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Problem Set -1: Viscous Incompressible Flow

Group A

1 Lubricating oil of specific gravity 0.82 and dynamic viscosity 12.066 10-2 Pa.s is pumped at a rate of
0.02 m3/s through a 0.15 m diameter 300 m long pipe.
Calculate the pressure drop, average shear stress at the wall and power required to maintained the
flow if the pipe is
(a) horizontal
(b) inclined at 15 with horizontal and flow is in upward direction
(c) inclined at 15 with horizontal and flow is in downward direction.
(d) Also find the slope of the pipe and the direction of flow so that the pressure gradient along the
pipe is zero.
[Ans. (a) 58. 28 kPa, 7.285 N/m2, 1.166 kW; (b) h=7.245 m, Z=77.64 m, p= 682.832 kPa, 7.285
N/m2, 13.657 kW; (c) -566.271 kPa, 7.285 N/m2, resistance to flow compensated by excessive
downward slope and no power required; flow will be maintained regulating valve; (d) zero pr gradient
means p1=p2, downward flow with Z=7.245 m; slope =123']

2 Water flows at a steady mean velocity of 1.5 m/s through a 50 mm diameter pipe sloping upwards at
45 to the horizontal. At a section some distance downstream of the inlet the pressure is 700 kPa and at
a section 30 m further along the pipe the pressure is 462 kPa. Determine the average shear stress at
the wall of the pipe and at a radius of 10 mm.
[Ans. h=3.048 m, wall shear stress=12.459 Pa, at 10 mm radius = 4.983 Pa]

3 For laminar flow of an oil having dynamic viscosity µ = 1.766 Ns/m 2 in a 0.3 m diameter pipe, the
velocity distribution is parabolic with a maximum point of 3 m/s at the centre of the pipe. Calculate the
shearing stress at the pipe wall and within the fluid 50 mm from the pipe wall.
[Ans. -dp/dx=941.87 Pa/ m, wall shear stress=70.64 Pa, at 50 mm away from wall = 47.09 Pa]

4 Two parallel plates are kept 0.1 m apart. A laminar flow of oil between them takes place with a
maximum velocity of 1.5 m/s. Calculate the discharge per metre width, the shear stress at the plate,
and the pressure difference in Pascal between two points 20 m apart, the velocity gradient at the
plates and velocity at 0.02 m from the plate. Take viscosity of oil to be 2.453 Ns/m 2.
[Ans. Q=0.1 m3/s per m, wall shear stress=147.18 Pa, p= 58.872 kPa, vel gradient = 60 s-1, v=0.96 m/s]

5 An oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m2 and specific gravity 0.90 flows through a horizontal pipe of 25 mm
diameter. If the pressure drop per metre length of the pipe is 12 kPa, determine (a) the rate of flow in
N/min; (b) the shear stress at the pipe wall; (c) the Reynolds number of the flow; and (d) the power
required to maintain the flow.
[Ans. V=2.34 m/s, (a) 608.5 N/min, (b) 75 Pa, (c) Re = 526.5, (d) Power = 689.2 W]

6 The thrust of a shaft is taken by a collar bearing with a forced lubrication system that maintains the
film of oil of constant thickness 0.3 mm between the surface of the collar and the bearing. The outer
and the inner diameters of the collar are 156 mm and 120 mm respectively. The coefficient of viscosity
of oil is 1.2 poise. Calculate the power lost in friction of the bearing when a shaft rotates at 500
revolutions per minute.
[Ans. Power = 41.417 W]

7 A 0.15 m diameter journal runs in a bearing 0.3 m long. The lubricant has a specific gravity of 0.855 and
a kinematic viscosity 1.81 stroke. If the radial clearance may assumed to be uniform and equal to 0.05
mm, determine the power required to overcome the viscous resistance of the lubricant when the
journal rotates at 300 r.p.m.
[Ans. viscosity=0.155 Pa s, shear stress=7304 Pa, Fs= 1032.58 N, Torque = 77.44 Nm, Power=2.433kW]
8 The space between two parallel plates distance h apart is filled with incompressible fluid of viscosity µ.
The bottom plate moves at velocity (-V1) and top plate moves at (+V2). Obtain an expression for
velocity distribution (v/V2) for this case.

9 Derive an expression for a power lost in a footstep bearing shown in figure below.

2 3 N 2 R 4
[Ans. Power= kW]
B  3600 1000