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TRANSLATION

[Note: all dates in this translation listed as month/day/year]

Monopolizing death:
Or how to frame a government by inflating a list of the dead

By Enrique Hendrix

July 8th, 2018

Presidential Decree No. 03-2018, "On Amendments to Decree No. 975 General
Regulation of the Social Security Law" issued on April 18th, was the perfect pretext for
the Opposition to initiate a series of protests that began to escalate. Four days later, in
the face of acts of violence and an estimated 23 deaths, President Daniel Ortega
decided, on April 22nd, to repeal the Presidential Decree that had served as a catalyst
for what looked like an explosion of social unrest. In that same announcement he called
for a National Dialogue as an instrument to restore the security, stability and peace of
Nicaraguan families, address the situation of the Social Security system and the
possible inclusion of tax reforms for discussion. He also invited Cardinal Leopoldo
Brenes to participate in the National Dialogue with a delegation from the Episcopal
Conference so that it would serve as guarantor and witness. However, despite the
repeal of the decree that triggered the protests and despite the willingness of the
Government to seek a solution through the National Dialogue, the protests continued.

The Human Rights organizations began their work of compiling the names of the
deceased citizens within the context of the protests. Three organizations stand out: The
Nicaraguan Center for Human Rights (CENIDH), the first body to pronounce itself;
the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (CIDH), whose participation was
requested by the government of Nicaragua on May 13th; and the Nicaraguan
Association for Human Rights (ANPDH), the body that has been most active in
relation to the death list.

The Nicaraguan Center for Human Rights (CENIDH - founded in 1990 and of which
Mrs. Vilma Núñez de Escorcia is president) has issued three reports corresponding to
different time periods in the context of the protests. The First Report issued on May 4,
covers April 19th to May 4th; The Second Report issued on May 17th, covers May 1st to
May 15th; and the Third Report issued on June 18th, covers May 16th to June 18th.
The CENIDH list is not presented as a chart or a table, but as a section within each
report which is titled "Killed and wounded as a result of government repression and
violence." Note that this title irresponsibly and arbitrarily asserts that the deaths are a
direct consequence of the violence on the part of the Government. In the third and last
report issued, it is indicated that the total of deaths is 178 citizens, however the First
Report includes the names of 45 dead citizens, the Second Report 12 citizens and the
Third Report 110, so that the total of the three reports is one hundred and sixty-seven
(167) dead on June 18th and not 178.
On May 21st, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (CIDH – an
autonomous body of the Organization of American States) presented Preliminary
Observations on its working visit to Nicaragua from May 17th to 21st and in the context
of the protests beginning on April 18th. Those observations did not include a list of
citizens who had died in at the scene of the protests. It was not until June 22nd that the
CIDH presented its Final Report on its visit to Nicaragua before the Permanent Council
of the Organization of American States (OAS), a report in which the list of decedents
was attached, accounting for a total of Two Hundred Twelve (212). This appendix is
entitled: "List of deceased persons in Nicaragua since the beginning of the protests
(April 19 - June 19, 2018)". Note the cynical euphemism of "deceased in Nicaragua
since the beginning of the protests", that is, every person who died from April 19th to
June 19th, promoting the decontextualization of the same, regardless of the causes and
circumstances of the death of each of them and as we will indicate later.

On June 26, the Nicaraguan Association for Human Rights (ANPDH - founded in
Miami in 1986 and of which Monsignor Abelardo Mata is president emeritus) issued a
document entitled: "Preliminary Report of Nicaraguan Citizens Killed in Civic Protest as
a Human Rights and Executed by Armed Groups (Paramilitary or Shock Forces) for the
period: 04/19/2018 to 6/25/2018. (66 calendar days)". Note that the title shares the
same editorial line of the CENIDH, affirming irresponsibly and arbitrarily that all the
deaths occurred in the context of "Civic Protest" and likewise attributes their deaths to
"Executions by Armed Groups (Paramilitaries or Shock Forces) ". The preliminary report
of the ANPDH counted a death toll of 285.

It should be noted that these reports have inconsistencies and omissions in terms of
names with incomplete data, inaccurate names or boxes with the indication "No
Information" or "Under Investigation". This denotes the lack of disposition and a lack of
ability in actual case-by-case investigation, with results limited to information gathered
from journalistic sources and those accepted in complaints without no willingness to
corroborate the data.

Deaths Decontextualized

A recurrent feature in the lists is the removal from context each one of the dead and
adjudging them as victims of the "repression" on the part of the government. In fact, the
lists include victims of traffic accidents, altercations between gangs, murders by
robbery, those killed by accidental firing of a firearm and even more absurdly, a suicide.
This is evidence of a campaign that, in the absence of a just cause, uses the death of
every citizen as a motive to manipulate the emotions of the population in order to
counterpose “the people” against “the people.”

It is necessary to know the set of circumstances surrounding the death of each citizen to
understand whether that death has any direct or indirect relationship to the protests.
For the purposes of this article, we define "Death Not Directly Related to Protests" as
those deaths that occurred outside the scenario of a demonstration, a confrontation
involving protesters, the attack or destruction of institutional targets (or FSLN
supporters), or the looting of shops.

The adverb "directly” is used to distinguish these deaths from those caused indirectly.
As the product of the political and social destabilization imposed on the country, crime
has been empowered, taking ground, directly affecting Nicaraguan society and causing
deaths, which although not connected to the protests are an indirect consequence of
them.

Therefore, efforts will be made to identify the quantities corresponding to the following
variables from the death lists of the three organizations:

 Repeated Names
 Deaths Not Directly Related to Protests
 People murdered by the Opposition
 Protesters (protesters, opponents, opposition activists operating roadblocks...)
 Bystanders (uninvolved in the protests)
 Names with insufficient data to determine the context of the death
 Deaths omitted from each list

Sources for the Verification of the Lists

The list of each report was verified name by name with information gathered from
newspaper articles and press releases from the National Police. The biggest weakness
is that many media outlets are diverting, omitting or manipulating information for political
purposes.

The following web pages correspond to most of the sources used to cross-check the
lists:

 The Press: laprensa.com.ni
 The New Newspaper: elnuevodiario.com.ni
 Confidential: http://www.com.ni
 100% News: http://www.com.ni
 The 19 Digital: el19digital.com
 The New Radio Ya: nuevaya.com.ni
 National Police: http://www.policia.gob.ni
 Newspaper Today: http://www.hoy.com.ni
 Q'hubo Nicaragua: http://www.qhubo.com.ni
 TN8: http://www.tn8.tv
 The Voice of Sandinismo: http://www.lavozdelsandinismo.com

To verify the context in which the citizens cited in each list died, a matrix was drawn up
that sought to identify the full name, photo, age, profession, place of death, reason for
death, context, observations and the sources for each case. The matrix is available at
the following link:

https://drive.google.com/open?id=1wAiENa7qE_wDWV8KwYbquYEkJxeFsfQS

About the CENIDH Report…
CENIDH has issued three reports whose lists are not included in full in its third and most
recent report, because each report refers to a specific period of time. Thus, the Third
Report, covering the period from May 16th to June 18th, does not include in its list the
deaths that occurred before May 16th. The information corresponding to the previous
date is included in the two previous reports.

As for its list, from its three reports, it is possible to identify one hundred and sixty-seven
(167) dead as of June 18th. The CENIDH seems to be the most prudent organization in
terms of attributing to the Government responsibility for the death of these citizens
because upon verification the lists were found to have few duplicated names; the
reports try to provide sound information on the context of the death of each of the
citizens; and few cases lack incomplete data.

The CENIDH list is not presented as a chart or table but as a section within each report,
section entitled: "Killed and wounded as a result of government repression and
violence". The names are grouped in chronological order, without reference numbers,
and describe at least the full name, age, description of the context of the death and
where it took place. For example:

“May 16th
Noel Calderón Lagos, 19 years old, wounded by a bullet due to the repression
at the UPOLI at dawn on May 16th. From Department of Managua.”

Regarding the repeated names, 4 citizens were duplicated in the reports. On two
occasions, the same name was mentioned in two different reports. In one case the
name was incorrectly identified; and in another, a pseudonym of a citizen who had
already been mentioned was added.

The following chart indicates the repeated names and the report which corresponds to
each one on the list:

CENIDH - Repeated Names
Date of
Ref. Name Age Location
Occurence
Report 1 Nelson Téllez Huete No information 5/02 Ciudad Sandino
Report 2 Nelson Téllez Huete No information 5/02 Ciudad Sandino
Noel Calderón
Report 2 19 5/15 Managua
Ramos
Report 3 Noel Calderón Lagos 19 5/16 Managua

Humberto Antonio
Report 2 40 5/15 Managua
Parrales Reyes
Humberto Antonio
Report 3 39 5/16 Managua
Parrales Reyes

Donald Ariel López
Report 3 27 6/02 Monimbó
Áreas,
Known as “The
Report 3 No information 6/02 Masaya
Monkey”

We proceed to subtract from the repeated names from the total amount of deaths (167),
leaving the figure at 163 deaths.

From the investigation into the context of the citizens’ deaths cited by the CENIDH, it
was verified that at least 19 citizens died for reasons not directly related to the
protests.

Attempting to identify the circumstances in which these 19 citizens died, we can note:

● Murder and Motorcycle/Vehicle Theft:
○ 6 citizens
● Murder (Motivation Undetermined):
○ 3 citizens
● Murder and Theft:
○ 2 citizens
● Altercations among Gangs:
○ 2 citizens
● Property Conflicts (Land Grabs):
○ 2 citizens
● Traffic Accident:
○ 1 citizen
● Accidental Firing of Firearm:
○ 1 citizen
● Suicide:
○ 1 citizen
● Murder and Robbery of a Security Guard
○ 1 citizen

CENIDH - Deaths Not Directly Related to the Protests
Date of
Ref. Name Age Occurenc Location Context
e
Report Ezequiel Rivera Murder (Motivation
31 5/16 Siuna
3 Hernández Undetermined)
No
Report Bismark Enrique
informat 5/19 Managua Murder and Theft
3 Chavarría
ion
Report Erick William Murder and Robbery
49 5/19 Managua
3 Espinoza of a Security Guard
Report Alejandro Tomás Property Conflict
17 5/26 Managua
3 Hernández Estrada (Land Grabs)
No Property Conflict
Report
Yader Castillo informat 5/26 Managua (Land Grabs)
3
ion
Report Jaime José Reyes Altercation Among
20 5/26 Managua
3 Téllez Gangs
Report Altercation Among
Rudy Chávez 21 5/27 Managua
3 Gangs
Report Fredy Josué Murder and
18 5/20 Managua
3 González Motorcycle Theft
Report Adolfo Enrique
27 6/02 Managua Transit Accident
3 Castellón Arauz
Report Marvin Solórzano Murder and Taxi
34 6/04 Managua
3 Salina Theft
Report Camilo Javier Valle Murder and
31 6/04 Managua
3 Martínez Motorcycle Theft
Report Bismarck Badilla
25 6/07 Carazo Suicide
3 López
Report Murder and
Chris Montana 19 6/08 Managua
3 Motorcycle Theft
Report Víctor Cabrera Murder and
39 6/09 Managua
3 García Motorcycle Theft
Report Alejandro Enrique 24 6/11 Managua Accidental Firing of
3 Cárcamo Gago Firearm
No
Report Michael Alexander Murder (Motivation
informat 6/12 Managua
3 López Medina Undetermined)
ion
Report Roberto Pablo Corea Murder and
19 6/12 Managua
3 Chávez Motorcycle Theft
No
Report Lucas Antonio Sirias
informat 6/13 León Murder and Theft
3 Pineda
ion
No
Report Wilton Cornejo Pantasma, Murder (Motivation
informat 6/14
3 Peralta Jinotega Undetermined)
ion

Excluding the deaths that are not directly related to the protests, we now have a 144 out
of all of the names that must be verified.

While carrying out the verification of the deaths, 44 comrades were identified as
having been killed by the opposition. The inclusion of these names was ill-
intentioned. Although in some cases the context of the death was briefly mentioned, the
opposition has developed media propaganda which takes the deaths out of context in
an attempt to spread the unconscious idea that the acts and responsibilities of the
opposition must be assumed by the government.

The names of the 44 people and context in which they were murdered correspond to:

CENIDH – Murdered by the Opposition
Date of
Ref. Name Age Occurenc Location Context
e
Report Richard Bermúdez Attack on the Tipitapa
17 4/19 Tipitapa
1 Pavón Municipality building.
Report Hilton Rafael National Police re-
33 4/19 Managua
1 Manzanares establishing order.
Report Cristian Emiliano Burned inside of the CUUN,
23 4/20 León
1 Cadena allegedly tortured.
Report
Jimmy Paíz 53 4/20 León Burned in Radio Darío event.
1
No
Report Apolonio Díaz
inform 4/20 León Burned in Radio Darío event.
1 Delgadillo
ation
Report Ismael José Pérez Guarding a supermarket to
32 4/20 Managua
1 Vílchez avoid theft.
Report Ángel Eduardo Canal 6 Correspondent
43 4/21 Bluefields
1 Gahona covering robberies.
Report Juana Francisca National Police re-
19 4/21 Managua
1 Cano Águila establishing order.
Report Roberto Carlos Guarding a supermarket to
40 4/24 Managua
1 García Paladino avoid theft.
Injured on his way home. The
Report José Alfredo Urroz
30 5/16 Matagalpa roadblocks did not allow the
2 Jirón
ambulances to pass.
Report Attack on the Matagalpa
Wilber David Reyes 22 5/15 Matagalpa
2 Municipality building.
Report Holman Eliezer Murdered while helping to
29 5/16 Matagalpa
3 Zeledón take down the roadblocks.
Crushed by a governmental
Report ‘Tree of Life,’ which was
Eduardo Spiegler 34 5/16 Managua
3 knocked down by the
opposition.
Murdered by people guarding
Report Marlon José Orozco
48 5/24 Managua the roadblocks in Iván
3 Largaespada
Montenegro.
UNAN protesters confused
Report José David Martínez him with a police and
27 5/25 Managua
3 Rivas murdered him, then stole his
motorcycle.
Murdered by people guarding
Report Jorge Gastón
30 5/26 Managua the roadblocks in El
3 Palacios
Quebracho, Boaco.
Tortured and murdered by
Report Keller Stiven Pérez protestors connected to El
22 5/26 Managua
3 Duarte Viper; abandoned at Cuesta
El Plomo.
Report National Police, re-
Douglas Mendiola 23 5/28 Managua
3 establishing order.
No
Report Heriberto Maudiel Murdered after participating in
inform 5/30 Managua
3 Pérez Díaz the Cantata a Las Madres
ation
Report Kevin Antonio Cufi No 5/30 Managua Murdered after participating in
inform
3 Reyes the Cantata a Las Madres
ation
No
Report
Mauricio López inform 5/30 Estelí Guarding shops to avoid theft.
3
ation
No
Report Attacked in the FSLN
Jairo Antonio Osorio inform 5/30 Estelí
3 Caravan headed to Managua.
ation
Report Juan Alejandro Chinande Attack on the Chinandega
18 5/30
3 Zepeda ga Municipality building.
Report Marvin Meléndez Chinande Attack on the Chinandega
49 5/30
3 Linarte ga Municipality building.

Report Murdered by Viper’s group of
Sixto Henry Vera 48 6/02 Managua
3 protesters at the UPOLI.

Possible National Police,
Report Eduardo José López
22 6/02 Masaya Member of the Intelligence
3 Mendoza
Division.
Report Carlos Evenor López Injured for refusing to help put
22 6/02 Waslala
3 Figueroa up a roadblock.
No
Report Geovanny Mena People guarding roadblocks
inform 6/02 Tipitapa
3 Reyes attacked citizens.
ation
No
Report José Abraham Attack on the Masaya
22 6/04 informatio
3 Martínez Delegation building.
n
Report Salvador de Jesús Murdered by people guarding
33 6/04 Tipitapa
3 Arévalo roadblocks.
Report Chinande Murdered by people guarding
César Vega López 15 6/07
3 ga roadblocks.
Mulukukú,
Report Dixon Bismarck Soza
43 6/11 Triángulo Attack on police post.
3 Enríquez
Minero
Mulukukú,
Report Carlos José Zamora
36 6/11 Triángulo Attack on police post.
3 Martínez
Minero
Report Marco Antonio
41 6/11 Managua National Police Patrol
3 González Briseño
Report Jean Kerry Luna 29 6/14 Managua National Police Patrol
3 Gutiérrez
Report Ulises Santiago Attack on FSLN party
28 6/14 Bilwi
3 Gogo building.
Murdered for refusing
Report Marlon Javier Médina
35 6/14 León confiscation at a roadblock,
3 Toval
motorcycle stolen.
No Confrontation between people
Report Jinotepe,
Marcos Gutiérrez inform 6/12 guarding roadblocks and the
3 Carazo
ation police.
No Confrontation between people
Report Jinotepe,
Guillermo Méndez inform 6/12 guarding roadblocks and the
3 Carazo
ation police.
No
Report Murdered while collaborating
Ariel Ignacio Vivas inform 6/12 Managua
3 to take down the roadblocks.
ation
Murdered in his home by
No Villa
Report people guarding the
Teodoro Ruíz inform 6/13 Sandino,
3 roadblocks. Afterwards they
ation Chontales
stole his gun.
No No Murdered, burned, and his
Report Francisco Ramón
inform 6/16 informatio corpse vandalized for helping
3 Arauz Pineda
ation n to take down the roadblocks.
No No
Report Murdered while collaborating
Antonio Fernandez inform 6/16 informatio
3 to take down the roadblocks.
ation n
Pregnant woman died
Report Lilian Jacqueline
18 6/16 Managua because the ambulance was
3 Martínez Valerio
retained at the roadblock.

Excluding the repeated names, the citizens who died for reasons not directly related to
the protests and the people murdered by the opposition, the total number of deaths is
reduced to 100 people.

The CENIDH reports contain 48 names which lack information related to the person’s
age and/or where the death occurred, which reduces the credibility of the information
reflected by the CENIDH. However, the verification which was carried out was able to
obtain the data for 34 out of the 48 citizens with incomplete information. As for the
remaining 14 in this group, little information was found about 4 people, who only appear
in the CENIDH report and whose names were disclosed by the same organization.
Likewise, 10 citizens were identified whose contexts of death have not been verified.
That is why they appear listed as 14 Names with Incomplete Data. All of these are
noted in the spreadsheet that is referred to at the beginning of this document.
Accounting for the people with incomplete data, the CENIDH can count just 86 people
on their list of deaths, 35 of whom are considered to be citizens not involved in the
protests; Nicaraguans who were just passing by and got trapped in a confrontation,
victims of a bullet within the parameters of the protests, or random attacks outside of the
context of the protests; and 51 citizens directly involved in the protests.

Omissions by the CENIDH

In the CENIDH reports, the deaths of 16 citizens are not included. They are excluded
for unknown reasons, which hints at the organization’s lack of capacity to investigate. Of
these 16 citizens, 15 were murdered by the opposition and one was not involved.

The citizens omitted from the list correspond to events directly related to the protests
and are the following:

CENIDH – Citizens Omitted from the List (24 Citizens)
Date of
Name Age Occurenc Location Context
e
Abelino Guevara Obando 38 5/11 Siuna National Police Patrol
Institutional Attack on
Carlos Alberto Miranda 19 5/11 Managua
District VI
Crashed into a
Jostán Abdel Gutiérrez governmental ‘Tree of Life’,
26 5/13 Managua
Koock which was knocked down by
the opposition.
Old woman died because
the ambulance couldn’t
Pánfila Alvarado Urbina 80 5/24 Boaco
pass through the
roadblocks.
Run over by a truck which
Cándida Rosa Herrera Rizo 60 5/26 Managua participated in the
opposition protest.
Traffic accident caused by a
Humberto José Reyes government billboard
64 5/29 Nandaime
Almanza knocked down and left in
the road by the opposition.
Run over by a group of
San people guarding the
Pablo Roberto León Torres 39 6/01
Miguelito roadblocks, of which he was
a part of.
Murdered by people
guarding the road blocks.
Franklin Javier Mercado 35 6/02 Tipitapa
Possibly by Geovanny
Miguel Reyes.
Traffic accident caused by
Kevin José Cruz Ruiz 23 6/09 Jinotepe
the roadblocks.
Eyner Heriberto Espinoza Murdered while helping to
19 6/12 Jinotega
Rugama take down the roadblocks.
Employee of Teodoro Ruiz
Hernaldo Sánchez Villa
-- 6/13 (ref. 169), he was murdered
Chavarría Sandino
with him.
25 Ambulance held in the
Son of Gabriela María
days 6/13 Masatepe roadblock. He died of
Aguirre
old bronchoaspiration.
Attack on FSLN party
Nixia Hawkins Posly 15 6/14 Bilwi
building.
Attack on FSLN party
Jhon Warren Men 18 6/15 Bilwi
building.
Murdered while helping to
Pablo Ramos Chavarría 21 6/17 Jinotega
take down the roadblocks.
Fell from a motorcycle while
Daysi Merari Cornejo
32 6/18 Estelí being stoned by people
Jarquín
guarding the road blocks.
Injured by people guarding
José Israel Cuadra Aguilar 49 5/14 Managua the roadblocks on his way
home.
Injured during the protests,
Elías José Sánchez Cuesta 17 6/02 Masaya
in Parque San Miguel.
Injured during the protests,
Victor José Reyes 28 6/12 León
near the Police Delegation.
Alberto José Urroz Went to see a confrontation
55 6/14 Nagarote
Cárdenas and died.
Injured while passing
José Antonio Cruz Solís 29 6/18 San Marcos
through a roadblock.
Injured while being held up
Francisco Ponce Flores 22 5/14 Sébaco
in a roadblock.
No Confrontation between
Carlos Manuel Solís inform 5/23 León people guarding roadblocks
ation and the police.
Supposedly murdered
during the Mother’s Day
Jorge Antonio Guerrero march. The CENIDH
20 5/30 Managua
Rivas released a statement
affirming he was alive. CIDH
and ANPDH included it.

CENIDH: Contextualization of the Deaths / Final Results of the Verification

From the three CENIDH reports, which claim that the Nicaraguan government is
responsible for the deaths of 167 citizens, it has been made possible to contextualize
the majority of the deaths (exactly 93%, which corresponds to 153 citizens). The data
for the remaining 8% (14 citizens) remains incomplete or inexact, so it has not been
possible to determine the context in which they died. From this review, the following
variables are identified:

 Repeated Names: 4 citizens
 Deaths Not Directly Related to the Protests: 19 citizens
 People murdered by the Opposition: 44 citizens
 Demonstrators (protestors, opposition activists, people operating roadblocks): 51
citizens
 Bystanders (not involved in protests): 35 citizens
 Names with insufficient data to determine context of deaths: 14 citizens
○ Total: 167 citizens
About the CIDH Report...
The appendix to the CIDH Final Report includes those who died during the period from
April 19th to June 19th, 2018, showing a list of 212 names of people who have died
since the beginning of the protests.

Of the inconsistencies and irregularities that were identified, it can be mentioned that
there are duplicated names, decontextualized deaths and names without complete data
(even one without more information than a pseudonym).

In relation to duplicated names, 9 repeat citizens were detected, whose names were not
correctly identified in different media. Due to this inaccurate identification by the media
at the time they issued the information is that some names and surnames do not agree
exactly, however, upon verification it is concluded that they coincide in the same
person.

In the following table the duplicated names are indicated by the reference number (Ref.)
that corresponds to each one in the list:
CIDH - Repeated Names
Date of
Ref. Name Age Location
Occurrence
12 Marlon Maneses Martínez Ramírez 28 4/20 Managua
Ciudad
23 Marlon Maneses Ramírez Sandino 20 4/20
Sandino

21 Álvaro Alberto Gómez Navarro 24 4/20 Monimbó
31 Álvaro Gómez Montalván 23 4/21 Masaya

37 Celso Josué Díaz Sevilla 19 4/22 Managua
55 Celso David Robles Díaz 30 4/22 Mateare

41 Ismael Isaías Pérez Martínez 24 4/22 Managua
42 Ismael Josué Pérez Vílchez 32 4/22 Managua

45 José Daniel Sánchez López 22 4/22 Managua
No
56 José Daniel Sánchez García informati 4/22 No information
on

98 José David Oviedo 27 5/25 Managua
99 José David Martínez Rivas 27 5/25 Managua

No
120 Marvin Meléndez Linarte informati 5/30 Chinandega
on
123 Marvin Meléndez Núñez 49 5/31 Managua

129 Donald Ariel López Áreas 27 6/02 Masaya
No
133 Known as “The Monkey" informati 6/02 Masaya
on
No
110 Michael González Hernández informati 5/30 Managua
on
No
200 Michael Cipriano Gonzáles Hernández 35 Managua
information

With this data, the list is reduced to 203 people. However, while inquiring about the
context in which many of the citizens listed died, it was verified that at least 27 citizens
died for reasons that were not directly related to the protests.

Attempting to identify the circumstances in which these 27 citizens died, we can note:

 Murder and Vehicle/Motorcycle Theft:
o 6 Citizens
 Murder (Motivation Undetermined):
o 5 Citizens
 Traffic Accident:
o 2 Citizens
 Property Conflict (Land Grabs):
o 2 Citizens
 Murder and Theft:
o 2 Citizens
 Altercation Among Gangs:
o 3 Citizens
 Altercation Among Relatives/Neighbors:
o 1 Citizen
 Home Invasion and Murder:
o 1 Citizen
 Accidental Firing of Firearm:
o 1 Citizen
 Asthma (Delayed Medical Attention):
o 1 Citizen
 Possibly not dead
o 1 Citizen
 Suicide:
o 1 Citizen
 Murder and Robbery of a Security Guard
o 1 Citizen

CIDH – Deaths Not Directly Related to the Protests
Ref. Name Age Date of Location Context
Occurrenc
e
Carlos Antonio Flores Ciudad Altercation Among
54 19 4/22
Ríos Sandino Gangs
El Castillo,
Yamil Ronaldo Obregón Murder (Motivation
65 47 5/02 Río San
Bustos Undetermined)
Juan
José Alfredo Leiva Altercation among
76 17 5/13 Managua
Chavarría Relatives/Neighbors
Home Invasion and
81 Carlos Abel Aguilar 25 5/14 Siuna
Murder
Murder (Motive
82 José Andrés Pérez 33 5/14 Tipitapa
Undetermined)

Erick William Espinoza Murder and Robbery of a
87 49 5/16 Managua
Mendoza Security Guard

Ezequiel Rivera Murder (Motivation
90 31 5/16 Siuna
Hernández Undetermined)
No
Bismark Enrique
92 Informa 5/19 Managua Murder and Theft
Chavarría
tion
Benjamín Castillo
93 25 5/20 Managua Traffic Accident
Castillo
Altercation among
97 Jaime José Reyes Téllez 22 5/25 Managua
Gangs
Alejandro Tomás Property Conflict (Land
103 17 5/26 Managua
Hernández Estrada Grabs)
No Property Conflict (Land
104 Yader Castillo Informa 5/26 Managua Grabs)
tion
No
Altercation among
105 Rudy Chávez Informa 5/27 Managua
Gangs
tion
Murder and Motorcycle
113 Fredy Josué González 18 5/30 Managua
Theft
No
Víctor José Valerio
117 Informa 5/30 Managua Possibly still alive
López
tion
Adolfo Enrique Castellón
127 27 6/02 Managua Traffic Accident
Arauz
Camilo Javier Valle Murder and Motorcycle
138 31 6/04 Managua
Martínez Theft
Marvin Solórzano
139 34 6/04 Managua Murder and Taxi Theft
Salinas
149 Bismarck Badilla López 25 6/07 Carazo Suicide
Murder and Motorcycle
150 Chris Montana 19 6/08 Managua
Theft
Murder and Motorcycle
151 Víctor Cabrera García 39 6/09 Managua
Theft
Alejandro Enrique Accidental Firing of
158 24 6/11 Managua
Cárcamo Gago Firearm
No
Michael Alexander Murder (Motivation
163 Informa 6/12 Managua
López Medina Undetermined)
tion
Roberto Pablo Corea Murder and Motorcycle
164 19 6/12 Managua
Chávez Theft
No
Lucas Antonio Sirias
171 Informa 6/13 León Murder and Theft
Pineda
tion
No
Pantasma, Murder (Motivation
181 Wilton Cornejo Peralta Informa 6/14
Jinotega Undetermined)
tion
No Asthma (Delayed
206 Cristian José Pineda 28 León
information Medical Attention)

Subtracting the repeated names of citizens and the deaths not directly related to the
protests, the list is now reduced to 176 people.

It is interesting to find the possibility of a dead person, identified in the list with reference
number 117 and corresponding to the name "Víctor José Valerio López", who turns out
to be the brother of a deceased involved in the protests, Jonathan Steven Valerio López
(No. 44) and who was participating in the rallies for the death of his brother at the Jean
Paul Genie rotonda.

The CIDH included in its list the death of 49 comrades murdered directly by the
Opposition and, as indicated above with regard to the CENIDH list, here again there is
a malicious inclusion that was made without determining the context in which they died,
fomenting in the population, through the media propaganda, the unconscious idea that
the actions and responsibilities of the opposition must be assumed by the State.

The names of the 44 people and context in which they were murdered correspond to:

CIDH – Murdered by the Opposition
Date of
Ref. Name Age Occurenc Location Context
e
Hilton Rafael Manzanares National Police, re-establishing
2 33 4/19 Managua
Alvarado order.
Attack on the Tipitapa
3 Richard Bermúdez Pavón 17 4/19 Managua
Municipality building.
Ángel Eduardo Gahona Canal 6 Correspondent covering
33 42 4/21 RACCN
López robberies.
Christian Emiliano Burned inside of the CUUN,
34 24 4/21 León
Cárdenas allegedly tortured
Ismael Josué Pérez Guarding a supermarket to
42 32 4/22 Managua
Vílchez avoid robbery.
Juana Francisca Aguilar National Police, re-establishing
48 19 4/22 Managua
Cano order.
Jimmy Jaime Paiz
53 53 4/22 León Burned in Radio Darío event.
Barahona
Roberto Carlos García Guarding a supermarket to
58 40 4/23 Managua
Paladino avoid robbery.
61 Apolonio Delgadillo 45 4/24 León Burned in Radio Darío event.
Attack on Objetivo Institucional,
73 Carlos Alberto Miranda 19 5/11 Managua
District IV
Crashed into a governmental
Jostán Abdel Gutiérrez
77 26 5/13 Managua ‘Tree of Life’ which was knocked
Koock
down by the opposition.
Attack on the Matagalpa
85 Wilder Reyes Hernández 36 5/15 Matagalpa
Municipality building.
Murdered while collaborating to
88 Holman Eliezer Zeledón 25 5/16 Matagalpa
take down the roadblocks.
Injured on his way home. The
89 José Alfredo Urroz Jirón 30 5/16 Matagalpa roadblocks did not allow the
ambulances to pass.
Murdered by people guarding
Marlon José Orozco
96 48 5/24 Managua the roadblocks in Iván
Largaespada
Montenegro.
UNAN protesters confused him
98 José David Oviedo 27 5/25 Managua with a police and murdered him,
then stole his motorcycle.
Run over by a truck which
Cándida Rosa Herrera
100 60 5/26 Managua participated in the opposition
Rizo
protest.
Murdered by people guarding
101 Jorge Gastón Palacios 30 5/26 Managua the roadblocks in El Quebracho,
Boaco.
Tortured and murdered by
Keller Esteven Pérez
102 23 5/26 Managua protestors associated with Viper.
Duarte
Abandoned in El Plomo.
National Police, re-establishing
106 Douglas Mendiola Viales 25 5/28 Managua
order.
Heriberto Maudiel Pérez Murdered after participating in
109 25 5/30 Managua
Díaz the Cantata a Las Madres.
Attacked in the FSLN Caravan
118 Jairo Antonio Osorio 38 5/30 Estelí
headed to Managua.
No
Chinande Attack on the Chinandega
120 Marvin Meléndez Linarte inform 5/30
ga Municipality building.
ation
Attack on the Chinandega
122 Juan Alejandro Zepeda 18 5/31 Managua
Municipality building.
Murdered by Viper’s group of
128 Sixto Henry Vera 48 6/02 Managua
protesters at the UPOLI
Possible National Police,
Eduardo José López
130 22 6/02 Masaya Member of the Intelligence
Mendoza
Division
Injured while people guarding
134 Geovanny Miguel Reyes 27 6/02 Tipitapa
the roadblocks attacked citizens.
Carlos Evenor López Injured for refusing to help put
135 22 6/02 Waslala
Figueroa up a roadblock.
Salvador de Jesús Murdered by people guarding
140 33 6/04 Tipitapa
Arévalo roadblocks.
141 José Abraham Martínez 22 6/04 No Attack on the Masaya
informatio Delegation building.
n
Chinande Injured by people guarding the
147 César Oniel López Vega 25 6/07
ga roadblocks.
Marco Antonio González
159 41 6/11 Managua National Police Patrol
Briseño
Mulukukú,
Dixon Bismarck Soza
160 43 6/11 Triángulo Attack on police post.
Enríquez
Minero
Mulukukú,
Carlos José Zamora
161 36 6/11 Triángulo Attack on police post.
Martínez
Minero
No
Murdered while collaborating to
165 Ariel Ignacio Vivas Inform 6/12 Managua
remove roadblocks.
ation
No Confrontation between people
Jinotepe,
166 Marcos Gutiérrez Inform 6/12 guarding roadblocks and the
Carazo
ation police.
No Confrontation between people
Jinotepe,
167 Guillermo Méndez Inform 6/12 guarding roadblocks and the
Carazo
ation police.
No Villa Murdered in his home by people
169 Teodoro Ruíz Inform 6/13 Sandino, guarding the roadblocks.
ation Chontales Afterwards they stole his gun.

173 Jean Kerry Luna Gutiérrez 29 6/14 Managua National Police Patrol.

Murdered for refusing
Marlon Javier Médina
177 35 6/14 León confiscation at a roadblock,
Toval
motorcycle stolen.
180 Ulises Santiago Gogo 28 6/14 Bilwi Attack on FSLN party building.
No No Murdered, burned, and his
Francisco Ramón Arauz
188 Inform 6/16 Informatio corpse vandalized for helping to
Pineda
ation n take down the roadblocks.
No No
Murdered while collaborating to
189 Antonio Fernandez Inform 6/16 Informatio
take down the roadblocks.
ation n
Crushed by a governmental
Eduardo Jessi Spiegler No ‘Tree of Life,’ which was
196 34 Managua
Szejmer Information knocked down by the
opposition.
No Murdered after participating in
198 Kevin Antonio Cufi Reyes 21 Managua
Information the Cantata a Las Madres
Pregnant woman died because
No
199 Liliam Jaquelin Martínez 18 Managua the ambulance was retained at
Information
the roadblock.
Old woman died because the
No
201 Pánfila Alvarado Urbina 80 Managua ambulance couldn’t pass
Information
through the roadblocks.
No Guarding a supermarket to
209 Mauricio López Toruno 42 Estelí
Information avoid robbery.
No No Murdered by people guarding
No
212 Franklin Javier Mercado Inform Informatio the road blocks. Possibly by
Information
ation n Geovanny Miguel Reyes.

Excluding the repeated names, citizens that died for reasons unrelated to the protests
and the comrades murdered by the opposition, the list is now reduced to 127 names.

In this list, there are 59 names without information in one or more boxes about age, date
of death, and location. It is negligent to attribute these citizens’ deaths, whose
information is inexact or whose cause of death is unknown, to the State. Nonetheless,
information on the deaths of 22 of the 59 was obtained through this verification. In
relation to the 37 remaining names of this group, there was not a single reference found
for 28 of the names; they appear only in the CIDH list (and the majority are included
later in the ANPDH list). There were nine citizens who had unverifiable causes of death.
For this reason they make up the list of 37 names with insufficient information. All of
these notes have references in the spreadsheet referred to at the beginning of this
document.

At this point the list would have only 89 names, of which 38 correspond to citizens
not involved in protests, bystanders, and victims of bullets with at protests or attacked
but not related to the protests; and 52 citizens involved in the protests.

It is clear that the CIDH’s fieldwork was limited to receiving the opposition’s demands
and its media, as the Chancellor Denis Moncada pointed out in his speech during the
presentation of the Final Report before the Permanent Council of the Organization of
American States (OAS): “The majority of the information sources cited by the CIDH
come from agencies and media that is in opposition to the government, whose news is
false and manipulated”.

Omissions by the CIDH

Of the list from the CIDH report, the deaths of 16 citizens were not included. The
exclusion was made for unknown reasons and that only hints at the lack of research
capacity of the CIDH team in Nicaragua. Of those 16 citizens, 11 were murdered by the
opposition, two were protestors and three were not involved.

The omitted citizens from the list correspond to events related to the protest and are the
following:

CIDH – Citizens Omitted from the List
Date of
Name Age Occurren Location Context
ce
Abelino Guevara Obando 38 5/11 Siuna National Police Patrol.
Traffic accident caused by a
Humberto José Reyes government billboard knocked
64 5/29 Nandaime
Almanza down and left in the road by
the opposition
Run over by a group of
San people guarding the
Pablo Roberto León Torres 39 6/01
Miguelito roadblocks, of which he was a
part of.
Traffic Accident caused by a
Kevin José Cruz Ruiz 23 6/9 Jinotepe
roadblock.
Eyner Heriberto Espinoza Murdered while helping to
19 6/12 Jinotega
Rugama take down the roadblocks.
Employee of Teodoro Ruiz
Villa
Hernaldo Sánchez Chavarría -- 6/13 (ref. 169), he was murdered
Sandino
with him.
25 Ambulance held in the
Minor, son of Gabriela María
days 6/13 Masatepe roadblock. He died of
Aguirre
old bronchoaspiration.
Attack on FSLN party
Nixia Hawkins Posly 15 6/14 Bilwi
building.
Attack on FSLN party
Jhon Warren Men 18 6/15 Bilwi
building.
Murdered while helping to
Pablo Ramos Chavarría 21 6/17 Jinotega
take down the roadblocks.
Fell from a motorcycle while
Daysi Merari Cornejo Jarquín 32 6/18 Estelí being stoned by people
guarding the road blocks.
Injured during the protests,
Victor José Reyes 28 6/12 León
near the Police Delegation.
Went to see a confrontation
Alberto José Urroz Cárdenas 55 6/14 Nagarote and died.

San Injured while passing through
José Antonio Cruz Solís 29 6/18
Marcos a roadblock.
Injured while being held up in
Francisco Ponce Flores 22 5/14 Sébaco
a roadblock.
No Confrontation between people
Carlos Manuel Solís inform 5/23 León guarding roadblocks and the
ation police.

CIDH: Contextualization of the Deaths | Final Results of the Verification

From the Appendix “List of deaths in Nicaragua since the start of the protests (19 April-
19 June 2018)” of the Final Report presented by the CIDH in which the Nicaraguan
Government is judged to be responsible for the death of 212 citizens, the majority of the
deaths have been contextualized, exactly 83% or 175 citizens. The remaining 17% (37
citizens) have insufficient information to determine the cause of death. From this review,
the following variables are identified:

 Repeated Names: 9 citizens
 Deaths Not Directly Related to the Protests : 27 citizens
 People murdered by the Opposition: 49 citizens
 Demonstrators (protesters, opposition activists, people operating roadblocks) : 52
citizens
 Bystanders (not involved in the protests) : 37 citizens
 Names with insufficient data to determine context of deaths : 38 citizens
o TOTAL: 212
About the ANPDH Report…
The ANPDH report considers the deaths that occurred between April 19th and June
25th, 2018, presenting a list of 285 deaths since the beginning of the protests. To date,
it is the most "complete" report regarding the protests.

The inconsistencies and irregularities that were identified are the same as in the two
previous reports (CENIDH and CIDH): duplicated deaths, decontextualized deaths and
names without complete data (again some have no more than a pseudonym).

In relation to the duplicated deaths, 2 repeated citizens were detected corresponding to:

ANPDH - Repeated Names
Date of
Ref. Name Age Location
Occurrence
61 Donald Ariel López Ruíz 26 6/02 Masaya
Investigat
68 El Mono (nickname) ion in 6/02 Masaya
Progress
41 Ismael Isaías Pérez Martínez 24 4/22 Chichigalpa
42 Ismael José Pérez Vílchez 32 4/22 Managua

The list is reduced to 283, In verifying the context in which citizens died, we find that at
least 49 citizens died under circumstances unrelated to the protests directly,
among which we include:

 Murder (Motivation Unknown):
o 9 citizens
 Property Conflict (Land Grabs):
o 8 Citizens
 Murder and Vehicle/Motorcycle Theft :
o 7 Citizens
 Home Invasion and Murder:
o 5 Citizens
 Traffic Accident:
o 4 Citizens
 Murder and Theft:
o 4 Citizens
 Altercation Among Gangs:
o 4 Citizens
 Altercation Among Relatives/Neighbors:
o 3 Citizens
 Accidental Firing of Firearm:
o 2 Citizens
 Murder and Robbery of a Security Guard:
o 1 Citizen
 Asthma (Delayed Medical Attention):
o 1 Citizen
 Epilepsy (Delayed Medical Attention):
o 1 Citizen

The following table identifies the circumstances in which each of the above citizens
died:

ANPDH - Deaths Not Directly Related to the Protests
Date of
Ref
Name Age Occurenc Location Context
.
e
Adolfo Enrique
3 27 6/02 Managua Traffic Accident
Castellón Arauz
Alejandro Enrique Accidental Firing of
6 24 6/11 Managua
Cárcamo Gago Firearm
Álvaro Gustavo Urroz Accidental Firing of
14 31 6/14 Managua
González Firearm
Carlos Abel Aguilar Home Invasion and
28 26 5/14 Siuna
Solís Murder
Benjamín Castillo
22 25 5/20 Managua Traffic Accident
Castillo
Bismark Enrique
24 44 5/18 Managua Murder and Theft
Chavarría Juárez
Camilo Javier Valle Murder and Motorcycle
26 31 6/03 Managua
Martínez Theft
Carlos Antonio Flores Altercation Among
30 17 4/22 Ciudad Sandino
Ríos Gangs
Christhoper Roberto Murder (Motivation
44 23 6/25 Jinotepe
Castillo Rosales Undetermined)
Cristhofer Antonio Murder and Motorcycle
45 18 6/07 Managua
Orozco Alvarado Theft
Cristhiam José Asthma (Delayed
47 28 5/07 León
Pineda Martínez Medical Attention)
Invest
igatio National Police.
58 Denís Jarquín n in 5/17 Rosita Property Conflict (Land
Progr Grabs).
ess
Erick William Murder and Robbery of
74 49 5/16 Managua
Espinoza Mendoza a Security Guard
Ezequiel Hernández Murder (Motivation
77 41 5/15 Siuna
Rivera Undetermined)
Filemón Cruz Murder (Motivation
79 78 5/08 Matagalpa
González Undetermined)
Invest
igatio
Francisco Hurtado Property Conflict (Land
81 n in 6/25 Managua
Sánchez Grabs)
Progr
ess
Fredy Josué Murder and Motorcycle
90 18 5/29 Managua
González Olivas Theft
Gregorio Orozco Home Invasion and
97 85 6/22 Acoyapa
Gatica Murder
Harold Daniel Home Invasion and
101 18 6/21 Managua
Ramírez Cerda Murder
Murder (Motivation
108 Hickler Cano Tinoco 22 5/25 El Cuá, Jinotega
Undetermined)
Jaime José Reyes Altercation among
115 22 5/25 Managua
Téllez Gangs
José Luis Alemán Murder (Motivation
135 16 5/29 Ciudad Sandino
Mendieta Undetermined)
Invest
igatio
José Alfredo Leiva Altercation Among
144 n in 5/12 Matagalpa
Chavarría Relatives/Neighbors
Progr
ess
Murder (Motivation
150 José Andrés Pérez 33 5/14 Tipitapa
Undetermined)
Juan Carlos Arróliga Altercation Among
159 40 5/24 Boaco
Báez Relatives/Neighbors
Juan Carlos Mejía Property Conflict (Land
162 17 5/30 Managua
Moreno Grabs)
Invest
igatio
Property Conflict (Land
163 Juan Peralta n in 5/17 Rosita
Grabs)
Progr
ess
Juan Eduardo Assault and Motorcycle/
164 38 6/21 Managua
Salinas Quintero Vehicle Theft
Kevin Alexander Home Invasion and
173 16 6/21 Ciudad Sandino
González Murder
Layhani Nohelia Real Epilepsy (Delayed
176 11 6/22 Nagarote
Sánchez Medical Attention)
Lucas José Sirias
182 31 6/13 León Murder and Theft
Pineda
199 Marvin Loáisiga Invest 6/12 Mulukukú Home Invasion and
igatio Murder
n in
Progr
ess
Marvin Antonio
201 34 6/04 Managua Murder and Taxi Theft
Solórzano Salina
Michael Alexander Murder (Motivation
207 25 6/12 Managua
López Medina Undetermined)
Altercation Among
224 Pedro Rostrán Meza 18 6/09 Managua
Gangs
Invest
igatio
Property Conflict (Land
227 Reynaldo Jarquín n in 5/17 Rosita
Grabs)
Progr
ess
Roberto Carlos Altercation Among
229 32 6/18 Managua
Balladares Casco Relatives/Neighbors
Roberto Pablo Corea Murder and Motorcycle
230 23 6/12 Managua
Chávez Theft
Ruddy David Chávez Altercation Among
232 21 5/27 Managua
Sánchez Gangs
Invest
igatio
Property Conflict (Land
237 Sixto Jarquín n in 5/17 Rosita
Grabs)
Progr
ess
Socorro González
239 55 6/12 Rosita Traffic Accident
Arauz
Terencio Isaías
241 25 6/20 Matagalpa Murder and Theft
Escorcia
Tomás Alejandro Property Conflict (Land
243 19 5/25 Managua
Estrada Hernández Grabs)
247 Valeria Rodríguez 19 6/24 León Traffic Accident
Victor Manuel Bello
248 56 5/30 Rivas Murder and Theft
Bonilla
Víctor Genaro Murder and Motorcycle
249 39 6/09 Managua
Cabrera García Theft
Wilton Cornejo Pantasma, Murder (Motivation
256 18 6/14
Peralta Jinotega Undetermined)
258 Yader Castillo Invest 5/25 Managua Property Conflict (Land
igatio
n in
Grabs)
Progr
ess
Yamil Ronaldo El Castillo, Murder (Motivation
260 47 4/30
Obregón Bustos Río San Juan Undetermined)

With the information from the Deaths Not Related Directly to Protests, the list is reduced
to 234 people.

As the other bodies (CENIDH and CIDH) have done, ANPDH also included in its list the
death of comrades murdered by the Opposition, which is how the list of 60 people
directly murdered by the opposition was calculated.

The names and context in which the 60 people were murdered are listed here:

ANPDH – Murdered by the Opposition
Date of
Ref
Name Age Occurrenc Location Context
.
e
Abelino
1 Guevara 38 5/11 Siuna National Police Patrol
Obando
Ángel Eduardo Canal 6 Correspondent
16 42 4/21 Bluefields
Gahona López covering robberies.
Investig
Antonio ation in Murdered while helping to
17 6/16 Managua
Fernández Progres take down the roadblocks.
s
Investig
Apolonio Díaz ation in Burned in Radio Darío
18 4/20 León
Delgadillo Progres event.
s
Ariel Ignacio Murdered while helping to
19 27 6/12 Managua
Vivas take down the roadblocks.
Run over by a truck which
Cándida Rosa
27 62 5/26 Managua participated in the
Herrera Rizo
opposition protest.
Carlos Alberto Institutional Attack on
31 19 5/11 Managua
Miranda District VI
Carlos Evenor Injured for refusing to help
34 22 6/02 Waslala
López Figueroa put up a roadblock.
Carlos José Mulukukú,
37 Zamora 36 6/11 Triángulo Attack on police post.
Martínez Minero
Carolina de los
Murdered while helping to
38 Ángeles Collado 40 6/23 Masaya
take down the roadblocks.
Delgadillo
César Oniel Injured by people guarding
41 22 6/06 Chinandega
López Vega the roadblocks.
Christiam
Burned inside of the
43 Emiliano 23 4/20 León
CUUN, allegedly tortured
Cadenas
Fell from a motorcycle
Daysi Merari while being stoned by
57 32 6/18 Estelí
Cornejo Jarquín people guarding the road
blocks.
Dixon Bismarck
59 43 6/11 Mulukukú Attack on police post.
Soza Enríquez
Douglas National Police, re-
62 26 5/28 Managua
Mendiola Viales establishing order.
Crushed by a
Eduardo Jessi
governmental ‘Tree of
66 Spiegler 34 5/16 Managua
Life,’ which was knocked
Szejmer
down by the opposition.
Possible National Police,
Eduardo José
64 37 6/02 Masaya Member of the Intelligence
López Mendoza
Division
Eyner Heriberto
Murdered while helping to
76 Espinoza 32 6/12 Jinotega
take down the roadblocks.
Rugama
Murdered, burned, and his
Francisco
corpse vandalized for
80 Ramón Arauz 54 6/16 Managua
helping to take down the
Pineda
roadblocks.
Murdered by people
Franklin Javier guarding the road blocks.
88 35 6/02 Tipitapa
Mercado Possibly by Geovanny
Miguel Reyes.
95 Giovanny 28 6/02 Tipitapa Injured while people
guarding the roadblocks
Miguel Reyes
attacked citizens.
Investig
Confrontation between
Guillermo ation in
98 6/12 Jinotepe police and the people
Méndez Progres
guarding the road blocks.
s
Heriberto Murdered after
10
Maudiel Pérez 25 5/30 Managua participating in the
5
Díaz Cantata a Las Madres
Investig
Hernaldo Employee of Teodoro Ruiz
10 ation in
Sánchez 6/13 Villa Sandino (ref. 169), murdered
7 Progres
Chavarría together.
s
Hilton Rafael
National Police, re-
109 Manzanares 33 4/19 León
establishing order.
Alvarado
Holman Eliezer Murdered while helping to
110 26 5/16 Matagalpa
Zeledón take down the roadblocks.
Ismael Josué Guarding a supermarket
113 32 4/22 Managua
Pérez Vílchez to avoid theft.
Jairo Antonio Attacked in the FSLN
117 Osorio 39 5/30 Estelí Caravan headed to
Raudales Managua.
Jean Kerry Luna
120 29 6/14 Managua National Police Patrol
Gutiérrez
Jhon Warren Attack on FSLN party
130 18 6/15 Bilwi
Men building.
Jimmy Jaime Burned in Radio Darío
125 53 4/20 León
Paiz Barahona event.
Murdered by people
Jorge Gastón
133 30 5/26 Boaco guarding the roadblocks in
Palacios Vargas
El Quebracho, Boaco.
José Abraham Attack on the Masaya
137 21 6/03 Masaya
Martínez Delegation building.
Injured on his way home.
José Alfredo The roadblocks did not
157 29 5/16 Matagalpa
Urroz Jirón allow the ambulances to
pass.

149 José David 27 5/25 Managua UNAN protesters
confused him with a police
Oviedo and murdered him, then
stole his motorcycle.
Crashed into a
Jostán Abdel governmental ‘Tree of Life’
158 26 5/13 Managua
Gutiérrez Koock which was knocked down
by the opposition.
Juan Alejandro Attack on the Chinandega
165 18 5/30 Chinandega
Zepeda Gastón Municipality building.
Juana Francisca National Police, re-
166 19 4/21 Managua
Aguilar Cano establishing order.
Tortured and murdered by
Keller Esteven protestors connected to El
170 23 5/23 Managua
Pérez Duarte Viper; abandoned at
Cuesta El Plomo.
Murdered after
Kevin Antonio
171 22 5/30 Managua participating in the
Coffin Reyes
Cantata a Las Madres
Pregnant woman died
Liliam Jaqueline because the ambulance
181 18 5/17 Boaco
Martínez Valerio was retained at the
roadblock.
Marcos Antonio
188 González 41 6/11 Managua National Police Patrol
Briseño
Marcos Confrontation between
Aprox.
189 Gutiérrez 6/12 Jinotepe people guarding
60
Acevedo roadblocks and the police.
Murdered for refusing
Marlon Javier confiscation at a
196 37 6/15 Quezalguaque
Medina Toval roadblock, motorcycle
stolen.
Marlon José Murdered by people
197 Orozco 48 5/25 Managua guarding the roadblocks in
Largaespada Iván Montenegro.
Marvyn José
Attack on the Chinandega
202 Meléndez 49 5/30 El Viejo
Municipality building.
Nuñez
Mauricio Ramón Guarding a supermarket
203 42 5/30 Estelí
López Toruño to avoid theft.
Nitzia Hackins Attack on FSLN party
213 15 6/14 Bilwi
Polly building.
The roadblocks did not
Son of Gabriela
285 25 days 6/13 Masatepe allow the ambulance to
María Aguirre
pass.
Pablo Ramos Murdered while helping to
222 21 6/17 Jinotega
Chavarría take down the roadblocks.
Run over by a group of
Pablo Roberto El Tule, San people guarding the
221 39 6/01
León Torres Miguelito roadblocks, of which he
was a part of.
Old woman died because
Pánfila Alvarado the ambulance couldn’t
223 80 5/24 Boaco
Urbina pass through the
roadblocks.
Richard
Attack on the Tipitapa
228 Eduardo Pavón 17 4/19 Managua
Municipality building.
Bermúdez
Roberto Carlos Guarding a supermarket
231 40 4/23 Managua
García Paladino to avoid robbery.
Investig
Salvador de ation in Murdered by people
234 6/04 Tipitapa
Jesús Arévalo Progres guarding the roadblocks.
s

Sixto Henry Murdered by Viper’s group
238 48 6/02 Managua
Vera of protesters at the UPOLI

Murdered in his home by
Teodoro Andrés Villa Sandino, people guarding the
240 52 6/13
Ruíz Gámez Chontales roadblocks. Afterwards
they stole his gun.
Ulises Santiago Attack on the FSLN party
246 29 6/14 Bilwi
Gogo building.
Wilder David
Attack on the Matagalpa
253 Reyes 36 5/15 Matagalpa
Municipality building.
Hernández
Investig
National Police,
Zaira Julissa ation in
262 6/25 Nagarote Taking down the
López Progres
Roadblocks
s
Excluding the duplicated names, the citizens that died for reasons not associated
directly with the protests and the comrades murdered by the opposition, the list is
reduced to 174 names.

One particularity of the ANPDH list is that it included 23 unidentified citizens, who
supposedly have photos, journalistic notes, and/or documentary evidence, which were
not included in the Preliminary Report. From the verification, a minor (reference number
285) was identified who died from bronchial aspiration after presenting respiratory
problems in an ambulance that was stopped at a roadblock in Masatepe.

On the list, there are a minimum of 102 names with blank boxes and/or listed under
“investigation” in one or more boxes referring to identification, age, cause of death,
location and date. From the verification process, 53 of the 102 citizens on the list were
found to have incomplete information. In relation to the 49 remaining from this group,
there was no reference to determine the cause of the death. So, there are 49 names
with incomplete data on the list. These notes are all included in the spreadsheet.

At this point the list would have only 103 names, of which 45 are of citizens not
involved in protests; bystanders, victims of bullets with at protests or attacked but not
related to the protests; and 58 citizens involved directly in protests.

Omissions by the ANPDH

From the ANPDH list, the death of 5 citizens were not included for unknown reasons.

The citizens omitted from the list are the following:

ANPDH – Citizens Omitted from the List
Date of
Name Age Occurenc Location Context
e
Francisco Flores Injured while being held up at a
22 5/14 Sébaco
Ponce roadblock.
Traffic accident caused by a
Humberto José government billboard knocked
64 5/29 Nandaime
Reyes Almanza down and left in the road by the
opposition.
Kevin José Cruz 23 6/09 Jinotepe Traffic Accident caused by a
Ruiz roadblock.
Carlos Manuel
Injured while walking. He was not
Sandino 39 4/21 Masaya
participating in the protests.
Hernández
Injured while performing a
Gilberto Urroz 55 6/14 Nagarote
procession in the city.

ANPDH: Contextualization of the Deaths | Final result of the verification
From the Preliminary Report “Nicaraguan Citizens Killed in Civic Protest as a Human
Rights and Executed by Armed Groups (Paramilitary or Shock Forces) for the period:
4/19/2018 to 6/25/2018. (66 calendar days)," the ANPDH attributes the Nicaraguan
Government the responsibility of 285 citizens’ deaths. We have been able to
contextualize the majority, 75%, or 214 of the deaths, and the remaining 25% (71
citizens) have insufficient or incorrect information to be able to determine the cause of
death. From this review, the following variables are identified:
 Repeated Names: 2 citizens
 Deaths Not Directly Related to Protests : 49 citizens
 People murdered by the Opposition: 60 citizens
 Demonstrators (protestors, opposition activists, people operating roadblocks…) :
58 citizens
 Bystanders (not involved in protests): 45 citizens
 Names with insufficient information to determine context of deaths : 71 citizens.
o TOTAL: 285
The Triad and Their Formula
The three lists up until June 25 th offer an accumulated total of 293 dead citizens.
However, as this report points out that, that figure by no mean implies total responsibility
on the part of the government. By contextualizing each case, they can be segregated in
the following way:

 Deaths Not Directly Related to the Protests : 51 citizens
 Murdered by the Opposition: 60 citizens
 Demonstrators (protesters, opposition activists, people operating roadblocks...) :
59 citizens
 Bystanders (not involved in the protests) : 46 citizens
 Names with insufficient information to determine context of deaths : 77 citizens.
○ TOTAL: 293

As is clear from this untangling of the data, the human rights organizations have
monopolized the deaths of citizens and share the same variables so as to inflate the
lists of the dead. Looking at the way the lists are configured, the average inflation rate is
53% as regards the real number of victims of the protests. That percentage can be
disaggregated as follows : 3% repeated names; 20% deaths not directly related to the
protests; and 30% cases with incomplete, imprecise or non-existent data.
The formula one might use to define the estimate quantity increasing a list of dead
people would be as follows:

RVP + RN + DNDR + IIND = Inflated list of deaths blamed on the government

Where,

RVP = Real victims of the protests (Demonstrators + People murdered by the
opposition + Bystanders not involved in the protests)
RN = Repeated names (RVP * 03%)
DNDR = Deaths not directly related to the protests (RVP * 20%)
IIND = Names with incomplete, imprecise or non-existent data (RVP * 30%)

The need to increase the deaths and include them in the context of the protests is
related to the specific objective of stoking peoples emotions so as to create discord and
delegitimize the government

The equation is used so as to obtain a speculative number and on that basis to inflate
the list of people dead using numbers readily manipulated according to the criteria of
each organization.

…and that is how one inflates a list of the dead so as to discredit a government.

July 8th, 2018
Enrique Hendrix

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