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Proceedings of the Pakistan Power and Energy Conference

Power Energy

STUDY OF UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE OF A REGION OF


RAWALPINDI,
PAKISTAN

Rehman Kha
Department of
Mechanical
Engineering U.E.T.
Lahore,Pakistan,54890 ,

creating environmental problems such as environmental


pollution, land infertility, and even water contamination.
ABSTRACT However, with the advancement in technology, there are many
Abundant and economical energy is the fuel of modern methods for converting this waste into energy. Burning of this
civilization. However rapid urbanization and industrial growth waste can generate energy while reducing volume up to 90
have increased the energy demand to such extent that percent. However, the main concern of this study is energy
development of renewable energy sources has become a planning through municipal solid waste conversion. Energy
necessity. Many energy sources like wind and wave energy are shortfall is a big concern for Pakistan.
intermittent in nature and highly dependent on weather
conditions. Energy generation through municipal solid waste can
also serve the purpose. This paper deals with the power
generation potential through utilization of municipal solid waste
to overcome the energy crisis faced by country nowadays. A
case study for the city of Wah Cantt will be discussed whose data
was collected through a pilot study and with the help of IRENA
Simulator. This data is analyzed with di erent waste conversion
technologies. Some economic factors were considered which
integrates some environmental and economic aspects of
incineration and biological treatment processes. Finally, it was Figure 1: Cost of power outages by sectors in Pakistan[25]
concluded that which technology is suitable for a certain area. Figure-1 above shows the chronic power shortage, in the form of
With incineration, a large amount of energy can be recovered load shedding and Power outages, costing Pakistan economy
while using composting import cost of fertilizers can be Rs.14 billion (7 percent of GDP) last year. The demand for
significantly reduced. Anaerobic digestion can generate energy electricity in Pakistan exceeds supply by 5,000 MW. At its worst,
along with producing high-quality fertilizers. Renewable is a the shortfall could be as high as 8,000 MW while the installed
practical and a ordable solution to our needs. By ramping up electricity generation capacity is around 22,000 MW With an
these technologies we can diversify our energy supplies. increase in population, the generation of waste is also increasing
KEYWORDS: and soon it will get to a point where controlling it will become a
Municipal Solid Waste, Energy Generation, Anaerobic much difficult task so preventive measures have to be taken.
Digestion, Composting, Incineration Table-1 shows a report prepared by International Energy Agency
NOMENCLATURE shows the increase in waste by the year 2050 and its dependence
MSW Municipal Solid Waste on GDP of that country. It can be seen that by the year 2050 the
AD Anaerobic Digestion generation of waste has increased to about 50 %
WTE Waste To Energy [1].
1. INTRODUCTION Table 1: Urban waste generation by region, 2013 and 2050
Up till 20th century, all the municipal solid waste generated was
dumped either on the landfill sites or left in the open. This was

pg. 1
Region Urban Urban Urban Waste Urban technology for waste conversion. A case study performed in
Population GDP Generation Waste Thailand recommends an incinerator for waste conversion that
(millions) (USD/cap) (kg/capita/yr generation can positively contribute to the environment. They also proposed
) (Mt/yr) that instead of using conventional cycles, a hybrid cycle would
2013 increase the electrical efficiency by 4% and Carbon dioxide
emission levels were reduced by 5-10% [3]. Another research at
China 744 18,625 355 264 Benghazi, Libya designs an incinerator with a capacity of 47,250
India 401 9,444 270 108 kg/h to burn all the waste of city producing 13.1 MW of energy
USA 260 56,399 497 129 and 6.8 million m3 of desalinated water. The city of Peshawar
generates a total of 1331 tone of MSW daily with 0.38
European 378 39,395 453 171
kg/person/day so a thermal plant with an efficiency of 20 percent
Union
was recommended to be used having a capacity of approximately
Africa 423 9,243 234 99 12.4 MW [4]. The average waste of Karachi is approximately 1.9
World 3,732 22,760 353 1,316 kg/house/day out of which 90% is openly dumped. So, Safar
2050
Korain with his teammates estimated power generation potential
of MSW for the city of Karachi. Net calorific value of waste was
China 1,058 62,996 510 540 6519 kcal/kg and based on this net power generation was obtained
as 1512 kWhr/ton of MSW. After comparing different
India 814 40,195 454 370
technologies, they recommended thermal treatment for such sort
USA 350 91,396 558 196 of waste [5]. Other waste to energy conversion technologies can
European 424 67,552 521 221 also be used but most are not recommended because of the limited
Union quantity of waste that can be processed. An economic study on
Africa 1276 15,613 303 386 the waste management of Lahore city shows that if recycling
activities of the waste collection are possessed by our formal
World 6,210 45,025 438 2,720
sector, it can save up to 65 million annually. Moreover, if we
adopt it as an industry it can even generate a revenue
Establishing waste to energy plants can reduce this shortfall to a approximately 530 million per year along with energy savings
large extent along with producing bio-chemical fertilizers either [6]. Another study on the waste management of Lahore discusses
as the main product like in composting or as the byproduct as in the overall collection and disposal cost of 60% of waste which
case of anaerobic digestion. This paper studies the feasibility of equals up to $3,177,900.yr which is $10.29/ and through another
implementing a waste conversion plant in Wah Cantt considering method which collects 100% of waste costing $8.3/ton and
different aspects like cost factors, economic factors, quantity and $4,155,737/yr [7].
types of waste generated. The process of incineration is usually recommended when the
Despite being the oldest, Landfilling is still the most common quantity of waste generated is high but a large number of
waste handling technique in Pakistan. According to International incineration plants are never feasible because of its harmful
Energy Agency, a total of 340 million ton of municipal solid effects [8]. Rio de Janiero can produce biogas to generate 0.127
waste is dumped into landfilling sites which are usually a hole or GWh of energy per year in anaerobic reactors that can further
side fill (Summary and Conclusions from the IEA Bioenergy produce bio-fertilizers from the reaction remains. Suyun Xu from
ExCo71 Workshop). Although landfill gas can be used as a fuel, China recommended anaerobic digestion method. MSW rose to
the main reason we moved away from landfilling was the serious 160 million t/yr. with organic production as 59%. Until 2000, the
threat it poses to land pollution. So, there was a need for landfill was widely used but due to its harmful effects, it was
technologies that can provide us with some useful outputs and at abandoned somehow. Anaerobic digestion reduces the land
the same time ensuring a clean environment. required. They also studied the factors on which cost of anaerobic
digestion [9]. Although while selecting among different
technologies, power generation is an important factor high
Conversion
Technologies installation and annual operating costs must be considered in
which it exceeds significantly. Biological processes on other hand
Thermal
are more economically stable, especially for small-scale
Biological
Trearment
workings. Kui Li studied the factors for deciding a proper
technique. They described the complete process of Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Digestion
Composting Incineration Pyrolysis Gasification Plasma Arc digestion with its various inputs and outputs, different stages of
an anaerobic plant, requirements for an incineration plant along
These waste to energy conversion technologies mainly fall into with influencing factors like legislation, geographic, location,
two categories as shown above and are further divided into six capacity and its potential to risk [10].A review study on
Figure 2: Waste conversion Technologies main categories [2]. challenges of anaerobic digestion proves that through this process
After Landfilling, incineration is the second most widely used organic substances can generate a sustainable source of energy

pg. 2
along with an ability to increase the plant growth and soil health. technologies can produce high-quality fertilizers that can reduce
They pointed that that substrate induces inhibition is one of the the importation costs. Flowchart below describes the
major issues in this process that can result in a nutrient loss, various sections the methodology will consist of
leaching and incomplete breaking of organic waste. To avoid this
problem they used an adsorbent “biochar” that through some
chemical reactions reduced these effects [11]. Another process to
improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion is by using a 2 stage
digester. Results show that in a 2 stage process the production of
hydrogen can be increased to about 20% which is mainly due to
improved fermentation in the first stage. Although the process is
more costly but can be compensated by increased production
potential [12].
A mathematical study was done for biological treatment and with
some modeling techniques power generation was calculated for
Hardwar city of India and through which they proposed that 100 Figure 3: Flowchart for different sections of the study
tons of MSW with 40-60 percent of organic waste can produce
1.71 MW of power and further it was concluded that using this as 2.1. Data Collection:
biogas is the best option for power generation costing 1.36/- Rs. Data collection is divided into two types. Primary data includes
per kWh of energy [13]. Some biological processes can generate estimates of Wah Cantt that have been calculated by considering
electric power or other products from renewable or carbon- its demographic population and characteristics of the selected
neutral waste material; however, this process is still far from area. Secondary data includes the data that has already been
chemical exploitations[14]. Based on these studies, Wah Cantt is published. Data from both sources is used to make the analysis.
selected as a case study for energy planning. Wah Cantt is a small 2.1.1. Primary Data:
military town located in the province of Punjab, 30km to the Wah Cantt estimates were collecting by conducting a Pilot study
north-west of the city capital Islamabad. It is in an area suitable in three different Areas which differ in their lifestyles and living
for growing any kind of crop. standards. Average waste generated was collected through these
Before the development of Pakistan’s only ordinance factory, it studies and by the help of IRENA Simulator. (A Bioenergy online
was not much developed but now it is one of the most advanced simulator that can generate data on agricultural waste, livestock,
and developed places of Pakistan. Development of Private sectors crops and forest plantation). These areas are briefly discussed
with its rapid urbanization and improved living standards has below.
generated a large amount of waste. According to UN data current 1-State Area: It is the most populated area of Wah Cantt entirely
population of Wah Cantt is 198,891 which is expected to be inhibited by the employees working in Pakistan Ordinance
increased to 220,000 in 2030. Factory. Living standard is low in this area resulting in low
This paper will initially describe the data collection procedure for energy consumption.
a waste generation which will be followed by economic analysis 2-Private Area: This is the private sector of Wah Cantt primarily
for major waste to energy conversion technologies. Finally inhibited by businessman or inhabitants with private jobs. It is
considering these economic factors and demographics of a slightly less populated than state area and living standard is
particular area we will analyze the production potentials of each somehow better than the state area.
technology thus recommending the most feasible one. 3-Officers Colony: This is the area with highest living standard
2. METHODOLOGY occupied by either POF high ranked officers or Military retired
officers. Less populated than other two but energy consumption
The aim of this study is to perform a theoretical analysis of waste is very high.
conversion technologies and outputs they produce. Economic Table-2 shows the classification of waste collected through each
factors like energy production potential, cost analysis, and of these sectors and an average value is calculated for waste
environmental factors are concerned and a comparison is held generated by every individual in the town. We distributed 30
between incineration and biological processes. This case study survey form in each sector Table-2 below is based on the results
can be used for selecting a feasible technology before carrying of this survey. This value will be further used to calculate the
any further research or developing a waste to energy conversion total waste generated in the town.
plant. As per now, most of the waste generated in Pakistan is
either dumped to landfilling sites or is left in open causing serious Table 2: Waste Collection Data for each sector. (Pilot Study)
environmental pollution and health hazards. Designing a system Waste State Private Officers Average
that can reduce this volume and convert this waste to electricity Type Area Sector Colony
will reduce the environmental burden. Secondly, Pakistan is Food 0.42 0.57 0.74 0.58
suffering from a large energy shortfall of approximately Paper 0.145 0.152 0.195 0.164
5000MW. These technologies can help reduce this to some Plastics 0.133 0.149 0.159 0.147
extent. Even the by-products generated by some of these

pg. 3
Glass 0.086 0.091 0.093 0.09
Rubber 0.036 0.034 0.0347 0.0349
Textile 0.07 0.068 0.051 0.063
Wood 0.096 0.091 0.092 0.093
Metal 0.039 0.051 0.054 0.048
Generation 1.025 1.206 1.4187 1.27
rate[kg/capi
ta/day]

Figure-4 shows the map of State area, Private sector, and


Officer’s colony respectively moving from top to bottom. These
images are taken from IRENA Simulator which automatically
calculates the approximate population of the selected area.

(b) Private Area

(a) Officers Colony

(c)State Area

Figure 4: Data through Bio-energy IRENA Simulator

The data collected from pilot study and IRENA is compiled in


Table-3 to provide the approximate waste generated in the whole
town. These calculations will be further used to calculate energy
generation potential and amount of fertilizer that can be produced.
Table 3: Approximate waste generation Data for the whole
Town
Current Population [UN data] 198,891 inhabitants
Waste generated by an individual 1.27 kg
Total waste generated per day 252,591 ton
Annual Growth Rate 2.03 %
Waste generated (In 2030) 319,250 ton

2.1.2. Secondary Data:


Due to the absence of waste treatment plants in Pakistan, most of
the data including collection, transportation and process costs
were collected through some valid sources and it includes both
quantitative and qualitative data such as research work and

pg. 4
reports from different research institutes related to solid waste Development None None None $50,000
management. of
2.1.2.1. Waste Collection Costs: Comprehensive
Improper waste management and collection system pose a great Waste Disposal
threat to public health as they are main sources of diseases. Only System
50 percent of waste is collected by government services while for
cities to be clean, at least 70 percent of these quantities should be 2.1.2.2. Economic Feasibility:
collected. Collection Cost includes collection and transportation
of waste from the area it is picked to the point where it will be Municipal waste conversion technologies are classified mainly
utilized. It can be any incineration plant, Landfill Site or a biogas into two types. Thermo-chemical process in which waste is
plant. The collection is carried out through two stages. usually combusted and second is a biological process in which
(a) Primary Collection: waste is chemically decomposed to produce both energy and
This means by which solid waste is collected from its source and byproducts. The cost of each product is mainly divided into fixed
transmitted to communal stations, transfer points or disposal cost, operation and management costs. a) Composting:
sites. Usually, primary systems are characterized by small The process of composting is comparatively lengthy with low
handcarts, bicycles or small vehicles. energy productions. However, the initial costs and treatment
(b) Secondary Collection: facilities are relatively cheap.
Collection of solid waste from a communal station or a transfer EUNOMIA research and consulting [15] performed an economic
point to the recycling center, intermediate treatment facilities or analysis for managing biodegradable municipal solid waste.
disposal sites. Table-6 shows various cost values for a composting plant with
Table-4 shows waste collection costs in Pakistan with three 20,000 tons of capacity. The modeling of best-practiced
different stages. (Implementation stage is for first six months, technologies in this work suggests that a figure of $50 per ton
Phase-1 is for next 24 months and Phase-2 is for next 30 months). (excluding revenue) may be an appropriate figure for a plant with
This report was published with help of German Co-operation for 20,000 capacities.
Barikot District to implement better waste collection system in Table 5: Capital Cost and Operating Cost for Composting Plants
Pakistan. Capital Cost Unit Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost
($) ($)
Table 4: Waste Collection Cost Paving, m2 17,000 38 645,000
Activities Implementation Phase 1 Phase 2 Concrete
Stage Process m2 3950 160 632,000
0-6 6-12 buildings
In $ In $ In $ In $ Bio-Filter m3 588 220 130,000
Cleanliness $ 476.96 2000 2000 $500 Weighting # 1 32200 32,200
Campaign and Bridge
printing Offices m3 300 350 105,000
of Utilities As a 1 322500 322500
awareness whole
material Walls M 600 110 66,000
Purchasing/rent $1907.85 2000 2000 $3000 Equipment # One each 122,500,0 122,500,0
al of Operating Unit Quantity Unit Cost Total
Automobiles Cost Cost
Salary of $ 1430.89 1000 1000 $1500 Manpower Director 1 50,000 50,000
Sanitary Acounta 1 35,000 35,000
workers nt
Fuel Cost (16 $ 953.93 2000 2000 $1000 Operator 1 28,000 140,000
trips per day) Fuels Liters 80,000 0.7 56,000
Construction of None None 2000 $3000 Energy kWh 940,813 0.075 70,861
secondary Maintenance 90,000
collection points
Analysis As a 1 25,000 25,000
Whole
Competitions None None 500 $2000
and reward Disposal of Tones/ye 1000 $60/tonn 60,000
rejects ar
Development None None None None
BCC program
and printing of b) Incineration:
IEC material Incineration is currently three second most used technology for
municipal waste treatment after landfilling. However, the cost

pg. 5
associated with incineration is very high as compared to waste conversion is the utilization of compost produced from the
biochemical processes. Economic efficiency is one of the most process of Aerobic decomposition. This compost can serve to
important parameters before choosing a conversion technology decrease the annual importation of fertilizer. A study in Central
which means that our benefits must be greater than resources Luzon State University discusses several types of fertilizers that
used. can be produced from organic waste and their utilization in
One thing to keep in mind is that the initial investment cost for intensive organic based vegetable production and for sustaining
incineration is very high, while after the year of operation soil health and productivity [18]. According to a survey Pakistan
variable costs also starts increasing. This is because of increase in has imported 5,131,194 metric ton fertilizer worth $ 2,272.3
waste volume. Table-8 gives a summary of these values for an million in last three years. Giving the details of 1,270,777 metric
incineration plant with a capacity of 400 t/day. [16] c) Anaerobic ton fertilizer worth $658.6 million was imported in 2012-13.
Digestion: 1,833,243 mt fertilizers worth $670 million was imported in2013-
A study done by IRENA in partnership with environmental 14 and 2,027.174 mt fertilizers worth $913.7 million were
protection Agency used the co-digestion economic analysis tool imported in 2014-15.
to perform some calculations for the process of anaerobic Table-10 shows the annual fertilizer import of Pakistan taken
digestion [17]. Table-6 shows the costs for the process of from National fertilizer Development center for 10 years. [19].
anaerobic digestion along with different factors. 3.1.2. Fertilizer Production Through MSW
Table 6: Cost associated with Anaerobic Digestion
According to Kathmandu fertilizer production plant, the plant
Factors Description Costs
collects waste from vegetable markets producing compost
Capital Equipment for production, weighing $561/ton
through aerobic digestion and at the same time reducing methane
Costs and receiving and energy generation
emissions. Since the project started 4570 tons of organic waste
etc.
has been collected and prevented from being dumped in the
O/M costs All operation and maintenance costs $48/ton
landfill. The organic waste was used to produce 340 tons of
including processing feedstock and
chemicals. compost of which 250 ton have been sold to local farmers [20].
Food Waste Collection and transportation costs 7000 ton Table 5: Fertilizer Import of Pakistan
Quantity Period Urea DAP
Tipping Private waste haulers, separation of $20/ton 2000-2001 86,000 773,000
fees food waste and delivery to specific
2001-2002 0 919,000
facility
Electricity Electricity sale prices $0.078KWh 2002-2003 0 1,124,000
2003-2004 0 1,046,000
1. RESULTS 2004-2005 307,000 811,000
After calculation of collection and process costs, we can now 2005-2006 825,000 1,171,000
check the feasibility of each process regarding its outputs and 2006-2007 281,000 935,000
factors under which it operates best. Some case studies were also
used along with reports from different organizations. 2007-2008 181,000 1,072,000
2008-2009 905,000 207,000
3.1 Production Potentials:
2010-2011 1,525,000 1,080,000
A large quantity of municipal solid residues is produced annually,
including crops, residues, animal manures. Rational utilization of
this waste can produce energy, normally costeffective and 3.2. Incineration:
minimize environmental impacts that are often caused by other
management or disposal methods. The outputs can be in any form In the last five years, Pakistan has taken a hit of Rs145 billion per
like electricity, fuels, RDF’s, biogas or fertilizers depending upon annum from system losses in the grid due to inefficient
the technology used and the type of waste being processed. transmission and distribution. Investment in the power sector has
Combustible materials are more likely to be incinerated fallen to 0.7pc of the GDP in the last 10 years, from a high of
producing electricity through engines. Organic waste can be 1.5pc during the 1980s and 1990s. Rs30 billion is the approximate
aerobically or anaerobically decomposed to produce fertilizers expenditure by Pakistani households on UPS and battery chargers
and methane gas. alone. About 60pc of Pakistani households have some form of
UPS as a backup for selected appliances during power cuts and
3.1.1. Compost Utilization shortage Backup power sources are a stopgap solution, both
Food consumption is likely to rise in emerging markets where wasteful and inefficient.
economic growth results in better income per capita because Hitachi Zosen Corporation developed an incineration plant for
higher income would lead to increased food consumption and India with an efficiency of 20.4 percent that can treat 600t/day of
hence greater grain demand So another advantage of organic waste generating approximately 11.5 MW of energy considering

pg. 6
the calorific value of 1650 kcal/kg [21]. Figure-5 shoes that that production enables the end user to maximize the electrical output
incineration plant with its various components and flow of from the biogas and hence optimize the economic performance of
different fuels. However, if we use combined heat and power the anaerobic digestion plant. A biogas plant was developed in
plants, efficiency can be increased to almost 50 percent. Haridwar City of India where each person was generating
approximately 2.7 kg of MSW daily. It was further proposed that
using biogas in biogas engines is the best option costing Rs. 1.36
/- per kWh of energy. Mathematical modeling of the anaerobic
plant was done and presented in an international conference on
Emerging Economies in 2012 and it was calculated that 100 tons
of raw with 40-60 % of organic waste can generate 0.534-1.71
MW of power [22]. A report submitted by national renewable
energy laboratory (NREL) discusses this process for an anaerobic
digestion. It shows the main process flows and outputs that
normally occurs through an anaerobic digestion process.
East Bay Municipal District (EBMUD) performed an experiment
for production potential of an anaerobic digester for different
mean cell residence time (MCRT) and measured the methane
production rate and electricity production rate. Table-9 shows the
values for 5,10 and 15 days of MCRT with Mesophilic and
Thermophilic conditions [17].

Table 6: East Bay Food Waste Anaerobic Digestion Parameters


Mesophilic Thermophilic Units
Table-8 below shows the design considerations for this plant Parameters MCRT MCRT
Figure 5: Inc neration Plan calculated by considering the net 10day 15days 10day 15days
calorific value of fuel that is to be burned. The values used are s s
obtained from previously mentioned reference. Considering all Volatile 89.9 86.3 2600 2300 %
these facts, we are in a current need for energy producing Solids (% of
technologies and MSW incineration can be of vital importance. total solids)

Volatile 0.53 0.28 31 36 Lb/ft3day


Table 8: Power generation efficiency
solids
Total waste quantity =25,000 kg/h = 600 t/d Loading
Net calorific value: NCV = 1,650 kcal/kg Rates
kcal/kg Chemical 1.09 0.55 180 280 Lb/ft3day
Energy recovery potential = 1.16 × 10 -3× NCV × W Oxygen
(kWh) demand rate
= 47,850 kW
Power generation (kW) =11,500 kW Volatile solid 76.4 73.8 2600 2300 %
Power generation efficiency = 11,500/47,850 × 100 destruction
rate
= 24%
3.3. Anaerobic Digestion: Methane 59 64 31 36 %
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a natural process in which Content
microorganisms break down the organic matter found in biomass Methane 2600 2300 180 280 1000 ft3
waste (such as sewage sludge, animal manure and slurry and Production
waste food) in the absence of oxygen, to produce biogas. Rate
The biogas can be burned directly in a gas boiler to produce heat Bio solids 31 36 2600 2300 %
or burnt in a combined heat and power (CHP) unit to produce heat
Electricity 180 280 31 36 kWh
and electricity. Alternatively, the biogas can be cleaned to remove
Production
the carbon dioxide and other substances, to produce biomethane.
Rate180
This can be injected into the national gas grid to be used in the
same way as natural gas, or used as a vehicle fuel. Biogas engines
are specifically designed to operate on different types of biogas. Bringing together the data concerning production potentials and
These gas engines are linked to an alternator in order to produce economic analysis we can suggest a feasible technique for WTE
electricity at high efficiency. High-efficiency electricity conversion processes. Wah Cantt generates a total of
1.27kg/capita/day. This waste can be treated through

pg. 7
incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion generating Table 12: Import reduction and cost saving through composting
electricity and biological fertilizers. Annual fertilizer Import 1,710,398 Tone
Annual Importation Cost $ 754.7 million
Table 70: Characteristics of WTE conversion Technologies Annual Organic waste produced 82,976 ton
Technology Composting Incineration Anaerobic in Wah Cantt
Digestion Fertilizer Produced through 10,000 ton
Capacity Low Scale: 400TPD 200+TPD organic waste
50-70 TPD Annual Cost Saved $ 5 Million
Large Scale:
200+ TPD Anaerobic digestion can produce the maximum number of
Efficiency 45-50% [23] Simple:20- Simple:34- outputs. The anaerobic plant considered in this case study can
25% 55% [24]
generate 280 kWh of electricity with 2300 ft3 of methane and
CHP: 50% CHP: 80%
1000 ft3 of digester which can be then treated to produce organic
Life Span 15 years 40 years 25+ years
fertilizer or soil conditioners. Anaerobic digesters are designed to
Fixed Cost 2,054,000$ 110,793,310 11,220,000$ treat organic waste only but the outputs like composting are
O/M Cost 26-35 $ 45-50 $ 45-60 $ highly dependent on the type of waste.
The results mentioned above were calculated considering the
Table-10 above shows some of the factors one must choose before waste generated in city of Wah Cantt but if we can collect only
deciding on a technology. An economic value from these factors 10 percent of country’s waste or these waste conversion
can be generated to check the feasibility that a certain project is technologies are installed in any of ten big cities of Pakistan, we
suitable enough for an area or not. Another thing to be considered can generate above 1500 MW of energy along with reducing the
is that values in the table are approximated as no exact value can import of fertilizers and soil conditioners to a large extent.
be calculated. Moreover, it will help reduce the environmental pollution to large
An incineration plant operating in Wah Cantt can have a potential extent by reducing waste volume and open dumping of this waste
of generating approximately 15 MW of energy. This process has on landfill sites.
the potential for generating maximum quantity of energy and can 4. DISCUSSION
treat any kind of a waste but the costs associated with this process Selection of Waste to energy conversion technology depends
are comparatively high. Table-13 shows various cost parameters highly on the type of waste, production potential, and cost
associated with this process. The technology for generating associated with each technology. This case study deals with three
electricity in this study consists of a plant with an efficiency of main waste to energy conversion technologies that are
20 percent and considering the calorific value of 1650 but if the incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion. Table-13
combined heat and power plants are used, efficiency can be shows various economic factors for these processes. Biological
increased to about 50 percent. Incineration process can treat any processes include both composting and anaerobic digestion.
kind of waste and can even result in 70 percent of its weight Different parameters are discussed for a restricted Cantt area for
reduction. checking the feasibility of plant Installations.
Table-11 shows the annual electricity production through
incineration technology and how it can reduce energy shortage in Table 13: Factors for combustion & Biological processes
Pakistan. Factors Combustion Biological
Table 11: Electricity production potential Legislation Encouraged Encouraged
Current Energy Shortage 6000 MW Geographic Restricted Flexible
Current Waste Generation 252.6 kt (Wah Cantt) Location
Elec. Produced by 1Kt 56.8Kw Collection and Flexible Flexible
Elec. Produced by 252.6 Kt 14.347 MW Transport.
Elec. Produced by 10 pc of 1390 MW Capacity Large and Fast Low and Slow
country’s waste Risk to human Toxic substance in Low impact
health flue gases
A composting plant will not generate electricity but it will have a Risk to environment Greenhouse gas and Greenhouse gases
potential of producing 10,000 tons of waste annually which can acid gas generation and small acid gas
be sold to local farmers or can help in reducing fertilizer import generation
of Pakistan saving approximately $5 Million annually. Organic Investment Very High Low
waste including food and Yard waste can be treated through this Employment 50 persons on 20-25 persons on
process. Table-12 shows the annual cost. A large quantity of Average average
importation cost can be saved by converting the municipal solid
waste into fertilizers by using the process of composting. These economic factors can help a lot in checking the feasibility
of a technology. One we understand the merits and demerits of

pg. 8
these technologies, we will be in a good position to present our Anaerobic 1-Organic waste 1- Biogas
results for the city of Wah Cantt. Table-14 shows the various Digestion 2-O2 cutoff 2- Electricity
advantages and Disadvantages of these technologies. 3-Energy Inputs. 3-Digestate
4- Liquid fertilizer.
Table 14: WTE technologies with different factors
Technology Cost
Technology Advantages Disadvantages
Incineration Very High
Incineration 1- High 1- High
Electricity capital cost. Composting Low
Generation 2- High A. Digestion High
Potential. process costs.
2- High Heat 3-Skilled Labor Considering all our study we can now analyze the case study of
generating potential. Required Wah Cantt. The process of incineration is the fastest way of
3-Weight reduction 4- Flue gases are
up to 90 percent is converting waste to energy with maximum energy generating
environmental
possible. potential. Not considering the energy shortages discussed in the
pollutants. 5-
4- Less area as Incinerated waste introduction section, we can think of it as a viable option. But
compared to landfill can produce ash that most of the incineration plants require a lot of lands and are
is required. contains toxins. installed away from residential areas because of environmental
pollution caused by the flue gases. Now if we consider the
Composting 1-Compost 1- Odor is the demographics of Wah Cantt with Pakistan’s only ordinance
materials are less most common factory in its vicinity, there is no place an incineration plant can
bulky than original problem. be installed without affecting the majority of the population. High
materials thus easier 2- Can treat a costs and larger manpower for a small town makes it completely
to handle. limited type of
waste.
unfeasible
2- Volume reduction
3- It cannot Now for a large quantity of waste with the small land, composting
up to 60 percent is
possible be used to produce is very helpful and can create a valuable product that improves
3-Reduces GHG any sort of profitability. A composting plant offers a flexible geographic
emissions. renewable energy. location with low impact to human health, but it cannot provide
4- Composts can be 4- Process is us with an energy alternative. Compost produced can be utilized
used to reduce comparatively to reduce the fertilizer import but energy crisis will remain at its
toxins. timeconsuming.
current position.
Anaerobic digestion process differs from composting in the fact
that it can be used to generate energy. With the flexible
Anaerobic 1- Energy 1- Process is
geographic location and lower environmental pollution as
Digestion generation potential. comparatively
2- biogas longer than compared to incineration plants, an anaerobic digester can
generation incineration. overcome the drawbacks of other two technologies. So,
3- Digestate 2- Can considering all these scenarios, organic fraction of solid waste
production process only organic collected by Cantonment Board Wah can be digested in an
4- Volume waste. anaerobic plant installed with a potential of treating 500 kt at
reduction up to 60 3-inefficiency can Thermophilic conditions for 15 days.
percent. cause odor.
5- Reduced 5. CONCLUSION:
GHG emissions. 6-
Can treat solid as This case study proposes an alternative energy source to
well as liquid waste overcome energy crisis in our country. Waste to Energy
thus reducing both conversion technologies was theoretically analyzed for the city of
land and water Wah Cantt with an average waste generation of 1.27
pollution. kg/capita/day. Using the above-mentioned study, we can check
Technology Inputs Outputs the feasibility of any Waste to Energy conversion technology that
Incineration 1- All types of 1-Electricity is to implement in a certain area. For the city of Wah Cantt, an
waste. 2-Heat energy incineration plant can provide up to 15 MW of energy along with
2-Hot gases for 3-Residual thermal heat energy that can be used for desalination of water or supply
Combustion. energy can be used
3- Energy Inputs.
to any other process but incineration plant was way too costly. A
for water composting plant can provide 10,000 tons of fertilizer annually
desalination. saving approximately $5 Million but again it does not provide a
solution to the energy crisis. However, by using anaerobic
Composting 1- Organic waste Compost.
2- Supply of O2.
digestion we can treat all the organic waste of city (remaining can
3- Energy Inputs. be recycled or transferred to a land filing site) producing 280 kWh
of energy along with 2300 ft3 per day of biogas. . These results

pg. 9
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