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1. Introduction
2. Design Strategies
i. Sun Shading Devices
ii. Building Orientation
iii. Ventilation
iv. Choice of Material
a climate responsive
architecture where the
buildings are specifically
designed to achieve thermal
comfort at the tropical region.
High humidity and temperature

High annual precipitation

High solar radiation

Solar Control

Air Circulation

Thermal Effects of Material

Sun shading devices

Building orientation

Maximum ventilation

Choice of material
* reduce amount of radiation *
by reflection and absorption

* improve distribution of light *

• retractable
shutters, roller blinds, louvers
• fixed redistribution device
overhangs, reveals, fins, light shelves
• fixed reduced transmission
perforated sheets, tinted, reflective, fritted glass, brise
soleil, trees
• minimize solar gain,
maximize natural ventilation
• avoid facing east & west
maximum sun exposure
• main windows & longer sides face
north or south to catch
prevailing breeze
• to better indoor air quality &
achieve thermal comfort
• natural & mechanical
• two principles:
– Cross ventilation
– Stack ventilation
to optimize natural ventilation

• elongated floor plan

• minimum internal partition
• elevate house on stilts
to optimize natural ventilation

• high ceilings (to diffuse interior heat)

• high level window/clerestory
• vents in the roof
to optimize natural ventilation

• windows on opposite side

• maximize window openings (size and
• some shading methods: louvers, trees
Design Strategies in a Traditional Malay House
• thermal mass of
– lightweight material:
timber, wood, galvanised
• durability
– concrete, brick
• good insulator of heat
– thatch, terra cotta, build
double walls, etc
The End

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