You are on page 1of 234

 

Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation

PROJECT FILE NO.


20125

STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION
McKinney Independent School District Stadium
McKinney, Texas

PREPARED FOR
Rob Daake
Abernathy, Roeder, Boyd & Hullett P.C.
1700 Redbud Boulevard
Suite 300
McKinney, Texas 75069

 
REPORT

APPENDI
X I
LLUSTRATI
ONS PHOTOGRAPHS REPORT
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 1

INTRODUCTION

GENERAL INFORMATION

Dates of Site Investigation: March 13; April 16, 17, and 18; and May 11, 2018

Nelson Staff Present at March 13, 2018


Investigations: Ryan T. Chancey, Ph.D., P.E.
Travis G. Ebisch, P.E.

April 16 and 17, 2018


Travis G. Ebisch, P.E.
J. Nick Seader, E.I.T.
James N. DeLavan

April 18, 2018


Travis G. Ebisch, P.E.
J. Nick Seader, E.I.T.

May 11, 2018


Alan R. Stringfellow, P.E.

Testing Performed: Ground penetrating radar survey (4/16 - 4/18/2018)


Concrete core sample extraction (5/11/2018)
Petrographic analysis of concrete core samples

AUTHORIZATION AND PURPOSE

Nelson Forensics, LLC (Nelson) was authorized by Mr. Rob Daake with Abernathy,
Roeder, Boyd & Hullett P.C. (client) to investigate cracking concrete flatwork at the
concourse level of the McKinney Independent School District Stadium in McKinney,
Texas. Nelson was tasked with determination of the potential cause(s) of the distress, as
well as the effect(s) of the distress as related to strength and serviceability of the evaluated
stadium components.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 2

SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION

Nelson performed a review of received information pertaining to the stadium including,


but not limited to, construction drawings, specifications, shop drawing submittals,
concrete mix design submittals, concrete field reports, and concrete materials test reports.
Nelson observed the exposed portions of the top surface of the visitor (east) concourse
level concrete flatwork. Nelson performed Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys at
select locations of observed distress. Nelson developed a distress map indicating
locations, lengths, and approximate widths of cracks in the concrete flatwork, as well as
photographically documented observed distress and general conditions. Nelson
coordinated and observed concrete core sample extraction at 11 locations at the visitor
concourse. The samples were submitted to DRP, Inc. for petrographic analysis.

The stadium is a multi-purpose facility which incorporates a community event center at its
southern extent. The stadium consists of four distinct levels, with the concourse serving
as the main assembly level. The exposed visitor concourse is the subject of this report.
Additional areas of the concourse level enclosed within concession and service buildings
were not the subjects of this phase of Nelson's investigation.

This report was not prepared for use in a real estate transaction. It was prepared for the
purpose and for the client as indicated above. Any and all usage or reliance upon this
report by parties other than the client is expressly prohibited.

DESCRIPTION OF EVALUATED STADIUM COMPONENTS

A key map annotated to indicate the areas comprising the visitor side of the stadium is
presented in Figure 1, on the following page. The area designations mirror those from the
stadium construction documents. The majority of the flatwork at Areas D, E, and F
consisted of conventionally reinforced, two-way concrete slabs. The slabs were placed
over decomposable carton/void forms and supported by conventionally reinforced
concrete piers at regular intervals.

Smaller, one-way conventionally reinforced, cast-in-place concrete slabs-on-void were


located at the northeast portion of Area D and at the southeast portion of Area F. These
locations were coincident with northeast and southeast concourse ingress/egress ramps.

A limited portion of the exposed Area F flatwork consisted of elevated conventionally


reinforced, cast-in-place one-way concrete slabs, which were located above an interior
storage area at the south end of Area F, and above the southeast field ingress/egress
tunnel adjacent to the interior storage area.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 3

Visitor
Side

Figure 1: Area key map of McKinney Independent School District Stadium

RECEIVED INFORMATION

In addition to on-site observations, the opinions presented in this report may be based on
the following information:

Concrete batch tickets for Area D, Area E, and Area F concourse placements
prepared by Martin Marietta for Greco Structures on various dates during 2017
[concrete batch tickets].
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 4

Concrete testing reports for Area D, Area E, and Area F concourse placements
prepared by GME Consulting Services, Inc. for McKinney ISD on various dates
during 2017 [concrete test reports].
Manhattan Construction Company Submittal Package No.: 0004-03 3000-0
titled Revised Structural Mix Design, dated March 3, 2017.
Manhattan Construction Company Submittal Package 0018-03 2000-0 titled
Area F, dated March 15, 2017.
Manhattan Construction Company Submittal Package 0019-03 2000-0 titled
Area D [sic, Area E], dated March 15, 2017.
Structural drawings for bidding and construction prepared by Rodolfo D'Arlach
(Texas P.E. No.: 94923) with Datum Engineers Inc. for Stantec, various dates
during 2016 [construction drawings].
Project specifications for McKinney District Wide Stadium prepared by Kent
Leach (Texas Registered Architect No.: 15597) with Stantec, dated May 20,
2016 [project specifications].
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 5

OBSERVATIONS

Photographic documentation of the stadium and other field-obtained data are being
maintained in Nelson's project file. Select photographs are included within the body of
this report. A schematic drawing indicating the general configuration of the stadium,
areas of distress, test areas, and data collected is presented in the Illustrations section.
Nelson's observations pertaining to the stadium and relevant to Nelson's scope of work
include the following:

 Numerous cracks throughout the concourse flatwork in Area D, Area E, and


the portion of Area F that consisted of a 10" thick two-way concrete slab over
void forms (Figure 2 through Figure 7);
 The aforementioned cracks varied in width throughout the concourse
flatwork; however, they were regularly observed to be greater than 0.02" in
width (Figure 8);
 The cracks were typically oriented in the east-west direction, perpendicular to
the long axis of the concourse, and typically manifested along the east-west
pier lines;
 Isolated concentrations of cracks were observed where the slabs formed
reentrant corners at the transition between the one-way and two-way slab
systems in northeast and southeast portions of Area D and Area F,
respectively, as well as above a portion of the pier locations in Area D, Area
E, and Area F (Figure 9);
 Cracks were typically observed at the interface of the slabs and the walls for
the stairways that provide access to the lower bowl of the stadium from the
concourse level (Figure 10 and Figure 11);
 Expansion joints were oriented in the east-west direction along the boundary
between Area D and Area E, and along the boundary between Area E and
Area F (Figure 12);
 Concrete stairwell landings were constructed over the tops of both expansion
joints (Figure 13);
 Expansion joints measured approximately 1.5" in width.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 6

Figure 2: Concrete slab cracks in Area D

Figure 3: Concrete slab crack in Area D


Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 7

Figure 4: Concrete slab cracks in Area E

Figure 5: Concrete slab crack in Area E


Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 8

Figure 6: Concrete slab crack in Area F

Figure 7: Concrete slab crack in Area F


Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 9

Figure 8: Concrete crack measuring approximately 0.02" in width at Area D

Figure 9: Concrete slab cracks at geometry change in Area F along the transition between the one-way
(right hand side of frame) and two-way slab systems (left hand side of frame)
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 10

Figure 10: Concrete slab cracks at lower bowl access stairs at Area F

Figure 11: Concrete slab cracks at lower bowl access stairs at Area E
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 11

Figure 12: Expansion joint between Area E and Area F

Figure 13: Concrete stairwell landing over top of expansion joint between Area E and Area F
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 12

REVIEW OF RECEIVED INFORMATION

PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS

Nelson reviewed the project specifications for McKinney District Wide Stadium prepared
by Stantec and dated May 20, 2016. "Division 03" of the project specifications is titled
"Concrete" and contains the specifications for stadium's concrete materials and
construction practices.

Section 03 30 00 is titled "Cast-In-Place Concrete," and sub-section 1.5.F.1 states the


following:
Comply with the provisions of the following codes, Specifications and standards:
a. "Specifications for Structural Concrete," ACI 301.
b. "Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete," ACI 318.
c. "Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete," ASTM C94.
d. "Specification for Hot Weather Concreting," ACI 305.1.
e. "Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting," ACI 306.1.
f. "Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and Placing Concrete,"
ACI 304R.
g. "Recommended Practice for Consolidation of Concrete," ACI 309.
h. "Specification for Curing Concrete," ACI 308.1.
i. "Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight,
and Mass Concrete," ACI 211.1.
j. "Standard Practice for Structural Lightweight Concrete," ACI 211.2.
k. "Guide for Use of Admixtures in Concrete," ACI 212.2.
l. "Recommended Practice for Evaluation of Strength Test Results of
Concrete," ACI 214.
m. "Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction," ACI 302.1.
n. "Guide to Cast-In-Place Architectural Concrete Practice," ACI 303.
o. "Placing Concrete by Pumping Methods," ACI 304.2.

The specification further indicates that the "latest adopted edition" of each of the
foregoing codes, specifications, and standards "…shall apply, unless noted otherwise."
Furthermore, the specifications indicate that in the case of a conflict between the Contract
Documents and a referenced standard, "the Contract Documents shall govern;" and in the
case of a conflict between the Contract Documents and the Building Code, the "more
stringent shall govern."
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 13

Sub-section 3.1 is titled "Production of Concrete," and includes the following provisions:
3.1.H. states:
Delivered concrete mixture shall conform to limits given on Drawings and on
approved mix design for each class of concrete. If means are available to
measure, monitor, and document quantities and timing, water may be added,
during transit or at site, to concrete mixture in truck to adjust workability, and the
documentation shall be transmitted to the laboratory inspector for inclusion in his
inspection report. In no case shall the water content exceed the maximum
specified water/cement ratio for the mix. Concrete shall not be placed when its
slump or temperature are outside limits given on Drawings and on approved mix
design. [bold emphasis added by Nelson]

3.1.I. states:
Mixing Time: Unless otherwise approved by laboratory inspector, discharge of
concrete shall be completed within 11/2 hours or before drum has revolved 300
revolutions (whichever comes first) after introduction of mixing water to cement
or cement to aggregates. In hot weather, reduce mixing time as required to
prevent excessive stiffening of mix.

CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS

Nelson reviewed the construction drawings prepared by Datum Engineers Inc. (Datum)
for Stantec, with various dates during 2016. General notes are contained on sheets S001
through S003, and the concourse foundation plans for Area D, Area E, and Area F are
presented on Sheets S114, S115, and S116, respectively.

Sheet S002 contains general notes pertaining to concrete construction. Note 3 under
Codes & Design Specifications indicates that the design conforms to ACI 318-11. Note 1
under Concrete Reinforcing indicates that the reinforcing steel members shall be
Grade 60 for member sizes #3 through #6. Note 1 under Concrete Mix specifies a
4000 psi concrete mix with a 3-5" slump for slabs-on-void boxes. Note 7 states
"Maximum water-cement ratio for concrete slabs-on-grade and slabs-on-void boxes shall
be 0.50." Note 10 stipulates that exposed formed concourse beams, slabs, raker beams,
and raker columns have a maximum water/cement ratio of 0.40.

Sheets S114, S115, and S116 indicate that the majority of the exposed portions of the
visitor concrete flatwork at Area D, Area E, and the majority of Area F consist of a
10" thick two-way slab reinforced with #4 steel reinforcing members spaced at
10" on-center each-way at the top and bottom of the concrete slab placement. Eight
additional #5 steel reinforcing members each-way are indicated at the top of the concrete
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 14

slab placement at all interior piers. These sheets further refer to Detail 8 on Sheet S304 for
additional information on the concrete slab and Detail 6 on Sheet S304 for the additional
reinforcing above the interior pier locations. S304 was dated September 2, 2016.
Figure 14 through Figure 17 contain excerpts from the aforementioned sheets.

Figure 14: Excerpt from Sheet S114 depicting note Figure 15: Excerpt from Sheet S114 depicting note
for two-way slab for additional top reinforcing over pier locations

Figure 16: Detail 8 from Sheet S304 Figure 17: Detail 6 from Sheet S304

STEEL REINFORCING SUBMITTALS

Nelson reviewed the steel reinforcing shop drawings for Area E and Area F, which were
included in the Manhattan Submittal Package Numbers 0019-03 2000-0 and
0018-03 2000-0 and corresponded to Datum Submittal Numbers 68 and 67, respectively.
Datum received the Area E submittal on March 15, 2017, and the Area F submittal on
February 15, 2017. Both documents were revised on March 27, 2017 with the comment
"Make Corrections Noted" on each.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 15

These shop drawings (Sheets RP-EC-6 and RP-FC-7) contain Datum's comments noting
additional reinforcing members (drag reinforcing), primarily in the east-west direction
along the pier locations as shown in Figure 18.

Figure 26 on page 25

Drag
reinforcing
Typ.

Figure 18: Excerpt from Page RP-EC-6 of Manhattan Submittal Package No.: 0019-03 2000-0
for the east entryway at Area E, annotated by Nelson

The drag reinforcing was noted on sheet RP-EC-6 as "2x4#5 40-00 Lap 42" W/4#5 50-00"
indicating that 2 layers of 4 #5 steel reinforcing members were to be constructed at the
top of the concrete slab. The drag reinforcing would be in addition to the typical slab
reinforcement indicated in Figure 16, on the previous page.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 16

CONCRETE MIX DESIGNS

Nelson reviewed the F8206M and F8206W mix designs prepared by Martin Marietta for
Greco, dated March 3, 2017, which were included in the Manhattan Construction
Company (Manhattan) Submittal Package No.: 0004-03 3000-0 titled "Revised Structural
Mix Design." This submittal package was marked as Datum Submittal No.: 62, which
was received by Datum on March 7, 2017, and revised March 10, 2017 with the
comment "Make Corrections Noted."

The Manhattan submittal package corresponds to Greco transmittal No.: 37 and Martin
Marietta submittal No.: 23746. The Greco cover page describes the uses for the F8206M
and F8206W mix designs as follows:
F8206M – Formed Elevated Slabs & Beams, Retaining Walls, Bowl Walls, Slab &
Beams on Void Boxes & Bowl Seating 4,000 psi
F8206W – Exterior Slab on Graded (sic), Exterior Grade Beams on Cartons, Lower
Bowl Slab on Carton – 4,000 psi
Page 15 of the submittal package contains the F8206M mix design, which is reproduced
in Figure 19. The designed water to cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) is specified as
0.44 and commented by Datum to be reduced to 0.4 per the general notes.

Figure 19: Excerpt from Page 15 of Manhattan Submittal Package No.: 0004-03 3000-0
indicating concrete mixture F8206M
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 17

Page 13 of the submittal package contains the F8206W mix design. The mix design is
similar to the F8206M mix; however, it does not include a superplasticizer. The designed
water to cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) is specified as 0.45 and commented by
Datum to be reduced to 0.4 per the general notes. An excerpt from Page 13 is presented
as Figure 20.

Figure 20: Excerpt from Page 13 of Manhattan Submittal Package No.: 0004-03 3000-0
indicating concrete mixture F8206W

It is clear from the marked-up submittals that the structural engineer of record, Datum,
intended for the F8206M and F8206W mix designs to have a water/cement ratio limited
to 0.40.

CONCRETE BATCH TICKETS

Nelson reviewed the concrete batch tickets for the Area D, Area E, and Area F concourse
placements prepared by Martin Marietta for Greco on various dates during 2017. The
batch tickets contain information such as timestamps for when the concrete mixture was
loaded into the ready-mix trucks (concrete trucks); the mix design used by the concrete
batch plant to produce the concrete mixture; and the amount of each of the mixture's
ingredients (aggregates, cement/cementitious materials, water, chemical admixtures).
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 18

The tickets also indicate if any additional water was added to the concrete trucks at the
time of delivery.

The batch tickets indicate that visitor concourse placement sequence occurred as follows:
 Area E was placed on May 6, 2017;
 Area F was placed on July 14, 2017;
 Area D was placed on October 12, 2017.

Area E
The Area E batch tickets indicated that 520 cubic yards of concrete conforming to the
F8206W mix design were ordered from Martin Marietta by Greco on May 6, 2017. Of
the 52 received batch tickets for Area E, 44 indicated the time the concrete was loaded
onto the truck, and the time the concrete was removed from the truck. The average time
that the concrete was contained on a ready-mix trucks (time on truck) was 1 hour and
10 minutes. Four of the batch tickets indicated that concrete was on a truck longer than
1 hour and 30 minutes, and the maximum reported time concrete was on a truck was
1 hour and 59 minutes.

Additionally, 47 of the 52 received batch tickets indicated that water was added to the
concrete in the ready-mix trucks. The average amount of water added to the concrete
trucks was 28 gallons. The maximum reported amount of water added to a concrete
truck was 48 gallons.

Taking into account the amount of water in the concrete mixture at the time the concrete
was loaded onto the concrete trucks, and the amount of water reportedly added to the
trucks at the time of delivery, if any; Nelson calculated the water to cement (including
other cementitious materials, such as fly ash) ratio (w/cm) for each batch ticket. The
average calculated w/cm value for the Area E batch tickets was 0.44 with a maximum
calculated value of 0.5. The calculated w/cm value was in excess of 0.40 for 47 of the 52
batch tickets for Area E (90%). The calculated w/cm values for Area E are presented in
Figure 21, on the following page, in comparison to the specified maximum w/cm value.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 19

Figure 21: Calculated w/cm values for Area E (F8206 W mix design) in comparison to the
specified maximum w/cm value

Area F
The Area F batch tickets indicated that 410 cubic yards of concrete conforming to the
F8206M mix design were ordered from Martin Marietta by Greco on July 14, 2017. Of
the 42 received batch tickets for Area F, 37 indicated the time the concrete was loaded
onto the truck, and the time the concrete was removed from the truck. The average time
that the concrete was contained on a ready-mix truck was 45 minutes, and the maximum
reported time concrete was on a truck was 1 hour and 16 minutes.

Furthermore, 31 of the 42 received batch tickets indicated that water was added to the
concrete in the ready-mix trucks. The average amount of water added to the concrete
trucks was 11 gallons. The maximum reported amount of water added to a concrete
truck was 20 gallons.

Nelson calculated the w/cm value for each batch ticket. The average calculated w/cm
value for the Area F batch tickets was 0.39 with a maximum calculated value of 0.45.
The calculated w/cm value was in excess of 0.40 for 8 of the 42 batch tickets (19%).

Area D
The Area D batch tickets indicated that 376 cubic yards of concrete conforming to the
F8206M mix design were ordered from Martin Marietta by Greco on October 12, 2017.
Of the 38 received batch tickets, 33 indicated the time the concrete was loaded onto the
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 20

truck, and the time the concrete was removed from the truck. The average time that the
concrete was contained on a ready-mix truck was 59 minutes, and the maximum reported
time concrete was on a truck was 1 hour and 30 minutes.

Additionally, 29 of the 38 received batch tickets indicated that water was added to the
concrete in the concrete trucks at the request of Greco. The average amount of water
added to the concrete trucks was 14 gallons. The maximum reported amount of water
added to a concrete truck was 35 gallons.

Nelson calculated the w/cm value for each of the concrete batch tickets. The average
calculated w/cm value was 0.40 with a maximum calculated value of 0.48. The
calculated w/cm value was in excess of 0.40 for 15 of the 38 batch tickets (40%). The
calculated w/cm values for Area D and Area F, which utilized the F8206M mix design,
are presented in Figure 22 in comparison to the specified maximum w/cm value.
Table 1, on the following page, presents a summary of the information presented in this
section.

Figure 22: Calculated w/cm values for Area D and Area F (F8206M mix design) in comparison to the
specified maximum w/cm value
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 21

Table 1: Concrete batch ticket summary

Batch Tickets

Time on Truck Water Added Calculated w/cm


Date Mix
Area
Placed Design Qty. No. No.
No. %
(cu. yd.) Tickets Avg. Max. > Avg. Max
No. Avg. Max. > >
(hr.) (hr.) 1.5 (ga.) (ga.)
0.40 0.40
hrs.
E 5/6/2017 F8206W 520 52 1.16 1.98 4 47 28 48 0.44 0.50 47 90
F 7/14/2017 F8206M 410 42 0.75 1.26 0 31 11 20 0.39 0.45 8 19
D 10/12/2017 F8206M 376 38 0.98 1.5 0 29 14 35 0.4 0.48 15 40

CONCRETE TEST REPORTS

Nelson reviewed the concrete test reports for the Area D, Area E, and Area F concourse
placements prepared by GME Consulting Services, Inc. (GME) for McKinney ISD with
various dates during 2017. These test reports present the results of the compressive
strength tests conducted on samples of the concrete obtained by GME from the concrete
trucks at the time of delivery. The reports show that the compressive strength tests were
conducted in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C39,
which is titled "Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete
Specimens." The test reports additionally contain the results of the concrete slump and
air content test obtained on the concrete mixture at the time the samples were obtained
by GME.

Area E
The Area E concrete test reports indicated that a portion of concrete samples obtained on
May 6, 2017 did not achieve 28-day compressive strength of 4000 psi. Of the five test
reports (one for each concrete truck sampled) for the Area E concourse placements, three
reports indicated compressive strength of less than 4000 psi at 28 days. Of these three
reports, only one report indicated that the concrete sample attained the required 4000 psi
compressive strength by 56 days.

Four of the five received reports indicated that between 20 and 25 gallons of water had
been added to the concrete trucks where samples were obtained by GME. The measured
concrete slumps ranged from 4.0" to 4.75". The reports further indicated air contents
ranged from 4.5% to 5.3%.

Area F
The Area F test reports indicated that all of the samples obtained by GME on
July 14, 2017 achieved the required 28-day compressive strength of 4000 psi. The four
test reports further indicated that between 5 and 10 gallons of water were added to the
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 22

concrete trucks sampled by GME. The measured concrete slumps ranged from 5.25" to
6.5", and the air contents ranged from 3.7% to 4.7% with the exception of one report that
indicated an air content of 2.7%.

Area D
The four Area D test reports indicated that all of the samples obtained on
October 12, 2017 achieved the required 28-day compressive strength. One report
indicated that 15 gallons of water was added to the concrete truck where the samples
were obtained. Two reports indicated measured slumps of 7.75" and 8", and the
remaining two reports indicated slump values of 6" and 7". The measured air contents
ranged between 4.6% and 6.5%. Table 2 presents a summary of the information
presented in this section.

Table 2: Concrete test report summary


Concrete Test Reports
Date Mix Comp. Str. Water Added Slump (in.) Air Content (%)
Area No.
Placed Design
Reports No.< 4000 Min. Max Min. Max Min. Max
No.
psi (ga.) (ga.) (in.) (in.) (%) (%)
E 5/6/2017 F8206W 5 3 4 20 25 4 4.75 4.5 5.3
F 7/14/2017 F8206M 4 0 4 5 10 5.25 6.5 2.7 4.7
D 10/12/2017 F8206M 4 0 1 15 6 8 4.6 6.5
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 23

TESTING PERFORMED

GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

Nelson performed ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys at select locations of observed
distress at the visitor concourse flatwork during the period of April 16 through
April 18, 2018. Nelson used a Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (GSSI) StrucureScan™
Mini HR GPR unit to perform the surveys. The purpose of the surveys was to evaluate the
as-built condition of the concourse slabs at locations where distress was observed. Please
refer to SE-1 in the Illustrations section of this report for Nelson's GPR survey locations.

A GPR functions by transmitting and receiving high frequency radio waves. When a
transmitted radio wave is reflected by an object and received by the antenna, the GPR
records the strength of the reflected wave as well as the elapsed time, then produces a
graphic representation of this information (waveform). In general, reflective materials,
such as metal, contrast more than the surrounding concrete material, which is less
reflective. For example, a metallic reinforcing steel member oriented perpendicular to
the path of the GPR scan will manifest as a bright reflection in the shape of a hyperbola
on the waveform. A portion of a GPR waveform obtained at Area D is presented in
Figure 23 for representational purposes.

Figure 23: Representational portion of GPR waveform obtained at Area D


Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 24

Nelson evaluated the slabs with the GPR at eight representative locations where slab
cracking was observed. In general, the location of the bottom of the slab and the bottom
mat of reinforcing steel was not visible in the GPR results due to the amount of
reinforcing in the top layer.

The GPR surveys revealed that the observable portions of the reinforcing were uniformly
spaced a located at a constant depth below the surface of the concrete (Figure 24 and
Figure 25). The reinforcing member spacing measured approximately 10" on-center
each-way, with exception of locations where additional reinforcing members were
indicated on the construction plans, such as above piers. When additional reinforcing
was revealed by the GPR, the additional reinforcing was uniformly spaced and located at
a constant depth below the surface of the concrete.

Figure 24: GPR survey area in Area F, chalk markings (yellow and red) represent locations of
reinforcing steel members within the slab
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 25

Figure 25: GPR survey area in Area D, chalk markings (yellow and red) represent locations of
reinforcing steel members within the slab

The drag reinforcing, previously mentioned in the Steel Reinforcing Submittals section,
on Page 15 were revealed by the GPR along the pier lines (Figure 26).

Drag Reinforcing

Figure 26: GPR waveform obtained at Area E drag reinforcing, annotated by Nelson
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 26

CONCRETE CORING

Nelson coordinated and observed the extraction of 11 cores by representatives of


Bryant Consultants at locations selected by Nelson on May 11, 2018. The purpose of the
coring was to evaluate the as-built condition of the concourse slabs and obtain concrete
core samples for petrographic analysis by DRP, Inc.

Multiple core locations were selected by Nelson within Area D, Area E, and Area F, as
shown in Table 3. Cores were extracted at locations exhibiting cracking at the concourse
surface as well as at areas that did not exhibit distress at the surface. 
 
 
Table 3: Summary of concrete core locations
Area Core No. Surface Observations
D VC #1 Concrete Crack
D VC #2 No Distress
D VC #3 No Distress
E VC #4 Concrete Crack
E VC #5 Concrete Crack
E VC #6 No Distress
E VC #6a No Distress
E VC #7 No Distress
F VC #8 No Distress
F VC #9 Concrete Crack
F VC #10 No Distress

The measured lengths of the extracted cores ranged from approximately 9" to 11", and
the cores further measured approximately 3.75" in diameter. Nelson observed that the
cores which exhibited cracking at the surface also exhibited cracking throughout the
entire depth of the core sample (Figure 27 and Figure 28, on the following page).

All core locations were repaired by Bryant at the completion of the testing, and the cores
were securely packaged and transferred to DRP, Inc. for further analysis on
May 11, 2018.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 27

Figure 27: Core location VC #9

Figure 28: Core VC #9


Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 28

PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE CORES

DRP, Inc. (DRP) performed a petrographic analysis per ASTM C856 "Standard Practice for
Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete" as well as a hardened air content
determination per ASTM C457 "Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of
Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete." The purpose of the testing
was to "characterize the general composition and condition of the concrete represented
by the cores and to determine factors that contributed to cracking."

DRP's findings indicated that the cracks observed during its evaluation could be
characterized into four genres:

 Large cracks (Figure 29): cracks up to 4 mils (.004") in width that pass mostly or
completely through the full depth of the core sample.
 Hairline cracks/microcracks (Figure 30): cracks consistent with drying shrinkage
that pass to depths of approximately 1/8" from the concrete surface.
 Sub-horizontal cracks/microcracks (Figure 31): cracks occurring at or near the
base of densified surface layers (DSLs) within approximately the top 1/8" of the
concrete surface that are consistent with the use of metal hand tools during the
finishing process.
 Oblique to sub-horizontal cracks/microcracks (Figure 32): cracks that exhibit
anastomosing paths with undulating walls and are consistent with shearing of air
and/or water voids within the concrete.

Figure 29 through Figure 32 were obtained from DRP's report, a copy of which can be
found in the Appendix section of this report.

Figure 29: Shrinkage crack at core VC #1 Figure 30: Core VC #2 shrinkage microcrack
(red arrows) (red arrows)
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 29

Figure 31: Core VC #4 sub-horizontal hairline crack Figure 32: Core VC #6a sheared voids and
(red arrows) and a large crack (green arrows) microcracks (green arrows)

DRP reported that:

The major through-going cracks [large cracks] are typical of drying shrinkage.
Most of the cores show clear evidence of retempering ..., such that there are
signifiant [sic] internal variations in w/cm and air content in most of the cores.

DRP reported that the materials used to produce the concrete in the samples was
consistent with that presented on the representative concrete mix designs, and that all of
the core samples exhibited air contents ranging from 5.0% to 9.2%. Of which, four of the
cores comprising of F8206M concrete mixture exceeded the maximum 6.0% air content
indicated on the mix design. DRP further reported:

Most of the cores show evidence of retempering. The retempering is indicated by


the presence of low w/cm mortar coatings on aggregate balls and occasional
mortar balls in the paste. In addition, most of the cores show sand lenses
characterized by a concentration of fines, often to the point where there is grain
to grain contact between sand particles. These zones commonly show an
abundance of air voids. These sand lenses were commonly observed along the
traces of the through-going shrinkage cracks [large cracks]. It is not clear if the
irregularity of air void distribution was a factor in the development of the large
shrinkage cracks.

Several observations raise concern for the long-term performance of the concrete,
depending on service conditions and anticipated environmental exposures.
Several cores show sub-horizontal cracks and microcracks typical of those
observed in slabs that eventually show delaminations or that scale prematurely.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 30

These cracks and microcracks are typical of air-entrained slabs where finishing
practices produce a DSL at the top of the slab. In addition to the sub-horizontal
cracks, the cores commonly show a depletion of air due to the densification of the
paste. Such concrete may be susceptible to freeze-thaw scaling, particularly if
deicer salts are used. Finally, several cores show a veneer of lighter, softer paste
on top of the DSL. Such layers commonly develop in concrete when moisture is
finished into the top of the slab. Such material has a high w/cm that renders it
susceptible to premature wear and scaling.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 31

ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSIONS

Nelson observed excessive, unsightly cracking at the visitor concourse concrete flatwork.
The cracking at the visitor concourse does not presently compromise the strength of the
slabs or otherwise pose a life safety concern. However, the cracks will allow water to
migrate into the concrete cross section and influence corrosion of the reinforcing steel.
The cracks within the fields of the flatwork planes will ravel, or widen, at their top
surfaces, ultimately causing material loss and potential tripping hazards. Vehicular traffic
from lifts and carts will accelerate these distress manifestations. The observed cracking
poses both serviceability and durability concerns.

Nelson considered design and construction factors in its investigation into the cause(s) of
the concourse cracking. It is Nelson's opinion that the cracks observed are the result of
a combination of three factors:

1. Excessive drying shrinkage of the concrete due to excessive addition of water to


the concrete mixture at the jobsite during construction (known as retempering);

2. Substantial reduction in the concrete cross section due to inclusion of drag


reinforcement at east-west pier lines; and

3. Insufficient steel reinforcing to control shrinkage cracking.

Concrete shrinks as it hardens, and thus steel reinforcement is provided within a concrete
cross section to control volumetric contraction due to the shrinkage. When shrinkage
reinforcement is inadequate, or when the shrinkage of the concrete is excessive, the
internal tensile stresses in the shrinking concrete cross-section exceed the tensile capacity
of the material, and cracks develop in the concrete.

The visitor concourse was configured as three semi-rectangular sections, with expansion
joints between adjacent sections. The expansion joints permit independent movement
between the adjoining sections, thus minimizing restraint of shrinkage and associated
cracking. The geometry of the sections and configuration of the expansion joints were
reasonable and in general conformance with standard industry practice for the subject
type of construction. Further, the specifications for the concrete materials, including the
mix designs, were reasonable and sufficient for the subject type of construction. In
Nelson's opinion, neither the specified design of the concourse configuration nor the
specified design of the concrete mixtures were causes of the excessive cracking.

Nelson observed that the slab configuration, including expansion joints, were constructed
in general conformance with the construction documents and standard practice, with the
exception of the locations where stairwell landings were cast over the expansion joints.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 32

The cast-over landings restrain the joints and inhibit their ability to relieve movements
caused by shrinkage and temperature changes. Nelson's testing revealed that the
concrete slab thickness and steel reinforcement spacing and depth were in general
conformance with the construction documents and standard practice.

Analysis of the aforementioned three primary causes of the observed shrinkage cracking is
presented in the following sections.

EXCESSIVE DRYING SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE

Nelson's review of the concrete batch tickets and material test reports was indicative of
concrete construction which was of poor practice and in conflict with the project
construction documents. The concrete material test reports revealed slump
measurements, air contents, and compressive strengths which were out of specification.
While those are important parameters for long-term performance and durability of the
concrete, it is Nelson's opinion that they are not direct causes of the observed cracking.
Contrarily, it is Nelson's opinion that addition of excessive amounts of water to the
concrete mixing trucks at the jobsite (retempering) is a primary cause of the cracking.

Concrete is a heterogeneous material composed of coarse aggregate (rock), fine aggregate


(sand), cement, water, and various chemical and mineral admixtures. The water, cement,
and admixtures form a paste that serves as "glue" to bind the aggregates together. The
solid ingredients of a concrete mix are measured at a ready-mix plant, and dispensed into
a concrete mixing truck. Then, water is added to the truck as the drum rotates to mix and
distribute the components.

Retempering is the process by which water is added to a concrete mixture after its initial
mixing. The decision to retemper is made at the construction site at the time of delivery
to increase the ability of the mixture to be placed and finished, known as workability.
The practice of retempering can result in significant detrimental effects to the hardened
concrete, including reduction in abrasion resistance, reduction in freeze/thaw durability,
reduction in strength, and increased drying shrinkage. These effects are particularly
troublesome when the retempering results in a water/cement ratio in excess of that
intended and specified by the structural engineer.

The project specification indicated that retempering was permissible if means were
available to accurately measure, monitor, and document the amount and timing of the
addition. However, the specification further indicated that "in no case shall the water
content exceed the maximum specified water/cement ratio for the mix," which was 0.4
for the two mix designs utilized for the concrete of the subject slabs.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 33

The average amount of water added to the concrete in each area ranged from 11 to 28
gallons per truck, with up to 48 gallons of water being added to one truck in Area E.
These additions resulted in water/cement ratios exceeding the 0.40 limit in 90% of the
concrete placed in Area E, 40% of the concrete placed in Area D, and 19% of the
concrete placed in Area F.

Evidence of retempering was confirmed by the petrographic analysis of concrete samples


extracted from the visitor concourse. The analysis indicated that the majority of the
concrete cores showed clear evidence of retempering to the degree that there were
significant internal variations in the water/cement ratio as well as the air content within
the samples.

REDUCTION IN CONCRETE CROSS SECTION AT PIER LINES

The structural engineer called for the addition of 2 sets of 4 No. 5 reinforcing bars within
the concrete cross section above east-west oriented pier lines. This steel is additive to the
slab's two-way flexural reinforcing and the hooked reinforcing to connect the piers to the
slab. The thickness of the slab cross-section was not increased along the pier lines where
this additional reinforcing was specified, resulting in a decreased ratio of steel to concrete
in this section. This condition, without the inclusion of sufficient perpendicular
reinforcing (see the next section), renders the slab more susceptible to shrinkage cracking
at the reduced cross section. This is confirmed by the manifestation of much of the
cracking at the visitor concourse at the east-west pier lines.

INSUFFICIENT STEEL REINFORCING TO CONTROL SHRINKAGE CRACKING

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) is the construction industry authority for concrete
design and construction. As previously mentioned, the project specification indicated
that the design of the stadium was to comply with multiple specifications and standards,
including ACI 318 – Building Code Requirement for Structural Concrete and ACI 302.1 –
Guide to Concrete Floor and Slab Construction. At the time the subject stadium was
designed, ACI 318-11 and ACI 302.1R-04 were the applicable versions of each of those
standards.

ACI 318-11 "covers the materials, design, and construction of structural concrete used in
buildings and where applicable in nonbuilding structures." Chapter 13 of ACI 318-11 is
titled "Two-Way Slab Systems," which addresses "Slab reinforcement" in section 13.3.
Sub-section 13.3.1 states, on the following page:
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 34

Area of reinforcement in each direction for two-way slab systems shall be


determined from moments at critical sections, but shall not be less than required
by 7.12.2.1.

Section 7.12 is titled "Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement," and sub-section


7.12.2.1 states:

Area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall provide at least the


following ratios of reinforcement area to gross concrete area, but not less than
.0014:

a) Slabs where Grade 40 or 50 deformed bars [members] are used - .0020


b) Slabs where Grade 60 deformed bars [members] or welded wire
reinforcement are used - .0018
c) Slabs where reinforcement with yield stress exceeding 60,000 psi
measured at a yield strain of 0.35 percent is used – (.0018 x 60,000)/fy

According to the construction drawings, the two-way concourse slabs used Grade 60 steel
reinforcing. Based on the requirements of ACI 318-11, the minimum required amount of
steel reinforcement area to gross concrete area (reinforcing ratio) is 0.0018 (.18%). Based
on the construction drawings, the provided reinforcing ratio for the two-way slabs is .004
(.40%), which exceeds the minimum requirement prescribed by ACI 318-11 for shrinkage
and temperature reinforcing.

ACI 302.1R-04 "describes how to produce high-quality concrete slab-on-ground and


suspended floors for various classes of service." Chapter 11 of ACI 302.1R-04 is titled
"Causes of Floor and Slab Surface Imperfections," which addresses "Cracking" in section
11.2., which states: "For more information on control, causes, evaluation, and repair of
cracks in concrete structures, refer to ACI 224R and 224.1R."

ACI 224R-01 "Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures" was the applicable version of
the document during the timeframe of the subject stadium's design. Chapter 3 of
ACI 224R-01 is titled "Control of Cracking Due to Drying Shrinkage," and in section 3.5
states:

The minimum-reinforcement percentage, which is between 0.18 and 0.20%, does


not normally control cracks to within generally acceptable design limits. To
control cracks to a more acceptable level, the percentage requirement needs to
exceed about 0.60%.

As previously stated, the specified reinforcing ratio for the two-way visitor concourse is
0.40%. While this amount of slab reinforcing meets the ACI 318-11 code serviceability
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 35

requirements for temperature and shrinkage, the specified reinforcing does not meet the
crack width control provisions found in ACI 224R-01, which is incorporated by reference
in the project specification. This design choice rendered the slabs susceptible to
increased widths of any shrinkage cracks which formed following construction, especially
at the areas of reduced cross section caused by the inclusion of drag reinforcing.

The observed cracks were typically oriented in the east-west direction, perpendicular to
the long axis of the concourse. This orientation is consistent with cracking caused by
drying shrinkage, as the greatest shrinkage stresses develop perpendicular to the longer
direction of semi-rectangular concrete shapes. The manifestation of the cracks, which
were typically observed along east-west pier lines where drag reinforcing was located, is
the result of a reduction of concrete within the slab cross-section where drag reinforcing
was located.

Cracks were also observed at geometric changes in the slab's configuration, such as
reentrant corners and stairway wall-to-slab interfaces; and concentrations of cracks were
observed at geometric changes in the slab configuration between the one-way and two-
way slab systems at the northeast and southeast portions of Area D and Area F,
respectively. These changes in geometry cause tensile stress concentrations in the slabs
due to shrinkage and thermal movement, which are typically accommodated by the
inclusion of extra steel reinforcing.

Detail J on Sheet S302, Typical Slab-on-Grade Details, of the structural construction


drawings presents a detail for additional steel reinforcement at reentrant corners. It is
unknown if the designer intended this detail to apply at the structural slab-on-void
cartons. A review of shop drawings received by Nelson as of the date of this writing
reveals omission of the additional members from the slab. Nelson has not reviewed any
details for extra reinforcing at the stairway wall-to-slab interfaces. These design
ambiguities likely resulted in the cracking observed at the geometric anomalies in the
visitor concourse slab; however, additional testing is necessary to confirm the
as-constructed condition at these locations.
Visitor Concourse Slab Distress Evaluation McKinney Independent School District Stadium
June 13, 2018 Nelson File No.: 20125
Page 36

LIMITATIONS

The items observed and documented in this initial report are intended to be
representative of the condition of the visitor concourse slabs of the stadium.
No attempt has been made to document the condition of every structural and
nonstructural element. Only visible items were observed and documented.

This document is the rendering of a professional service, the essence of which is the
provision of advice, judgment, opinion, or professional skill.

This report was prepared in order to document distress observed in the stadium.
The opinions presented herein are based on site observations, field information and
measurements taken, written and verbal information, and experience, where applicable.
No complete review of this stadium's conformance to current or previously applicable
building codes was performed. However, specific items that may be at issue with the
applicable building code requirements may be noted.

This report should not be construed as an assessment of total damages to the stadium at
the time of site observation. In addition to the observed and documented items of
distress, hidden defects may exist that were not readily visible. Also, some damaged
areas may have been previously repaired and, unless otherwise noted, were not visible at
the time of observation. However, these areas may experience future distress.
No representation, guarantee, or warranty as to the future performance of this stadium is
made, intended, or implied.

Additional construction documents prepared by a design professional may be required


and are beyond Nelson's scope at the time of this writing.

In the event that additional information becomes available that could affect the
conclusions reached in this investigation, Nelson reserves the right to review, and, if
required, change the opinions presented herein.

This report has been prepared for exclusive use of the client and its representatives.
No unauthorized re-use or reproduction of this report, in part or whole, shall be permitted
without prior written consent.

Alteration of this document in any way by anyone other than the professionals whose
seals appear on this document, in either hard copy or electronic form, is strictly
prohibited, and may constitute a violation of state and/or federal laws.
I
LLUSTRATI
ONS

APPENDI
X I
LLUSTRATI
ONS
CONCESSION CONCESSION
A101A D101A

EXP. JT. EXP. JT. EXP. JT. EXP. JT.

STOR STOR
A101B D101B

VC #1

JAN STOR
A103B D103B

STR
D100D3

MEN
D103A

STR
A100A3

MEN
A103A VC #2

STR
D100D1
STR
A100A1

STR
STR D100D4
A100A4

WOMEN
A104A

VC #3 WOMEN
D104A

A EXP. JT.
D
EXP. JT.

B
STR
A100A2
E
A D
STR
D100D2

TLT TLT
B101E E101C
STR
STR E100E3
B100B6

B E STOR
E101A

VC #4
SPIRIT
E101B

SPIRIT
B101A
DISPLAY
B101C

STR
B100B5 STR
E100E4

UTILITY
B101D VESTIBULE
ELEV B1 STR
B100C STR
B300A E100E1
E CONTROL B100B1
B101F

ENTRY
B100A

VC #5 VC #6

VC #6A

STR STR # E2
B100B2 E100B
ELEV B2
B300B

VESTIBULE
B100E
STR
B100B4 STR
E100E5

TLT
E CONTROL B104A
B103C

FIRST AID
B102A
STOR
B103B

TICKET
B103A
FIRST AID

DATA
VC #7 E102A

B105B TICKET
E102C

TLT
E102D

DISPLAY
B105A

ELEC

ELEC
B104C
EXP. JT. STR
B100B3
B E STR
E100E6
EXP. JT.
E102B

B C F DATA
E102E

E
STR
STR
F100F1
C100C1

C F
VC #8

WOMEN
WOMEN F104A
C103B

STR
F100F4
STR
C100C3

EXP. JT.

STR
STR
F100F2
HW C100C2
C103BC HW
F104AC

MEN
C103A

C G
G F
MEN
F103A

VC #9

RISER
C103C RISER
F103B
STR
STR F100F3
C100C4

VC #10
STR # G1 BALCONY
G100L C296
STR # G2
G100M

RETHERM/HOLDING

STOR
G206B
LG CONF DRINK PREP
G205A AD OFFICE G208C
G206A KITCHEN
G208B PREP

TLT/SHWR
DISH DROP STOR
G206C AREA F101B

ASSIST AD
G203B WALK-IN
MIR

WARE COOLER
WASHING p. coi
l
eva
NY

ASSIST AD
G20 ALCO

G203A COPY
0A

TLT G207D
B

G204B STORAGE
BY

SERVERY G208D
STORAGE
LOB

COMMUNITY ROOM
G208A
G201A
BREAK RECORDS
TLT G204A WOMEN MEN
G207C
G204C G209A G209B ELEV #4
G115B

IDF
G207B JANITOR
JAN
ASSIST AD MNGR / ASSIST RECEIVING
G210A
G202F G202B
CORR
TLT G200D
BUDGET MNGR G209C
G202E

STORAGE
SAFE ROOM G208D
G202D TKT MNGR
G202C

WAITING
G202A

ELEV #3
G100C

LOBBY BALCONY
G200A

STR # G3
G100P
LOBBY
G100B

C F
G G

A D
LEGEND
B E CRACK WIDTH .02" 3" THICK TOPPING SLAB 10" THICK ONE-WAY
OVER 8" THICK SLAB OVER VOID
ONE-WAY FORMS
CRACK WIDTH .02" SLAB SUPPORTED BY
GRADE BEAMS # CORE LOCATION

C F GPR LOCATIONS 9" THICK ONE-WAY


SLAB
BELOW-GRADE
CONCRETE PIER

G 10" THICK TWO-WAY


SLAB OVER VOID
FORMS

KEY PLAN VISITOR CONCOURSE DISTRESS SURVEY


NOT TO SCALE CONCOURSE LEVEL

ISSUE DATE:
June 13, 2018
THIS DRAWING WAS PREPARED IN
COLOR. IF THIS NOTE IS NOT IN COLOR,
SURVEY DATES:
THE DRAWING SHALL NOT BE USED.
April 16, 17, & 18, 2018
McKinney Independent School District Stadium MAY 11, 2018

McKinney, Texas The seal appearing on this


document was authorized by
N FILE NUMBER:
20125
SHEET NUMBER:

0 10'
SCALE: 1" = 20'

20' 30' 40'


TRAVIS GREGORY EBISCH, P.E.
126864 on 06/13/2018.
This document is released only
CAD: SE-1
for the purpose of EVALUATION. JND
APPENDI
X

X
APPENDI
3200 Carbon Place #104

Boulder, CO 80301

A Twining Company T: 303.938.0166

www.drpcinc.com

Petrographic Investigation of Concrete Cores Extracted from


Concourse Slabs at the McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium
Located in McKinney, Texas

Prepared for Mr. Travis Ebisch, M.S., P.E.


Nelson Forensics, LLC
Plano, Texas

Prepared by David Rothstein, Ph.D., P.G., FACI


Report No. 187160.d
29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page i

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Eleven (11) cores extracted from concourse slabs at the McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium
located in McKinney, Texas are subjects of petrographic examination per ASTM C856 and
hardened air content determination per ASTM C457. The purpose of the investigation is to
characterize the general composition and condition of the concrete represented by the cores and
to determine factors that contributed to cracking.

The findings from the scope of work described above indicate there are four (4) main types of
cracks and microcracks, as follows. (1) Large (up to 500 µm (4 mil) wide) cracks that cut
through or nearly through the full depth of the cores, pass mostly around aggregate particles and
are free of secondary deposits. (2) Hairline cracks and microcracks typical of drying shrinkage
that cut sub-vertically from the finished surface to depths of ~ 3 mm (⅛ in.). (3) Sub-horizontal
cracks and microcracks, usually within ~ 3 mm (⅛ in.) of the finished surface, that occur at or
near the base of a densified surface layers (DSL) that is typical of finishing concrete with a hard
trowel or steel tools. (4) Oblique to sub-horizontal cracks and microcracks that follow
anastomosing paths and have undulating walls; these appear to reflect the shearing of air and
water voids.

The primary factors associated with these cracks include the following. The major through-going
cracks are typical of drying shrinkage. Most of the cores show clear evidence of retempering (see
below), such that there are signifiant internal variations in w/cm and air content in most of the
cores. One of the cracks occurs in a core where minor segregation of coarse aggregate was
observed, which may also have contributed to cracking. Other factors, such as the spacing, depth
or timing of joint installation may have contributed but are not addressed from a petrographic
examination. The minor hairline cracking and microcracking are typical of drying shrinkage and
are typical of a loss of moisture at early ages. The extent of these cracks and microcracks does
not appear particularly severe. The sub-horizontal cracks and microcracks along with the
microcracks associated with shearing of voids are typical of finishing air-entrained concrete with
steel tools and finishing while the concrete is still bleeding. The observation of DSLs in the cores
is also consistent with finishing operations occurring while the concrete was bleeding, trapping
bleed water beneath the surface. It also appears that in some placements moisture was finished
into the surface of the concrete, suggesting that minor crusting may have occurred.

The concrete mixtures represented by the cores are fairly consistent in terms of the components
used to produce the materials. The paste fraction of the concrete contains hydrated portland
cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other supplemental cementitious materials were observed.
Fine crystallites of calcite suggest the presence of interground limestone in the cement. The
coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that is mostly siliceous in composition and consists
primarily quartzite with lesser amounts of chert, siltstone and limestone. The nominal top size of
the aggregate is 25 mm (1 in.). The fine aggregate is a blended sand that consists of rocks that are
carbonate and siliceous in composition. The sand consists of rocks similar to those observed in

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page ii

the coarse aggregate, fragments of limestone and rare granitic rocks and rhyolite. Quartzite, chert
and siltstone are potentially susceptible to ASR but no evidence of such reactions was observed.

All of the cores are air-entrained with total air contents that range from 5.0%-9.2%. Four of the
F8206M cores have air contents that exceed the maximum 6.0% air content targeted by the mix
design. Note that most of the cores show significant heterogeneity in the distribution of air, with
zones of elevated air observed most commonly in areas where high concentrations of sand fines
were observed. As discussed below, most of the cores also show a depletion of entrained air at
the finished surface.

Most of the cores show evidence of retempering. The retempering is indicated by the presence of
low w/cm mortar coatings on aggregate balls and occasional mortar balls in the paste. In
addition, most of the cores show sand lenses characterized by a concentration of fines, often to
the point where there is grain to grain contact between sand particles. These zones commonly
show an abundance of air voids. These sand lenses were commonly observed along the traces of
the through-going shrinkage cracks. It is not clear if the irregularity of air void distribution was a
factor in the development of the large shrinkage cracks.

Several observations raise concern for the long-term performance of the concrete, depending on
service conditions and anticipated environmental exposures. Several cores show sub-horizontal
cracks and microcracks typical of those observed in slabs that eventually show delaminations or
that scale prematurely. These cracks and microcracks are typical of air-entrained slabs where
finishing practices produce a DSL at the top of the slab. In addition to the sub-horizontal cracks,
the cores commonly show a depletion of air due to the densification of the paste. Such concrete
may be susceptible to freeze-thaw scaling, particularly if deicer salts are used. Finally, several
cores show a veneer of lighter, softer paste on top of the DSL. Such layers commonly develop in
concrete when moisture is finished into the top of the slab. Such material has a high w/cm that
renders it susceptible to premature wear and scaling.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Mr. Travis Ebisch, M.S., P.E., Project Director for Nelson Forensics, LLC (NFL) located in
Plano, Texas requested DRP, a Twining Company (DRP) to perform petrographic examinations
of concrete cores extracted from concourse slabs at the McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium
located in McKinney, Texas. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize the general
composition and condition of the concrete and to determine factors that may have contributed to
cracking of the slabs.

On 14 May 2018 DRP received eleven (11) cores from NFL. Table 1 summarizes information
regarding the identification, mix design reportedly used for the placement represented by the
core and the condition of the core. Two mix designs were reportedly used over the course of the
construction, which reportedly occurred in the fall of 2017. Table 2 and Table 3 summarize
information regarding the mix designs for the concrete, which Martin Marietta supplied. The
mixtures are broadly similar but F8206M includes a high-range water reducing admixture
whereas F8206W does not. Mr. Ebisch indicated that water additions are commonly recorded on
trip tickets and ranged up to 48 gallons for the F8206W loads and 35 gallons for the F8206M
loads. The loads were typically 10 yards. Low cylinder breaks were reported in Area E, which is
the area that all of the F8206W cores were obtained from. No other information was provided
regarding the results of other field or laboratory tests done during or after construction.

Table 1. Summary of samples


NFL No. DRP No. Mix Design Condition
VC #1 22YD9201 F8206M Full depth vertical crack, received in two pieces
VC #2 22YD9202 F8206M Intact with no vertical crack
VC #3 22YD9203 F8206M Intact with no vertical crack
VC #4 22YD9204 F8206W Full depth vertical crack, received in one piece
VC #5 22YD9205 F8206W Full depth vertical crack, received in one piece
VC #6 22YD9206 F8206W Intact with no vertical crack
VC #6A 22YD9207 F8206W Intact with no vertical crack
VC #7 22YD9208 F8206W Intact with no vertical crack
VC #8 22YD9209 F8206M Intact with no vertical crack
VC #9 22YD9210 F8206M Nearly full depth vertical crack, received in one piece
VC #10 22YD9211 F8206M Intact with no vertical crack

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 2

Table 2. Summary of concrete mix design information re: mix number F8206M.
Component Quantity (per cubic yard)
Martin Marietta Midlothian Plant Type I/II Portland Cement (lbs) 452
Headwaters Resources Martin Lake Class F Fly Ash (lbs) 113
Martin Marietta Mill Creek #57 Limestone Coarse Aggregate (lbs) 1937
Martin Marietta Bell Savoy Blended Sand (lbs) 1256
Water (lbs) 250
BASF MasterAir AE 90 Air Entraining Admixture (oz/cwt) 0.25-4.00
BASF MasterGlenium 7920 High Range Water Reducing Admixture (oz/cwt) 2.00-12.00
BASF MasterPozzolith 80 Water Reducing Admixture (oz/cwt) 2.00-8.00
Physical Properties
Slump, inches 6.00 ± 1.00
Specified Air, % 5.00 ± 1.50
Design w/cm 0.44
Design Unit Weight, pcf 148.5
Concrete Strength @ 28 days, psi 4,000

Table 3. Summary of concrete mix design information re: mix number F8206W.
Component Quantity (per cubic yard)
Martin Marietta Midlothian Plant Type I/II Portland Cement (lbs) 456
Headwaters Resources Martin Lake Class F Fly Ash (lbs) 114
Martin Marietta Mill Creek #57 Limestone Coarse Aggregate (lbs) 1937
Martin Marietta Bell Savoy Blended Sand (lbs) 1237
Water (lbs) 258
BASF MasterAir AE 90 Air Entraining Admixture (oz/cwt) 0.25-4.00
BASF MasterPozzolith 80 Water Reducing Admixture (oz/cwt) 2.00-8.00
Physical Properties
Slump, inches 4.00 ± 1.00
Specified Air, % 4.50 ± 1.50
Design w/cm 0.45
Design Unit Weight, pcf 148.0
Concrete Strength @ 28 days, psi 4,000

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 3

2.0 SCOPE OF WORK


The testing involved petrographic examinations according to ASTM C856 [1] and hardened air ‑

content determinations according to ASTM C457 [2] on all eleven cores. This report summarizes

the general findings from this scope of work. Appendix A-Appendix K contain the notes,
photographs and micrographs from the petrographic examinations, Appendix L contains the
results of the hardened air content measurements and Appendix M describes the procedures used
to perform this scope of work.

!1 Standard Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 4.02., ASTM
C856-18.
!2 Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete, Annual
Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 4.02, ASTM C457-16.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 4

3.0 FINDINGS

3.1 Orientation, Dimensions & As-Received Condition The cores are vertical in
orientation, measure 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and range in length from 235-280 mm
(9 ⅛-11 ⅛ in.). The cores are hard and compact. Each core spans from a broom finished
surface to a cast surface such that they represent the full thickness of the slabs. The cast
surface was a textured form board or carton. Three of the eleven cores contain embedded
steel bars that measure ~ 6 mm (¼ in.) in diameter; see the appendices for details
regarding the location of the steel. None of the cores show evidence of significant
corrosion of the steel. Figure 1 contains photographs of the cores in their as-received
condition and the polished surfaces from the cores.

! !
(a) (b)

! !
(c) (d)
Figure 1. (a) Photograph of the Core VC #1 showing oblique view of the top and side of the core. (b)
Photograph of polished surface of the Core VC #1. Note slight segregation of the coarse aggregate. (c)
Photograph of the Core VC #2 showing oblique view of the top and side of the core. (d) Photograph of the
polished surface of the Core VC #2. The yellow scale in all of the photos is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 5

! !
(e) (f)

! !
(g) (h)

! !
(i) (j)
Figure 1 (cont’d). (e) Photograph of the Core VC #3 showing oblique view of the top and side of the core. (f)
Photograph of polished surface of the Core VC #3. (g) Photograph of the Core VC #4 showing oblique view of
the top and side of the core. (h) Photograph of the polished surface of the Core VC #4. (i) Photograph of the
Core VC #5 showing oblique view of the top and side of the core. (j) Photograph of the polished surface of the
Core VC #5. The yellow scale in all of the photos is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 6

! !
(k) (l)

! !
(m) (n)

! !
(o) (p)
Figure 1 (cont’d). (k) Photograph of the Core VC #6 showing oblique view of the top and side of the core. (j)
Photograph of polished surface of the Core VC #6. (k) Photograph of the Core VC #6A showing oblique view
of the top and side of the core. (l) Photograph of the polished surface of the Core VC #6A. (o) Photograph of
the Core VC #7 showing oblique view of the top and side of the core. (p) Photograph of the polished surface of
the Core VC #7. The yellow scale in all of the photos is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 7

! !
(q) (r)

! !
(s) (t)

! !
(u) (v)
Figure 1 (cont’d). (q) Photograph of the Core VC #8 showing oblique view of the top and side of the core. (r)
Photograph of polished surface of the Core VC #8. (s) Photograph of the Core VC #9 showing oblique view of
the top and side of the core. (t) Photograph of the polished surface of the Core VC #9. (u) Photograph of the
Core VC #10 showing oblique view of the top and side of the core. (v) Photograph of the polished surface of
the Core VC #10. The yellow scale in all of the photos is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 8

3.2 Components: Paste The cores are similar in terms of the components present in the
paste. The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no other supplemental
cementitious materials were observed. Fine crystals (< 25 µm) of calcite were observed,
suggesting the presence of interground limestone in the cement. Observations of various
paste features that indicate fairly wide ranges in water-cementitious materials ratio (w/
cm) within any given core, which is typical of retempering. The estimated w/cm ranges
from 0.40 to 0.50 in the main portion most of the cores. In addition, the cores show a
densified surface layer (DSL) of lower w/cm paste (estimated at 0.35-0.40) in the top 1-2
mm (40-80 mil). These dark layers appear to reflect finishing operations that densified
the paste. Veneers less than ~ 1 mm (40 mil) thick of light, soft paste overlie the DSLs in
several cores. These features are a typical result of finishing moisture into a slab. Figure
2 shows photomicrographs of the paste typical of the concrete below the finished surface.
Figure 3 shows examples of features that are indicative of re-tempering and Figure 4
shows examples of variations in paste near the finished surfaces of the cores.

! !
(a) (b)

! !
(c) (d)
Figure 2. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section from Core VC #3 showing detail of paste in (a)
plane-polarized light, (b) cross-polarized light, (c) cross-polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d)
cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate inserted. In (a) and (d) the red, purple and green
arrows indicate alite, belite and fly ash, respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite and in
(c) the white arrows indicate crystals of calcium hydroxide.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 9

! !
(a) (b)

! !
(c) (d)
Figure 3. Reflected light photomicrographs of polished surfaces of various cores showing features indicative
of retempering. (a) Low w/cm mortar coatings (red bars) and bleed void (green bar); Core VC #1. (b) Mortar
ball (green bar) and low w/cm mortar coating (red bar) in Core VC #2. (c) Bleed voids (green arrows) and low
w/cm mortar coatings (red arrows) in Core VC #3. (d) Sand lens with elevated air (right of red line); Core VC
#5.

! !
(a) (b)
Figure 3. Reflected light photomicrographs of polished surfaces showing DSLs and variations in paste
properties at the finished surface. (a) Core VC #2.(b) Core VC #4. The red bar measures a veneer of softer,
white paste and the green bar measures the darker paste of the DSL in each image. In (b) the green arrows
indicate elongated voids.


Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 10

3.3 Components: Air All of the cores are air-entrained with total air contents as
measured per ASTM C457 that range from 5.0-9.2%. Four (4) of the F8206M cores
exceed the 6.0% total air indicated as the maximum for this mixture. None of the
F8206W cores exceed the 6.5% maximum air content indicated by the mix design. Table
4 summarizes the air content data, Appendix L provides the data in more detail.

Table 4. Summary of ASTM C457 Testing Results


Aggregate
 Paste
 Air
 Paste-Air

Sample Content Content Content Ratio
Core #1 65.3% 28.2% 6.5% 4.4
Core #2 67.1% 27.2% 5.8% 4.7
Core #3 68.2% 24.9% 6.9% 3.6
Core #4 69.6% 25.3% 5.0% 5.0
Core #5 69.9% 24.8% 5.3% 4.7
Core #6 67.2% 27.0% 5.8% 4.6
Core 6A 67.2% 26.9% 6.0% 4.5
Core 7 68.0% 25.8% 6.2% 4.1
Core 8 67.8% 23.0% 9.2% 2.5
Core 9 66.9% 26.6% 6.5% 4.1
Core 10 66.3% 28.4% 5.4% 5.3

Most of the cores show significant internal variations in air content due to irregular
distribution of voids. Areas of high air were observed in association with sand lenses
where sand fines are concentrated to a point where grain to grain contact is commonly
observed. Several cores show significant water voids and bleed voids throughout the
core. Most of the cores also show a depletion of air near the finished surface typical of
finishing air-entrained concrete with steel tools. Most of the cores show evidence of
significant shearing of voids below the DSLs. Figure 4 contains photographs and
photomicrographs of various aspects of the air void system observed in the cores.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 11

! !
(a) (b)

! !
(c) (d)

! !
(e) (f)
Figure 4. Reflected light photomicrographs of polished surfaces showing various features of air void systems
in the cores. (a) Core VC #1 showing typical entrained voids (dark circles). (b) Core VC #2 showing water
voids (red arrows) near the top of the core. (c) Core VC #3 showing bleed voids about 115 mm (4 ½ in.) below
the finished surface. (d) Core VC #7 showing area of higher air in sand lens. (e) Core VC #7 showing
depletion of air at the top of the core. The red line marks the line to which air is depleted due to finishing
activity. The green bar measures the thickness of the DSL. Then green arrows show larger entrapped voids
and water voids below the depleted zone. (f) Core VC #8 showing water void (red arrows) at the bottom of the
core (green arrow). 


Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 12

3.4 Components: Aggregates The cores contain similar aggregates. The coarse aggregate
is a crushed gravel with a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.). Minor segregation was
observed in a couple of cores and notably in Core VC #1, which is cut by a through-going
crack. The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition; it consists of quartzite, chert,
siltstone and limestone with quartzite making up more than half the aggregate. The rocks
are fresh, hard and competent. Quartzite, chert and siltstone are potentially susceptible to
alkali-silica reaction (ASR) but no evidence of such reactions was observed in any of the
cores. The fine aggregate is a blend of limestone and a natural siliceous sand. The sand
consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed in the coarse aggregate but with
significant limestone and rare fragments of granitic rocks and rhyolite. Many of these
components are potentially susceptible to ASR but no evidence of such reactions was
observed. Figure 5 shows photographs and photomicrographs of aggregates in cores
representative of each of the concrete mixtures.

! !
(a) (b)

! !
(c) (d)
Figure 5. (a) Photograph and (b) reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface of the Core VC #1
showing coarse and fine aggregate, respectively. The scale is in millimeters in (a). (c) Photograph and (d)
reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface of the Core VC #5 showing coarse and fine aggregate,
respectively. The scale is in millimeters in (c).

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 13

3.5 Cracking and Delamination The cores show four distinct types of cracks and
microcracks. These include the following: (1) through-going shrinkage cracks that cut
sub-vertically through or nearly through the full depth of the cores; (2) sub-vertical
hairline shrinkage cracks and microcracks that cut from the finished surface most
commonly to depths of 1-3 mm (40-125 mil); (3) sub-horizontal cracks and microcracks
that are typical of delaminations associated with hard trowel finishing of air-entrained
concrete and (4) sub-horizontal to obliquely oriented microcracks that are related to
shearing of voids. These are described in more detail below.

3.5.1 Through-Going Shrinkage Cracks Four of the eleven cores contained cracks
typical of drying shrinkage. These cracks range up to 500 µm (20 mil) wide and cut sub-
vertically through or nearly through the full depth of the core (note that Core VC #1 was
received in two pieces such that the original width of the crack could not be measured).
The cracks are typical of drying shrinkage in that they cut predominantly around
aggregate particles and have relatively straight crack walls. Some of the cracks show
minor bifurcations and prominent shifts in strike path that suggest they began to form at
relatively early ages and some of the cracks cut through, rather than around, aggregates,
suggesting later formation. Figure 6 shows examples of these cracks.

! !
(a) (b)
Figure 6. Shrinkage cracking Core VC #1 (a) Photograph of the side of the core showing trace of the through-
going crack (red arrows), which cuts around aggregate particles over the full depth of the core. (b)
Photograph of the polished surface of the core showing detail of the crack (red arrows) near the finished
surface. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.


Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 14

3.5.2 Hairline shrinkage cracks and microcracks S h r i n k a g e m i c r o c r a c k s w e r e


observed near the finished surface of most of the cores. These microcracks range up to
100 µm (4 mil) wide and cut sub-vertically up to 3 mm (⅛ in.) from the finished surface.
These microcracks cut around aggregate particles and are free of secondary deposits. A
few cores show hairline cracks typical of drying shrinkage. Core VC #6 showed traces of
hairline crazing cracks. Figure 7 shows examples of these microcracks and cracks.

! !
(a) (b)

! !
(c) (d)
Figure 7. Shrinkage microcracks and cracks. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface of
Core VC #2 showing shrinkage microcrack (red arrows). (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished
surface of Core VC #6 showing hairline microcrack (green arrows) that cuts through an aggregate particle.
(c) Photograph of the side of Core VC #9 showing hairline crack (red arrows) that cuts through an aggregate
particle. Note that the main through-going crack to the left also cuts through an aggregate particle at a
similar depth. Scale in millimeters. (d) Photograph of the finished surface of Core VC #6 showing hairline
crazing cracks (red arrows) after the application of acetone to the surface.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 15

3.5.3 Sub-horizontal cracks and microcracks Sub-horizontal hairline cracks and


microcracks were observed in several cores. These cracks and microcracks typically cut
around aggregate particles but occasionally cut through them as well. These are generally
within 3 mm (⅛ in.) of the the finished surface and occur at or subjacent to the DSL.
These cracks and microcracks are typical of concrete where inappropriate finishing
practices are used on air-entrained concrete and can render concrete susceptible to
delaminations or premature scaling, depending on service and environmental conditions.
Figure 8 shows examples of these microcracks and cracks.

! !
(a) (b)

! !
(c) (d)
Figure 8. Sub-horizontal hairline cracks and microcracks. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished
surface of Core VC #4 showing sub-horizontal hairline crack (red arrows) near the finished surface. The
green arrows indicate a through-going shrinkage crack. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished
surface of Core VC #4 showing sub-horizontal microcrack (green arrows) near the finished surface. (c)
Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface of Core VC #5 showing sub-horizontal microcrack
(red arrows) subjacent to the finished surface. (d) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface of
Core VC #9 showing sub-horizontal microcrack (red arrows) near the finished surface.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 16

3.5.4 Sheared voids Several cores show numerous hairline cracks and
microcracks that appear to reflect shearing of air voids and bleed voids. These cracks and
microcracks are typically observed near the finished surface, follow anastomosing strike
paths and show undulating walls and are typically subjacent to DSLs. Figure 9 shows
photographs and photomicrographs of these cracks and microcracks.

! !
(a) (b)

! !
(c) (d)
Figure 9. Sheared voids. (a), (b) Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface of Core VC #6A
showing sheared voids and microcracks (green arrows) near the top of the core. The green and red bars in (a)
show layers of light and dark paste, respectively, at the top of the core. (c) Reflected light photomicrograph of
the polished surface of Core VC #1 showing sub-horizontal microcrack at the lower contact of the zone of
paste densification. The red arrows indicate a sub-vertical microcrack. (d) Fine sheared voids (red arrows) at
the base of a layer of lighter paste observed at the top of Core VC #4.

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 17

3.6 Secondary Deposits Secondary deposits are limited to carbonation at the top of several
cores and rare deposits of ettringite in voids that were only detected in thin section. No
evidence of alkali-silica reaction was observed. Figure 10 shows photographs of
phenolphthalein stained surfaces from selected cores where more than surficial
carbonation was observed.

! !
(a) (b)

! !
(c) (d)
Figure 10. Photographs of showing detail of selected phenolphthalein stained slabs near the top of the cores.
(a) Core VC #4. (b) Core VC #5. (c) Core VC #6A. (d) Core VC #9. Note that there is minor carbonation for
up to 2 mm (80 mil) along the walls of the crack in Core VC #9 to a depth of ~ 6 mm (¼ in.). The scale is in
millimeters in each of the photos.


Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 18

4.0 CONCLUSIONS
The findings described above indicate that the concrete represented by the cores show evidence
of four (4) main types of cracks and microcracks, as follows. (1) Large (up to 500 µm (4 mil)
wide) cracks that cut through or nearly through the full depth of the cores, pass mostly around
aggregate particles and are free of secondary deposits. (2) Hairline cracks and microcracks
typical of drying shrinkage that cut sub-vertically from the finished surface to depths of ~ 3 mm
(⅛ in.). (3) Sub-horizontal cracks and microcracks, usually within ~ 3 mm (⅛ in.) of the finished
surface, that occur at or near the base of a densified surface layers (DSL) that is typical of
finishing concrete with a hard trowel or steel tools. (4) Oblique to sub-horizontal cracks and
microcracks that follow anastomosing paths and have undulating walls; these appear to reflect
the shearing of air and water voids.

The primary factors associated with these cracks include the following. The major through-going
cracks are typical of drying shrinkage. Most of the cores show clear evidence of retempering (see
below), such that there are signifiant internal variations in w/cm and air content in most of the
cores. One of the cracks occurs in a core where minor segregation of coarse aggregate was
observed, which may also have contributed to cracking. Other factors, such as the spacing, depth
or timing of joint installation may have contributed but are not addressed from a petrographic
examination. The minor hairline cracking and microcracking are typical of drying shrinkage and
are typical of a loss of moisture at early ages. The extent of these cracks and microcracks does
not appear particularly severe. The sub-horizontal cracks and microcracks along with the
microcracks associated with shearing of voids are typical of finishing air-entrained concrete with
steel tools and finishing while the concrete is still bleeding. The observation of DSLs in the cores
is also consistent with finishing operations occurring while the concrete was bleeding, trapping
bleed water beneath the surface. It also appears that in some placements moisture was finished
into the surface of the concrete, suggesting that minor crusting may have occurred.

The concrete mixtures represented by the cores are fairly consistent in terms of the components
used to produce the materials. The paste fraction of the concrete contains hydrated portland
cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other supplemental cementitious materials were observed.
Fine crystallites of calcite suggest the presence of interground limestone in the cement. The
coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that is mostly siliceous in composition and consists
primarily quartzite with lesser amounts of chert, siltstone and limestone. The nominal top size of
the aggregate is 25 mm (1 in.). The fine aggregate is a blended sand that consists of rocks that are
carbonate and siliceous in composition. The sand consists of rocks similar to those observed in
the coarse aggregate, fragments of limestone and rare granitic rocks and rhyolite. Quartzite, chert
and siltstone are potentially susceptible to ASR but no evidence of such reactions was observed.

All of the cores are air-entrained with total air contents that range from 5.0%-9.2%. Four of the
F8206M cores have air contents that exceed the maximum 6.0% air content targeted by the mix
design. Note that most of the cores show significant heterogeneity in the distribution of air, with

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


!
McKinney ISD District Wide Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Page 19

zones of elevated air observed most commonly in areas where high concentrations of sand fines
were observed. As discussed below, most of the cores also show a depletion of entrained air at
the finished surface.

Most of the cores show evidence of retempering. The retempering is indicated by the presence of
low w/cm mortar coatings on aggregate balls and occasional mortar balls in the paste. In
addition, most of the cores show sand lenses characterized by a concentration of fines, often to
the point where there is grain to grain contact between sand particles. These zones commonly
show an abundance of air voids. These sand lenses were commonly observed along the traces of
the through-going shrinkage cracks. It is not clear if the irregularity of air void distribution was a
factor in the development of the large shrinkage cracks.

Several observations raise concern for the long-term performance of the concrete, depending on
service conditions and anticipated environmental exposures. Several cores show sub-horizontal
cracks and microcracks typical of those observed in slabs that eventually show delaminations or
that scale prematurely. These cracks and microcracks are typical of air-entrained slabs where
finishing practices produce a DSL at the top of the slab. In addition to the sub-horizontal cracks,
the cores commonly show a depletion of air due to the densification of the paste. Such concrete
may be susceptible to freeze-thaw scaling, particularly if deicer salts are used. Finally, several
cores show a veneer of lighter, softer paste on top of the DSL. Such layers commonly develop in
concrete when moisture is finished into the top of the slab. Such material has a high w/cm that
renders it susceptible to premature wear and scaling.

This concludes work performed on this project to date.

%
David Rothstein, Ph.D., P.G., FACI

Report No. 187160.d 29 May 2018


McKinney ISD District Wide
Stadium Concourse Core
Petrography

Appendices

Appendix A Core VC #1 Petrography (ASTM C856)


Appendix B Core VC #2 Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix C Core VC #3 Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix D Core VC #4 Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix E Core VC #5 Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix F Core VC #6 Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix G Core VC #6A Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix H Core VC #7 Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix I Core VC #8 Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix J Core VC #9 Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix K Core VC #10 Petrography (ASTM C856)
Appendix L Procedures

! drpcinc.com
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 235 mm (9 ⅛
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure A1, Figure A2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure A3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
CONDITION The core is cut by a thoroughgoing vertical crack and was received in two pieces (Figure A4).

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL None observed.

3. CRACKING
A vertical crack cuts through the full depth of the core (Figure A4). Because the core was
received in two pieces, the original width of the crack is not known. The crack cuts around
MACROSCOPIC most aggregate particles and is free of secondary deposits. The crack does not show major
bifurcations or splays typical of plastic cracking.
Several microcracks were observed near the finished surface. A couple of sub-vertical
microcracks were observed that cut from the top surface to ~ 1.5 mm (60 mil). These range up
to 75 µm (3 mil) wide, cut around aggregate particles and are free of secondary deposits
(Figure A5). Several sub-horizontal microcracks were observed near the top surface, primarily
MICROSCOPIC in the top 3 mm (⅛ in.) but occasionally as far as 8 mm (320 mil) below the finished surface
(Figure A6). These microcracks range from 50-100 µm (2-4 mil) wide and are up to 4 mm
(160 mil) long. The microcracks cut around aggregate particles and are free of secondary
deposits.

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 6.5% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
C457 (Figure A7). No major entrapped voids or water voids were observed. The top 1-2 mm
VOID SYSTEM (40-80 mil) of the core shows a depletion of air (Figure A6). The distribution of the voids is
extremely irregular wth some areas of high air observed that coincide with sand lenses and
some air void clustering observed (Figure A8).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

! drpcinc.com A!1
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
A9). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant and
PHYSICAL occasionally elongated with angular to sub-rounded edges. Most of the elongated particles
PROPERTIES have aspect ratios of 3:1; these particles do not show significant preferred orientation or
alignment. The gradation and is relatively even. The distribution is uneven with partial
segregation of coarse particles in the top ~ 50 mm (2 in.; Figure A10).
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 75%), chert (~ 15%), siltstone (~ 5%) and limestone
ROCK TYPES (~ 5%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in color.
Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and chert
are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. Numerous low w/c mortar coatings were
FEATURES observed; some measure up to ~ 500 mm (⅛ in.) wide. No evidence of ASR was observed.

6. FINE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
competent and crushed limestone (Figure A11). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
Paste is light gray (Munsell 2.5Y/7/1) and mottled, has a smooth to granular texture and a
POLISHED weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure A12). The paste is moderately hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). The paste
SURFACE is darker and harder in the top 1-2 mm (40-80 mil). Numerous low w/cm mortar coatings and
areas of dark paste were observed (Figure A13).
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure A14). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. The packing of the cement grains is uneven over the area of the
section. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up 4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
Entire surface stains purple, including all areas along the wall of the main crack (Figure
PHENOLPHTHALEIN
A15).
DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com A!2
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure A1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com A!3
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure A1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com A!4
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

$
Figure A2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com A!5
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

!
Figure A3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

(a) !
Figure A4. (a) Photograph showing as-received pieces of core; the yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.

! drpcinc.com A!6
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

(b) !

(c) !
Figure A4 (cont’d). (b) Photograph of the side of the core showing overview of main crack (red arrows). (c)
Photograph of the polished surface showing main crack (red arrows) at the top of the core. The yellow scale
in (b) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (c) is in millimeters.


! drpcinc.com A!7
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

!
Figure A5. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-vertical microcrack (red
arrows) near the top surface. The green arrows indicate a sub-horizontal microcrack.

!
Figure A6. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-horizontal microcrack (red
arrows) near the top surface. Note depletion of voids near the top surface.

! drpcinc.com A!8
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure A7. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing (a) overview and (b) detail of
entrained air voids (dark circles).

! drpcinc.com A!9
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

!
Figure A8. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing area of elevated air content.

!
Figure A9. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com A!10
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

!
Figure A10. Photograph of the side of the core where the red bar shows the approximate depth of segregation
of large aggregate particles. The small and large divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches,
respectively.

!
Figure A11. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com A! 11
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure A12. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the
top of the core; scale in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing
detail of paste in the middle of the core. The red arrows in (b) indicate grains of fly ash.

! drpcinc.com A!12
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure A13. Reflected light photomicrographs showing low w/cm mortar coatings (red bars) on aggregate
particles. The green bar in (a) measures the width of a bleed water lens.


! drpcinc.com A!13
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure A14. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, blue and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the yellow arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com A!14
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure A14 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively.

! drpcinc.com A!15
Appendix A: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #1 (22YD9201) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure A15. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com A!16
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 275 mm (11
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure B1, Figure B2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure B3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL
The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
CONDITION

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL None observed.

3. CRACKING
MACROSCOPIC No cracks were observed.
Several sub-vertical microcracks that range from 50-100 µm (2-4 mil) wide were observed at
MICROSCOPIC the top of the core (Figure B4). These microcracks cut from the finished surface to depths of
1-9 mm (40-360 mil), pass around aggregate particles and are free of secondary deposits.

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 5.8% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
VOID SYSTEM C457 (Figure B5). The consolidation is fair; a few water voids were observed near the top of
the core (Figure B6). The core shows a minor loss of air near the finished surface.
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
B7). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to blocky with
PROPERTIES angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 80%), chert (~ 10%), limestone (~ 5%) and siltstone
ROCK TYPES (~ 5%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in color.
Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and chert
are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. Low w/c mortar coatings were observed
commonly, particularly in the top 75 mm (3 in.) of the core. No evidence of ASR was
FEATURES observed.

! drpcinc.com B!1
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

6. FINE AGGREGATE
The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
PHYSICAL competent and crushed limestone (Figure B8). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
Paste ranges from light gray (Munsell 10YR/6/1) to gray (10YR/6/1), has a smooth texture and
POLISHED a weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure B9). The paste is hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). A band of lighter
paste was observed over a layer of dark paste at the top of the core (Figure B10). Mottling was
SURFACE observed in the top 75 mm (3 in.) and numerous low w/cm mortar coatings were observed
(Figure B11).
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure B12). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. The packing of the cement grains is uneven over the area of the
section. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up 4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
PHENOLPHTHALEIN No staining observed for up to 1 mm (40 mil) below the top surface (Figure B13).

DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com B!2
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure B1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com B!3
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure B1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com B!4
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

#
Figure B2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com B!5
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

!
Figure B3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

(a) !
Figure B4. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing microcrack (red arrows) at
the top of the core.

! drpcinc.com B!6
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

(b) !

(c) !
Figure B4 (cont’d). Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing microcracks (red
arrows) at the top of the core. 


! drpcinc.com B!7
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

!
Figure B5. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of entrained air voids
(dark circles).

!
Figure B6. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing bleed voids (red arrows) near the
top of the core.

! drpcinc.com B!8
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

!
Figure B7. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure B8. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com B!9
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure B9. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the
top of the core; scale in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing
detail of paste in the middle of the core.

! drpcinc.com B!10
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure B10. Reflected light photomicrographs showing variability in paste at the top of the core. In each
image the red bar measures depth of light paste and the green bar measures thickness of darker paste.

! drpcinc.com B! 11
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure B11. Reflected light photomicrographs showing (a) large mortar coating on a coarse aggregate particle
about 30 mm (1 ⅛ in.) from the top of the core and (b) mortar coating on another aggregate particle. The red
bars measure the width of low w/cm coatings.


! drpcinc.com B!12
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure B12. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com B!13
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure B12 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com B!14
Appendix B: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #2 (22YD9202) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure B13. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com B!15
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 275 mm (11
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure C1, Figure C2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure C3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL
The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
CONDITION

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL None observed.

3. CRACKING
MACROSCOPIC No cracks were observed.
MICROSCOPIC No significant microcracking observed.

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 6.9% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
VOID SYSTEM C457 (Figure C4). The consolidation is fair. Numerous water voids that measure up to 9 mm
(⅜ in.) long and 6 mm (¼ in.) wide were observed in the top half of the core (Figure C5).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
PHYSICAL C6). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to blocky with
PROPERTIES angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 85%), chert (~ 10%) and siltstone (~ 5%). The
ROCK TYPES quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in color. Most of the
rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and chert are potentially
susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. Low w/c mortar coatings were observed
FEATURES occasionally. No evidence of ASR was observed.

! drpcinc.com C!1
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

6. FINE AGGREGATE
The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
PHYSICAL competent and crushed limestone (Figure C7). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
POLISHED Paste ranges from light gray (Munsell 10YR/6/1) to gray (10YR/6/1), has a smooth texture and
SURFACE a weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure C8). The paste is hard (Mohs ~ 3.5).
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal to advanced (Figure C9). Fine crystallites of calcite are
present, which suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of
THIN SECTION* alite and belite make up 5-10% of the paste. The packing of the cement grains is uneven over
the area of the section. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up 4-8% of
the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
PHENOLPHTHALEIN No staining observed for up to 1 mm (40 mil) below the top surface (Figure C10).

DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com C!2
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure C1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com C!3
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure C1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com C!4
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

$
Figure C2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com C!5
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

!
Figure C3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure C4. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing entrained air voids (dark
circles).

! drpcinc.com C!6
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure C5. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing water voids (red arrows). The
green arrows indicate low w/cm mortar coatings and mortar lenses.


! drpcinc.com C!7
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

!
Figure C6. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure C7. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com C!8
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure C8. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the
top of the core; scale in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing
detail of paste in the middle of the core. The red arrows indicate fly ash.

! drpcinc.com C!9
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure C9. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com C!10
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure C9 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com C! 11
Appendix C: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #3 (22YD9203) Date: 23 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure C10. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com C!12
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 270 mm (11
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure D1, Figure D2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure D3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
The core was received in one piece although a crack cuts sub-vertically through the full depth
CONDITION of the core (Figure D4).

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL None observed.

3. CRACKING
A vertical crack that measures up to 250 µm (10 mil) wide cuts through the full depth of the
core (Figure D4). The crack cuts around most aggregate particles, tapers in width towards the
MACROSCOPIC bottom of the core and is free of secondary deposits. A sub-horizontal hairline crack was
observed about 2.5 mm below the finished surface (Figure D5). The hairline crack cuts across
the main sub-vertical crack. The crack is up to 175 µm wide and is ~ 25 mm (1 in.) long.
Several sub-horizontal microcracks ranging from 25-75 µm (1-3 mil) wide and up to 7 mm
long were observed in the top 1-2 mm (40-80 mil) of the core (Figure D6). These typically
occur at a contact between lighter paste on the top and darker paste below. The microcracks cut
MICROSCOPIC around aggregates and are free of secondary deposits. A few microcracks were observed that
cut sub-vertically from the finished surface to 1-2 mm (40-80 mil) below the finished surface
(Figure D7).

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 5.0% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
C457 (Figure D8). The concrete is moderately well consolidated with occasional entrapped
VOID SYSTEM voids that measure up to 4 mm (160 mil) across observed. The distribution of air is highly
irregular with zones of high air observed in areas of elevated sand fines (Figure D9).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

! drpcinc.com D!1
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
D10). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to slightly
PROPERTIES blocky with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are relatively even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 70%), limestone (~ 15%), siltstone (~ 10%) and
ROCK TYPES chert (~ 5%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in
color. Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. Numerous low w/c mortar coatings were
FEATURES observed; some measure up to ~ 500 m (⅛ in.) wide. No evidence of ASR was observed.

6. FINE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
competent and crushed limestone (Figure D11). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
POLISHED Paste is light gray (Munsell 2.5Y/7/1) and mottled, has a smooth to granular texture and a
weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure D12). The paste is moderately hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). The paste
SURFACE is markedly lighter in the top 3 mm (⅛ in.) of the core.
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure D13). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. The packing of the cement grains is uneven over the area of the
section. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up 4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
PHENOLPHTHALEIN No staining for up to 4 mm (160 mil) from the top surface (Figure D14).

DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com D!2
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure D1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com D!3
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure D1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com D!4
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

$
Figure D2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com D!5
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure D3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

(a) !
Figure D4. (a) Photograph of the side of the core showing traces of the main sub-vertical crack (red arrows);
the yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.

! drpcinc.com D!6
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

(b) !

(c) !
Figure D4 (cont’d). Photographs of the (b) finished surface and (c) polished surface showing overview of main
crack (red arrows). The scale is in millimeters in both photographs.


! drpcinc.com D!7
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure D5. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-horizontal microcrack (red
arrows) near the top surface. The green arrows indicate the main sub-vertical crack.

!
Figure D6. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-horizontal microcrack
(green arrows) near the top surface.

! drpcinc.com D!8
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

(b) !

(c) !
Figure D6 (cont’d). Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing details of sub-
horizontal microcracks (red arrows) subjacent to the finished surface. In (a) the green bar measures thickness
of a zone of distinctly lighter paste at the top of the core.

! drpcinc.com D!9
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure D7. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing detail of sub-vertical microcrack
(red arrows) at the top of the core. The green arrow indicates a water lens below a sand particle.

!
Figure D8. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of entrained air voids
(dark circles).

! drpcinc.com D!10
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure D9. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing overviews of entrained air voids
(dark circles) that illustrate heterogeneity of air void distribution. The area in (a) is typical of zones high air
content and fines in the sand.

! drpcinc.com D! 11
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure D10. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure D11. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com D!12
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure D12. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the
top of the core; scale in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing
detail of paste in the middle of the core. The red arrows in (b) indicate grains of fly ash.

! drpcinc.com D!13
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure D13. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com D!14
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure D13 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com D!15
Appendix D: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #4 (22YD9204) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure D14. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com D!16
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 275 mm (11
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure E1, Figure E2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure E3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
CONDITION The core was received in one piece but with a through-going sub-vertical crack (Figure E4).

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL None observed.

3. CRACKING
A crack that ranges from 100-500 µm (4-20 mil) wide cuts sub-vertically through the full
MACROSCOPIC depth of the core (Figure E4). The crack cuts around most aggregate particles and is free of
secondary deposits. The crack shows several offsets and a few bifurcations.
A sub-horizontal microcrack was observed about 5 mm (200 mil) below the finished surface
that ranges from 50-100 µm (2-4 mil) wide and is ~ 9.5 mm (⅜ in.) long (Figure E5). The
segment of the microcrack cuts through an aggregate particle and other segments cut across
aggregates. The microcrack appears to transect the main vertical crack. A second sub-
MICROSCOPIC horizontal to concave microcrack was observed subjacent to the finished surface (Figure E6).
The microcrack is ~ 6 mm (¼ in.) long and ~ 25 µm (1 mil) wide, cuts around and partially
through an aggregate particle and is free of secondary deposits. A few minor sub-vertical
microcracks were also observed; these are less than 25 µm (1 mil) wide, cut around aggregate
particles to 1-2 mm (40-80 mil) and are free of secondary deposits (Figure E7).

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 5.3% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
C457. (Figure E8). No major entrapped voids or water voids were observed. The distribution
of air is very heterogeneous with zones of high air observed in areas where high fines were
VOID SYSTEM observed in the sand and in sand lenses (Figure E9). These areas were commonly observed
along the main crack. A depletion of air was observed in the top 1-2 mm (40-80 mil) of the
core (Figure E10).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

! drpcinc.com E!1
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
E11). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to sub-blocky
PHYSICAL
with angular to sub-rounded edges. A few elongated particles with aspect ratios of 3:1 were
PROPERTIES observed; these particles do not show significant preferred orientation or alignment. The
gradation and distribution are even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 75%), limestone (~ 10%), siltstone (~ 10%) and
ROCK TYPES chert (~ 5%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in
color. Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. Minor low w/c mortar coatings that measure
FEATURES up to 250 µm (10 mil) wide were observed commonly. No evidence of ASR was observed.

6. FINE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
competent and crushed limestone (Figure E12). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
Paste is light gray (Munsell 2.5Y/7/1) and mottled, has a smooth to granular texture and a
POLISHED weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure E13). The paste is moderately hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). The paste
SURFACE is darker in the top 1-2 mm (40-80 mil) with a veneer of lighter paste at the very top of the
core.
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure E14). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up
4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
PHENOLPHTHALEIN No staining for up to 4 mm (160 mil) from the top surface (Figure E15).

DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com E!2
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure E1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com E!3
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure E1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com E!4
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

%
Figure E2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com E!5
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure E3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

(a) !
Figure E4. (a) Photograph of the side of the core showing trace of the main vertical crack (red arrows); the
yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.

! drpcinc.com E!6
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

(b) !

(c) !
Figure E4 (cont’d). Photographs of the polished surface showing where red arrows indicate the main crack
(b) at the top of the core and (c) in the middle of the core. The green arrows in (c) indicate a bifurcation. The
scale is in millimeters in both photographs.


! drpcinc.com E!7
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure E5. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-horizontal microcrack (red
arrows) near the top surface. The green arrows indicate bleed voids. The main crack cuts through the white
aggregate particle in the southeast corner of the image.

!
Figure E6. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-horizontal microcrack (red
arrows) near the top surface.

! drpcinc.com E!8
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure E7. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-vertical microcrack (red
arrows) at the top of the core. The green bar measures depth of lighter paste.

!
Figure E8. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of entrained air voids
(dark circles).

! drpcinc.com E!9
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure E9. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing examples of sand lenses with
high air contents.

! drpcinc.com E!10
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

(c) !
Figure E9 (cont’d). (c) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing example of sand
lenses with high air content; the red line marks the boundary between the lens on the right and an area of
lower air content on the left.

!
Figure E10. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of air voids near the
top surface; the red bar measures depth of paste that is darker and shows a depletion of air. The green bar
measures thickness of the veneer of lighter paste.


! drpcinc.com E! 11
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure E11. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure E12. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com E!12
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure E13. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the
top of the core; scale in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing
detail of paste in the middle of the core. The red arrows in (b) indicate grains of fly ash.

! drpcinc.com E!13
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure E14. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com E!14
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure E14 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com E!15
Appendix E: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #5 (22YD9205) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure E14. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com E!16
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 265-270 mm
DIMENSIONS (~ 10 ½ in.) long (Figure F1, Figure F2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure F3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL
The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
CONDITION

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
A 6 mm (¼ in.) diameter steel bar was observed ~ 185 mm (7 ¼ in.) below the top surface
GENERAL (Figure F4). The steel is clean and free of corrosion.

3. CRACKING
Hairline crazing cracks that measure ~ 100 µm (4 mil) wide with 3-9 mm (⅛ -⅜ in.) long
segments were observed on the finished surface (Figure F5). No other macroscopic cracks
were noted.
MACROSCOPIC Two sub-vertical hairline cracks were observed that cut from the finished surface to 4.5 mm
(180 mil; Figure F6). One of the cracks cuts through a sand grain; both are free of secondary
deposits.
MICROSCOPIC No significant microcracking was observed

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 5.8% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
C457. The distribution of air is very heterogeneous with lenses of high air observed in areas of
VOID SYSTEM high sand content (Figure F7). The consolidation is moderate; entrapped voids that measure
up to 15 mm (⅝ in.) long and 9 mm (⅜ in.) wide were observed occasionally. A few minor
bleed voids were observed near the finished surface (Figure F8).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
F9). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to blocky with
PROPERTIES angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 65%), chert (~ 20%), limestone (~ 10%) and
ROCK TYPES siltstone (~ 5%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in
color. Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. A few low w/cm mortar coatings were
FEATURES observed. No evidence of ASR was observed.

! drpcinc.com F!1
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

6. FINE AGGREGATE
The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
PHYSICAL competent and crushed limestone (Figure F10). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
POLISHED Paste ranges from light gray (Munsell 10YR/6/1) to gray (10YR/6/1), has a smooth texture and
a weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure F11). The paste is moderately hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). A band
SURFACE of darker paste was observed in the top ~ 1 mm (40 mil) of the core.
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure F12). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up
4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
PHENOLPHTHALEIN Entire surface stains purple (Figure F13).

DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com F!2
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure F1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com F!3
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure F1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com F!4
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

(
Figure F2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com F!5
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure F3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure F4. Photograph of the side of the core showing location of steel (red arrow); the yellow scale is ~ 150
mm (6 in.) long.

! drpcinc.com F!6
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure F5. Photograph of the finished surface showing faint hairline crazing cracks (red arrows) after the
application of acetone; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure F6. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-vertical hairline crack (green
arrows) at the top of the core. 


! drpcinc.com F!7
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure F7. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing heterogeneity of the distribution
of air voids (dark circles).

! drpcinc.com F!8
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure F8. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing bleed voids (green arrows) near
the top of the core. The red bar in (a) measures thickness of layer of dark paste.

! drpcinc.com F!9
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

!
Figure F9. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure F10. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com F!10
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure F11. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the
top of the core; scale in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing
detail of paste in the middle of the core; the red arrows indicate grains of fly ash.

! drpcinc.com F! 11
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure F12. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com F!12
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure F12 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows indicate alite,
belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com F!13
Appendix F: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6 (22YD9206) Date: 24 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure F13. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com F!14
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 255 mm (10
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure G1, Figure G2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure G3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL
The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
CONDITION

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL None observed.

3. CRACKING
No macroscopic cracks were observed on received surfaces. Numerous hairline cracks and
microcracks were observed in the top 6 mm (¼ in.) of the core (Figure G4). These cut
MACROSCOPIC obliquely through the paste, range up to 250 µm (10 mil) wide and are up to 6 mm (¼ in.)
long. The cracks cut around aggregate particles and are free of secondary deposits. In many
cases these are likely sheared voids.
Numerous microcracks ranging from 25-100 µm (1-4 mil) wide were observed in the top 6 mm
(¼ in.) of the core, often nested within the hairline cracks described above (Figure G5). These
MICROSCOPIC microcracks are up to 3 mm (⅛ in.) long, cut around aggregate particles and are free of
secondary deposits. These microcracks are also typical of sheared voids.

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 6.0% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
VOID SYSTEM C457. The distribution of air is very heterogeneous with lenses of high air observed in areas of
high sand content (Figure G6).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
G7). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to blocky with
PROPERTIES angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 70%), chert (~ 5%), limestone (~ 10%) and siltstone
ROCK TYPES (~ 10%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in color.
Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and chert
are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. A few low w/cm mortar coatings were
FEATURES observed. No evidence of ASR was observed.

! drpcinc.com G!1
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

6. FINE AGGREGATE
The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
PHYSICAL competent and crushed limestone (Figure G8). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
POLISHED Paste ranges from light gray (Munsell 10YR/6/1) to gray (10YR/6/1), has a smooth texture and
a weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure G9). The paste is moderately hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). A band
SURFACE of darker paste was observed in the top ~ 1 mm (40 mil) of the core.
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure G10). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up
4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
PHENOLPHTHALEIN Entire surface stains purple (Figure G11).

DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com G!2
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure G1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com G!3
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure G1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com G!4
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

%
Figure G2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com G!5
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

!
Figure G3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

(a) !
Figure G4. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph showing hairline cracks and microcracks (green arrows) at
the top of the core. The red bar measures thickness of a band of darker paste at the top of the core.

! drpcinc.com G!6
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

(b) !
Figure G4 (cont’d). (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing hairline cracks
(green arrows) that are likely sheared bleed voids at the top of the core. The green and red bars measure
thickness of bands of paste that is lighter and darker, respectively, than observed in the rest of the core.

(a) !
Figure G5. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing microcracks (green arrows)
at the top of the core. 


! drpcinc.com G!7
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

(b) !

(c) !
Figure G5 (cont’d). Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing microcracks (green
arrows) that may be sheared voids. The red and green bars in (b) measure the thickness of layers of light and
dark paste, respectively.

! drpcinc.com G!8
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

(d) !

(e) !
Figure G5 (cont’d). (d) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing water voids (green
arrows) near the top of the core. (e) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing a sub-
vertical microcrack (green arrows) at the top of the core.


! drpcinc.com G!9
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure G6. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing overviews of voids (dark circles)
that exemplify the heterogeneity of air void distribution.

! drpcinc.com G!10
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

!
Figure G7. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure G8. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com G! 11
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure G9. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the
top of the core; scale in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing
detail of paste in the middle of the core.

! drpcinc.com G!12
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure G10. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com G!13
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure G10 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com G!14
Appendix G: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #6a (22YD9207) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure G11. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com G!15
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 245 mm (9 ¾
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure H1, Figure H2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure H3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL
The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
CONDITION

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL None observed.

3. CRACKING
MACROSCOPIC No macroscopic cracks were observed.
A few microcracks cut sub-vertically from the finished surface to 1-2 mm (40-80 mil) below
the finished surface (Figure H4). The microcracks are less than 25 µm (1 mil) wide, cut
MICROSCOPIC around aggregates and are free of secondary deposits. Some sheared voids are present about
2-3 mm (80-125 mil) below the finished surface.

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 6.2% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
C457 (Figure H5). The consolidation is fairly good; one entrapped void measuring ~ 6 mm (~
VOID SYSTEM ¼ in.) long and wide was observed ~ 12.5 mm (½ in.) below the top surface. There is a clear
depletion of air from the top 2-3 mm (80-125 mil) of the core (Figure H6).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
H7). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to blocky with
PROPERTIES angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 65%), chert (~ 15%), limestone (~ 5%) and siltstone
ROCK TYPES (~ 15%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in color.
Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and chert
are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. A few low w/cm mortar coatings were
FEATURES observed. No evidence of ASR was observed.

! drpcinc.com H!1
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

6. FINE AGGREGATE
The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
PHYSICAL competent and crushed limestone (Figure H8). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
POLISHED Paste ranges from light gray (Munsell 10YR/6/1) to gray (10YR/6/1), has a smooth texture and
a weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure H9). The paste is moderately hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). A zone
SURFACE of alternating layers of dark and light paste were observed at the top of the core (Figure H10).
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure H11). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up
4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
PHENOLPHTHALEIN No staining was observed for up to 3 mm (⅛ in.) below the top surface (Figure H12).

DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com H!2
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure H1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com H!3
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure H1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com H!4
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

&
Figure H2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com H!5
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

!
Figure H3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure H4. Reflected light photomicrograph showing sub-vertical microcrack (red arrows) at the top of the
core. The green arrows indicate a bleed void.

! drpcinc.com H!6
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

!
Figure H5. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of entrained air voids
(dark circles).

(a) !
Figure H6. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing water voids (green arrows)
near the top of the core. The red line marks the depth of the zone of depleted air and the green bar measures
the thickness of darker paste at the top of the core.


! drpcinc.com H!7
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

(b) !

(c) !
Figure H6 (cont’d). Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing the depletion of voids
near the top of the core. In (b) the red line marks the upper limit where significant voids were observed and
the green bar measures the thickness of darker paste at the top of the core. In (c) the red arrows indicate
larger entrapped and water voids.

! drpcinc.com H!8
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

!
Figure H7. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure H8. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com H!9
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure H9. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the
top of the core. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing detail of paste in the
middle of the core. The green arrow indicates a grain of fly ash.

! drpcinc.com H!10
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure H10. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing variability in the color of the
paste at the top of the core. In (a) the green bar measures thickness of a zone of dark paste and the red bar
marks a zone of slightly darker paste with lighter paste between the two. The red arrows show water voids. In
(b) the red bar measures the thickness of a zone of light paste ant the green bars measure the thickness of
zones of darker paste.

! drpcinc.com H! 11
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure H10. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com H!12
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure H10 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com H!13
Appendix H: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #7 (22YD9208) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure H11. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com H!14
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 260 mm (10 ¼
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure I1, Figure I2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure I3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab. Bugholes measuring up to ~
12.5 mm (½ in.) across were observed on the bottom surface.
GENERAL The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
CONDITION

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL None observed.

3. CRACKING
MACROSCOPIC No macroscopic cracks were observed.
Occasional microcracks cut sub-vertically from the finished surface to depths of 1-3 mm
MICROSCOPIC (80-125 mil). The microcracks are generally less than 25 µm (1 mil) wide, cut around
aggregate particles, and are free of secondary deposits (Figure I4).

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 9.2% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
C457 (Figure I5). The distribution of entrained voids is relatively even. The consolidation is
VOID SYSTEM poor as many entrapped voids and water voids were observed, particularly in the top 25 mm (1
in.) of the core (Figure I6). A water void measuring 30 mm (1 ¼ in.) long and 19 mm (¾ in.)
wide was observed near the base of the core (Figure I7).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
I8). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to blocky with
PROPERTIES angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are relatively even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 65%), chert (~ 15%), limestone (~ 15%) and
ROCK TYPES siltstone (~ 5%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in
color. Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. Occasional low w/cm mortar coatings were
FEATURES observed (Figure I9). No evidence of ASR was observed.

! drpcinc.com I!1
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

6. FINE AGGREGATE
The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
PHYSICAL competent and crushed limestone (Figure I10). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
POLISHED Paste ranges from light gray (Munsell 10YR/6/1) to gray (10YR/6/1), has a smooth texture and
a weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure I11). The paste is moderately hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). The
SURFACE paste is slightly darker in the top ~ 2 mm (80 mil) of the core..
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure I12). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up
4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
PHENOLPHTHALEIN No staining was observed for up to 1 mm (40 mil) below the top surface (Figure I13).

DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com I!2
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure I1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com I!3
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure I1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively. The red arrows in (d) indicate
bugholes.

! drpcinc.com I!4
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

%
Figure I2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com I!5
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

!
Figure I3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure I4. Reflected light photomicrograph showing sub-vertical microcracks (red arrows) at the top of the
core.

! drpcinc.com I!6
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

!
Figure I5. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of entrained air voids
(dark circles).

(a) !
Figure I6. (a) Photograph of the side of the core showing water voids (red arrows) near the top of the core.
The small and large divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.


! drpcinc.com I!7
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

(b) !

(c) !
Figure I6 (cont’d). Photographs of the polished surface showing bleed voids (red arrows) near the top of the
core. The scale is in millimeters in both photos.

! drpcinc.com I!8
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

!
Figure I7. Reflected light photographs of the polished surface showing large bleed void (red arrows) near the
cast surface (green arrow).

!
Figure I8. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com I!9
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

!
Figure I9. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing low w/cm mortar coating (red bars)
around an aggregate particle.

!
Figure I10. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com I!10
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure I9. (a) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the
top of the core; scale in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing
detail of paste in the middle of the core. The red arrow indicates a grain of fly ash.

! drpcinc.com I! 11
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure I10. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com I!12
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure I10 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com I!13
Appendix I: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #8 (22YD9209) Date: 25 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure I11. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com I!14
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 270 mm (10 ¾
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure J1, Figure J2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure J3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
The core was received in one piece but a sub-vertical crack cuts through the full depth of the
CONDITION core.

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL A 5 mm (200 mil) diameter steel wire was observed ~ 225 mm (9 in.) below the top surface
(Figure J4). The steel is clean and free of corrosion.

3. CRACKING
A vertical crack that measures 500 µm (20 mil) wide cuts through nearly the full depth of the
core (Figure J5). The crack is discontinuous on one side of the core, where it tapers off in the
MACROSCOPIC paste. The crack cuts around most aggregate particles and is free of secondary deposits. A
second crack cuts sub-vertically from the top surface to ~ 19 mm (¾ in.); the crack cuts
through an aggregate particle (Figure J6).
Several sub-horizontal microcracks were observed in the top 3-5 mm (125-200 mil) of the core
(Figure J7). These range from 50-100 µm (2-4 mil) wide, are up to ~ 5 mm (200 mil) long, cut
MICROSCOPIC around aggregate particles and are free of secondary deposits. These microcracks commonly
coincide with sheared voids.

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 6.5% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
C457 (Figure J8). The consolidation is moderately good; no significant entrapped voids or
VOID SYSTEM water voids were observed. A minor depletion of air and sheared voids were observed near the
top of the core. The distribution of the air is highly irregular with zones of elevated air
observed around sand lenses (Figure J9).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
J10). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to blocky with
PROPERTIES angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are relatively even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 55%), chert (~ 20%), limestone (~ 13%) and
ROCK TYPES siltstone (~ 12%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in
color. Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. Occasional low w/cm mortar coatings were
FEATURES observed. No evidence of ASR was observed.

! drpcinc.com J!1
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

6. FINE AGGREGATE
The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
PHYSICAL competent and crushed limestone (Figure J11). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
POLISHED Paste ranges from light gray (Munsell 10YR/6/1) to gray (10YR/6/1), has a smooth texture and
a weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure J12). The paste is moderately hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). The
SURFACE paste is slightly darker in the top ~ 2 mm (80 mil) of the core..
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure J13). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up
4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
No staining was observed for ~ 2 mm (80 mil) from the finished surface and for up to ~ 9.5
PHENOLPHTHALEIN mm (⅜ in.) below the top surface along the walls of the main crack (Figure J14). No staining
observed for up to 2 mm (80 mil) in the walls of the main crack to a depth of ~ 6 mm (¼ in.).
DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com J!2
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure J1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com J!3
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure J1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com J!4
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

%
Figure J2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com J!5
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

!
Figure J3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure J4. Photograph of the side of the core showing location of steel wire (red arrows).

! drpcinc.com J!6
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

!
Figure J5. Photograph of the side of the core showing overview of main crack (red arrows). The yellow scale
is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.

!
Figure J6. Photograph of the side of the core showing minor crack (red arrows) next to main crack; scale in
centimeters.


! drpcinc.com J!7
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

!
Figure J7. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-horizontal microcrack (red
arrows) near the top of the core. The red bar measures the depth to the crack.

!
Figure J8. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of entrained voids (dark
circles).

! drpcinc.com J!8
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure J9. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing overviews of air voids (dark
circles) and heterogeneity of the distribution of voids.

! drpcinc.com J!9
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure J9 (cont’d). Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing (c) overview and (d)
detail of sand lens where elevated air content was observed. The red line in (c) marks the edge of the sand lens
and the green arrows indicate the main crack. Note grain to grain contact among some of the sand particles.

! drpcinc.com J!10
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

!
Figure J10. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure J11. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com J! 11
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure J12. (a) Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the top of the core; scale
in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing detail of paste in the
middle of the core. The red arrows indicate grains of fly ash.

! drpcinc.com J!12
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure J13. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com J!13
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure J13 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com J!14
Appendix J: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #9 (22YD9210) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure J14. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com J!15
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

1. RECEIVED CONDITION
ORIENTATION & Vertical core through concourse slab measures 95 mm (3 ¾ in.) in diameter and 250 mm (10
DIMENSIONS in.) long (Figure K1, Figure K2).
The top surface has a light broom finish (Figure K3) and the bottom surface is cast on a form
SURFACES board such that the core represents the full thickness of the slab.
GENERAL
The concrete is hard and compact and rings lightly when sounded with a hammer.
CONDITION

2. EMBEDDED OBJECTS
GENERAL A 5 mm (200 mil) diameter steel wire was observed near the bottom surface (Figure K4). No
significant corrosion was observed and casts around the wire are clean.

3. CRACKING
MACROSCOPIC None observed.
Trace amounts of sub-vertical microcracks up to 50 µm (2 mil) wide were observed cutting
MICROSCOPIC from the finished surface to ~ 3 mm (⅛ in.; Figure K5). The microcracks are free of secondary
deposits and cut around aggregate particles.

4.VOIDS
Concrete is air-entrained and contains 5.4% total air as measured in accordance with ASTM
C457 (Figure K6). The distribution of air is uneven with several areas of high content in sand
VOID SYSTEM lenses observed (Figure K7). Minor shearing of voids was observed in the top 6 mm (¼ in.) of
the core and a depletion of air was observed in the top 1-2 mm (40-80 mil) of the core (Figure
K8).
VOID FILLINGS Voids are free of secondary deposits.

5. COARSE AGGREGATE
PHYSICAL The coarse aggregate is a crushed gravel that has a nominal top size of 25 mm (1 in.; Figure
K9). The rocks are hard and competent. The particles are oblong to sub-equant to blocky with
PROPERTIES angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are relatively even.
The aggregate is mostly siliceous in composition and consists primarily of sedimentary rocks.
The major rock types include quartzite (~ 70%), chert (~ 10%), limestone (~ 10%) and
ROCK TYPES siltstone (~ 10%). The quartzites range in color from white to light gray to brownish yellow in
color. Most of the rocks are quartz arenites that are medium-grained. Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations observed. Occasional low w/cm mortar coatings were
FEATURES observed. No evidence of ASR was observed.

! drpcinc.com K!1
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

6. FINE AGGREGATE
The fine aggregate is a blend of a natural siliceous sand that consists of rocks that are hard and
PHYSICAL competent and crushed limestone (Figure K10). The particles are mostly sub-equant in shape
PROPERTIES with angular to sub-rounded edges. The gradation and distribution are even.
The sand is siliceous in composition and consists primarily of rocks similar to those observed
in the coarse aggregate with a significant proportion of limestone fragments. Rare particles of
ROCK TYPES granitic rocks were observed. Some chalcedonic chert was observed Quartzite, siltstone and
chert are potentially susceptible to ASR.
OTHER No deleterious coatings or incrustations, or low w/c mortar coatings were observed. No
FEATURES evidence of ASR was observed.

7. PASTE OBSERVATIONS
POLISHED Paste ranges from light gray (Munsell 10YR/6/1) to gray (10YR/6/1), has a smooth texture and
a weakly sub-vitreous luster (Figure K11). The paste is moderately hard (Mohs ~ 3.5). The
SURFACE paste is darker in the top 1-2 mm (40-80 mil) of the core..
The paste contains hydrated portland cement and fly ash; no slag cement or other SCMs were
observed. The hydration is normal (Figure K12). Fine crystallites of calcite are present, which
THIN SECTION* suggests the presence of interground limestone. Relict and residual grains of alite and belite
make up 5-10% of the paste. Calcium hydroxide is fine to medium-grained and makes up
4-8% of the paste.
* Abbreviations as follows: RRCG = relict and residual cement grains; SCM = supplemental cementitious materials; CH =
calcium hydroxide; ITZ = interfacial transition zone. Modal abundances are based on visual estimations.

8. SECONDARY DEPOSITS
No staining was observed for 1-2 mm (40-80 mil) from the finished surface and f (Figure
PHENOLPHTHALEIN
K13).
DEPOSITS None observed.

! drpcinc.com K!2
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

FIGURES

(a) !

(b) !
Figure K1. Photographs showing (a) oblique view of the top and side of the core with identification labels and
(b) the top surface of the core. The red and blue dots show the orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
sample. The yellow bar in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (b) the small and large divisions on the yellow scale
are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com K!3
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure K1 (cont’d). Photographs of the core in as-received condition showing the (c) side of the core and (d)
the bottom surface of the core. The yellow scale in (c) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long; in (d) the small and large
divisions on the yellow scale are in centimeters and inches, respectively.

! drpcinc.com K!4
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

%
Figure K2. Photograph showing the polished surface of the core. The yellow scale is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long.


! drpcinc.com K!5
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

!
Figure K3. Photograph showing detail of the finished surface; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure K4. Photograph of the side of the core showing location of steel wire (red arrows).

! drpcinc.com K!6
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

!
Figure K5. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing sub-vertical microcrack (red
arrows) at the top of the core.

!
Figure K6. Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing overview of entrained air voids
(dark circles). 


! drpcinc.com K!7
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure K7. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing (a) overview of a lens where
high air was observed with high fines in the sand (the red line marks the edge of the lens with high air and
fines to the right of the line) and (b) detail of a lens where high air and fines were observed. The red arrows in
(b) show sites where there is grain to grain contact between fines in the sand.

! drpcinc.com K!8
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(a) !
Figure K8. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing examples of sheared voids (red
arrows) near the top of the core. The red bars measure depths of darker paste and lower air content.

! drpcinc.com K!9
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

!
Figure K9. Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of coarse aggregate; scale in millimeters.

!
Figure K10. Reflected light photomicrograph of polished surface showing fine aggregate.

! drpcinc.com K!10
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure K11. (a) Photograph of the polished surface showing overview of the paste at the top of the core; scale
in millimeters. (b) Reflected light photomicrograph of the polished surface showing detail of paste in the
middle of the core. The red arrow indicates a grain of fly ash.

! drpcinc.com K! 11
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure K12. Reflected light photomicrographs of the polished surface showing examples of mortar coatings
(red bar in (a) and red arrows in (b)) on aggregate particles.

! drpcinc.com K!12
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure K13. Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (a) plane-polarized
and (b) cross-polarized light. The red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate alite, belite and fly ash,
respectively. In (b) the white arrows indicate grains of calcite.

! drpcinc.com K!13
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

(c) !

(d) !
Figure K13 (cont’d). Transmitted light photomicrographs of thin section showing detail of paste in (c) cross-
polarized light with the gypsum plate inserted and (d) cross-polarized light with the quarter wavelength plate
inserted. The white arrows in (c) indicate grains of CH. In (d) red, purple and green arrows in (a) indicate
alite, belite and fly ash, respectively

! drpcinc.com K!14
Appendix K: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

Sample ID: Core VC #10 (22YD9211) Date: 26 May 2018

(a) !

(b) !
Figure K14. Photographs showing (a) overview of phenolphthalein-stained surface and (b) detail of surface
near the top of the core. The yellow scale in (a) is ~ 150 mm (6 in.) long and the scale in (b) is in millimeters.

! drpcinc.com K!15
APPENDIX L: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

ASTM C457 Hardened Air Content Data Date: 23 May 2018

Table L1. Results of ASTM C457 Testing


Measured Parameters VC #1 VC #2 VC #3 VC #4 VC #5 VC #6

Aggregate Stops 961 979 993 993 993 991

Paste Stops (Sp) 415 397 362 362 362 398

Air Stops (Sa) 95 84 100 100 100 86

Total Stops (St) 1471 1460 1455 1426 1426 1475

Calculated Parameters VC #1 VC #2 VC #3 VC #4 VC #5 VC #6

Traverse Length (Tt; in.) 110.3 109.5 109.1 107.0 108.2 110.6

Traverse Length (Tt; mm) 2802 2781 2772 2717 2749 2810

Aggregate Content 65.3% 67.1% 68.2% 69.6% 69.9% 67.2%

Paste Content (p) 28.2% 27.2% 24.9% 25.3% 24.8% 27.0%

Air Content (A) 6.5% 5.8% 6.9% 5.0% 5.3% 5.8%

Paste-Air Ratio (p/A) 4.4 4.7 3.6 5.0 4.7 4.6

Note: Analysis done via the Point-Count Method (Method B) in ASTM C457 using a stepping distance of 1.905 mm (0.075 in.) at 125x magnification. The analysis complies
with the following requirements for calculating air content for concrete with 25 mm (1 in.) aggregate: 1425 points, traverse length of 2413 mm (95 in.), and traverse area of 77
cm2 (12 in2).

drpcinc.com L1
APPENDIX L: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d

ASTM C457 Hardened Air Content Data Date: 23 May 2018

Table L1 (cont’d). Results of ASTM C457 Testing


Measured Parameters VC #6A VC #7 VC #8 VC #9 VC #10

Aggregate Stops 978 980 983 962 962

Paste Stops (Sp) 392 372 333 382 411

Air Stops (Sa) 87 90 133 94 78

Total Stops (St) 1457 1442 1449 1438 1451

Calculated Parameters VC #6A VC #7 VC #8 VC #9 VC #10

Traverse Length (Tt; in.) 109.3 108.2 108.7 107.9 108.8

Traverse Length (Tt; mm) 2776 2747 2760 2739 2764

Aggregate Content 67.1% 68.0% 67.8% 66.9% 66.3%

Paste Content (p) 26.9% 25.8% 23.0% 26.6% 28.3%

Air Content (A) 6.0% 6.2% 9.2% 6.5% 5.4%

Paste-Air Ratio (p/A) 4.5 4.1 2.5 4.1 5.3

Note: Analysis done via the Point-Count Method (Method B) in ASTM C457 using a stepping distance of 1.905 mm (0.075 in.) at 125x magnification. The analysis complies
with the following requirements for calculating air content for concrete with 25 mm (1 in.) aggregate: 1425 points, traverse length of 2413 mm (95 in.), and traverse area of 77
cm2 (12 in2).

drpcinc.com L1
Appendix M: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d
Procedures Date: 29 May 2018

PROCEDURES
ASTM C856--Petrographic Analysis The petrographic work was done following ASTM C856
[1] with sample preparation done at DRP in the following manner. After writing the unique DRP

sample number on each sample near the received label, the samples were measured and
inspected visually and with a hand lens. The orientation of the saw cuts used to prepare the
samples was then indicated on each sample with blue and red dots. The samples were then
photographed in their as-received condition.

A slab representing a longitudinal cross section of each sample was cut from the central portion
of the core using a Diamond Pacific® TR-24, a 24-inch diameter oil-lubricated saw. This
produced three (3) longitudinal sections for each core. These sections were rinsed in an aqueous
solution with a detergent to remove the cutting oil and oven dried overnight in a Gilson® Bench
Top laboratory oven at ~ 40°C (~ 105°F) to remove remaining traces of the oil. After drying,
each piece was labelled with the appropriate DRP sample number. One piece was set aside for
phenolphthalein staining and the other was set aside for thin section preparation.

The central slab was then lapped and polished on a Diamond Pacific® RL-18 Flat Lap machine.
This machine employs an 18-inch diameter cast iron plate onto which Diamond Pacific®
Magnetic Nova Lap discs with progressively finer grits are fixed. The Nova Lap discs consist of
a 1/16 in. backing of solid rubber containing magnetized iron particles that is coated with a
proprietary Nova resin-bond formula embedded with industrial diamonds of specific grit. The
slab preparation involved the use of progressively finer wheels to a 3000 grit (~4 µm) final
polish following procedures outlined in ASTM C457 [ 2]. An aqueous lubricant is used in the

lapping and polishing process. The polished slab from each sample was examined visually and
with a Nikon® SMZ-25 stereomicroscope with 3-158x magnification capability following to the
standard practice set forth in ASTM C856.

Phenolphthalein was applied to a freshly saw-cut surface from each sample to assess the extent
of carbonation, along with thin section analysis. Phenolphthalein is an organic stain that colors
materials with pH of greater than or equal to ~ 9.5 purple. Portland cement concrete generally
has a pH of ~ 12.5. Carbonation lowers the pH of the paste below 9.5, so areas not stained by
phenolphthalein are an indicator of carbonation. The depth of paste not stained by
phenolphthalein was measured from each exposed surface.

!1 Standard Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 4.02., ASTM
C856-18.
!2 Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete, Annual
Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 4.02, ASTM C457-16.

drpcinc.com M1
Appendix M: McKinney ISD DW Stadium Concourse Slab Core Petrography Report No.: 187160.d
Procedures Date: 29 May 2018

Petrographic thin sections were prepared by cutting billets from the remaining longitudinal
section. Outlines marking the area of the billets were drawn with a marker on the saw-cut surface
after visual and microscopical examination of saw-cut and polished surfaces. The billets were
labeled with the unique DRP number assigned to the sample and impregnated with epoxy. The
impregnated billets were then fixed to glass slides with epoxy. After the epoxy cured, the slides
were prepared with a PELCON® automatic thin section machine. The thin sections were
examined with a Nikon® E-Pol 600 petrographic microscope equipped to provide a 20-1000x
magnification range following the standard practice set forth in ASTM C856.

Hardened Air Content Determination (ASTM C457) Following the preparation of the polished
surfaces as described above, the modified point-count method outlined in ASTM C457 was done
to determine the hardened air content of each core. The point count was done under oblique
illumination at a magnification of 125x with a stepping distance of 1.9 mm (0.075 in.) between
traverse points. Each point was tabulated and recorded as aggregate, paste or a void to allow the
measurement of the volumetric proportions of the concrete.

drpcinc.com M2
Pr
int
edonpos
t-c
ons
umerr
ecy
cleds
toc
k.

1-
877-
850-
8765
www.
nel
sonf
orens
ics
.com
T
elac
l m® -Onl
ai iner
eques
tforpr
ofes
sionals
erv
ices
.
July 27, 2018

Rob Daake
Abernathy, Roeder, Boyd & Hullett P.C.
1700 Redbud Boulevard
Suite 300
McKinney, Texas 75069

File: McKinney Independent School District Stadium Nelson File No.: 20125
McKinney, Texas

Dear Mr. Daake:

The purpose of this letter is to inform you that Nelson has reviewed Manhattan
Construction Company Request-for-Information (RFI) 185 dated April 20, 2017.
This document superseded Manhattan Submittal Package No.: 0004-03 3000-0 titled
"Revised Structural Mix Design," which was referenced in Nelson Report 3, dated
June 13, 2018 (Report 3). RFI 185 stated:

Greco has been been [sic] unable to acheive [sic] an acceptable finish and
maintain the budgeted cost of concrete for the exposed 4000psi mix design.
Please see the attached Manhattan submittal no 0004-033000-0 returned as
"make corrections noted" on 3/10/17. Reference concrete mix codes F8206W and
F8206M on page 4 of submittal. Per meeting with Datum, Manhattan, and Greco
on 4/17/17, please confirm that it is acceptable to use a 0.45 water/cement ratio
for mix code #F8206W and a 0.44 water/cement ratio for mix code #F8206M.
Other mix characteristics will remain the same per the attached AAN submittal.
All usages will remain the same as indicated in the attached AAN submittal [sic]

RFI 185 was responded to on April 26, 2017 by the structural engineer of record,
Datum Engineers. Datum confirmed that the water to cementitious materials ratio (w/cm)
was "not to exceed 0.45 for mix designs," and that the concrete mix designs were
"acceptable for slabs and grade beams as indicated in usages."

As presented in Report 3, Nelson's review of the concrete batch tickets for the visitor's
concourse slabs indicated that excessive amounts of water were added to the concrete
mixing trucks at the jobsite, which is a process known as retempering. This was
confirmed by the petrographic analysis performed by DRP Inc. on concrete samples
extracted from the visitor's concourse. The analysis revealed that the majority of the
concrete samples showed clear evidence of retempering to the degree that there were
significant internal variations in the w/cm as well as the air content within the samples.

Your questions. Our people. Expert solutions.


2740 Dallas Parkway Suite 220 Plano, Texas 75093 tel 469-429-9000 fax 469-326-5200 toll free 1-877-850-8765

www.nelsonforensics.com Telaclaim - Online Request for Professional Services


July 27, 2018 McKinney Independent School District Stadium
Page 2 Nelson File No.: 20125

It remains Nelson's opinion that the excessive addition of water to the concrete
mixture at the jobsite during construction (retempering) affected the concrete at the
visitor's concourse slabs. Nelson's opinions presented in Report 3 remain unchanged.
Refer to Nelson's limitations presented in Report 3 as they pertain to this letter.

Please do not hesitate to contact us with any questions or concerns.

With kindest regards,

NELSON FORENSICS, LLC


Texas Certificate of Registration F-17167

Travis G. Ebisch, M.S., P.E.


Project Director

Nelson: Letter5-20125.doc.