modulus in psi; ∆PSI = Allowable reduction in serviceability from measured

PSI; mi = Moisture coefficient

 Modified AASHTO methods

 Deflection analysis techniques by from FWD tests

Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) is a test method that is commonly used for the determination
of pavement surface deflections as a result of the application of an impulse load to the pavement
surface. The resulting deflections measured at the center of the applied load, and at distances of 0, 200,
300, 450, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 mm from the load are used to estimate the in-situ material
proprerties (i.e., moduli of elasticity) of the pavements layers, and the resulting data are used to
structurally evaluate the load bearing capacity (Habboub, 2000)[87].
Most techniques developed fall into two categories: deflection parameters and backcalculation of
layer moduli. Deflection Basin parameters are used directly to evaluate pavement structural integrity.

 Derivation of Pavement’s Structural number from FWD tests

The pavement Structural Number (SN) is used as an indicator of pavement strength in a number
of pavement design and performance prediction models (De Beer, 1997)[10]. The deflections measured
from FWD can be used to determine the pavement structural number and characterize the subgrade. In
the determination of SN two techniques can be used: a) The first uses the deflection basin to estimate
the structural number and subgrade modulus; b) In the second, the pavement’s structural number can be
derived from the backcalculated moduli.

 Use of deflection Basin to estimate the structural number and subgrade modulus

De Beer et al., (1997)[10] cited that Rhode (1994), presented the schematic representation of the FWD
equipment and stress distribution and measured bowl beneath the FWD load as indicated in Fig.4. The
method (De Beer et al., 1997[10], Zhang et al., 2002[88] and Zhang et al., 2003[89] ) follows the procedures
below: (a) Normalize measured FWD deflections to standard 40 KN load deflections; (b) Determine the
deflection at an offset of 1.5 times the total pavement thickness; (c) Effective structural number.

 Normalization of measured FWD deflections to standard 40 KN load deflections

Page 19

Typically, the FWD instrument is set to discharge the weights at a height that will cause an impact of
approximately 40 kN. Because the load is never precisely met, the measured deflections should be
normalized to exactly 40 kN. For that it is assumed that the whole pavement system is linear elastic and
the normalized deflection can be calculated (Diogo, 2007)[25].
Qmax di
d norm = (3-7)
Where, Dnorm= Normalized deflection (µm); Di= Measured deflection (µm); Qmax= Load to which
normalization is done (typical 40 kN); Q = Load during testing, KN.

 Determination of the deflection at an offset of 1.5 times the total pavement thickness

This procedure requires interpolation between deflections measured at fixed sensor positions. The
interpolation is made on curve fitted through 3 fixed positions.

( RX - RB )( RX - RC ) ( R - RA )( RX - RC )
DX = DA + X DB
( RA - RB )( RA - RC ) ( RB - RA )( RB - RC )

( RX - RA )( R X - RB )
+ DC (3-8)
( RC - RA )( RC - RB )

where, Dx = Deflection at an offset of Rx; Di = Deflection at sensor i; Ri = Offset of sensor i ; i = A, B, C

being the 3 closest sensors to point X; and X = Point for which deflection is determined.
Page 20 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis





1.5Hp 450mm




Fig. 4 The Stress Distribution and Measured Deflection Bowl Beneath FWD Loads (Rhode, 1994)
(Zhang et al., 2002[88] and Zhang et al., 2003[89])

where, Y0 – Maximum FWD deflection; SIP – Structural Index of Pavement; SIS – Structural Index of

 Effective structural number

The effective structural number at the temperature and moisture conditions during testing can be
determined by using the following formula:
k k
SNeff = k1 ( D0 - D1.5Hp ) 2 Hp 3 = k1 * SIP k2 * Hp k3 (3-9)

where: SNeff = Structural Number (Effective); Di = Measured deflection in m m at an offset of i; D0 = Peak

In determining the structural number at a standard temperature the peak deflection D0, should be
corrected to an equivalent peak deflection at reference temperature; SIP = structural index of pavement

(microns). Hp = Total pavement thickness in mm; Coefficients k1 , k2, and k3 for SNeff equation are

presented in Table 16.

Page 21

Table 16 Coefficients for SNeff equation

Surface type definition k1 k2 k
For seals 0.1165 -0.3248 0.8241
For asphalt pavement 0.4728 -0.4810 0.7581

 Determination of estimate subgrade modulus

In an estimation of the subgrade modulus the procedures below should be followed:

a) Determine the surface deflection (D) at an offset of 1.5 �Hp and 1.5 �( Hp + 300). These
deflections should be obtained through interpolation using Eq. 3-8;

(b) Calculate the subgrade stiffness using equation:

( D1.5Hp - D1.5( Hp+300) )

k4 k6
Esg = 10 Hp (3-10)

In Eq. 3-10, the surface deflections D1.5Hp at an offset of 1.5 �Hp can be calculated by Eq. 3-11. and
D1.5( Hp +300) at an offset of 1.5 �( Hp + 300) , by the Eq. 3-12, respectively.
D1.5 Hp = 1.5 �Hp (3-11)

D1.5( Hp +300) = 1.5 �( Hp + 300) (3-12)

where, Esg = Subgrade Modulus in MPa; Di = Measured FWD deflection at an offset of i ; Hp = Total
pavement thickness in mm; K4, K5 , K6 = Coefficients as defined in Table 17.
Table 17 Coefficients for use in equation 3.10
Total Pavement Thickness k k5 k
4 6
< 380 9.138 -1.236 -1.903
380 - 525 8.756 -1.213 -1.780
> 525 10.655 -1.254 -2.453

The calculation of the structural number takes into consideration the temperature and moisture
conditions at the time of deflection testing. The SATCC standards and world wide practices recommend
that in determining the structural number at a standard temperature the peak deflection, D 0, should be
corrected to an equivalent peak deflection at the reference temperature. For this purpose the following
should be followed:
Page 22 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis

 Derivation of the pavement’s structural number from backcalculated moduli.

The second technique indicates that a pavement’s structural number can be derived from the
backcalculated layer Modulus. For this purpose the Eq. 3-16 suggested by AASHTO (1986) (De Beer et
al., 1997)[10] can be used.

1/ 3
n �E �
SN = 0.0394�hi ag � i � (3-16)
�E �
i =1 �g �
where ag = Layer coefficients of standard materials used in AASHO road test; h i = Layer thickness in
mm; Ei = Layer modulus of i-layer; Eg = Resilient modulus of standard materials in the AASHO road
test; and SN = Structural number or determined by Eq. 3-17 indicated from AASHTO Guide for Design
of Pavement Structures AASHTO(1993)[10,105].
SN = 0.0394�hi ai (3-17)
i =1

where ai = Layer coefficients of layer i; and hi = Tickness of layer i, in mm;

To take into account variations in subgrade strength, the modified structural number (SNC) suggested
by Hodges et al, 1975 (De Beer et al., 1997)[10] can also be used, as shown in Eq. 3-18.

SNC = SN + 3.51(log10 j ) - 0.85(log10 j ) 2 - 1.43 (3-18)

Where j is the value of in situ CBR.

 Subgrade support

Subgrade support is characterized by the subgrade's resilient modulus (M R). Ideally, the amount of
structural support offered by the subgrade should be a large factor in determining the required pavement
structure. The difference between the required number and that measured on the pavement through
deflection testing can be used to decide on strengthening options. The following procedures should be
observed (De Beer, et al., 1997)[10]:
(a) Measure deflections using Eqs. 3-8, 3-11, 3-12 and determine SNeff and ESG using Eqs. 3-9
and 3-10, respectively;
(b) Determine the SN required accommodating the expected traffic using Eq. 3-19;
(c) Determine the strengthening required:
Page 23

�SN - SNeff �
hst = 25.4 � � (3-20)
� ast �

where hst = Thickness required of the selected material to increase SN eff to SN; SN = Structural Number
required; SNeff = Effective Structural Number of pavement to be strengthened; a st = Structural coefficient
of material to be used in strengthening. Typical pavement layer coefficients are listed in Table 3.8.

 Design Catalogues:

In the Technical Recommendations for Highways (TRH4) (CSRA, 1996)[15] are presented 5 charts
for dry region (D1-D5) and 5 charts for wet regions (W1-W5) matching a specific base/subbase
structure. To determine the appropriate structures, the following parameters are entered in the design
catalogues: a) traffic class; b) subgrade support classification, and; c) nominal conditions. The SATCC
design catalogues are basically used for roads with traffic less than 30 million ESAs. For roads with
traffic greater than 30 million ESAs, other design methods must be used, such as UK, USA methods and
Australian practices (CSRA, 1996)[15]. The SATCC design catalogues give relatively thin (< 50 mm)
asphalt concrete surfacing due to the current low road traffic, and provide a good all-weather surfacing
for flexible pavements with granular or lightly cemented bases(De Beer et. al., 1999)[106]. But
traditionally in wet regions, relatively thick asphalt concrete base pavements are used. The typical
design includes a (100 to 120) mm continuously graded asphalt concrete base with a 40 mm semi - gap -
graded flexible asphalt concrete surfacing (De Beer et. al., 1999)[106]. According to (Emery, 2002)[107],
Ultra-Thin Layer Asphalts (UTLAs) range in application from high-performance high-traffic roads to
low-performance low-traffic roads.
Page 24 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis


6.1 Background

At the beginning of the 1920’s, the design and construction was entirely empirical. During the past
three decades attempts were made to improve pavement analysis and design by calculating the stresses
and strains at critical locations of pavements (the bottom of the HMA and the top of the subgrade) and
compare them to calculated strain levels at critical locations in the pavement system for the
determination of failure strains (Ku et al., 1967; Battiato et al.,1977)(Bhutta, 1998)[63].

6.2 Elastic solution in asphalt pavements

The first step in the analytical-empirical method is to calculate the pavement response. In 1943
Burmister presented a method for determining stresses and displacements in a two-layer system. Some
attention was given to temperature related to failure, including linear fracture mechanic characterization
of HMA properties under the influence of temperature (Paris et al., 1963; Majidzdeh et al., 1976; Lytton,
1986; Lytton et al., 1993) (Bhutta, 1998)[63].

6.2.1 Characterization of stresses and strains in flexible pavements

The simplest way to characterize the behavior of a flexible pavement under wheel loads is to
consider it as a homogenous half-space. The original Boussinesq (1985) (Huang 1993, 2004) [4],[5] theory
was based on concentrated loads applied on a half-space. Later the layered theory was developed by
Burmister (1943) (Huang 1993, 2004)[4],[5]. This theory can be used to determine the stresses, strains, and
deflections in subgrade if the modulus ratio between the pavement and the subgrade is close to unity, as
exemplified by a thin asphalt surface and a thin granular base.

6.2.2 Hook’s Law

The elastic layered theory uses Hook’s Law. The basic assumptions of this theory include the

a) Layers are infinitely long in the horizontal directions

b) Layers have uniform thickness
c) Bottom layers are semi infinite in the vertical direction
d) Layers are composed of homogeneous, isotropic, linearly elastic materials, characterized by
elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio.
Page 25

6.2.3 Hook’s Law for three-dimensional case

After the stresses are obtained from charts presented by Foster and Ahlvin in 1954(Huang 1993, 2004) [4],
, Hook’s law for three-dimensional cases can be used and expressed as:

ez = [s z -n (s r + s t )] (6-1)

er = [s r -n (s t + s z )] (6-2)

et = [s t -n (s z + s r )] (6-3)

6.2.4 Differential Equations

The compatibility equation for linear elastic behavior of a continuous body in cylindrical
coordinates is presented (Huang, 2004[4], Maina and Matsui, 2005[149], and Timoshenko and Goodier,
1951[150]. (Yu, 2000)[65] indicates that these differential equations are used in the KENLAYER program
developed by (Huang, 1993)[4], under the DOS platform written with FORTRAN 77. The Huang,
(2004)[5] developed KENLAYER includes the KENPAVE package using the Windows platform. The
backbone of the program is Bumister's multi-layer theory dealing with the multi-layer system under a
circular loading area and the theory of elasticity.

�4 f (r , z ) = 0 or �2 �2 f (r , z ) = 0 (6-4)

that is assumed for each layer.

��2 1 � � �
Where � = � 2 +
+ 2 �is the axi-symmetric Laplace operator and the stress function, Φ, is a
��r r�
r � z �

solution of the biharmonic equation.

For systems with axially symmetrical stress distribution, this equation may be rewritten as
 2 1     2 1   
 2 + + 2  2 + + 2 j ( r , z ) = 0 (6-5)
 r r r z  r r r z 

Where, z = vertical axis, positive downwards; r = radius from the vertical axis in the horizontal plane
(stresses and strains are constant in the horizontal plane for any r and z); f ( r , z ) is a stress function
satisfying the equilibrium equations such that:
Page 26 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis
   2f ( r , z ) 
sz =  (2 -  ) 2f ( r , z ) -  (6-6)
z  z 2 

   2f ( r , z ) 
sr =  2f ( r , z ) -  (6-7)
z  r 2 
  1 f (r , z ) 
\s t =  2f (r , z ) -  (6-8)
 z  r r 

   2f ( r , z ) 
 rz =  (1 -  ) 2f ( r , z ) -  (6-9)
r  z 2 

1+   2f ( r , z ) 
w=  2(1 -  ) f ( r , z ) -
 (6-10)
E  z 2 

 1 +    f (r , z )
u = -  (6-11)
 E  r  z

where, sz = vertical stress; sr = radial stress in the horizontal plane; st = tangential stress in the
horizontal plane (perpendicular to sr); rz = shear stress; w = vertical displacement; u = radial ;
displacement; E = Young’s modulus ;  = Poisson’s ratio.
When the stress function satisfies the compatibility equation the following conditions hold: a)
Displacement throughout the body is continuous; b) Each elemental part of the body is in equilibrium,
and; c) Stress and strain are related to Hooke’s law.

6.2.5 The Boussinesq case

The Boussinesq case is for an infinite half space with a circular load at the origin, as shown by Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Multi-layered pavement system (Huang, 2004)5

Page 27

In the elastic system, the solution for vertical stress when the radius is zero is presented
below[Huang 1993, 2004][4],[5]. This theory says that in elastic systems, when the load is applied over a
single circular loaded area, the most critical stress, strain, and deflections occur under the center load of

the circular area on the axis of symmetry, where  rz = 0 and s r = s t , so s z and s r are the principal

� z3 �
sz = q �
1- 2 2 1.5 � (6-12)
� (a + z ) �

q� 2(1 + n ) z z3 �
sr = 1
� + 2n - + 2 1.5 � (6-13)
2� (a + z )
2 2 0.5
(a + z ) �

From Eq. 6-10, we get

(1 +n )q � 2n z z3 �
ez = 1
� - 2n + - 2 1.5 � (6-14)
E � (a + z )
2 2 0.5
(a + z ) �

(1 +n ) q � 2 z (1 -n ) z3 �
er = 1
� - 2n - + 2 1.5 � (6-15)
2E � (a + z )
2 2 0.5
(a + z ) �

 Vertical deflection

The deflections under center load can be determined by

(1 +n ) qa � a 1 - 2n �
w= � 2 + (a 2 + z 2 )0.5 - z �

� �
� (6-16)
�(a + z )
2 0.5
E a

When n =0.5, Eq. 6-16 can be simplified to

3qa 2
w= (6-17)
2 E ( a 2 + z 2 )0.5

On the surface of the half-space, z = 0; from Eq. 6-17

2(1 -n 2 )qa
w0 = (6-18)

6.3 Viscoelastic solution in the asphalt pavement theory of viscoelasticity of asphalt pavements
Page 28 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis
This chapter reviews the theory of linear viscoelasticity, which is currently being used to
characterize the rheological behavior of asphalt binders and mixtures. It documents the work undertaken
to study the dynamic mechanical behavior of asphalt mastics. It highlights the improvements in
capturing the geometry of the mixtures, and presents the methodologies used to translate viscoelastic
measurements into material model parameters. Available testing procedures are briefly described. Those
of interest are presented in more detail.

6.3.1 Theory of Linear Viscoelasticity

When a stress or strain is impressed on a body, rearrangement takes place inside the material as a
response to that excitation. Materials that exhibit significant amounts of time-dependent stress-strain
behaviors are called viscoelastic (Schapery, 1974)(Abbas, 2004) [151]. These materials are more strongly
dependent on the recent stress-time history than on the more distant one, which is referred to as fading
memory (Gibson, 1994) (Abbas, 2004)[151]. Due to the significant time-dependency of these materials,
they experience increased deformation under creep loading, stress relaxation under constant strain, and
distinct lag between stresses and strains under dynamic loading, represented by a phase angle.
The theory of linear viscoelasticity can be traced back to Boltzmann, who modeled a linear visco-
elastic solid as an elastic material with memory. At any fixed point on the body, the stress at any instant
of time depends upon the strain history at all proceeding times. As mentioned earlier, the influence of
previous strains on the stress developed depends on the time elapsed since that strain occurred. The
linear visco-elastic theory is only an approximation of real behavior, and thus is referred to as
“phenomenological”. Schapery (1974) stated that for a linear viscoelastic behavior, the response must
satisfy the following two conditions (Abbas, 2004)[151]:
1 1- Proportionality: proportional change in input causes the same proportional change in response.
2 2- Superposition: response due to independent inputs acting simultaneously is equal to the sum of
the responses from each input acting separately.
Following the notations of Schapery (1974) (Abbas, 2004) [151], these two conditions are
mathematically expressed as:

R { cI} = cR { I} (6-19)

R { I a + Ib } = R { Ia } + R { I b } (6-20)

Where, I = input to system (e.g., forces), R{I} = response of the system from the input I (e.g.,
displacements), Ia and Ib = inputs that could be of the same or different time history.
The stress-strain behavior of these materials can be described using the “Boltzmann
superposition principle” as follows,
Page 29

e (t ) = �
D(t - t �
) dt � (6-21)
dt �

Where, e(t) = strain response at time t; s (t) = stress input; and D(t) = creep compliance at time t.

6.3.2 Viscoelastic methodology of asphalts

Many existing models are linear viscoelastic (Kim 1995, 1997,1996 , Huang, 1993,
2004[4],[5]); However nonlinear may provide a more realistic estimate of pavement response, the
associated mathematical complexities have limited past analysis of linear characterizations (Si, 2001)[43].
In the determination of the state of stress in pavement structure and in the characterization of permanent
deformation of materials in a pavement as a function of the stress state, load repletion and temperature,
etc. the layer strain is considered a reasonable approach for predicting rut depth (Si, 2001) [43] due to
providing the added flexibility of allowing the use of both linear and non-linear elastic theory.
Monismith et al., (1986)[153] and Long, 2001[154] used layer strain to predict rut depth in linear elastic
asphalt pavements. Different researchers i.e (Abdulshafi and Majidzadeh 1984[52], Lytton et al., 1993[26],
Lu and Wright 1998, 2000[31],[46] and Lu et al, 2002[32]) used viscoelastic methods to study the problem of
cumulative strains in the pavements. Due to the complexity of the visco-elastic method, they provide
relatively poor agreement between measured and predicted values and up to date have not proved to be
better than the layer-strain method; however, if constitutive relationships are developed based on the
tests that apply to the state of the stress compared to those encountered in pavements near the tire edges
and if either linear or nonlinear viscoelastic models are developed that can incorporate there laws, more
accurate estimations are expected.
This study makes uses of both viscoelastic and layer strain methods to estimate rut depth.
Viscoelastic strains are calculated for each layer at middle depths on KENLAYER. Later the results are
used to calculate rut depths or calculate cumulative viscoelastic strains. Different models can currently
be used to estimate the state of the stresses in the pavements(Si, 2001)[43].

 Moving loads

An important advantage of moving loads can be directly considered (Huang 1993, 2004[4],[5] and Si
2001[43] ). This results in the correct time-rate of loads to be applied to each material element and
permits estimates to be made of the lateral plastic flow of the material beneath the moving wheel (Si
2001)[43]. The creep compliances (Huang 1993, 2004[4],[5] can be calculated by
Page 30 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis
� t �
D(t ) = x 0 + �x i exp �- � (6-22)
i =1 � Ti �

 Fitting Dirichlet series

The first step in this process is the Dirichlet fit of the given creep compliance. The creep
compliance can be calculated
� t �
D(t ) = �xi exp �- � (6-23)
i =1 � Ti �
Where, t = is loading time; Ti = is retardation time, and xi = are Dirichlet constants for 7 durations i.e

(G1 to G7); Parameter xi can be calculated,

xi = (6-24)
E (t )
If the creep is specified for 11 time durations, it means there are 11 equations and 7 unknowns.
By definition, compliance is the reciprocal of the modulus of materials.
e (t )
D(t ) = E (t ) -1 = (6-25)

Where, e (t ) = is the strain dependent on time; and s = is the applied constant stress.

 Collocation of Creep compliances

If the creep compliances are specified at 7 durations, the coefficients xi through x7 can be determined
from Eq. 6-23 by solving 7 equations simultaneously. If the creep compliances are specified at 11 time
durations, there are 11 equations and 7 unknowns, so the 11 equations must be reduced to 7 equations
by multiplying both sides with a 7 x 11 matrix (Huang, 1993, 2004) [4,5], which is the transposition of the
11 x 7 matrix, or as presented in Eq. 6-26.
Page 31

� �t � � ��� � t1 �
1 ..... exp - t11 �
� t1 � �
� � - exp -
� �..... exp �- � �
�T � �
�T � ��� � T �
� � T7 � ��x1 �
� � 1� � 1 �� � 1 �
�M �� M ��M� (6-26)
� �� �� �
� � t1 � �� � t11 �
� t11 � ��
� t11 ��x7 �
� -
exp �
�T �

..... exp �
� T ���exp �- �..... exp �- �
� �
� � 7� � 7� �
�� � T � � �T �
1 7

� �t � � t11 ��
- 1
� �
�T � �
..... exp �- T ��
� � 1� � 1 ���D1 �

=� M ��M �
�� �
� �t � � t ���
�D11 �
� - 1 �..... exp �
exp � - 11 ��
� � T � � T ��
� � 7� � 7� �

After coefficients xi through x7 are obtained, the creep compliances at any time t can be computed by
Eq. 6-23.

 Viscoelastic correspondence principle

Instead of using a Dirichlet series to measure the responses at various times, the elastic-visco-elastic
principle can be applied to obtain the viscoelastic solutions from the elastic solutions. In solving this
problem, a Laplace transform is used to remove the time t with a transformed variable p, i.e changing
the problem into an associated elastic problem. This transformation result in viscoelastic solutions.
However, for visco-elastic solutions, it is not possible to obtain a Laplace inversion and an approximate
method collocation must be used (Huang 1993, 2004)[4],[5].
Huang (1993)[4] found that the Laplace transform does not add any advantage compared with the use
of the Dirichlet series. For example, in the development of KENLAYER (Huang 1993, 2004)[4],[5] the
Laplace transform was not used.In the KENLAYER program, the collocation method is applied on two
occasions: First, the creep compliances at reference temperature are specified at a number of time
durations fitted with a Dirichlet series, so that the compliances at any other temperatures can be
obtained by the time-temperature superposition principle. Second, the elastic solutions obtained at these
durations are fitted with a Dirichlet series to be used later for analyzing moving loads (Huang, 1993).
According to Huang, 1993, the creep compliances of visco-elastic materials are resulted from creep
Creeps are general used for a 1000 sec creep test with compliances measured at 11 different time
durations i.e 0.001, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 (FHWA, 1978). For example, Huang
Page 32 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis
(1993, 2004) used in KENLAYER the retardation times T i of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 10, 30, 10, 300,
and � seconds are specified because moving loads usually have a very short duration.

 Time–temperature superposition

If the creep compliances under reference temperature T 0 are known, those under any given
temperature T can be obtained by using a time-temperature shift factor a T (Pagen, 1965), defined by the
aT = T (6-27)

where, tT is the time needed to obtain a creep compliance at temperature T, and tT0 is the time needed to
obtain a creep compliance at reference temperature T0 . A plot of aT versus temperature of asphalt
mixture is a straight line  (Huang, 1993, 2004)[4],[5].

Coefficient  varies from 0.061 to 0.170, with an average of about 0.113 (FHWA, 1978). Coefficient 
can be determined

log( t )
tT0 (6-28)
T - T0

[2.3026 (T -T )]
tT = tT * e 0 (6-29)

By substituting the function e[2.3026  (T -70] by u in Eqs. 6-27 and 6-28 can be rewritten

tT = tT * u (6-30)

If the creep compliance based on reference temperature T0 is

� tT0 �
D(t ) = �xi exp �- � (6-31)
i =1 � Ti �

then the creep based on temperature T is

� tT �
D(t ) = �xi exp �- � (6-32)
i =1 � Ti �

According to Kelvin, if the creep compliances at t1=0.01, t2 = 0.07, and t3 = 0.4 s are D1 = 13.8, D2 = 72.9

and D3 = 142.3 mm2/kN, respectively, and using Eq.6-32, we get then the coefficients x 0 = - 145

mm2/kN and x1 =145 mm2/kN, the actual creep can be computed by Kelvin’s equation:
Page 33

D(t ) = 0.001( 1 - e -10t ) (6-33)

By substituting the time t in Eq. 4-34 with the time tT from Eq 6-30 we get Eq. 6-34.

1-e-10ut �
� �
D(t ) = 0.001 �
� � (6-34)
� �

Where, t is the loading time.

 Viscoelastic responses

The viscoelastic response R can be expressed approximately as a Dirichlet series:

� t �
R = �y i exp � - � (6-35)
i =1 � Ti �

where, R can be stress, displacement or strain.

If elastic solutions at 11 time durations are obtained, Eq. 6-36 can be applied to reduce the number
of equations to seven, which is the number of unknowns to be solved. If the responses at seven time
durations are obtained (Huang 1993, 2004[4],[5], and Butla[62]) from elastic solutions, the coefficients y1
through y7 can be solved directly by Eq. 6-36.
After coefficients yi are obtained, the viscoelastic response R can be determined by Eq. 6-35.

�- 0.01 -

e 0.01
� e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
�- 0.01 -
0.01 � �( R ) �

e 0.01 e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01 y 1 � � 0.01 �
� 0.01 �� � �( R ) �

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
- - - - - - 0.03
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01 � � �
� y 3 � �( R ) 0.1 �
�- 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 �� � � �
y 4 �= �( R ) 1 � (6-36)
- - - - -
e 0.01
� e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
�- 0.01 -
0.01 ��
y 5 � �( R ) �

e 0.01 e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
1�� � � 10 �
� 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
y 6 � �( R ) �
�- 0.01 - - - - - �� � � 30 �
e e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01
e 0.01 y7 �

�( R) � �
� �
� �
� 1 1 1 1 1 1�
Page 34 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis



9.1 Design and overlay of Marracuene-Manhiça road asphalt pavement

9.1.1 Problem statement

The National Roads Administration (ANE - Administração Nacional de Estradas) of the

Government of Mozambique (GOM) commissioned DIWI Consulting International GmbH in
association with MOZCONSULT to undertake the design and periodic maintenance of the Marracuene
to Manhiça section of the EN1, a length of 48 kilometres (DIWI, 2003)[73]. The Commencement of
Services was on the 26 of August 2002. The existing road would be widened to a nominal 9.80 m
surfaced width, which should consist of two 3.40 m lanes with 1.50 m of paved shoulders on either side.
The project area is situated between 30 km and km 78 to the north of Maputo city on the EN1 and is the
main link to the north of the country, as shown in Fig. 9.1

9.1.2 Environmental assessment

 Climate of Marracuene-Manhiça road

The Marracuene-Manhiça project area was located in Maputo Province, in the southern coastal part
of Mozambique. The climate data (Table 18) was collected from the Institute of Meteorology of
Mozambique covering records from 1992-2001. The mean annual rainfall in the southern region is
1,017.10 mm; the dry season extends from April to October and the wet from November to March;
Page 35

rainfall peaks during the months of January-March and considerably less rain falls in the remainder of
the year. The average maximum mean monthly temperatures recorded for 10 years vary between 20.2
and 27.4ºC and the minimum between 17.2 and 25.3ºC. Mountains along the border with South Africa
influence the climate of this region. In terms of climate, the Marracuene-Manhica area is considered as
being subtropical, and receives roughly around 1,200 mm of rain per year. Manhiça receives the highest
precipitation (1,580.1 mm) and Marracuene the lowest (849.4 mm). The average is 1.214.80 mm. The
average maximum mean monthly temperature recorded in the same period varies between 20.9ºC and
27.1ºC and the minimum varies between 17.6ºC and 22.6ºC.

Table 18: Resume of mean maximum rainfall and temperature values in the the southern region
provinces and the Marraquene-Manhiça area
Climate in Southern region Climate in Marracuene-Manhiça
Maximum Temperature Maximum Temperature
rainfall (ºC) rainfall (ºC)
(mm) Min Max (mm) Min Max
January 165.3 22.7 27 185.1 22.6 26.9
February 168.7 25.3 27.4 247.7 22.6 28
March 124.4 24.6 26.9 167 22.3 26.5
April 69.6 21.8 25.1 75.8 21.4 27.1
May 48.4 20.3 22.7 51.9 19.6 23
June 47.9 17.2 21.1 24.8 18.4 21.3
July 38.3 18.2 20.2 30.8 17.6 20.9
August 27.8 19.1 21.7 22.7 18.2 21.2
September 27.8 21.3 23 48.5 20 24.8
October 56.2 20.6 25 76.2 20.7 24.8
November 119.8 22.8 25.8 144 22 24.8
December 122.7 24.6 27 140.7 22.3 27

 Pavement temperature

The temperature distribution in an asphaltic pavement is directly affected by the thermal

environmental conditions to which it is exposed, which significantly impact on pavement stability and
long-term performance. (Yavuzturk, 2005)[61]. To calculate the pavement temperature, the air
temperatures from Table 18 were used to account for the effect of temperature on the creep moduli of
asphalt mixtures. According to Huang, 2004, the relationship between pavement temperature MP and
mean monthly air temperature Ma varies with depth and can be computed by the simplified equation
presented in the DAMA model,
Page 36 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis
� 1 � 34
M p = Ma �
1+ �- +6 (9-1)
� z +4� z +4
Where z is the depth below surface in inch or cm. The computed pavement temperatures are presented
in Fig. 6. The computed values show that the air temperatures are lower than the pavement
temperatures. The pavement temperatures increase as the depth increase.

Air temperature, ( C)
Pavement temperature, ( C); depht t = 0 cm,
Pavement temperature, ( C); depht t = 5 cm,

Road Temperature, ( C)







Jan Feb Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Fig. 6: Pavement temperature, ºC

9.1.3 Pavement rehabilitation of the Marracuene-Manhiça road

The existing road was studied using non-destructive test results combined with visual observation.
The data was supplied by the ANE (Road National Administration) from an inspection made by ANE.
The metrological data was supplied by the National Institute for Meteorology in Mozambique. In this
study traffic count data was also used with an aim to investigate the structural capacity of the pavement
and to define the need for strengthening the pavement. In the study of the pavement environmental
factors such as temperature and moisture sensitivity were considered.

 Traffic analysis and forecasting

Traffic forecasting was made in order to define the traffic load to be used in the calculation of the
structural capacity of the pavement. For forecasting the traffic the information of AADT collected from
ANE was used. According to SATCC (De Beer 1997)[10], normally 5 categories of vehicles exist as
indicated below:

a) Category 1: Car/small pick-ups;

b) Category 2: Light goods vehicles (including 4x4, panels vans and mini -buses);
c) Category 3: Light trucks including buses (2 axles);
d) Category 4: Medium trucks (2-3 axles) and;
e) Category 5: Heavy trucks (4 and more axles).
In the computation, according to SATCC design standards, only categories 3, 4 and 5 are used and
categories 1 and 2 are excluded due to their small impact on pavement damage. Other data are presented
in Tables below, 19, 20 and 21, respectively:
Page 37

Table 19: Average Annual daily traffic (AADT)

AADT in the first year (T)
Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5 Total
194 192 118 504

Table 20: Average axle load assumed for 3 categories (Cat) of vehicles
Design life period, p Average Axle Load for each
(Years) category, P (in Kg)
Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5
3,500 3,500 5,000

Table 21: Load equivalent factors assumed for 3 categories (Cat) of vehicles
Design life period, p Load Equivalent Factor (n=4) (F)
Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5
1.25 1.36 5.74

For forecasting analysis purposes, an average gross rate % per annum (r) of 5% has been assumed
for every year. The forecasted traffic over 10 years is presented in Table 22. At the end of the 10th year,
the total traffic in one direction will be 7.4 million ESA’s. So, according to Table 22, the traffic is
classified T6 and from Table 10, the road category of the Marraquene –Manhica road falls into B with a
service level of 90%.

Table 22: Computed equivalent standard axles for one direction

Design life Cumulative Design Traffic
ESAs (in one direction)
period (DT)
(p) Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5 TOTAL

2002 70,810 70,080 43,070 70,810 76,247 197,777 344,834

2003 145,161 143,664 88,294 145,161 156,306 405,444 706,911
2004 223,229 220,927 135,778 223,229 240,369 623,493 1,087,091
2005 305,200 302,054 185,637 305,200 328,634 852,445 1,486,280
2006 391,270 387,236 237,989 391,270 421,313 1,092,845 1,905,428
2007 481,643 476,678 292,958 481,643 518,626 1,345,265 2,345,534
2008 576,536 570,592 350,676 576,536 620,804 1,610,306 2,807,645
2009 1,005,983 995,612 611,886 1,005,983 1,083,225 2,809,782 4,898,990
2010 1,127,092 1,115,472 685,551 1,127,092 1,213,634 3,148,049 5,488,774
2011 1,387,779 1,373,472 844,113 1,387,779 1,494,338 3,876,167 6,758,284
2012 1,527,978 1,512,226 929,389 1,527,978 1,645,302 4,267,753 7,441,033
Page 38 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis

 Design of overlay for Marracuene-Manhiça road by different methods used in South Africa

For calculating the asphalt thickness to be overlaid on the Marracuene-Manhiça road, two methods
were used, i.e: the Asphalt Institute and the Modified AASHTO design methods. The calculations by
these methods as follows:

 Design of overlay by The Asphalt Institute method (AI).

The AI method is based on the use of a subgrade CBR strength that is called a DSS number. For
computing the thickness to be overlaid, the AI method uses the coefficients for the layer equivalency
factors presented in Table 23. The thickness design procedure is presented in Table 24. The thickness
for the pavement overlay resulted in 4 cm (40 mm) for the overlay.

Table 23: Coefficient for layers equivalency factors used in AI method

Layer Thickness Conversion
factor (ci)
Asphalt concrete 40 0.6
Asphalt concrete (base) 80 0.6
Sand/bitum.stab.subbase (CBR>20) 300 0.3
Selected Subgrade (CBR > 9%) 400 0.005

Table 24: Computation of thickness

Asphalt Institute Method
1. Determination of thickness
Description Equation Results
DSS Design subgrade strength 9
SC (106 E80’s) From chart Fig. 2.1 SATCC design guide (De Beer, 2.6
RL (10 *E80’s) = TF – TP 4.8
TF From table 9.5. 7.4
TP From ANE 2.6
Note: If the expected traffic is more than the remaining life,
then pavement strengthening is needed.
TP Past traffic
TF Future traffic
2. Determination of thickness to be ovarlayed
n 182
Te =TE = �ci hi
i =1
TOR (mm) = TA – TE 38
RL Remaining life 4.8
TA From Fig. 2.1 SATCC design guide (De Beer, 1997) 220
Te =TE Representative thickness of pavement layers
TA Required thickness
TE Existing thickness
TOR Ovarlay thickness
Page 39

 Design overlay by the Modified AASHTO method based on FWD tests

For computing the thickness overlay by the AASHTO design method, the coefficients for layers
equivalency factors presented in Table 25 are used. The thickness design procedure is presented in
Tables 26, 27 and 28. The thickness overlay for the Marracuene-Manhiça road results in 5 cm (50 mm).

Table 25: Coefficients for layers equivalency used in Modified AASHTO method
Layer Thickness Layer Drainage
(mm) coefficient coefficient
(Di) (ai) (mi)
Asphalt concrete 40 0.44 1
Asphalt concrete (base) 80 0.44 1
Sand/bitum.stab.subbase (CBR>20) 300 0.12 1
Selected Subgrade (CBR > 9%) 400 0.00 1
Total thickness (Hp) 820

Table 26: Computation of traffic by modified AASHTO equation and other parameters based on FWD tests
Description Equation Result
SN = a1D1m1 + a2D2m2 + a3D3m3 3.5
Esg (MPa)
(D - D1.5( Hp +300) ) Hp
= 10
1.5 Hp

= Z R S0 + 9.36 log( SN + 1) - 0.2

Log (E80) �DPSI �

log �
(106 E80’s) � 4.2 - 1.5 �� + 2.32 log( M ) - 8.07
+ R 6.4
0.4 +
[ SN + 1]

R(%) = Reliability 95

ZR = Standard normal deviate -1.645

S0 = Combined standard error of the traffic prediction and
performance prediction 0.5
ESG or = Resilient modulus 99
MR (MPa/psi) (14355 )
∆PSI = P0 – Pt (Serviceable life; for this case, P0=4.5; Pt = 3) 1.5
Dx ( RX - RB )( RX - RC ) ( R - RA )( RX - RC ) 60
= DA + X DB
( RA - RB )( RA - RC ) ( RB - RA )( RB - RC )

( RX - RA )( RX - RB )
+ DC
( RC - RA )( RC - RB )
RA =Offset of sensor A 1200
RB =Offset of sensor B 1500
RC =Offset of sensor C 1800
HP =Total thickness of pavement 820
Rx = R1.5 Hp = 1.5 �Hp 1230
Page 40 Southwest Jiaotong University PhD thesis

Table 27: Calculation of deflection at offset Rx = 1.5 x (HP + 300)

Dx (R - R )( R
1.5( H P + 300) B -R 1.5( H P +300) C ) 44
= DA
( RA - RB )( RA - RC )
( R1.5( H - RA )( R1.5( H - RC )
P + 300) P + 300)
+ DB
( RB - RA )( RB - RC )
( R1.5( H - RA )( R1.5( H - RB )
P + 300) P + 300)
+ DC
( RC - RA )( RC - RB )
RA =Offset of sensor A 1800
RB =Offset of sensor B 1500
RC =Offset of sensor C 1200
HP =Total thickness of pavement 820
Rx = R1.5 Hp = 1.5 �( Hp + 300) 1680

Table 28: Calculation of the effective structural number SN eff

Description Equation Result
SN = a1D1m1 + a2D2m2 + a3D3m3
SNeff = k1( SIP ) k2 Hp k3 2.7

�SN - SN eff � 50
hst (cm) = 25.4 � �
� ast �
SIP = D0 - D1.5Hp 1.218
Future Traffic = ADT *365* G f * EF 6.4
(106 ESA’s 80)
Gf [1 + 0.01* i ] - 1
0.01* i
Material parameters
K1 =Coefficient 0.4728
K2 =Coefficient -0.4810
K3 =Coefficient 0.7581

 The assumed thickness for overlay

For this design, a thickness of 50 mm obtained from the Modified AASHTO Method is assumed.
The pavement structure and other parameters are as presented in Table 29.

Table 29: Assumed parameters for Pavement Design and Evaluation Analysis at 20º C
Page 41

Elastic Poisson’s ratio Thickness (t)

Layers modulus (E) (m) (cm)
Asphalt concrete ovarlay 200 0.35 5
Existing asphalt concrete 510 0.35 4
Asphalt concrete base 250 0.35 8
Sand/bitumen stab.subbase (CBR>20) 210 0.4 30
Subgrade (selected) (CBR> 9) 100 0.4 40
Subgrade 35 0.4 
Total thickness (Hp) 82
Adjusted asphalt layer modulus for temperature 20º C;
Assumed modulus due to consideration that this layer is stabilized layer.