To the Petroleum Geology and Oil Field Familiarisation section

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Road Map

§ Principles, then Tools

– Geology; then the Oil Rig
§ Starting small then getting to the larger


Ground Rules § § § § § § § § § § § Turn off Mobile phones Ask questions and share experiences Return from breaks on time Have Fun! Humor is good! Relax No side conversations What is said here. . stays here Participate House keeping Others…….

Are you in the correct room ? Don’t tell me. but which of the following are you ? § Prisoner ? § Passenger or Holiday-maker ? § Explorer ? .

. Learning…. “PANIC ZONE” ..Whilst you’re here….

Learning to Learn Things you know Things you need to find out Things you didn’t know you knew Things you find out unexpectedly .

CLEAR THE DESKS !! You’ll need notebook and a calculator .Introduction OK .

Quick Quiz ! .

Geology Introduction Island arc Ocean spreading ridge Subduction zone Basin Mountains formed along a collision zone Terrain rafted onto continent .

Route § Reservoir porosity & permeability § Rock types § Traps § Structures § Seeing structures § Planning drilling § Drilling with a rig .

The Reservoir .

Solid + Space .

Matrix + Hydrocarbons (?) + Water .

percentage of water v hydocarbons Permeability .gross rock volume Percentage of pore space .potential fluid volume Fluid Saturation .Reservoirs Critical characteristics of a petroleum reservoir rock : Thickness and areal extent .ability to flow the contained fluid .

originates at the time of deposition eg. dolomitisation of limestones. intergranular sandstone porosity Secondary .Porosity Porosity (%) = Pore Volume Total Rock Volume x 100 Primary . fracturing Total Porosity .Connected pore space only .Connected and non-connected pore space Effective Porosity .post-depositional due to chemical or physical changes eg.

Porosity &Packing CUBIC RHOMBOHEDRAL .

Porosity & Packing § Mix of Cubic of Rhombohedral packing § Q: How could this occur in the field ? .

Reservoir Practical § Exercise in measuring reservoir properties - Porosity § Contents of the exercise – – – – – Porosity to be measured (unknown) Salt water Reservoir Electric current Measurement .

Your Reservoirs .

Your Reservoirs .

5 cm 12.5 cm .Your Reservoir shapes 12.

Terminology § R = Resistivity § S = Saturation § s = shoulder bed § i = invaded zone § xo = Flushed Zone § mc = Mud cake § h = thickness § w = formation water § d = diameter § z = mixed water § o = 100% Water saturated noninvaded zone .

Terminology These are usually paired examples: Rxo = Resistivity of the flushed zone Sxo = Saturation of the flushed zone .

Resistivity Terminology .

take the Resistivity on each of the targets between the contacts. What is this the equivalent of ? Why is there a difference between the control sample of water and the containers ? § § § § .Practical Measurements § In turn. what has been measured ? Measure the Resistivity in the control sample in the front of the class in Ohmm. With the distance of 12. this will generate Ohmm The measurement was taken in 100% water zone.5cm between the contacts multiply the Resistivity by 8 .

Fluid Saturation Resistivity of formation water = Rw Resistivity of rock and water = Ro Ro = F x Rw F = a / Φm where F = formation factor where Φ = porosity a & m = rock constants (typically 1 & 2 respectively) Resistivity of rock. water and HC’s = Rt Water saturation (Sw) = Water Volume / Total Fluid Volume Swn = Ro / Rt where n = saturation exponent (typically 2) Hydrocarbon saturation Shc = (1 .Sw) (Shc) = Hydrocarbon volume / Total Fluid Volume .

Rt . Ro Hydrocarbon Sand.Archie ‘Clean Sand’ Equation Ro = a x Rw m Φ a x Rw Sw = m Φ Rt n Ro Sw = Rt n Water Sand.

From Your Results Resistivity of formation water = Rw (Control sample) Resistivity of rock and water = Ro Ro = F x Rw where F = formation factor F = a / Fm where F = porosity a & m = rock constants (typically 1 & 2 respectively) RESULTS ?? .

The original round canisters contained 1.Just check From all the canisters with glass beads carefully poor the water into the measuring jugs and read the volume.6 litres § What percentage of fluids did you get back ? How good are your results ? For the large container with large stones in it. § Resistivity values on the bottom connection ? § Resistivity value on the top connection ? In the container full with wet sand What is the approximate porosity ? .9 litres the smaller container holds 1.

u / A (delta P / L) Q u A L delta P = flow rate (cm/s) = fluid viscosity (cp) = cross sectional area of rock (cm2) = length of rock (cm) = pressure drop Unit of measure = Darcy One Darcy = when 1 cc fluid of 1 cp viscosity flows through 1 cm3 of rock in 1 sec. under a pressure gradient of 1 bar Note : Viscosity of water at 20 C = 1 centipoise (cp) .Permeability Permeability (k) = measure of ease of fluid flow through the connecting pore space of the reservoir rock k = Q.

Permeability Gamma ray log shale increasing Tarbert 23-26% 500-2000 Rock type Porosity Permeability in millidarcies 16-27% Ness 50-2000 21-27% 100-3000 Etive 23-28% Rannoch 10-1000 Broom Note : Both porosity and permeability are adversely affected by compaction. cementation and clay mineral content .

Rock Types § Chemical § Carbonate § Clastic § Metamorphic § Volcanic .

KCl ) (18%) .gypsum (saturated) and anhydrite (dehydrated) – Primary gypsum forms large. usually due to evaporation of lake or seawater in arid environments. § Evaporite Minerals (in order of precipitation from seawater) – Calcium Carbonate (.3%) – Calcium Sulphate (3..g. clear crystals of selenite – Re-hydrated anhydrite forms fine crystals of alabaster – Sodium Chlorite (78%) – Potash salts (e.5%) .Chemical Rocks Evaporite Sedimentary Rocks § Sedimentary rocks can form from the deposition of inorganically precipitated salts.

with additional dissolved silica arriving by diffusion. Usually. Chert nodules probably form by mineral replacement around nuclei of crystallization. interbedded with clay layers. primary chert occurs as thin beds. – Primary (depositional) chert: Layers of siliceous ooze can accumulate where the influx of siliceous particles (usually the microscopic silica tests of radiolarians or diatoms) is much greater than the influx of any other sedimentary particle. . Most commonly this occurs in deep ocean environments below the depth at which calcium carbonate is insoluble (the carbonate compensation depth or CCD). usually in limestones or sometimes in mudstones. a form of silica made up of radiating fibers tens to hundreds of microns in length. § Chert in sedimentary rock can be either diagenetic or primary. aphanitic rocks made up of silt-sized quartz crystals (micro. – Diagenetic chert: generally occur as nodules or irregular beds.or cryptocrystalline quartz) and chalcedony.Chemical Rocks Cherts § Cherts are hard.

Goethite .Glauconite . Sedimentary rocks that contain more than 15% iron are called ironstones. Haematite .Pyrite -Siderite .Chemical Rocks Sedimentary Ironstones § § Iron is a common element in the Earth' crust.

Chemical Rocks
Carbonaceous (organic) deposits
§ § §

Sedimentary layers rich in carbon (not to be confused with carbonaterich deposits, which are called calcareous). Peat. Coal - The material making up the organic components of coal are called macerals. – Vitrinite - woody material - stems, leaves, branches, roots) – Exinite - spores, cuticles, resin, algae – Inertinite - partially oxidized material, including charcoal (fusinite) (fusinite) With burial, humic peats (composed mainly of vitrain) are progressively altered during coalification to produce a sequence of increasing carbon concentration and therefore energy value: – Peat - lignite (brown coal) – sub-bituminous - bituminous - anthracite subOil shale - Mudrocks with a high proportion of organic material altered to hydrocarbon. Also called petroliferous shale.



Chemical Rocks

§ Table discussion 5 minutes:

“Where do we get chemical rocks forming today ?”

Carbonate Rocks
Carbonates (limestones and dolostones) § rocks composed of particles of calcium carbonate or calcium magnesium carbonate § second most abundant type of rock after clastics § source of most carbonate material is biogenic, but some are chemical precipitates § Carbonate minerals
– Calcite (trigonal crystal) – high magnesium (11% - 19% magnesium substitution) - less stable – low magnesium (0% - 4% magnesium substitution) - most stable – Strontium also substitutes, but less than 1% – Aragonite (orthorhombic crystal) - unstable, will recrystallize to calcite – Dolomite - calcium magnesium carbonate, forms as a replacement of calcite and aragonite

based on a classification developed by Dunham in the early '60s. § . there are a variety of textures used to describe carbonate strata with large.Carbonate Rocks § § Carbonate Rock Classification based on texture and grain type Texture . organic structures that trapped and bound sediment during deposition (boundstones). In addition to the four main textures describing rocks with originally unbound sediments. Dunham's classification is particularly useful for describing carbonate rocks in hand specimen and in outcrop.

but with an irregular internal structure pisoids.ooids larger than 2mm – Peloids . . It can be expanded by incorporating description of the types of carbonate grains present (see handout). § Skeletal grains . – Spar .spherical to irregularly rounded pellets of micrite without internal structure – Oncoids . – Intraclasts .lime mud.a clear carbonate cement that precipitates between grains after deposition.pieces of carbonate skeletal material (see below) § Non-skeletal grains: – Ooids . depending on the density of large intraclasts.similar to pisoids.Carbonates Carbonate Grain Types (allochems) § Dunham's classification is primarily based on texture. § Carbonate intraformational conglomerates . carbonate particles less than 4 mm in diameter. partially lithified carbonate – Micrite .these are called floatstone or rudstone in Dunham's classification.fragments of reworked.concentrically layered spheres of calcite less than 2mm in size – Pisoids .

Carbonates Important Biological Producers of Carbonate Sediment § Animals (skeletal fragments) – Molluscs (bivalves. gastropods.these organisms are important because they form mats that trap and bind carbonate mud. § § . producing stromatolites (a type of bioherm or biostrome structure). etc. some types of cyanobacteria bore into skeletal debris and break down the shell material into tiny rods of calcite mud (micritization). cephalopods.) – Brachiopods – Echinoids and crinoids (echinoderms) – Corals – Foraminifera Algae – Red algae (encrusting) – Green algae (benthic and planktonic) planktonic) – Yellow-green algae (coccolithophores) Yellow(coccolithophores) Cyanobacteria . Also.

Carbonates Table discussion – 5 minutes “Where do we get carbonate rocks forming today ?” .


CLASTIC ROCKS “Rocks made from broken fragments of other rocks” § Usually silicate mineral structures because they survive § Sometimes you hear the term siliciclastic in connection with clastic rocks because their most common components. quartz & feldspar are silica (SiO2) containing minerals.0mm .0mm § Rudaceous rocks : particle size greater than 2. § Argillaceous rock : microscopic grains – 1/16mm § Arenaceous rocks : 1/16mm – 2.

Clastic rocks Describe the rock sample given to you Proper Order: Rock type Classification Colour Hardness or induration Grain size Grain shape Sorting .

Classification & Colour § Classification – Clastics – Carbonates – Chemical § Colour – Red and brown § ferric iron § oxidizing environment – Green and grey § ferrous iron § reducing environment – Dark brown § organic material § possible source rock – Black § anaerobic environment .

Hardness and Induration § Rudaceous & Arenaceous – Unconsolidated – Friable § crumbles with light pressure § grains easy to separate – Moderately hard § grains detach with probe § cuttings break with pressure – Hard § grains difficult to detach – Extremely hard § grains cannot detach § breakage through grains § Argillaceous – Soluble § Readily dispersed by water – Soft § no shape or strength – Plastic § easily molded & holds shape § hard to wash through sieve – Firm § definate shape § easily penetrated by probe – Hard § sharp angular edges § not easily penetrated .

More on Colour & Induration § Colour § Other terms in use § Induration § – Multicoloured – Irridescent – Speckled – Spotted – Banded – Scattered – Disseminated – Variegated Other terms in use – Brittle – Dense – Crumbly – Blocky – Loose – Amorphous .

Grain Size and Shape § Grain Size § § Grain Shape § Measure Angular – size of individual grains – mean size of grains in sample Report – weighted average – range of sizes § § – edges and corners sharp Subangular – Edges and corners rounded Subrounded – Edges and corners round to smooth Rounded – Edges and corners smooth Well Rounded – No edges or corners § § § .

Sorting § Monomodal – extremely well sorted – very well sorted – well sorted § Polymodal – moderately sorted – poorly sorted – very poorly sorted .

Luster § Arenaceous Rocks – Coated – Vitreous/Glassy – – – – Silky/Pearly Frosted/Dull Pitted Striated § Argillaceous Rocks – Earthy – Silky – – – – Waxy Velvety Soapy Resinous .

Cement and Matrix § Cement § § Matrix § Results from secondary crystallization of silica. carbonate or other solutes The difference between matrix and cement is one of degree but the following pointers can help – Calcite – Siderite – Sulphates – Iron Oxides – Silica – Dolomite – Pyrite – with no inter-granular contact the fill is matrix – matrix is a primary sedimentary material .

5% – compacted sediments § Rhombohedral = 25.9% – sedimentary rocks The following may be visible – bedding – fractures – jointing – bioturbation – lamination – slickensides – metamorphism .6% – young sediments § Hexagonal = 39.Visual Structures & Porosity § Structures § § Porosity § Cubic = 47.

lignite. mica.Accessories and Inclusions § These include pretty much any minor amount of mineral or fossil associated with the sample. chert – fossils of various types . § Some common accessories and inclusions – pyrite. glauconite.

Think of energy required to move the material § Rudaceous -> Arenaceous -> Argillaceous . dictated by the environment in which it formed.Clastic rocks The rock you have has a depositional history.


1987 Continental Slope .Schematic of Sedimentary Environments Exaggerated vertical scale Alluvial Fans Desert Dunes Barrier Island Bay Beach Delta Braided Stream Lake Delta Lake Meandering Stream Turbidite Channels Tidal Shoals Deep Sea Fan Continental Coastal Continental Shelf Bigelow et al..

Walker model. Massive ssts. 1978 Feeder Channel Debris D-B Slumps Flows CGLS. Braided Mid Fan Supra Fan Lobes Proximal Incised channel Classical turbidites Lower Fan Basin Plain Thin bedded New suprafan lobe No relative scale implied . Slope into Basin Conglomerates: Inverse-to normallly graded Graded-bed Gradedstratified Terrace Upper Fan Thin bedded turbidites on levee Pebbly ssts.



cementation and clay mineral content .Permeability Gamma ray log shale increasing Tarbert 23-26% 500-2000 Rock type Porosity Permeability in millidarcies 16-27% Ness 50-2000 21-27% 100-3000 Etive 23-28% Rannoch 10-1000 Broom Note : Both porosity and permeability are adversely affected by compaction.


Gas Basin Formation .

Gas Basin Rock .

but if the rock on one side of a fracture has moved in relation to the other. the fracture is called a fault .Geological Structures Sedimentary rocks are generally deposited in horizontal layers or shallow slopes called strata or beds. Most rocks are unable to withstand the earth’s geological forces and hence become deformed (scale can vary from cms to kms) Folds : anticlinal and synclinal Faults : many rocks become fractured during earth movement (forming joints).

Geological Structures Unconformities : Earth movement can allow erosion or prevent continued deposition of sediments A buried erosion surface is called an unconformity Disconformity : beds above and below the surface of unconformity are parallel Angular Unconformity : beds are non-parallel either side of the eroded surfac .

Bacteria breaking down the material use up the available oxygen producing a stagnant environment preventing complete decomposition. flooded forests and sheltered lake or sea beds vast amounts of plant material accumulate. bacteria and marine micro-organisms In areas such as swamps. .Origins of Oil and Gas : Source Oil and gas are derived from plants. The plants and bacteria become buried in silts and muds and are preserved.

Origins of Oil and Gas : Maturation With continued burial under more sediment the organic material is subject to increasing temperature and pressure. which under the correct conditions will convert the organic material into hydrocarbons Temperature range for Hydrocarbon generation : • Minimum temperature required = approx 65 C • Optimum “hydrocarbon window” = 107 C to 176 C • Increasing temperatures = convert heavy to light HC’s and ultimately gas • Maximum temperature = above 260 C all organic material carbonised Depth km Temperature degrees celcius 50 Oilfield Oilfield with gas Source rock maturity 100 No oil or gas yet Oil 150 Oil and gas Gas Kerogen carbonised no oil or gas Gasfield 200 .

Origins of Oil and Gas : Maturation Marine plankton and bacteria produce oil and gas : eg Oil and most gas under the Central & Northern North Sea and West of Shetland formed from planktonic algae and bacteria that flourished in tropical seas in the Jurassic Period (140 million years ago) Land plants and bacteria produce coal and gas : eg Gas from beneath the Southern North Sea and Irish Sea formed from coals which were derived from the lush tropical rain forests that grew in the Carboniferous Period (300 million years ago) .

Saudi Arabia : migration over long distances up-dip in a porous reservoir bed until a trap was encountered . Venezuela : vertical migration via faults and fractures leading to a large shallow accumulation eg 2. Believer District.Hydrocarbon Migration Compaction of the source rocks by the increasing weight of overburden provides the driving force necessary to expel the hydrocarbons Migration of the fluids progresses through porous and permeable beds or along fractures and faults to regions of lower pressure (usually to a shallower depth) eg 1. Khurais Field.

Hydrocarbon Migration Seal destroyed Gas and tar seepages Oil and gas are less dense than rock or water and so migrate upwards Once migration is terminated by a trapping mechanism the gas and oil displace water. Liquid oil seepages are rare since oil becomes viscous and tarry near the surface due to oxidation and bacterial action. Migration of oil and gas is a slow process. and settle out in layers due to their different densities. Over geologic time huge amounts have risen to sea floors and land surfaces. Impermeable Seal broken Permeable Impermeable Trapped oil and gas Permeable Impermeable Permeable Migration magnified Oil and gas migrated through permeable rock 4 km Water rock . a few kilometers over millions of years. escaping as gas and tar seepages. with water below.

Faulting. Salt Dome Piercement • Stratigraphic eg. Anticlinal folds.Trapping Mechanism Traps fall into two basic types : • Structural eg. Lithology change. Differential thickness. Lense . Unconformity.

Trapping Mechanism Commercial hydrocarbon accumulation requires migration to the surface to be halted by some kind of seal and trapping mechanism Typical impermeable sealing rocks are shales. cemented sandstone s or salt Accumulations will only form if the reservoir and seal are in the right shape and juxtaposition to form a trap Gas gap Seal or cap-rock 2 km Oil Water Permeable reservoir rock Gas dissolved in oil 4 km Water Spill point .

§ SNIFF Test !! .

0 psi/ft In this case.446 psi/ft = 0.433 psi/ft = 0. Such reservoirs can have reservoir pressure gradients up to 1.465 psi/ft Abnormal pressure can develop in isolated reservoirs as a result of charging from surrounding compacting shales. the overburden above the sandstone reservoir is supported by an abnormally high fluid pressure as well as the normal grain-grain contact.Reservoir Pressure Normal reservoir pressure = hydrostatic pressure of column of saltwater to reservoir depth Hydrostatic pressure gradient depends on amount of dissolved salts in the water : • Fresh Water (300 ppm salts) • Normal Marine water (35. production will reduce the pressure and may allow further compaction. resulting in possible casing collapse or land subsidence .000 ppm salts) • GOM marine water (80. Consequently.000 ppm salts) = 0.

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