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Specification

Nestle Tanauan Tower 2& RTD Project

Civil / Structural/ Sanitary Works (Stormwater Drainage Only)

Prepared for Nestlé Philippines, Inc.

By BecaPhilipppines Ltd.

30 March 2017

These Documents are intended to remain confidential to, and copyright in them belongs to,
the Principal/Employer. They shall not be passed to any third party, other than a
prospective Subcontractor, without the written permission of the Principal/Employer.
Nestlé Tanauan Tower 2 & RTD Project – Civil / Structural Specification

Revision History
Revision Nº Prepared By Description Date

1 EugeneAfable Issued for Review 07/08/2016

2 Christian Godino Issued for Tender(2 GL Glucose Extension) 11/15/2016


Patrick Taclibon
Alex James
3 Alex James Issued for Tender 11/22/2016

4 Andrew Stirrat Issued for Tender (Piling) 12/01/2016

5 Ferdinand Flores Issued For Construction (2GL Glucose Extension) 12/07/2016


Alex James
6 Jennifer Nery Issued For Construction 03/30/2017
Nestlé Tanauan Tower 2 & RTD Project – Civil / Structural Specification

Summary of Changes in Revisions

Revision Nº Reason for Issue Summary of Changes

1 Issued for Review First Issue

2 Issued for Tender Section 2.20 Concrete Works major revision


(2GL – Glucose Section 2.21 Reinforcing Steel Bars revised
Extension Section 2.24 Structural Steelwork major revision

3 Issue for Tender Section 2.20 Concrete Works revised


(Egron 2 and RTD) Section 2.24 Structural Steelwork revised

4 Tender Addendum Section 2.20 and 2.21 for Piling Works added
(piling)
5 Issue For Re formatted and references updated
Section 2.5 added; Compaction Density and Control Strips
Construction (2GL
Section 2.18 added; Pipe Culverts and Storm drains added
– Glucose Section 2.19 added; Manholes, Inlets and Catch Chambers added
Extension) Section 3 added; Building Excavation and Filing
Section 5.1.2.d modified
Section 7.1.4.d and e modified to include reference to Nestle’s
Technical Guideline

6 Issue For Re formatted and references updated


Section 2.18.2 added; Material specification for underground storm
Construction
sewer PVC pipe was added.

The items listed in the revision changes table above is a summary only, and is not limited to those
changes noted. Refer to specific revisions for full identification of changes.
Nestlé Tanauan Tower 2 & RTD Project – Civil / Structural Specification

Contents
1. General .................................................................................................................................................2
1.1 Scope of Works ...............................................................................................................................2
1.2 Location of Site ................................................................................................................................2
1.3 Codes and Standards ......................................................................................................................2
1.4 Standards ........................................................................................................................................2
2. Civil Works ............................................................................................................................................3
2.1 Clearing and Grubbing ..........................................................................................................................3
2.2 Excavation ............................................................................................................................................4
2.3 Structure Excavation .............................................................................................................................7
2.4 Sub-grade Preparation .........................................................................................................................9
2.5 Compaction Equipment and Density Control Strips ...........................................................................10
2.6 Overhaul .............................................................................................................................................12
2.7 Aggregate Subbase Course ...............................................................................................................12
2.8 Aggregate Base Course .....................................................................................................................14
2.9 Aggregate Stockpile ............................................................................................................................16
2.10 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement ................................................................................................16
2.11 Curb and Gutter ..................................................................................................................................35
2.12 Sidewalk ..............................................................................................................................................36
2.13 Interlocking Precast Concrete Blocks .................................................................................................37
2.14 Road Sign ...........................................................................................................................................39
2.15 Pavement Markings ............................................................................................................................41
2.16 Sprigging .............................................................................................................................................43
2.17 Sodding ...............................................................................................................................................45
2.18 Pipe Culverts and Storm Drains .........................................................................................................47
2.19 Manholes, Inlets and Catch Basins ....................................................................................................50
3. Building Excavation and Filing ............................................................................................................53
3.1 Excavation for Building Works ............................................................................................................53
3.1.1 Extent ..........................................................................................................................................53
3.1.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations ..............................................................................................53
3.1.3 Contractor’s Risk.........................................................................................................................53
3.1.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials.................................................................................................53
3.2 Filling for Building Work ......................................................................................................................54
3.2.1 Extent ..........................................................................................................................................54
3.2.2 Materials .....................................................................................................................................54
3.2.3 Construction ................................................................................................................................54
3.2.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall ......................................................................................................54
3.2.5 Waterproof Structure ..................................................................................................................54
4. Piling ...................................................................................................................................................55
4.1 Bored Piling for Retention System ......................................................................................................55
4.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring ................................................................................................59
5. Concreting Works ...............................................................................................................................61
5.1 Concreting Works ...............................................................................................................................61
5.2 Reinforcing Steel Bars ........................................................................................................................67
6. Masonry Works ...................................................................................................................................72
7. Structural Steel ...................................................................................................................................76
8. Plastering Works .................................................................................................................................84
9. Health and Safety ...............................................................................................................................85
Annex A: Shop Drawing Check Form .................................................................................................86
Annex B: Nestle’s Technical Instruction GI-206.1-1, Guidelines for Paints .......................................87

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Nestlé Tanauan Tower 2 & RTD Project – Civil / Structural Specification

1. General

1.1 Scope of Works


This works specifications shall be read in conjunction with The Drawings and The Contract.

1.2 Location of Site


The site is located at:

Nestle PH PL Tanauan Factory


Second Street, FPIP
Brgy. Sta. Anastacia, Sto. Tomas
Batangas, 4234
Philippines

1.3 Codes and Standards


All materials, workmanship and testing shall be in accordance with the following documents, in their
latest revisions. The list is not exhaustive and the Contractor shall verify the listing and supplement it with
the latest applicable document or documents.

1. AISC 13th Edition Manual of Steel Construction ASD


2. ASTM 318-08M Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete
3. AISC 9th Edition Manual of Steel Construction ASD
4. AISI 1996 Edition Cold Formed Steel Design Manual
5. ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structures
6. NSCP 6th Edition National Structural Code of the Philippines Vol.1
7. UBC 1997 Edition Uniform Building Code
8. ACI 318 American Concrete Institute
9. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials.
10. ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
11. The National Building Code of the Philippines
12. The National Structural Code of the Philippines C101-10
13. Standard Specification for Highways, Bridges and Airports 2013
14. DPWH Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards (DGCS) 2015 Edition, Volume 4 Highway Design
15. DPWH Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards (DGCS) 2015 Edition, Volume 6 Public Buildings
and Other Related Structures

1.4 Standards
Comply with the requirements of the reference standards noted herein, except where more stringent
requirements are listed herein or otherwise required by the Contract Documents.

a. ASTM A36 Structural Steel


b. ASTM 570 Steel, Steel and Strip, Carbon, Hot Rolled
c. ASTM A615/PNS 49 Specification for Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
d. ASTM C33/PNS 18 Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates
e. ASTM C39 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimen
f. ASTM C94/PNS 46 Standard Specification for Ready Mixed Concrete
g. ASTM C150/PNS 07 Standard Specification for Portland Cement
h. PNS 16 Philippine National Standard for Concrete Hollow Blocks

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Nestlé Tanauan Tower 2 & RTD Project – Civil / Structural Specification

2. Civil Works
2.1 Clearing and Grubbing

2.1.1 Description
This item shall consist of clearing, grubbing, removing and disposing all vegetation and debris as
designated in the Contract, except those objects that are designated to remain in place or are to be
removed in consonance with other provisions of this Specification. The work shall also include the
preservation from injury or defacement of all objects designated to remain.

2.1.2 Construction Requirements

a. General
The Engineer will establish the limits of work and designate all trees, shrubs, plants and other things to
remain. The Contractor shall preserve all objects designated to remain. Paint required for cut or scarred
surface of trees or shrubs selected for retention shall be an approved asphaltum base paint prepared
especially for tree surgery.

Clearing shall extend one (1) meter beyond the toe of the fill slopes or beyond rounding of cut slopes as
the case maybe for the entire length of the project unless otherwise shown on the plans or as directed by
the Engineer and provided it is within the right of way limits of the project, with the exception of trees
under the jurisdiction of the Forest Management Bureau (FMB).

b. Clearing and Grubbing


All surface objects and all trees, stumps, roots and other protruding obstructions, not designated to
remain, shall be cleared and/or grubbed, including mowing as required, except as provided below:

 Removal of undisturbed stumps and roots and nonperishable solid objects with a minimum depth of
one (1) meter below sub-grade or slope of embankment will not be required.
 In areas outside of the grading limits of cut and embankment areas, stumps and nonperishable solid
objects shall be cut off not more than 150 mm (6 inches) above the ground line or low water level.
 In areas to be rounded at the top of cut slopes, stumps shall be cut off flush with or below the surface
of the final slope line.
 Grubbing of pits, channel changes and ditches will be required only to the depth necessitated by the
proposed excavation within such areas.
 In areas covered by cogon/talahib, wild grass and other vegetations, top soil shall be cut to a
maximum depth of 150 mm below the original ground surface or as designated by the Engineer, and
disposed outside the clearing and grubbing limits as indicated in the typical roadway section.

Except in areas to be excavated, stump holes and other holes from which obstructions are removed shall
be backfilled with suitable material and compacted to the required density.

If perishable material is burned, it shall be burned under the constant care of competent watchmen at
such times and in such a manner that the surrounding vegetation, other adjacent property, or anything
designated to remain on the right of way will not be jeopardized. If permitted, burning shall be done in
accordance with applicable laws, ordinances, and regulations.

The Contractor shall use high intensity burning procedures, (i.e., incinerators, high stacking or pit and
ditch burning with forced air supplements) that produce intense burning with little or no visible smoke
emission during the burning process. At the conclusion of each burning session, the fire shall be
completely extinguished so that no smoldering debris remains.

In the event that the Contractor is directed by the Engineer not to start burning operations or to suspend
such operations because of hazardous weather conditions, material to be burned which interferes with
subsequent construction operations shall be moved by the Contractor to temporary locations clear of

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construction operations and later, if directed by the Engineer, shall be placed on a designated spot and
burned.

Materials and debris which cannot be burned and perishable materials may be disposed off by methods
and at locations approved by the Engineer, on or off the project. If disposal is by burying, the debris shall
be placed in layers with the material so disturbed to avoid nesting. Each layer shall be covered or mixed
with earth material by the land-fill method to fill all voids. The top layer of material buried shall be covered
with at least 300 mm (12 inches) of earth or other approved material and shall be graded, shaped and
compacted to present a pleasing appearance. If the disposal location is off the project, the Contractor
shall make all necessary arrangements with property owners in writing for obtaining suitable disposal
locations which are outside the limits of view from the project. The cost involved shall be included in the
unit bid price. A copy of such agreement shall be furnished to the Engineer. The disposal areas shall be
seeded, fertilized and mulched at the Contractor’s expense.

Woody material may be disposed-off by chipping. The wood chips may be used for mulch, slope erosion
control or may be uniformly spread over selected areas as directed by the Engineer. Wood chips used as
mulch for slope erosion control shall have a maximum thickness of 12 mm (1/2 inch) and faces not
exceeding 3900 mm2 (6 square inches) on any individual surface area. Wood chips not designated for
use under other sections shall be spread over the designated areas in layers not to exceed 75 mm (3
inches) loose thickness. Diseased trees shall be buried or disposed off as directed by the Engineer.

All merchantable timber in the clearing area which has not been removed from the right of way prior to
the beginning of construction shall become the property of the Contractor, unless otherwise provided.

Low hanging branches and unsound or unsightly branches on trees or shrubs designated to remain shall
be trimmed as directed. Branches of trees extending over the roadbed shall be trimmed to give a clear
height of 6 m (20 feet) above the roadbed surface. All trimming shall be done by skilled workmen and in
accordance with good tree surgery practices.

Timber cut inside the area staked for clearing shall be felled within the area to be cleared.

Individual trees or stumps designated by the Engineer for removal and located in areas other than those
established for clearing and grubbing and roadside cleanup shall be removed and disposed off as
specified under Subsection 2.1.2.b except trees removed shall be cut as nearly flush with the ground as
practicable without removing stumps.

2.2 Excavation

2.2.1 Description
This Item shall consist of roadway and drainage and borrow excavation and the disposal of material in
accordance with this Specification and in conformity with the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the
Plans or established by the Engineer.

2.2.2 Roadway Excavation


Roadway excavation will include excavation and grading for roadways, parking areas, intersections,
approaches, slope rounding, benching, waterways and ditches; removal of unsuitable material from the
roadbed and beneath embankment areas; and excavating selected material found in the roadway as
ordered by the Engineer for specific use in the improvement. Roadway excavation will be classified as
“unclassified excavation”, “rock excavation”, “common excavation”, or “muck excavation” as indicated in
the Bill of Quantities and hereinafter described.

1. Unclassified Excavation. Unclassified excavation shall consist of the excavation and disposal of all
materials regardless of its nature, not classified and included in the Bill of Quantities under other pay
items.
2. Rock Excavation. Rock excavation shall consist of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock
which cannot be excavated without blasting or the use of rippers, and all boulders or other detached

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stones each having a volume of 1 cubic meter or more as determined by physical measurements or
visually by the Engineer.
3. Common Excavation. Common excavation shall consist of all excavation not included in the Bill of
Quantities under “rock excavation” or other pay items.
4. Muck Excavation. Muck excavation shall consist of the removal and disposal of deposits of saturated
or unsaturated mixtures of soils and organic matter not suitable for foundation material regardless of
moisture content.

2.2.3 Construction Requirements

a. General
When there is evidence of discrepancies on the actual elevations and that shown on the Plans, a pre-
construction survey referred to the datum plane used in the approved Plan shall be undertaken by the
Contractor under the control of the Engineer to serve as basis for the computation of the actual volume of
the excavated materials.

All excavations shall be finished to reasonably smooth and uniform surfaces. No materials shall be
wasted without authority of the Engineer. Excavation operations shall be conducted so that material
outside of the limits of slopes will not be disturbed. Prior to excavation, all necessary clearing and
grubbing in that area shall have been performed in accordance with Item 2.1,Clearing and Grubbing

b. Conservation of Topsoil
Where provided for on the Plans or in the Special Provisions, suitable topsoil encountered in excavation
and on areas where embankment is to be placed shall be removed to such extent and to such depth as
the Engineer may direct. The removed topsoil shall be transported and deposited in storage piles at
locations approved by the Engineer. The topsoil shall be completely removed to the required depth from
any designated area prior to the beginning of regular excavation or embankment work in the area and
shall be kept separate from other excavated materials for later use.

c. Utilization of Excavated Materials


All suitable material removed from the excavation shall be used in the formation of the embankment, sub
grade, shoulders, slopes, bedding, and backfill for structures, and for other purposes shown on the Plans
or as directed.

The Engineer will designate as unsuitable those soils that cannot be properly compacted in
embankments. All unsuitable material shall be disposed off as shown on the Plans or as directed without
delay to the Contractor.

Only approved materials shall be used in the construction of embankments and backfills.

All excess material, including rock and boulders that cannot be used in embankments shall be disposed
off as directed.

Material encountered in the excavation and determined by the Engineer as suitable for topping, road
finishing, slope protection, or other purposes shall be conserved and utilized as directed by the Engineer.

Borrow material shall not be placed until after the readily accessible roadway excavation has been
placed in the fill, unless otherwise permitted or directed by the Engineer. If the Contractor places more
borrow than is required and thereby causes a waste of excavation, the amount of such waste will be
deducted from the borrow volume.

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Nestlé Tanauan Tower 2 & RTD Project – Civil / Structural Specification

d. Pre-watering
Excavation areas and borrow pits may be prewatered before excavating the material. When prewatering
is used, the areas to be excavated shall be moistened to the full depth, from the surface to the bottom of
the excavation. The water shall be controlled so that the excavated material will contain the proper
moisture to permit compaction to the specified density with the use of standard compacting equipment.
Prewatering shall be supplemented where necessary, by truck watering units, to ensure that the
embankment material contains the proper moisture at the time of compaction.

The Contractor shall provide drilling equipment capable of suitably checking the moisture penetration to
the full depth of the excavation.

e. Excavation of Ditches, Gutters, etc


All materials excavated from side ditches and gutters, channel changes, irrigation ditches, inlet and outlet
ditches, toe ditches, furrow ditches, and such other ditches as may be designated on the Plans or staked
by the Engineer, shall be utilized as provided in Subsection 2.2.2.3.

Ditches shall conform to the slope, grade, and shape of the required cross-section, with no projections of
roots, stumps, rock, or similar matter. The Contractor shall maintain and keep open and free from leaves,
sticks, and other debris all ditches dug by him until final acceptance of the work.

Furrow ditches shall be formed by plowing a continuous furrow along the line staked by the Engineer.
Methods other than plowing may be used if acceptable to the Engineer. The ditches shall be cleaned out
by hand shovel work, by ditcher, or by some other suitable method, throwing all loose materials on the
downhill side so that the bottom of the finished ditch shall be approximately 450 mm (18 inches) below
the crest of the loose material piled on the downhill side. Hand finish will not be required, but the flow
lines shall be in satisfactory shape to provide drainage without overflow.

f. Excavation of Roadbed Level


Rock shall be excavated to a depth of 150 mm (6 inches) below sub grade within the limits of the
roadbed, and the excavation backfilled with material designated on the Plans or approved by the
Engineer and compacted to the required density.

When excavation methods employed by the Contractor leave undrained pockets in the rock surface, the
Contractor shall at their own expense, properly drain such depressions or when permitted by the
Engineer fill the depressions with approved impermeable material.

Material below sub grade , other than solid rock shall be thoroughly scarified to a depth of 150 mm (6
inches) and the moisture content increased or reduced, as necessary, to bring the material throughout
this 150 mm layer to the moisture content suitable for maximum compaction.

g. Borrow Areas
The Contractor shall notify the Engineer sufficiently in advance of opening any borrow areas so that
cross-section elevations and measurements of the ground surface after stripping may be taken, and the
borrow material can be tested before being used. Sufficient time for testing the borrow material shall be
allowed.

All borrow areas shall be bladed and left in such shape as to permit accurate measurements after
excavation has been completed. The Contractor shall not excavate beyond the dimensions and
elevations established, and no material shall be removed prior to the staking out and cross-sectioning of
the site. The finished borrow areas shall be approximately true to line and grade established and
specified and shall be finished, as prescribed in Clause 61, Standard Specifications for Public Works and
Highways, Volume 1. When necessary to remove fencing, the fencing shall be replaced in at least as

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good condition as it was originally. The Contractor shall be responsible for the confinement of livestock
when a portion of the fence is removed.

h. Removal of Unsuitable Material


Where the Plans show the top portion of the roadbed to be selected topping, all unsuitable materials shall
be excavated to the depth necessary for replacement of the selected topping to the required compacted
thickness.

Where excavation to the finished graded section results in a sub-grade or slopes of unsuitable soil the
Engineer may require the Contractor to remove the unsuitable material and backfill to the finished graded
section with approved material. The Contractor shall conduct his operations in such a way that the
Engineer can take the necessary cross-sectional measurements before the backfill is placed.

The excavation of muck shall be handled in a manner that will not permit the entrapment of muck within
the backfill. The material used for backfilling up to the ground line or water level, whichever is higher,
shall be rock or other suitable granular material selected from the roadway excavation, if available. If not
available, suitable material shall be obtained from other approved sources. Unsuitable material removed
shall be disposed off in designated areas shown on the Plans or approved by the Engineer.

2.3 Structure Excavation

2.3.1 Description
This Item shall consist of the necessary excavation for foundation of culverts, under-drains, and other
structures not otherwise provided for in the Specifications. Except as otherwise provided for pipe
culverts, the backfilling of completed structures and the disposal of all excavated surplus materials, shall
be in accordance with these Specifications and in reasonably close conformity with the Plans or as
established by the Engineer.

This Item shall include necessary diverting of live streams, bailing, pumping, draining, sheeting, bracing,
and the necessary construction of cribs and cofferdams, and furnishing the materials therefore, and the
subsequent removal of cribs and cofferdams and the placing of all necessary backfill.

It shall also include the furnishing and placing of approved foundation fill material to replace unsuitable
material encountered below the foundation elevation of structures.

No allowance will be made for classification of different types of material encountered.

2.3.2 Clearing and Grubbing


Prior to starting excavation operations in any area, all necessary clearing and grubbing in that area shall
have been performed in accordance with Item 2.1, Clearing and Grubbing.

2.3.3 Excavation
a. General, all structures. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer sufficiently in advance of the
beginning of any excavation so that cross-sectional elevations and measurements may be taken on
the undisturbed ground. The natural ground adjacent to the structure shall not be disturbed without
permission of the Engineer.

Trenches or foundation pits for structures or structure footings shall be excavated to the lines and
grades or elevations shown on the Plans or as staked by the Engineer. They shall be of sufficient
size to permit the placing of structures or structure footings of the full width and length shown. The
elevations of the bottoms of footings, as shown on the Plans, shall be considered as approximate

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only and the Engineer may order, in writing, such changes in dimensions or elevations of footings as
may be deemed necessary, to secure a satisfactory foundation.

Boulders, logs, and other objectionable materials encountered in excavation shall be removed.

After each excavation is completed, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer to that effect and no
footing, bedding material or pipe culvert shall be placed until the Engineer has approved the depth of
excavation and the character of the foundation material.

b. Structures other than pipe culverts. All rock or other hard foundation materials shall be cleaned all
loose materials, and cut to a firm surface, either level, stepped, or serrated as directed by the
Engineer. All seams or crevices shall be cleaned and grouted. All loose and disintegrated rocks and
thin strata shall be removed. When the footing is to rest on material other than rock, excavation to
final grade shall not be made until just before the footing is to be placed. When the foundation
material is soft or mucky or otherwise unsuitable, as determined by the Engineer, the Contractor shall
remove the unsuitable material and backfill with approved granular material. This foundation fill shall
be placed and compacted in 150 mm (6 inches) layers up to the foundation elevation.

When foundation piles are used, the excavation of each pit shall be completed before the piles are
driven and any placing of foundation fill shall be done after the piles are driven. After the driving is
completed, all loose and displaced materials shall be removed, leaving a smooth, solid bed to
receive the footing.

c. Pipe Culverts. The width of the pipe trench shall be sufficient to permit satisfactory jointing of the pipe
and thorough tamping of the bedding material under and around the pipe.

Where rock, hardpan, or other unyielding material is encountered, it shall be removed below the
foundation grade for a depth of at least 300 mm or 4 mm for each 100 mm of fill over the top of pipe,
whichever is greater, but not to exceed three-quarters of the vertical inside diameter of the pipe. The
width of the excavation shall be at least 300 mm (12 inches) greater than the horizontal outside
diameter of the pipe. The excavation below grade shall be backfilled with selected fine compressible
material, such as silt clay or loam, and lightly compacted in layers not over 150 mm (6 inches) in un-
compacted depth to form a uniform but yielding foundation.

Where a firm foundation is not encountered at the grade established, due to soft, spongy, or other
unstable soil, such unstable soil under the pipe and for a width of at least one diameter on each side
of the pipe shall be removed to the depth directed by the Engineer and replaced with approved
granular foundation fill material properly compacted to provide adequate support for the pipe, unless
other special construction methods are called for on the Plans.

The foundation surface shall provide a firm foundation of uniform density throughout the length of the
culvert and, if directed by the Engineer, shall be cambered in the direction parallel to the pipe
centerline.

Where pipe culverts are to be placed in trenches excavated in embankments, the excavation of each
trench shall be performed after the embankment has been constructed to a plane parallel to the
proposed profile grade and to such height above the bottom of the pipe as shown on the Plans or
directed by the Engineer.

2.3.4 Utilization of Excavated Materials


All excavated materials, so far as suitable, shall be utilized as backfill or embankment. The surplus
materials shall be disposed off in such manner as not to obstruct the stream or otherwise impair the
efficiency or appearance of the structure. No excavated materials shall be deposited at any time so as to
endanger the partly finished structure.

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2.3.5 Backfill and Embankment for Structures other than Pipe Culverts
Excavated areas around structures shall be backfilled with free draining granular material approved by
the Engineer and placed in horizontal layers not over 150 mm (6 inches) in thickness, to the level of the
original ground surface. Each layer shall be moistened or dried as required and thoroughly compacted
with mechanical tampers.

In placing backfills or embankment, the material shall be placed simultaneously in so far as possible to
approximately the same elevation on both sides of an abutment, pier, or wall. If conditions require placing
backfill or embankment appreciably higher on one side than on the opposite side, the additional material
on the higher side shall not be placed until the masonry has been in place for 14 days, or until tests made
by the laboratory under the supervision of the Engineer establishes that the masonry has attained
sufficient strength to withstand any pressure created by the methods used and materials placed without
damage or strain beyond a safe factor.

Backfill or embankment shall not be placed behind the walls of concrete culverts or abutments or rigid
frame structures until the top slab is placed and cured. Backfill and embankment behind abutments held
at the top by the superstructure, and behind the sidewalls of culverts, shall be carried up simultaneously
behind opposite abutments or sidewalls.

All embankments adjacent to structures shall be constructed in horizontal layers and compacted as
prescribed in Subsection 2.4.3.c except that mechanical tampers may be used for the required
compaction. Special care shall be taken to prevent any wedging action against the structure and slopes
bounding or within the areas to be filled shall be benched or serrated to prevent wedge action. The
placing of embankment and the benching of slopes shall continue in such a manner that at all times there
will be horizontal berm of thoroughly compacted material for a distance at least equal to the height of the
abutment or wall to the backfilled against except insofar as undisturbed material obtrudes upon the area.

Broken rock or coarse sand and gravel shall be provided for a drainage filter at weep-holes as shown on
the Plans.

2.4 Sub-grade Preparation

2.4.1 Description
This Item shall consist of the preparation of the sub-grade for the support of overlying structural layers. It
shall extend to full width of the roadway. Unless authorized by the Engineer, sub-grade preparation shall
not be done unless the Contractor is able to start immediately the construction of the pavement structure.

2.4.2 Material Requirements


Unless otherwise stated in the Contract and except when the sub-grade is in rock cut, all materials below
sub-grade level to a depth 150 mm.

2.4.3 Construction Requirements

a. Prior Works
Prior to commencing preparation of the sub-grade, all culverts, cross drains, ducts and the like (including
their fully compacted backfill), ditches, drains and drainage outlets shall be completed. Any work on the
preparation of the sub-grade shall not be started unless prior work herein described shall have been
approved by the Engineer.

b. Sub-grade Level Tolerances


The finished compacted surface of the sub-grade shall conform to the allowable tolerances as specified
hereunder:

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Permitted variation from + 20 mm


design LEVEL OF SURFACE - 30 mm
Permitted SURFACE IRREGULARITY
MEASURED BY 3-m STRAIGHT EDGE 30 mm
Permitted variation from
design CROSSFALL OR CAMBER + 0.5 %
Permitted variation from ± 0.1 %
design LONGITUDINAL GRADEover 25 m length

c. Sub-Grade in Common Excavation


Unless otherwise specified, all materials below sub-grade level in earth cuts to a depth 150 mm or other
depth shown on the Plans or as directed by the Engineer shall be excavated. The material, if suitable,
shall be set aside for future use or, if unsuitable, shall be disposed off in accordance with the
requirements of Item 2.2, Subsection 2.2.3.h.

Where material has been removed from below sub-grade level, the resulting surface shall be compacted
to a depth of 150 mm.

All materials immediately below sub-grade level in earth cuts to a depth of 150 mm, or to such greater
depth as may be specified, shall be compacted.

d. Sub-Grade in Rock Excavation


Surface irregularities under the sub-grade level remaining after trimming of the rock excavation shall be
leveled by placing specified material and compacted.

e. Sub-Grade in Existing Excavation


Where the new pavement is to be constructed immediately over an existing Portland Cement concrete
pavement and if so specified in the Contract the slab be broken into pieces with greatest dimension of
not more than 500 mm and the existing pavement material compacted, as directed by the Engineer. The
resulting sub-grade level shall, as part pavement construction is shaped to conform to the allowable
tolerances of Subsection 2.4.3.b by placing and compacting where necessary a leveling course
comprising the material of the pavement course to be placed immediately above.

f. Protection of Completed Work


The Contractor shall be required to protect and maintain at his own expense the entire work within the
limits of his Contract in good condition satisfactory to the Engineer from the time he first started work until
all work shall have been completed. Maintenance shall include repairing and re-compacting ruts, ridges,
soft spots and deteriorated sections of the sub-grade caused by the traffic of the Contractor’s
vehicle/equipment or that of the public.

g. Templates and Straight-Edges


The Contractor shall provide for use of the Engineer, approved templates and straight-edges in sufficient
number to check the accuracy of the work, as provided in this Specification.

2.5 Compaction Equipment and Density Control Strips

2.5.1 Description
When specified, this procedure will be used to determine density requirements of selected
embankments, sub grade, bases, and bituminous concrete. The procedure will consist of control strip

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construction to establish target densities for the specified course plus use of sand-cone method of
density testing equipment to determine in-place densities obtained during the construction process.

2.5.2 Construction Requirements

a. Compaction Equipment
Compaction equipment shall be capable of obtaining compaction requirements without detrimentally
affecting the compacted material. The equipment shall be modern, efficient compacting units approved
by the Engineer. The compacting units may be of any type, provided they are capable of compacting
each lift of material as specified and meet the minimum requirements as contained herein. Minimum
requirements for rollers are as follows:

1. Sheeps foot, tamping or grid rollers shall be capable of exerting a force of 45 Newton per millimeter
(250 pounds per inch) of length of roller drum.
2. Steel-wheel rollers other than vibratory shall be capable of exerting a force of not less than 45
Newton per millimeter of width of the compression roll or rolls.
3. Vibratory steel-wheel rollers shall have a minimum mass of 6 tonnes. The compactor shall be
equipped with amplitude and frequency controls and specifically designed to compact the material on
which it is used.
4. Pneumatic-tire rollers shall have smooth tread tires of equal size that will provide a uniform
compacting pressure for the full width of the roller and capable of exerting a ground pressure of at
least 550 kpa (80 pounds per square inch).
5. Heavier compacting unit may be required to achieve the specified density of the embankment.

b. Construction of Control Strips and Determination of Target Density


To determine target density, a control strip shall be constructed at the beginning of work each course of
material to be compacted. Each control strip, constructed to acceptable density and surface tolerances
shall remain in place and become a section of the completed roadway. Unacceptable control strip shall
be corrected or removed and replaced at the Contractor’s expense. A control strip shall have an area of
approximately 335 square meters and shall be of the same depth specified for the construction of the
course which it represents.

The materials used in the construction of the control strip shall conform to the specification requirements.
They shall be furnished from the same source and shall be of the same type to be used in the remainder
of the course represented by the control strip. The underlying grade or pavement structure upon which a
control strip is to be constructed shall have the prior approval of the Engineer.

The equipment used in the construction of the control strip shall be approved by the Engineer and shall
be of the same type and mass to be used on the remainder of the course represented by the control
strip.

Compaction of control strips shall commence immediately after the course has beenplaced to the
specified thickness, and shall be continuous and uniform over the entire surface.Compaction of the
control strip shall be continued until no discernible increase in density can be obtained by additional
compactive effort.

Upon completion of the compaction, the mean density of the control strip will be determined by averaging
the results of ten in-place density tests taken at randomly selected sites within the control strip. The
mean density of the control strip shall be the target density for the remainder of the course which it
represents.

If the mean density of the control strip is less than 98 percent of the density of laboratory compacted
specimens as determined by testing procedures appropriate for the material being placed, the Engineer
may order the construction of another control strip.

A new control strip may also be ordered by the Engineer or requested by the Contractor when:
1. A change in the material or job-mix formula, is made.
2. Ten days of production have been accepted without construction of a new control strip.
3. There is reason to believe that a control strip density is not representative of the material being
placed.

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2.6 Overhaul
Overhaul shall consist of authorized hauling in excess of the free-haul distance. Free-haul distance is the
specified distance that excavated material shall be hauled without additional compensation.Unless
otherwise provided in the Contract, the free-haul distance shall be 600 meters.

2.7 Aggregate Subbase Course

2.7.1 Description
This item shall consist of furnishing, placing and compacting an aggregate sub-base course on a
prepared sub-grade in accordance with this Specification and the lines, grades and cross-sections shown
on the Plans, or as directed by the Engineer.

2.7.2 Material Requirements


Aggregate for sub-base shall consist of hard, durable particles or fragments of crushed stone, crushed
slag, or crushed or natural gravel and filler of natural or crushed sand or other finely divided mineral
matter. The composite material shall be free from vegetable matter and lumps or balls of clay, and shall
be of such nature that it can be compacted readily to form a firm, stable sub-base.

The sub-base material shall conform to Table 2.7.2, Grading Requirements

Table 2.7.2– Grading Requirements

Sieve Designation
Standard, mm Alternate US Standard Mass Percent Passing

50 2” 100
25 1” 55 – 85
9.5 3/8” 40 – 75
0.075 No. 200 0 - 12

The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be greater than 0.66 (two thirds) of the
fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.

The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limit not greater than 35 and
plasticity index not greater than 12 as determined by AASHTO T 89 and T 90, respectively.

The coarse portion, retained on a 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve, shall have a mass percent of wear not
exceeding 50 by the Los Angeles Abrasion Tests as determined by AASHTO T 96.

The material shall have a soaked CBR value of not less than 25% as determined by AASHTO T 193. The
CBR value shall be obtained at the maximum dry density and determined by AASHTO T 180, Method D.

2.7.3 Construction Materials

a. Preparation of Existing Surface


The existing surface shall be graded and finished as provided under Item 2.4, Sub-grade Preparation
before placing the sub-base material.

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b. Placing
The aggregate sub-base material shall be placed at a uniform mixture on a prepared sub-grade in a
quantity which will provide the required compacted thickness. When more than one layer is required,
each layer shall be shaped and compacted before the succeeding layer is placed.

The placing of material shall begin at the point designated by the Engineer. Placing shall be from
vehicles especially equipped to distribute the material in a continuous uniform layer or windrow. The layer
or windrow shall be of such size that when spread and compacted the finished layer be in reasonably
close conformity to the nominal thickness shown on the Plans.

When hauling is done over previously placed material, hauling equipment shall be dispersed uniformly
over the entire surface of the previously constructed layer, to minimize rutting or uneven compaction.

c. Spreading and Compacting


When uniformly mixed, the mixture shall be spread to the plan thickness, for compaction.

The aggregate sub-base shall be spread and compacted in two or more layers of approximately equal
thickness, and the maximum compacted thickness of any layer shall not exceed 150 mm. All subsequent
layers shall be spread and compacted in a similar manner.

The moisture content of sub-base material shall, if necessary, be adjusted prior to compaction by
watering with approved sprinklers mounted on trucks or by drying out, as required in order to obtain the
required compaction.

Immediately following final spreading and smoothening, each layer shall be compacted to the full width
by means of approved compaction equipment. Rolling shall progress gradually from the sides to the
center, parallel to the centerline of the road and shall continue until the whole surface has been rolled.
Any irregularities or depressions that develop shall be corrected by loosening the material at these
places and adding or removing material until surface is smooth and uniform. Along curbs, headers, and
walls, and at all places not accessible to the roller, the sub-base material shall be compacted thoroughly
with approved tampers or compactors.

If the layer of sub-base material, or part thereof, does not conform to the required finish, the Contractor
shall, at his own expense, make the necessary corrections.

Compaction of each layer shall continue until a field density of at least 100 percent of the maximum dry
density determined in accordance with AASHTO T 180, Method D has been achieved. In-place density
determination shall be made in accordance with AASHTO T 191.

d. Trial Sections
Before sub-base construction is started, the Contractor shall spread and compact trial sections as
directed by the Engineer. The purpose of the trial sections is to check the suitability of the materials and
the efficiency of the equipment and construction method which is proposed to be used by the Contractor.
Therefore, the Contractor must use the same material, equipment and procedures that he proposes to
use for the main work. One trial section of about 500 m 2 shall be made for every type of material and/or
construction equipment/procedure proposed for use.

After final compaction of each trial section, the Contractor shall carry out such field density tests and
other tests required as directed by the Engineer.

If a trial section shows that the proposed materials, equipment or procedures in the Engineer’s opinion
are not suitable for sub-base, the material shall be removed at the Contractor’s expense, and a new trial
section shall be constructed.

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If the basic conditions regarding the type of material or procedure change during the execution of the
work, new trial sections shall be constructed.

e. Tolerances
Aggregate sub-base shall be spread with equipment that will provide a uniform layer which when
compacted will conform to the designed level and transverse slopes as shown on the Plans. The
allowable tolerances shall be as specified hereunder:

Permitted variation from design


± 20 mm
THICKNESS OF LAYER
Permitted variation from design +10 mm
LEVEL OF SURFACE -20 mm
Permitted SURFACE IRREGULARITY
20 mm
Measured by 3-m straight-edge
Permitted variation from design
±0.3%
CROSSFALL OR CAMBER
Permitted variation from design
±0.1%
LONGITUDINAL GRADE over25 m in length

2.8 Aggregate Base Course

2.8.1 Description
This Item shall consist of furnishing, placing and compacting an aggregate base course on a prepared
sub-grade/sub-base in accordance with this specification and the lines, grades, thickness and typical
cross-sections shown on the Plans, or as established by the Engineer.

2.8.2 Material Requirements


Aggregate for base course shall consist of hard, durable particles or fragments of crushed stone, crushed
slag or crushed or natural gravel and filler of natural or crushed sand or other finely divided mineral
matter. The composite material shall be free from vegetable matter and lumps or balls of clay, and shall
be of such nature that it can be compacted readily to form a firm, stable base.

Table 2.8.2

Sieve Designation Mass Percent Passing


Standard, mm Alternate US Standard Grading A Grading B
50 2” 100
37.5 1-1/2” - 100
25.0 1” 60 – 85 -
19.0 ¾” - 60 – 85
12.5 ½” 35 – 65 -
4.75 No. 4 20 – 50 30 – 55
0.425 No. 40 5 – 20 8 – 25
0.075 No. 200 0 – 12 2 – 14

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In some areas where the conventional base course materials are scarce or non-available, the use of 40%
weathered limestone blended with 60% crushed stones or gravel shall be allowed, provided that the
blended materials meet the requirements of this Item.

The base course material shall conform to Table 2.8.2, whichever is called for in the Bill of Quantities

The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be greater than 0.66 (two thirds) of the
fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.

The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limit not greater than 25 and
plasticity index not greater than 6 as determined by AASHTO T 89 and T 90, respectively.

The coarse portion, retained on a 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have a mass percent of wear not
exceeding 50 by the Los Angeles Abrasion test determined by AASHTO T 96.

The material passing the 19 mm (3/4 inch) sieve shall have a soaked CBR value of not less than 80% as
determined by AASHTO T 193. The CBR value shall be obtained at the maximum dry density (MDD) as
determined by AASHTO T 180, Method D.

If filler, in addition to that naturally present, is necessary for meeting the grading requirements or for
satisfactory bonding, it shall be uniformly blended with the base course material on the road or in a
pugmill unless otherwise specified or approved. Filler shall be taken from sources approved by the
Engineer, shall be free from hard lumps and shall not contain more than 15 percent of material retained
on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve.

2.8.3 Construction Requirements

Preparation of Existing Surface


The existing surface shall be graded and finished as provided under Subsection 2.7.3.a, Preparation of
Existing Surface before placing the base material.

a. Placing
It shall be in accordance with all the requirements of Subsection 2.7.3.b, Placing.

b. Spreading and Compacting


It shall be in accordance with all the requirements of Subsection 2.7.3.c, Spreading and Compacting.

c. Trial Sections
Trial sections shall conform in all respects to the requirements specified in Subsection 2.7.3.d, Trial
Sections.

d. Tolerances
The aggregate base course shall be laid to the designed level and transverse slopes shown on the
Plans. The allowable tolerances shall be in accordance with following:

Permitted variation from design ± 10 mm


THICKNESS OF LAYER
Permitted variation from design + 5 mm
LEVEL OF SURFACE -10 mm
Permitted SURFACE IRREGULARITY 5 mm
Measured by 3-m straight-edge
Permitted variation from design ± 0.2%

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CROSSFALL OR CAMBER
Permitted variation from design ± 0.1%
LONGITUDINAL GRADE over25 m in length

2.9 Aggregate Stockpile

2.9.1 Description
This Item shall consist of furnishing and placing aggregate in stockpiles at locations shown on the Plans
or as directed and approved by the Engineer.

2.9.2 Material Requirements


The aggregate shall conform to all requirements of the specified Item 2.7, Aggregate Subbase Course,
and Item 2.8, Aggregate Base Course. It shall be tested for acceptance at the source.

2.9.3 Construction Requirements


The stockpile area, as staked by the Engineer, shall be graded, shaped and compacted to a uniform
cross-section that will drain satisfactorily. The entire area shall be compacted with a minimum of three
completed passes of the approved equipment.

The stockpiling and handling of aggregates shall be in accordance with clauses 65 and 66, Part H
Control of Materials of the latest DPWH Standard Specifications, Volume I, Requirements and Conditions
of Contract.

2.10 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement

2.10.1 Description
This Item shall consist of pavement of Portland Cement Concrete, with or without reinforcement,
constructed on the prepared base in accordance with this Specification and in conformity with lines,
grades, thickness and typical cross-section shown on the Plans.

2.10.2 Material Requirements

a. Portland Cement
It shall conform to the applicable requirements of Subsection 5.1.2, Portland Cement/Hydraulic Cement.
Only Type I Portland Cement shall be used. Different brands or the same brands from different mills shall
not be mixed nor shall they be used alternately unless the mix is approved by the Engineer. However, the
use of Portland Pozzolan Cement Type IP meeting the requirements of AASHTO M 240/ASTM C 695,
Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cement shall be allowed, provided that trial mixes shall be done and
that the mixes meet the concrete strength requirements, the AASHTO/ASTM provisions pertinent to the
use of Portland Pozzolan Type IP shall be adopted.

Cement which for any reason has become partially set or which contains lumps of caked cement will be
rejected. Cement salvaged from discarded or used bags shall not be used.Samples of Cement shall be
obtained in accordance with AASHTO T 127.

b. Fine Aggregate
It shall consist of natural sand, stone screenings or other inert materials with similar characteristics, or
combinations thereof, having hard, strong and durable particles. Fine aggregate from different sources of

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supply shall not be mixed or stored in the same pile nor used alternately in the same class of concrete
without the approval of the Engineer.

It shall not contain more than three (3) mass percent of material passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200 sieve)
by washing nor more than one (1) mass percent each of clay lumps or shale. The use of beach sand will
not be allowed without the approval of the Engineer. If the fine aggregate is subjected to five (5) cycles of
the sodium sulfate soundness test, the weighted loss shall not exceed 10 mass percent.

The fine aggregate shall be free from injurious amounts of organic impurities. If subjected to the
colorimetric test for organic impurities and a color darker than the standard is produced, it shall be
rejected. However, when tested for the effect of organic impurities of strength of mortar by AASHTO T
71, the fine aggregate may be used if the relative strength at 7 and 28 days is not less than 95 mass
percent. The fine aggregate shall be well-graded from coarse to fine and shall conform to Table 2.10.2.b

Table 2.10.2.b– Grading Requirements for Fine Aggregate

Sieve Designation Mass Percent Passing


9.5 mm (3/8 in) 100
4.75 mm (No. 4) 95 – 100
2.36 mm (No. 8) -
1.18 mm (No. 16) 45 – 80
0.600 mm (No. 30) -
0.300 mm (No. 50) 5 – 30
0.150 mm (No. 100) 0 – 10

c. Coarse Aggregate
It shall consist of crushed stone, gravel, blast furnace slag, or other approved inert materials of similar
characteristics, or combinations thereof, having hard, strong, durable pieces and free from any adherent
coatings.

It shall contain no more than one (1) mass percent of material passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve, not
more than 0.25 mass percent of clay lumps, nor more than 3.5 mass percent of soft fragments.

If the coarse aggregate is subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test, the weighted
loss shall not exceed 12 mass percent. It shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40 when
tested by AASHTO T 96.

If the slag is used, its density shall not be less than 1120 kg/m3 (70 lb./cu. ft.). The gradation of the
coarse aggregate shall conform to Table 2.10.2.c. Only one grading specification shall be used from any
one source.

Table 2.10.2.c – Grading Requirement for Coarse Aggregate

Sieve Designation Mass Percent Passing


Standard Alternate Grading Grading Grading
Mm U. S.Standard A B C
75.00 3 in. 100 - -
63.00 2-1/2 in. 90-100 100 100
50.00 2 in. - 90-100 95-100
37.5 1-1/2 in. 25-60 35-70 -

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25.0 1 in. - 0-15 35-70


19.0 ¾ in. 0-10 - -
12.5 ½ in. 0-5 0-5 10-30
4.75 No. 4 - - 0-5

d. Water
Water used in mixing, curing or other designated application shall be reasonably clean and free of oil,
salt, acid, alkali, grass or other substances injurious to the finished product. Water which is drinkable may
be used without test. Where the source of water is shallow, the intake shall be so enclosed as to exclude
silt, mud, grass or other foreign materials.

e. Reinforcing Steel
Dowels and tie bars shall conform to the requirements of Subsection 5.2.2, Reinforcing Steel Bars,
except that rail steel shall not be used for tie bars that are to be bent and re-straightened during
construction. Tie bars shall be deformed bars. Dowels shall be plain round bars. Before delivery to the
site of work, one-half of the length of each dowel shall be painted with one coat of approved lead or tar
paint.

The sleeves for dowel bars shall be metal of approved design to cover 50 mm (2 inches), plus or minus 5
mm (1/4 inch) of the dowel, with a closed end, and with a suitable stop to hold the end of the sleeve at
least 25 mm (1 inch) from the end of the dowel. Sleeves shall be of such design that they do not collapse
during construction.

f. Joint Fillers
Poured joint filers shall be mixed asphalt and mineral or rubber filler conforming to the applicable
requirements.

Joint fillers shall be punched to admit the dowels where called for in the Plans. The filler for each joint
shall be furnished in a single piece for the full depth and width required for the joint.

g. Admixtures
Air-entraining admixture shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 154. Chemical admixtures, if
specified or permitted, shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 194.

Fly Ash, if specified or permitted as a mineral admixture and as 20% partial replacement of Portland
cement in concrete mix shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 618.

Admixture should be added only to the concrete mix to produce some desired modifications to the
properties of concrete where necessary, but not as partial replacement of cement.

h. Curing Materials
Curing materials shall conform to the following requirements as specified;

a) Liquid membrane forming compounds - AASHTO M 148


b) Sheeting (film) materials - AASHTO M 171

i. Storage of Cement and Aggregate


All cement shall be stored, immediately upon delivery at the Site, in weatherproof building which will
protect the cement from dampness. The floor shall be raised from the ground. The buildings shall be
placed in locations approved by the Engineer. Provisions for storage shall be ample, and the shipments
of cement as received shall be separately stored in such a manner as to allow the earliest deliveries to

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be used first and to provide easy access for identification and inspection of each shipment. Storage
buildings shall have capacity for storage of a sufficient quantity of cement to allow sampling at least
twelve (12) days before the cement is to be used. Bulk cement, if used, shall be transferred to elevated
air tight and weatherproof bins. Stored cement shall meet the test requirements at any time after storage
when retest is ordered by the Engineer. At the time of use, all cement shall be free-flowing and free of
lumps.

The handling and storing of concrete aggregates shall be such as to prevent segregation or the inclusion
of foreign materials. The Engineer may require that aggregates be stored on separate platforms at
satisfactory locations.

In order to secure greater uniformity of concrete mix, the Engineer may require that the coarse aggregate
be separated into two or more sizes. Different sizes of aggregate shall be stored in separate bins or in
separate stockpiles sufficiently removed from each other to prevent the material at the edges of the piles
from becoming intermixed.

j. Proportioning, Consistency, and Strength of Concrete


The Contractor shall prepare the design mix based on the absolute volume method as outlined in the
American Concrete Institute (ACI) Standard 211.1, “Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for
Normal and Heavyweight Concrete”.

It is the intent of this Specification to require at least 364 kg of cement per cubic meter of concrete to
meet the minimum strength requirements. The Engineer shall determine from laboratory tests of the
materials to be used, the cement content and the proportions of aggregate and water that will produce
workable concrete having a slump of between 40 and 75 mm (1-1/2 and 3 inches) if not vibrated or
between 10 and 40 mm (1/2 and 1-1/2 inches) if vibrated, and a flexural strength of not less than 3.8
MPa (550 psi) when tested by the third-point method or 4.5 MPa (650 psi) when tested by the mid-point
method at fourteen (14) days in accordance with AASHTO T97 and T177, respectively; or a compressive
strength of 24.1 MPa (3500 psi) for cores taken at fourteen (14) days and tested in accordance with
AASHTO T24.

Slump shall be determined using AASHTO T 119. The designer shall consider the use of lean concrete
(econocrete) mixtures using local materials or specifically modified conventional concrete mixes in base
course and in the lower course composite, monolithic concrete pavements using a minimum of 75 mm (3
inches) of conventional concrete as the surface course.

The mix design shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval and shall be accompanied with certified
test data from an approved laboratory demonstrating the adequacy of the mix design. A change in the
source of materials during the progress of work may necessitate a new design mix.

2.10.3 Construction Requirements

a. Quality Control of Concrete


 General

The Contractor shall be responsible for the quality control of all materials during the handling, blending,
and mixing and placement operations.

 Quality Control Plan

The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer a Quality Control Plan detailing his production control
procedures and the type and frequency of sampling and testing to insure that the concrete produces
complies with the Specifications. The Engineer shall be provided free access to recent plant production

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records, and if requested, informational copies of mix design, materials certifications and sampling and
testing reports.

 Qualification of Workmen

Experienced and qualified personnel shall perform all batching or mixing operation for the concrete mix,
and shall be present at the plant and job site to control the concrete productions whenever the plant is in
operation. They shall be identified and duties defined as follows:

a. Concrete Batcher. The person performing the batching or mixing operation shall be capable of
accurately conducting aggregate surface moisture determination and establishing correct scale
weights for concrete materials. He shall be capable of assuring that the proportioned batch weights
of materials are in accordance with the mix design.

b. Concrete Technician. The person responsible for concrete production control and sampling and
testing for quality control shall be proficient in concrete technology and shall have a sound
knowledge of the Specifications as they relate to concrete production. He shall be capable of
conducting tests on concrete and concrete materials in accordance with these Specifications. He
shall be capable of adjusting concrete mix designs for improving workability and Specification
compliance and preparing trial mix designs. He shall be qualified to act as the concrete batcher in the
batcher’s absence.

 Quality Control Testing

The Contractor shall perform all sampling, testing and inspection necessary to assure quality control of
the component materials and the concrete.

The Contractor shall be responsible for determining the gradation of fine and coarse aggregates and for
testing the concrete mixture for slump, air content, water-cement ratio and temperature. He shall
conduct his operations so as to produce a mix conforming to the approved mix design.

The strength of concrete shall be deemed acceptable if the average of 3 consecutive strength test results
is equal to or exceed the specified strength and no individual test result falls below the specified strength
by more than 15%.

Concrete deemed to be not acceptable using the above criteria may be rejected unless Contractor can
provide evidence, by means of core tests, that the quality of concrete represented by the failed test result
is acceptable in place. Three (3) cores shall be obtained from the affected area and cured and tested in
accordance with AASHTO T 24. Concrete in the area represented by the cores will be deemed acceptable
if the average of cores is equal to or at least 85% and no sample core is less than 75% of the specified
strength otherwise it shall be rejected.

 Documentation

The Contractor shall maintain adequate records of all inspections and tests. The records shall indicate the
nature and number of observations made the number and type of deficiencies found, the quantities
approved and rejected, and nature of any corrective action taken.

The Engineer will take independent assurance samples over 500 cu.m – 900 cu.m of concrete at random
location for acceptance purposes as he deems necessary.

b. Equipment
Equipment and tools necessary for handling materials and performing all parts of the work shall be
approved by the Engineer as to design, capacity and mechanical condition. The equipment shall be at
the jobsite sufficiently ahead of the start of construction operations to be examined thoroughly and
approved.

1. Mixers

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 GENERAL. Concrete may be mixed at a central plant or wholly or in part in truck mixers. Each mixer
shall have a manufacturer’s plate attached in a prominent place showing the capacity of the drum in
terms of volume of mixed concrete and the speed of rotation of the mixing drum or blades.

 TRUCK MIXER AND TRUCK AGITATORS. Truck mixers used for mixing and hauling concrete, and
truck agitators used for hauling central-mixed concrete, shall conform to the requirements of
AASHTO M 157.

 NON-AGITATOR TRUCK. Bodies of non-agitating hauling equipment for concrete shall be smooth,
mortar-tight metal containers and shall be capable of discharging the concrete at a satisfactory
controlled rate without segregation.

2. Paving and Finishing Equipment

The concrete shall be placed with an approved paver designed to spread, consolidate, screed and float
finish the freshly placed concrete in one complete pass of the machine in such a manner that a minimum
of hand finishing will be necessary to provide a dense and homogeneous pavement in conformance with
the Plans and Specifications.

The finishing machine shall be equipped with at least two (2) oscillating type transverse screed.

Vibrators shall operate at a frequency of 8,300 to 9,600 impulses per minute under load at a maximum
spacing of 60 cm.

3. Concrete Saw

The Contractor shall provide sawing equipment in adequate number of units and power to complete the
sawing with a water-cooled diamond edge saw blade or an abrasive wheel to the required dimensions
and at the required rate. He shall provide at least one (1) stand-by saw in good working condition and
with an ample supply of saw blades.

4. Forms

Forms shall be of steel, of an approved section, and of depth equal to the thickness of the pavement at
the edge. The base of the forms shall be of sufficient width to provide necessary stability in all directions.
The flange braces must extend outward on the base to not less than 2/3 the height of the form.

All forms shall be rigidly supported on bed of thoroughly compacted material during the entire operation
of placing and finishing the concrete. Forms shall be provided with adequate devices for secure setting
so that when in place, they will withstand, without visible spring or settlement, the impact and vibration of
the consolidation and finishing or paving equipment.

c. Preparation of Grade
After the sub grade or base has been placed and compacted to the required density, the areas which will
support the paving machine and the grade on which the pavement is to be constructed shall be trimmed
to the proper elevation by means of a properly designed machine extending the prepared work areas
compacted at least 60 cm beyond each edge of the proposed concrete pavement. If loss of density
results from the trimming operations, it shall be restored by additional compaction before concrete is
placed. If any traffic is allowed to use the prepared sub grade or base, the surface shall be checked and
corrected immediately ahead of the placing concrete.

The sub grade or base shall be uniformly moist when the concrete is placed.

d. Setting Form
1. Base Support

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The foundation under the forms shall be hard and true to grade so that the form when set will be firmly in
contact for its whole length and at the specified grade. (Any roadbed, which at the form line is found
below established grade, shall be filled with approved granular materials to grade in lifts of three (3) cm
or less, and thoroughly rerolled or tamped.) Imperfections or variations above grade shall be corrected by
tamping or by cutting as necessary.

2. Form Setting

Forms shall be set sufficiently in advance of the point where concrete is being placed. After the forms
have been set to correct grade, the grade shall be thoroughly tamped, mechanically or by hand, at both
the inside and outside edges of the base of the forms. The forms shall not deviate from true line bv more
than one (1) cm at any point.

3. Grade and Alignment

The alignment and grade elevations of the forms shall be checked and corrections made by the
Contractor immediately before placing the concrete. Testing as to crown and elevation, prior to placing of
concrete can be made by means of holding an approved template in a vertical position and moved
backward and forward on the forms.

When any form has been disturbed or any grade has become unstable, the form shall be reset and
rechecked.

e. Conditioning of Sub grade or Base Course


When side forms have been securely set to grade, the sub grade or base course shall be brought to
proper cross-section. High areas shall be trimmed to proper elevation. Low areas shall be filled and
compacted to a condition similar to that of surrounding grade. The finished grade shall be maintained in a
smooth and compacted condition until the pavement is placed.

Unless waterproof sub grade or base course cover material is specified, the sub grade or base course
shall be uniformly moist when the concrete is placed. If it subsequently becomes too dry, the sub grade
or base course shall be sprinkled, but the method of sprinkling shall not be such as to form mud or pools
of water.

f. Handling, Measuring and Batching Materials


The batch plant site, layout, equipment and provisions for transporting material shall be such as to
assure a continuous supply of material to the work. Stockpiles shall be built up in layers of not more than
one (1) meter in thickness. Each layer shall be completely in place before beginning the next which shall
not be allowed to “cone” down over the next lower layer. Aggregates from different sources and of
different grading shall not be stockpiled together.

All washed aggregates and aggregates produced or handled by hydraulic methods, shall be stockpiled or
binned for draining at least twelve (12) hours before being batched.

When mixing is done at the side of the work aggregates shall be transported from the batching plant to
the mixer in batch boxes, vehicle bodies, or other containers of adequate capacity and construction to
properly carry the volume required. Partitions separating batches shall be adequate and effective to
prevent spilling from one compartment to another while in transit or being dumped. When bulk cement is
used, the Contractor shall use a suitable method of handling the cement from weighing hopper to
transporting container or into the batch itself for transportation to the mixer, with chute, boot or other
approved device, to prevent loss of cement, and to provide positive assurance of the actual presence in
each batch of the entire cement content specified.

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Bulk cement shall be transported to the mixer in tight compartments carrying the full amount of cement
required for the batch. When cement is placed in contact with the aggregates, batches may be rejected
unless mixed within 1-1/2 hours of such contact. Cement in original shipping packages may be
transported on top of the aggregates, each batch containing the number of sacks required by the job mix.

The mixer shall be charged without loss of cement. Batching shall be so conducted as to result in the
weight to each material required within a tolerance of one (1) percent for the cement and two (2) percent
for aggregates.

Water may be measured either by volume or by weight. The accuracy of measuring the water shall be
within a range of error of not over than one (1) percent. Unless the water is to be weighed, the water-
measuring equipment shall include an auxiliary tank from which the measuring tank shall be equipped
with an outside tap and valve to provide checking the setting, unless other means are provided for readily
and accurately determining the amount of water in the tank. The volume of the auxiliary tank shall be at
least equal to that of the measuring tank.

g. Mixing Concrete
The concrete may be mixed at the site of the work in a central-mix plant, or in truck mixers. The mixer
shall be of an approved type and capacity. Mixing time will be measured from the time all materials,
except water, are in the drum. Ready-mixed concrete shall be mixed and delivered in accordance with
requirements of AASHTO M 157, except that the minimum required revolutions at the mixing speed for
transit-mixed concrete may be reduced to not less than that recommended by the mixer manufacturer.
The number of revolutions recommended by the mixer manufacturer shall be indicated on the
manufacturer’s serial plate attached to the mixer. The Contractor shall furnish test data acceptable to the
Engineer verifying that the make and model of the mixer will produce uniform concrete conforming to the
provision of AASHTO M 157 at the reduced number of revolutions shown on the serial plate.

When mixed at the site or in a central mixing plant, the mixing time shall not be less than fifty (50)
seconds nor more than ninety (90) seconds, unless mixer performance tests prove adequate mixing of
the concrete is a shorter time period.

Four (4) seconds shall be added to the specified mixing time if timing starts at the instant the skip
reaches its maximum raised positions. Mixing time ends when the discharge chute opens. Transfer time
in multiple drum mixers is included in mixing time. The contents of an individual mixer drum shall be
removed before a succeeding batch is emptied therein.

The mixer shall be operated at the drum speed as shown on the manufacturer’s name plate attached on
the mixer. Any concrete mixed less than the specified time shall be discarded and disposed off by the
Contractor at his expense. The volume of concrete mixed per batch shall not exceed the mixer’s nominal
capacity in cubic meter, as shown on the manufacturer’s standard rating plate on the mixer, except that
an overload up to ten (10) percent above the mixer’s nominal capacity may be permitted provided
concrete test data for strength, segregation, and uniform consistency are satisfactory, and provided no
spillage of concrete takes place.

The batches shall be so charged into the drum that a portion of the mixing water shall be entered in
advance of the cement and aggregates. The flow of water shall be uniform and all water shall be in the
drum by the end of the first fifteen (15) seconds of the mixing period. The throat of the drum shall be kept
free of such accumulations as may restrict the free flow of materials into the drum.

Mixed concrete from the central mixing plant shall be transported in truck mixers, truck agitators or non-
agitating truck specified in Subsection 2.10.3.b. The time elapsed from the time water is added to the mix
until the concrete is deposited in place at the Site shall not exceed forty five (45) minutes when the
concrete is hauled in non-agitating trucks, nor ninety (90) minutes when hauled in truck mixers or truck
agitators, except that in hot weather or under other conditions contributing to quick hardening of the
concrete, the maximum allowable time may be reduced by the Engineer.

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In exceptional cases and when volumetric measurements are authorized for small project requiring less
than 75 cu m of concrete per day of pouring, the weight proportions shall be converted to equivalent
volumetric proportions. In such cases, suitable allowance shall be made for variations in the moisture
condition of the aggregates, including the bulking effect in the fine aggregate. Batching and mixing shall
be in accordance with ASTM C 685, Section 6 through 9.

Concrete mixing by chute is allowed provided that weighing scales for determining the batch weight will
be used.

Re-tempering concrete by adding water or by other means shall not be permitted, except that when
concrete is delivered in truck mixers, additional water may be added to the batch materials and additional
mixing performed to increase the slump to meet the specified requirements, if permitted by the Engineer,
provided all these operations are performed within forty-five (45) minutes after the initial mixing operation
and the water-cement ratio is not exceeded. Concrete that is not within the specified slump limits at the
time of placement shall not be used. Admixtures for increasing the workability or for accelerating the
setting of the concrete will be permitted only when specifically approved by the Engineer.

h. Limitation of Mixing
No concrete shall be mixed, placed or finished when natural light is insufficient, unless an adequate and
approved artificial lighting system is operated.

During hot weather, the Engineer shall require that steps be taken to prevent the temperature of mixed
concrete from exceeding a maximum temperature of 90oF (32oC)

Concrete not in place within ninety (90) minutes from the time the ingredients were charged into the
mixing drum or that has developed initial set shall not be used. Re-tempering of concrete or mortar which
has partially hardened, that is remixing with or without additional cement, aggregate, or water, shall not
be permitted.

In order that the concrete may be properly protected against the effects of rain before the concrete is
sufficiently hardened, the Contractor will be required to have available at all times materials for the
protection of the edges and surface of the unhardened concrete.

i. Placing Concrete
Concrete shall be deposited in such a manner to require minimal re-handling. Unless truck mixers or
non-agitating hauling equipment are equipped with means to discharge concrete without segregation of
the materials, the concrete shall be unloaded into an approved spreading device and mechanically
spread on the grade in such a manner as to prevent segregation. Placing shall be continuous between
transverse joints without the use of intermediate bulkheads. Necessary hand spreading shall be done
with shovels, not rakes. Workmen shall not be allowed to walk in the freshly mixed concrete with boots or
shoes coated with earth or foreign substances.

When concrete is to be placed adjoining a previously constructed lane and mechanical equipment will be
operated upon the existing lane, that previously constructed lane shall have attained the strength for
fourteen (14) day concrete. If only finishing equipment is carried on the existing lane, paving in adjoining
lanes may be permitted after three (3) days.

Concrete shall be thoroughly consolidated against and along the faces of all forms and along the full
length and on both sides of all joint assemblies, by means of vibrators inserted in the concrete. Vibrators
shall not be permitted to come in contact with a joint assembly, the grade, or a side form. In no case shall
the vibrator be operated longer than fifteen (15) seconds in any one location.

Concrete shall be deposited as near as possible to the expansion and contraction joints without
disturbing them, but shall not be dumped from the discharge bucket or hopper into a joint assembly

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unless the hopper is well centered on the joint assembly. Should any concrete material fall on or be
worked into the surface of a complete slab, it shall be removed immediately.

j. Test Specimen
As work progresses, at least one (1) set consisting of three (3) concrete beam test specimens, 150 mm
x 150 mm x 525 mm or 900 mm shall be taken from each 330 m 2 of pavement, 230 mm depth, or
fraction thereof placed each day. Test specimens shall be made under the supervision of the Engineer,
and the Contractor shall provide all concrete and other facilities necessary in making the test specimens
and shall protect them from damage by construction operations. Cylinder samples shall not be used as
substitute for determining the adequacy of the strength of concrete.

The beams shall be made, cured, and tested in accordance with AASHTO T 23 and T 97.

k. Strike-off of Concrete and Placement of Reinforcement


Following the placing of the concrete, it shall be struck off to conform to the cross-section shown on the
Plans and to an elevation such that when the concrete is properly consolidated and finished, the surface
of the pavement will be at the elevation shown on the Plans. When reinforced concrete pavement is
placed in two (2) layers, the bottom layer shall be struck off and consolidated to such length and depth
that the sheet of fabric or bar mat may be laid full length on the concrete in its final position without
further manipulation. The reinforcement shall then be placed directly upon the concrete, after which the
top layer of the concrete shall be placed, struck off and screeded. Any portion of the bottom layer of
concrete which has been placed more than 30 minutes without being covered with the top layer shall be
removed and replaced with freshly mixed concrete at the Contractor’s expense. When reinforced
concrete is placed in one layer, the reinforcement may be firmly positioned in advance of concrete
placement or it may be placed at the depth shown on the Plans in plastic concrete, after spreading by
mechanical or vibratory means.

Reinforcing steel shall be free from dirt, oil, paint, grease, mill scale and loose or thick rust which could
impair bond of the steel with the concrete.

l. Joints
Joints shall be constructed of the type and dimensions, and at the locations required by the Plans or
Special Provisions. All joints shall be protected from the intrusion of injurious foreign material until sealed.

 Longitudinal Joint

Deformed steel tie bars of specified length, size, spacing and materials shall be placed perpendicular to
the longitudinal joints, they shall be placed by approved mechanical equipment or rigidly secured by chair
or other approved supports to prevent displacement. Tie bars shall not be painted or coated with asphalt
or other materials or enclosed in tubes or sleeves. When shown on the Plans and when adjacent lanes of
pavement are constructed separately, steel side forms shall be used which will form a keyway along the
construction joint. Tie bars, except those made of rail steel, may be bent at right angles against the form
of the first lane constructed and straightened into final position before the concrete of the adjacent lane is
placed, or in lieu of bent tie bars, approved two-piece connectors may be used.

Longitudinal formed joints shall consist of a groove or cleft, extending downward from and normal to, the
surface of the pavement. These joints shall be effected or formed by an approved mechanically or
manually operated device to the dimensions and line indicated on the Plans and while the concrete is in
a plastic state. The groove or cleft shall be filled with either a premolded strip or poured material as
required.

The longitudinal joints shall be continuous; there shall be no gaps in either transverse or longitudinal
joints at the intersection of the joints.

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Longitudinal sawed joints shall be cut by means of approved concrete saws to the depth, width and line
shown on the Plans. Suitable guide lines or devices shall be used to assure cutting the longitudinal joint
on the true line. The longitudinal joint shall be sawed before the end of the curing period or shortly
thereafter and before any equipment or vehicles are allowed on the pavement. The sawed area shall be
thoroughly cleaned and, if required, the joint shall immediately be filled with sealer.

Longitudinal pavement insert type joints shall be formed by placing a continuous strip of plastic materials
which will not react adversely with the chemical constituent of the concrete.

 Transverse Expansion Joint

The expansion joint filler shall be continuous from form to form, shaped to sub grade and to the keyway
along the form. Preformed joint filler shall be furnished in lengths equal to the pavement width or equal to
the width of one lane. Damaged or repaired joint filler shall not be used.

The expansion joint filler shall be held in a vertical position. An approved installing bar, or other device,
shall be used if required to secure preformed expansion joint filler at the proper grade and alignment
during placing and finishing of the concrete. Finished joint shall not deviate more than 6 mm from a
straight line. If joint filers are assembled in sections, there shall be no offsets between adjacent units. No
plugs of concrete shall be permitted anywhere within the expansion space.

 Transverse Contraction Joint/ Weakened Joint

When shown on the Plans, it shall consist of planes of weakness created by forming or cutting grooves in
the surface of the pavement and shall include load transfer assemblies. The depth of the weakened
plane joint should at all times not be less than 50 mm, while the width should not be more than 6 mm.

1. TRANSVERSE STRIP CONTRACTION JOINT. It shall be formed by installing a parting strip to be


left in place as shown on the Plans.

2. FORMED GROOVE. It shall be made by depressing an approved tool or device into the plastic
concrete. The tool or device shall remain in place at least until the concrete has attained its initial set
and shall then be removed without disturbing the adjacent concrete, unless the device is designed to
remain in the joint.

3. SAWED CONTRACTION JOINT. It shall be created by sawing grooves in the surface of the
pavement of the width not more than 6 mm, depth should at all times not be less than 50 mm, and at
the spacing and lines shown on the Plans, with an approved concrete saw. After each joint is sawed,
it shall be thoroughly cleaned including the adjacent concrete surface.

Sawing of the joint shall commence as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to permit sawing
without excessive ravelling, usually 4 to 24 hours. All joints shall be sawed before uncontrolled shrinkage
cracking takes place. If necessary, the sawing operations shall be carried on during the day or night,
regardless of weather conditions. The sawing of any joint shall be omitted if crack occurs at or near the
joint location prior to the time of sawing. Sawing shall be discontinued when a crack develops ahead of
the saw. In general, all joints should be sawed in sequence. If extreme conditions exist which make it
impractical to prevent erratic cracking by early sawing, the contraction joint groove shall be formed prior
to initial set of concrete as provided above.

 Transverse Construction joint

It shall be constructed when there is an interruption of more than 30 minutes in the concreting operations.
No transverse joint shall be constructed within 1.50 m of an expansion joint, contraction joint, or plane of
weakness. If insufficient concrete has been mixed at the time of interruption to form a slab of at least 1.5
m long, the excess concrete from the last preceding joint shall be removed and disposed off as directed.

 Load Transfer Device

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Dowel, when used, shall be held in position parallel to the surface and center line of the slab by a metal
device that is left in the pavement.

The portion of each dowel painted with one coat of lead or tar, in conformance with the requirements of
Item5.2, Reinforcing Steel Bars, shall be thoroughly coated with approved bituminous materials, e.g.,
MC-70, or an approved lubricant, to prevent the concrete from binding to that portion of the dowel. The
sleeves for dowels shall be metal designed to cover 50 mm plus or minus 5 mm (1/4 inch), of the dowel,
with a watertight closed end and with a suitable stop to hold the end of the sleeves at least 25 mm (1
inch) from the end of the dowel.

In lieu of using dowel assemblies at contraction joints, dowels may be placed in the full thickness of
pavement by a mechanical device approved by the Engineer.

m. Final Strike-Off (Consolidation and Finishing)


1. Sequence

The sequence of operations shall be the strike-off and consolidation, floating and removal of laitance,
straight-edging and final surface finish. Working platforms or other devices necessary to provide access
to the pavement surface for the purpose of finishing straight-edging, and make corrections as hereinafter
specified, shall be provided by the Contractor.

In general, the addition of water to the surface of the concrete to assist in finishing operations will not be
permitted. If the application of water to the surface is permitted, it shall be applied as fog spray by means
of approved spray equipment.

2. Finishing Joint

The concrete adjacent to joints shall be compacted or firmly placed without voids or segregation against
the joint material assembly, also under and around all load transfer devices, joint assembly units, and
other features designed to extend into the pavement. Concrete adjacent to joints shall be mechanically
vibrated as required in Item 5.1,

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Building Excavation and Filing

2.11 Excavation for Building Works


2.11.1 Extent

Locate underground services before any work is started. Check with Territorial Authorities and services
providers for details and locations of services within and adjacent to the area of the works. Any
information provided by the Principal will be from available drawn records but with no guarantees as to
location, depth, alignment, or if everything present has actually been shown.
In sealed areas, saw cut the edges of the excavation in straight lines, to ensure a neat finish can be
achieved at restitution.

Remove all topsoil, rubbish, vegetation, and loose material. Excavate to the depths shown in the
Drawings. Allow clearance for formwork and working space as necessary. Do not remove topsoil or
excavate within the drip line of retained trees etc. unless directed, and then only by hand methods to
avoid damage to roots etc.

The Engineer shall approve all excavations before any following works begin, and the Engineer may
order the Contractor to vary the depths and/or widths as work proceeds.

The word "approve" and its derivatives when used in relation to ground prepared for the execution of the
Contract Works shall mean acceptance by the Engineer that the ground as prepared meets the
requirements of the design for the construction which is to be placed on that ground, which approval shall
be automatically cancelled if any change whatsoever arising from any cause whatsoever occurs to that
ground before it is protected by the construction in question, thus necessitating an up-to-date approval by
the Engineer before construction may proceed.

Protect survey pegs and bench marks, and any other features marked to be retained.

2.11.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations

Secure and maintain all excavations and keep them clear of water and fallen materials. Provide and
maintain shoring, planking strutting, pumping, baling, as required and for safety.

The Contractor shall plan and execute his work so that, as soon as he has reached a level at which the
excavation is approved by the Engineer, he shall be able to protect such excavated surface effectively
against damage. Should the Contractor fail to provide adequate protection (resulting in the Engineer's
approval being withdrawn), he shall excavate over the area in question to a further level approved by the
Engineer, such additional excavation and the consequential additional backfilling being at no extra cost to
the Principal.

Form sumps outside the foundation lines and pump from those. Undertake silt control measures if
discharging to the storm water drainage system.

2.11.3 Contractor’s Risk

The following are contractual risks that the Contractor is required to allow for in his price and rates:
a. No extension of time shall be granted in respect of Variations to the amounts of excavations and
consequential following work ordered by the Engineer as 3.1.1 EXTENT above.
b. Variations in its nature from part to part of the Site which the Engineer, in his absolute discretion,
considers to be of a minor nature only, shall not entitle the Contractor to alter his quoted rates.

2.11.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials

Turf and topsoil shall be stockpiled on Site where directed by the Engineer. All other excavated materials
shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

All excavated material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the
Site.

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Approved excavated hard filling shall be re-used. Any contaminated hard fill and all other excavated
material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

2.12 Filling for Building Work


2.12.1 Extent

The whole of the space between the approved excavated surface and the underside of the concrete
construction of the structure shall be filled as under. The minimum depth of compacted hard filling shall
be 150 mm.

2.12.2 Materials

a. The top 150 mm of all fill beneath the structure shall consist of 50 mm all-in clean graded hard fill for
which the Los Angeles abrasion loss shall not exceed 40% and the Plasticity Index shall not exceed
8.
b. Below that level, clean hard fill as above but containing no pieces larger than 150 mm may be used.
c. All trenches under the 2GL Glucose Extension shall be backfilled with hard fill as above.
d. The Engineer will require approving hard fill material before it is placed.

2.12.3 Construction

Where ground is to be filled, hard fill shall be used, compacted in layers not exceeding 200 mm (loose)
thickness by at least 12 passes of an 8 tonne roller. The standard of compaction achieved shall be such
that a slow pass of the roller (or if in the opinion of the Engineer the use of such a roller would be
impracticable, an equivalent pass) discloses no perceptible vertical movement of the hard fill.

Should any hard fill become contaminated or should any placed filling be disturbed by any cause
whatsoever, such hard fill shall be dug out, replaced and re-compacted to the Engineer's directive at no
cost to the Principal.

2.12.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to be stable
under the full load until such time as the wall concrete and the slab on top of the wall have reached the
designed strength. Therefore, in order to be able to safely backfill and compact behind the wall, the
Contractor shall take whatever steps may be necessary in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent
any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to withstand
the action of compacting machinery behind and above it until such time as the wall concrete has reached
its designed strength. Should the Contractor wish to backfill and compact before this concrete has
reached its designed strength he shall be wholly responsible for taking whatever steps may be necessary
in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has been designed solely to retain
the material behind it and not at any time to withstand the weight and effect of compacting machinery
behind it. The Contractor is therefore wholly responsible for taking all measures necessary in the way of
shoring, strutting etc., to ensure that no damage occurs to the wall during this operation.

2.12.5 Waterproof Structure

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the waterproofing treatment of the retaining wall and he shall be
wholly responsible for providing physical protection to this waterproofing, (such as flat sheeting) to
ensure no damage is inflicted on the waterproofing. The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for
providing a waterproof structure. Refer Tanking section.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the drainage provisions behind the wall, as shown in the Drawings
viz: field tile or equivalent drain (connected to the storm water drainage system) and, for 300 mm back
from the rear face of the wall, free-draining fill material. Refer Civil specifications.

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3. Piling
3.1 Bored Piling for Retention System

3.1.1 General
Piling works shall be executed in accordance with the Issued for Construction drawings, this Specification
and relevant standards listed in Section 1.

In the event that the provisions of other standards cause ambiguity or conflict with the requirements of
this Specification, the latter shall take precedence unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall engage a suitably qualified engineer to determine the allowable vibration limits for
the works and propose a suitable vibration monitoring plan with the stipulated vibration limits stated. The
vibration limits and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of any piling works.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer for approval at least two weeks prior to
commencement of piling works. The information required and the format of records shall be in a standard
template prepared by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. It shall include, but not limited to, the
following: length of temporary casing, details of the constituent materials of any drilling fluid used for
stabilization, the method of inspection, details of the concrete design mix, concreting method, the
minimum time between the completion of one pile and the commencement of the next, and the pattern of
construction.

The Contractor shall submit a pile installation plan to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of pile working. The proposed sequence and timing of pile installation shall be such that
the installation works shall not cause any damage to adjacent piles. Piling works shall not commence
until approval of the Engineer has been obtained.

Unless otherwise described in this section, reinforcement and concrete for piling work shall comply with
the requirements of Concreting Work and Reinforcement Steel Bars in this Specification.

3.1.2 Piling installation

a. Setting Out
The Contractor shall employ an approved Licensed Surveyor who will set up the positions of the piles as
shown in the Issued for Construction drawings. The Contractor will be responsible for the accuracy of
location and positioning of each pile.

The Contractor shall preserve the pegs set out by the Surveyor. Should any peg be displaced or lost it
must be replaced by a Licensed Surveyor to the approval of the Engineer. Upon completion of all piling
works, the Contractor shall produce as-built drawings showing the positions of all piles as installed. The
positions of piles shall be verified by a Licensed Surveyor.

b. Tolerances
1. Position
The pile heads shall be positioned as shown on the Issued for Construction drawings within a maximum
deviation of 75mm in either direction from its design position.

2. Verticality
For bored cast-in-situ piles, the maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical at any
level is 1(H) in 150 (V). The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of Engineer the pile
verticality is within the allowable tolerance.

3. Correction
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Should piles be installed outside these tolerances affecting the design, the Contractor shall propose and
carry out immediate remedy measure to the approval of the Engineer.

c. Drilling Fluid
Where drilling fluid is required to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the proposed drilling fluid mix must
be included in the method statement and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Unless specified otherwise by the manufacturer, bentonite slurry properties shall comply with follows:

1. The density measured using a mud balance shall be about 1.12 g/ml.
2. The Marsh viscosity (946ml) tested in accordance with ASTM D6910 shall be 40±10 seconds.
3. pH value measured using a pH meter shall be between 8 to 11 inclusive.
4. The sand content tested in accordance with ASTM D4381 shall be less than 5%.
5. Fluid loss tested in accordance with ASTM D5891 shall be less than 18 ml/30 mins.
Properties of drilling fluid other than bentonite shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The frequency of testing and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Piling
Contractor and submitted to the Engineer together with the pile installation plan for approval. As a
minimum, the drilling fluid shall be tested for:

1. Fresh drilling fluid;


2. Drilling fluid taken from the bottom of bore hole before concreting;
3. Circulated drilling fluid after desanding; and
4. Drilling fluid left in the bore holes for more than 12 hours.
The circulated drilling fluid may be reused provided the tested properties fall within the range as specified
above.

d. Boring and Excavation


The piling rig must be capable of installing piles to the depth as shown on the Issued for Construction
drawings with provision for contingencies.

The side of all boreholes shall be kept intact and no loose material shall be permitted to fall into the
bottom of the boreholes.

The borehole shall be filled with drilling fluid to an adequate level to sufficiently stabilize the borehole
when drilling fluid is used during drilling. If drilling fluid alone is not sufficient to prevent the ground water
from intrusion or the borehole side walls from collapse, temporary casings of appropriate size and length
shall be used in conjunction with the drilling fluid to support the side of the borehole

Where temporary casings are employed to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the bottom of casing
shall be kept a minimum of one meter or more below the unstable strata to prevent the inflow of soil and
the formation of cavities in the surrounding ground.

Temporary casings shall be thin-walled mild steel cylindrical casing, spirally welded or other similar
construction. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand without damage or
distortion all handling, construction and ground stresses to which they will be subjected, including
preventing concrete from within the pile from displacing soft soil or soil squeezing in and displacing fresh
concrete. The casings shall have an internal diameter not less than the specified pile diameter. They
shall be free of significant distortion, of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length and free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles. The
joints of casings shall be reasonably watertight.

If temporary casings are damaged during installation in a manner which prevents the proper formation of
the pile, such casings shall be withdrawn from the bore before concrete is placed, repaired if necessary
or other action taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

The pile toe shall be founded at the levels shown on the Issued for Construction drawings.

e. Spillage and Disposal

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All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of drilling fluid on the site in areas outside the
immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded drilling fluid shall be removed from the site without delay. In
disposal of unwanted drilling fluid, the Contractor shall comply with government regulations and shall
propose a proper disposal method to be approved by the Engineer.

f. Cleaning Out
Upon completion of boring, the bottom of the bored hole shall be cleaned of all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil and sediment soil to expose a firm base of undisturbed material using a suitable and
effective method to be approved by the Engineer.

All boreholes shall be protected from the possibility of any surface water entering the hole from time to
time and until the hole is completed and ready to be concreted.

g. Inspection of bored holes


Where practicable, all boreholes shall be inspected for their full length before concreting. Inspection shall
be carried out from the ground level by the Engineer prior to concrete being placed in the borehole. For
such inspection to be carried out safely, the Contractor shall provide all facilities and assistance to enable
the inspection to be done.

The base of the boring shall be inspected by approved method to ensure that all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil is removed and that the sides of the boring will remain stable during the subsequent
concreting operations. The verticality and position of the boring shall be checked to ensure that they
meet the specified tolerances.

h. Placement of Reinforcement
Reinforcement cages shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that they remain at correct level during the lifting
and placing of the concrete and the extraction of temporary lining tubes.

Reinforcement shall be maintained in its correct position during concreting of the pile.

Concrete spacers shall be provided at every three meter intervals. Details by which the Contractor plans
to ensure the correct cover to and position of the reinforcement shall be approved by the Engineer.

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 meters in length shall be in one
continuous length unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a method statement on the manner by which he intends to lower
reinforcement cages into pile shafts. Where tack welding is carried out on pile reinforcement for the
purpose of hoisting, such welding shall be located only within the top 100mm of each reinforcement
cage.

Reinforcement shall be free from rust and mud and not be placed until inspected and accepted. If required by
the Engineer, reinforcement cages shall be flushed with fresh water to remove accumulated salts or other
deposits immediately prior to lowering into the pile shaft.

i. Concreting in bored holes


Before placing concrete, agreed measures shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that there is no
accumulation of contaminated drilling fluid, silt or other deleterious material at the base of the bore.
Contaminated drilling fluid could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe and affecting the
performance of the pile.

Concrete to be placed under drilling fluid shall be placed using a tremie concrete pipe in accordance with
relevant design standards listed in Section 1.

Concrete placement shall be halted should a delay or breakdown occur during the concreting operation
which in the opinion of the Engineer, could cause a cold joint, entrapment of latency in the tremie
concrete, or otherwise lead to defective concrete. Before the remainder of the pile shaft can be
concreted, the pile shall be dewatered and the top surface of the tremie concrete cut back to sound
concrete and cleaned of all laitance and weak concrete. The remainder of the pile shall either be cast by

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tremie or in the dry, as directed by the Engineer. If this remedial work cannot be carried out due to
construction difficulty, the Contractor will need to construct a replacement pile.

The concrete for each pile shall be from the same source. The Contractor is to ensure that the supply
from whatever source (whether site-mixed or ready-mixed) is of sufficient quantity so that concrete for
each pile shall be placed without such interruption.

The actual volume of concrete used for each pile must be measured and compared with the calculated
volume required. If the difference between these two volumes indicates a possible necking, the
Contractor shall propose and carry out appropriate tests and measures to the approval of the Engineer to
ensure the adequacy of the pile.

Any consequences causing the pile to be rejected by the Engineer due to supply of concrete shall be at
the Contractor's own risk.

The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic
concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed. The method of placing shall be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and the placement of
concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in the pile shaft. No spoil, liquid or other deleterious matter shall
be allowed to contaminate the concrete.

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within remains sufficiently workable to ensure
that the concrete is not lifted and that the resultant pile is continuous and of full section. Temporary
casings shall be extracted not more than two hours after concreting has completed.

When casings are withdrawn as concreting proceeds, a sufficient head of concrete shall be maintained to
prevent the entry of ground water which may cause reduction of cross-section of the pile. No concrete
shall be placed after the bottom of the casings has been lifted above the top of the concrete. Concrete
shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained.

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where the withdrawal of casing could result in excess
heads of water or drilling fluid. Excess pressure heads are caused by the displacement of water or fluid
by concrete as the concrete flows into its final position against the wall of the shaft. Precautions such as
the use of two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) shall be deemed an acceptable
method of construction in this case.

The top of the pile shall be brought above the required cut-off level by an amount sufficient to ensure a
sound concrete at cut-off level and the surplus removed to ensure satisfactory bonding of the pile head to
the capping beam.

j. Sequence of Installation
The Contractor shall undertake piling works in accordance with the approved piling installation plan. Any
pile to be installed near to a recently installed pile shall be at least 3 times pile diameter away from the
recently installed pile. The commencement of installation of such nearby piles shall not be less than 24
hours after the completion of concreting of the recently installed pile.

The Engineer reserves the right to order changes to the approved sequence of piling if, based on work
completed, he considers it necessary to do so. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra
payment for additional plant movements, etc. resulting from such an order.

k. Rejected Piles
Any piling work rejected by the Engineer not truly constructed and installed in accordance with this
Specification shall be replaced or rectified by the Contractor with his own cost to the approval of the
Engineer and this includes reinstallation of piles, and the design and construction of a modified
foundation and also constructing of additional compensation piles.

l. Piling Records
The Contractor shall keep a record of each pile installed and shall furnish signed copies to the Engineer
daily. The information required and the format of records shall be in standard formats as approved by the
Engineer. As and when required the Engineer may ask for additional information or modify the standard
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formats. Such forms shall be provided by the Contractor before the commencement of piling work at his
expense.

Details of soil strata drilled and ground water level, if encountered during drilling, shall be recorded and
submitted. Levels of all strata changes shall be clearly recorded.

3.1.3 Piling tests


The Contractor shall allow carrying out integrity tests on 20% of piles, as nominated on the drawings or
by the Engineer for testing and detection of major faults, necking, discontinuities, and cross sectional
areas of the piles. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a testing program for approval at least two
weeks prior to the commencement of testing.

Integrity testing and reporting shall be carried out in accordance with requirements in DPWH Volume IIby
an independent testing organization approved by the Engineer.

If the results of the tests show that the pile or piles are defective, the pile or piles shall be treated as
faulty and shall be rejected unless the Contractor can demonstrate to the approval of the Engineer
effective remedial measures that will be carried out.

The results of tests shall be printed out immediately during tests with printer facility at site and submit to
the Engineer at site. The Engineer's interpretations and conclusions arrived at on the test results shall be
final.

3.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring

3.2.1 General
The Contractor shall engage specialist sub-contractors approved by the Engineer to install and monitor
instrumentation prior to the commencement of excavation and construction and throughout the Contract.
The instrumentation shall comprise ground surface and building settlement markers, and inclinometers.

The Contractor shall ensure that the drill hole locations for the instrumentation are clear of existing
underground services prior to commencement of drilling. In order to avoid any utilities and services the
required drill hole positions may be adjusted on Site to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any damage and any claims arising from such damage and shall make every
effort to make good the damage or have the damage made good as quickly as possible.

The Contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and permissions required from the local Authorities in
connection with the drilling and other instrumentation works prior to commencing the work. The
contractor shall bear the costs of all fees, charges, levies etc., which are payable to the Authorities in the
course of executing the Works.

3.2.2 Ground surface and building settlement markers


The Contractor shall engage a registered land surveyor approved by the Engineer to monitor the
settlement of the ground surface, buildings and other structures as indicated on the construction
drawings.

Details of typical acceptable installations for ground and building settlement points are shown on the
construction drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of any alternative
installations. The Contractor shall install survey nails of approved design as and when instructed by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall install the ground and building settlement markers prior to and during the excavation
and construction works, at locations agreed with the Engineer. The registered surveyor shall establish
the initial (datum) level of each survey point and submit records to the Engineer. The datum readings
shall be submitted prior to any excavation and construction works, unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer.

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The registered surveyor shall monitor and record the levels of the survey points throughout the duration
of the works, using a precise level and staff accurate to 0.5mm or better.

The frequency of survey readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be determined by
the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit the level readings on the survey points to the Engineer, both in approved
tabular and graphical formats, not later than 24 hours from the time of reading. The submission shall be
accompanied by scaled layout plans showing the locations of the ground and building settlement points
and survey nails which are surveyed.

3.2.3 Inclinometers
The Contractor shall engage an approved specialist sub-contractor to install inclinometer tubes in drill
holes sunk for this purpose and to monitor the inclinometers throughout the excavation and construction
works. Provisional inclinometer locations are shown on the instrumentation drawings. The depths of the
inclinometers will be determined by the Engineer.

Details of a typical inclinometer installation (in a drillhole) are shown on Drawing XXX. The Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of the installation including surface protection that he
proposes to adopt.

The material and method of installation of the inclinometer tubing shall be in accordance with the written
instructions of the manufacturer of the equipment. These instructions shall be submitted to the Engineer
for approval prior to the commencement of installation.

The backfilling grout shall be a bentonite cement mix with strength comparable to that of the surrounding
soil. The specialist sub-contractor shall submit full details of the proposed grout mix for the approval of
the Engineer. When required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall perform trial mixes and tests such
as laboratory unconfined tri-axial compression tests or vane shear tests to ensure the suitability of the
proposed grout mix.

Prior to installation, the end edges and the keyways of the inclinometer tubing’s shall be examined and
the sub-contractor shall remove any damaged tubing’s and provide replacements when required to do so
by the Engineer. The inclinometer tubing shall be inserted into the drill hole inside the temporary casing.
The top and bottom of the inclinometer tubing shall be fitted with an end cap and all tubing couplings
shall be riveted connections. While connecting the tubing’s, the inserted section shall be securely
clamped at ground level and the next section connected to it. All completed connections shall be
sufficiently wrapped with sealing tape to prevent ingress of grout. The tubes shall be filled with water to
overcome buoyancy.

After insertion of the inclinometer tubing, the hole shall be backfilled by pumping grout through a tremie
pipe. All grout mix quantities shall be monitored and recorded and submitted to the Engineer with full
details of the installation. Where required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall take samples of the
grout being used, for curing and subsequent strength testing. The grout shall be pumped initially to fill
the hole to the top of the temporary casing. The casing shall then be extracted in such a manner that the
level of the grout inside the hole shall be at all times higher than the bottom of the casing.

The sub-contractor shall flush the tubing’s after installation to remove all solids and flush again after two
days. The Contractor's registered surveyor shall determine the level of the top of the inclinometer tubing
after final trimming and the level shall be recorded on the installation record.

The sub-contractor shall keep full details of the drilling and installation and submit a complete record to
the Engineer within two working days after installation. The format of the record sheet shall be approved
by the Engineer prior to commencement of work.

The frequency of inclinometer readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be
determined by the Engineer.

The inclinometer readings shall be presented in both tabular and graphical formats which are to be
approved by the Engineer. Readings together with scaled layout plans showing the locations of the
inclinometers are to be submitted to the Engineer not later than 24 hours after they are taken.
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Concreting.
After the concrete has been placed and vibrated adjacent to the joints as required in Item6.1,

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Building Excavation and Filing

3.3 Excavation for Building Works


3.3.1 Extent

Locate underground services before any work is started. Check with Territorial Authorities and services
providers for details and locations of services within and adjacent to the area of the works. Any
information provided by the Principal will be from available drawn records but with no guarantees as to
location, depth, alignment, or if everything present has actually been shown.
In sealed areas, saw cut the edges of the excavation in straight lines, to ensure a neat finish can be
achieved at restitution.

Remove all topsoil, rubbish, vegetation, and loose material. Excavate to the depths shown in the
Drawings. Allow clearance for formwork and working space as necessary. Do not remove topsoil or
excavate within the drip line of retained trees etc. unless directed, and then only by hand methods to
avoid damage to roots etc.

The Engineer shall approve all excavations before any following works begin, and the Engineer may
order the Contractor to vary the depths and/or widths as work proceeds.

The word "approve" and its derivatives when used in relation to ground prepared for the execution of the
Contract Works shall mean acceptance by the Engineer that the ground as prepared meets the
requirements of the design for the construction which is to be placed on that ground, which approval shall
be automatically cancelled if any change whatsoever arising from any cause whatsoever occurs to that
ground before it is protected by the construction in question, thus necessitating an up-to-date approval by
the Engineer before construction may proceed.

Protect survey pegs and bench marks, and any other features marked to be retained.

3.3.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations

Secure and maintain all excavations and keep them clear of water and fallen materials. Provide and
maintain shoring, planking strutting, pumping, baling, as required and for safety.

The Contractor shall plan and execute his work so that, as soon as he has reached a level at which the
excavation is approved by the Engineer, he shall be able to protect such excavated surface effectively
against damage. Should the Contractor fail to provide adequate protection (resulting in the Engineer's
approval being withdrawn), he shall excavate over the area in question to a further level approved by the
Engineer, such additional excavation and the consequential additional backfilling being at no extra cost to
the Principal.

Form sumps outside the foundation lines and pump from those. Undertake silt control measures if
discharging to the storm water drainage system.

3.3.3 Contractor’s Risk

The following are contractual risks that the Contractor is required to allow for in his price and rates:
c. No extension of time shall be granted in respect of Variations to the amounts of excavations and
consequential following work ordered by the Engineer as 3.1.1 EXTENT above.
d. Variations in its nature from part to part of the Site which the Engineer, in his absolute discretion,
considers to be of a minor nature only, shall not entitle the Contractor to alter his quoted rates.

3.3.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials

Turf and topsoil shall be stockpiled on Site where directed by the Engineer. All other excavated materials
shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

All excavated material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the
Site.

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Approved excavated hard filling shall be re-used. Any contaminated hard fill and all other excavated
material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

3.4 Filling for Building Work


3.4.1 Extent

The whole of the space between the approved excavated surface and the underside of the concrete
construction of the structure shall be filled as under. The minimum depth of compacted hard filling shall
be 150 mm.

3.4.2 Materials

e. The top 150 mm of all fill beneath the structure shall consist of 50 mm all-in clean graded hard fill for
which the Los Angeles abrasion loss shall not exceed 40% and the Plasticity Index shall not exceed
8.
f. Below that level, clean hard fill as above but containing no pieces larger than 150 mm may be used.
g. All trenches under the 2GL Glucose Extension shall be backfilled with hard fill as above.
h. The Engineer will require approving hard fill material before it is placed.

3.4.3 Construction

Where ground is to be filled, hard fill shall be used, compacted in layers not exceeding 200 mm (loose)
thickness by at least 12 passes of an 8 tonne roller. The standard of compaction achieved shall be such
that a slow pass of the roller (or if in the opinion of the Engineer the use of such a roller would be
impracticable, an equivalent pass) discloses no perceptible vertical movement of the hard fill.

Should any hard fill become contaminated or should any placed filling be disturbed by any cause
whatsoever, such hard fill shall be dug out, replaced and re-compacted to the Engineer's directive at no
cost to the Principal.

3.4.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to be stable
under the full load until such time as the wall concrete and the slab on top of the wall have reached the
designed strength. Therefore, in order to be able to safely backfill and compact behind the wall, the
Contractor shall take whatever steps may be necessary in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent
any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to withstand
the action of compacting machinery behind and above it until such time as the wall concrete has reached
its designed strength. Should the Contractor wish to backfill and compact before this concrete has
reached its designed strength he shall be wholly responsible for taking whatever steps may be necessary
in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has been designed solely to retain
the material behind it and not at any time to withstand the weight and effect of compacting machinery
behind it. The Contractor is therefore wholly responsible for taking all measures necessary in the way of
shoring, strutting etc., to ensure that no damage occurs to the wall during this operation.

3.4.5 Waterproof Structure

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the waterproofing treatment of the retaining wall and he shall be
wholly responsible for providing physical protection to this waterproofing, (such as flat sheeting) to
ensure no damage is inflicted on the waterproofing. The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for
providing a waterproof structure. Refer Tanking section.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the drainage provisions behind the wall, as shown in the Drawings
viz: field tile or equivalent drain (connected to the storm water drainage system) and, for 300 mm back
from the rear face of the wall, free-draining fill material. Refer Civil specifications.

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4. Piling
4.1 Bored Piling for Retention System

4.1.1 General
Piling works shall be executed in accordance with the Issued for Construction drawings, this Specification
and relevant standards listed in Section 1.

In the event that the provisions of other standards cause ambiguity or conflict with the requirements of
this Specification, the latter shall take precedence unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall engage a suitably qualified engineer to determine the allowable vibration limits for
the works and propose a suitable vibration monitoring plan with the stipulated vibration limits stated. The
vibration limits and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of any piling works.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer for approval at least two weeks prior to
commencement of piling works. The information required and the format of records shall be in a standard
template prepared by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. It shall include, but not limited to, the
following: length of temporary casing, details of the constituent materials of any drilling fluid used for
stabilization, the method of inspection, details of the concrete design mix, concreting method, the
minimum time between the completion of one pile and the commencement of the next, and the pattern of
construction.

The Contractor shall submit a pile installation plan to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of pile working. The proposed sequence and timing of pile installation shall be such that
the installation works shall not cause any damage to adjacent piles. Piling works shall not commence
until approval of the Engineer has been obtained.

Unless otherwise described in this section, reinforcement and concrete for piling work shall comply with
the requirements of Concreting Work and Reinforcement Steel Bars in this Specification.

4.1.2 Piling installation

m. Setting Out
The Contractor shall employ an approved Licensed Surveyor who will set up the positions of the piles as
shown in the Issued for Construction drawings. The Contractor will be responsible for the accuracy of
location and positioning of each pile.

The Contractor shall preserve the pegs set out by the Surveyor. Should any peg be displaced or lost it
must be replaced by a Licensed Surveyor to the approval of the Engineer. Upon completion of all piling
works, the Contractor shall produce as-built drawings showing the positions of all piles as installed. The
positions of piles shall be verified by a Licensed Surveyor.

n. Tolerances
4. Position
The pile heads shall be positioned as shown on the Issued for Construction drawings within a maximum
deviation of 75mm in either direction from its design position.

5. Verticality
For bored cast-in-situ piles, the maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical at any
level is 1(H) in 150 (V). The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of Engineer the pile
verticality is within the allowable tolerance.

6. Correction
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Should piles be installed outside these tolerances affecting the design, the Contractor shall propose and
carry out immediate remedy measure to the approval of the Engineer.

o. Drilling Fluid
Where drilling fluid is required to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the proposed drilling fluid mix must
be included in the method statement and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Unless specified otherwise by the manufacturer, bentonite slurry properties shall comply with follows:

6. The density measured using a mud balance shall be about 1.12 g/ml.
7. The Marsh viscosity (946ml) tested in accordance with ASTM D6910 shall be 40±10 seconds.
8. pH value measured using a pH meter shall be between 8 to 11 inclusive.
9. The sand content tested in accordance with ASTM D4381 shall be less than 5%.
10. Fluid loss tested in accordance with ASTM D5891 shall be less than 18 ml/30 mins.
Properties of drilling fluid other than bentonite shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The frequency of testing and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Piling
Contractor and submitted to the Engineer together with the pile installation plan for approval. As a
minimum, the drilling fluid shall be tested for:

5. Fresh drilling fluid;


6. Drilling fluid taken from the bottom of bore hole before concreting;
7. Circulated drilling fluid after desanding; and
8. Drilling fluid left in the bore holes for more than 12 hours.
The circulated drilling fluid may be reused provided the tested properties fall within the range as specified
above.

p. Boring and Excavation


The piling rig must be capable of installing piles to the depth as shown on the Issued for Construction
drawings with provision for contingencies.

The side of all boreholes shall be kept intact and no loose material shall be permitted to fall into the
bottom of the boreholes.

The borehole shall be filled with drilling fluid to an adequate level to sufficiently stabilize the borehole
when drilling fluid is used during drilling. If drilling fluid alone is not sufficient to prevent the ground water
from intrusion or the borehole side walls from collapse, temporary casings of appropriate size and length
shall be used in conjunction with the drilling fluid to support the side of the borehole

Where temporary casings are employed to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the bottom of casing
shall be kept a minimum of one meter or more below the unstable strata to prevent the inflow of soil and
the formation of cavities in the surrounding ground.

Temporary casings shall be thin-walled mild steel cylindrical casing, spirally welded or other similar
construction. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand without damage or
distortion all handling, construction and ground stresses to which they will be subjected, including
preventing concrete from within the pile from displacing soft soil or soil squeezing in and displacing fresh
concrete. The casings shall have an internal diameter not less than the specified pile diameter. They
shall be free of significant distortion, of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length and free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles. The
joints of casings shall be reasonably watertight.

If temporary casings are damaged during installation in a manner which prevents the proper formation of
the pile, such casings shall be withdrawn from the bore before concrete is placed, repaired if necessary
or other action taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

The pile toe shall be founded at the levels shown on the Issued for Construction drawings.

q. Spillage and Disposal

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All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of drilling fluid on the site in areas outside the
immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded drilling fluid shall be removed from the site without delay. In
disposal of unwanted drilling fluid, the Contractor shall comply with government regulations and shall
propose a proper disposal method to be approved by the Engineer.

r. Cleaning Out
Upon completion of boring, the bottom of the bored hole shall be cleaned of all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil and sediment soil to expose a firm base of undisturbed material using a suitable and
effective method to be approved by the Engineer.

All boreholes shall be protected from the possibility of any surface water entering the hole from time to
time and until the hole is completed and ready to be concreted.

s. Inspection of bored holes


Where practicable, all boreholes shall be inspected for their full length before concreting. Inspection shall
be carried out from the ground level by the Engineer prior to concrete being placed in the borehole. For
such inspection to be carried out safely, the Contractor shall provide all facilities and assistance to enable
the inspection to be done.

The base of the boring shall be inspected by approved method to ensure that all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil is removed and that the sides of the boring will remain stable during the subsequent
concreting operations. The verticality and position of the boring shall be checked to ensure that they
meet the specified tolerances.

t. Placement of Reinforcement
Reinforcement cages shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that they remain at correct level during the lifting
and placing of the concrete and the extraction of temporary lining tubes.

Reinforcement shall be maintained in its correct position during concreting of the pile.

Concrete spacers shall be provided at every three meter intervals. Details by which the Contractor plans
to ensure the correct cover to and position of the reinforcement shall be approved by the Engineer.

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 meters in length shall be in one
continuous length unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a method statement on the manner by which he intends to lower
reinforcement cages into pile shafts. Where tack welding is carried out on pile reinforcement for the
purpose of hoisting, such welding shall be located only within the top 100mm of each reinforcement
cage.

Reinforcement shall be free from rust and mud and not be placed until inspected and accepted. If required by
the Engineer, reinforcement cages shall be flushed with fresh water to remove accumulated salts or other
deposits immediately prior to lowering into the pile shaft.

u. Concreting in bored holes


Before placing concrete, agreed measures shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that there is no
accumulation of contaminated drilling fluid, silt or other deleterious material at the base of the bore.
Contaminated drilling fluid could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe and affecting the
performance of the pile.

Concrete to be placed under drilling fluid shall be placed using a tremie concrete pipe in accordance with
relevant design standards listed in Section 1.

Concrete placement shall be halted should a delay or breakdown occur during the concreting operation
which in the opinion of the Engineer, could cause a cold joint, entrapment of latency in the tremie
concrete, or otherwise lead to defective concrete. Before the remainder of the pile shaft can be
concreted, the pile shall be dewatered and the top surface of the tremie concrete cut back to sound
concrete and cleaned of all laitance and weak concrete. The remainder of the pile shall either be cast by

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tremie or in the dry, as directed by the Engineer. If this remedial work cannot be carried out due to
construction difficulty, the Contractor will need to construct a replacement pile.

The concrete for each pile shall be from the same source. The Contractor is to ensure that the supply
from whatever source (whether site-mixed or ready-mixed) is of sufficient quantity so that concrete for
each pile shall be placed without such interruption.

The actual volume of concrete used for each pile must be measured and compared with the calculated
volume required. If the difference between these two volumes indicates a possible necking, the
Contractor shall propose and carry out appropriate tests and measures to the approval of the Engineer to
ensure the adequacy of the pile.

Any consequences causing the pile to be rejected by the Engineer due to supply of concrete shall be at
the Contractor's own risk.

The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic
concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed. The method of placing shall be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and the placement of
concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in the pile shaft. No spoil, liquid or other deleterious matter shall
be allowed to contaminate the concrete.

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within remains sufficiently workable to ensure
that the concrete is not lifted and that the resultant pile is continuous and of full section. Temporary
casings shall be extracted not more than two hours after concreting has completed.

When casings are withdrawn as concreting proceeds, a sufficient head of concrete shall be maintained to
prevent the entry of ground water which may cause reduction of cross-section of the pile. No concrete
shall be placed after the bottom of the casings has been lifted above the top of the concrete. Concrete
shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained.

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where the withdrawal of casing could result in excess
heads of water or drilling fluid. Excess pressure heads are caused by the displacement of water or fluid
by concrete as the concrete flows into its final position against the wall of the shaft. Precautions such as
the use of two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) shall be deemed an acceptable
method of construction in this case.

The top of the pile shall be brought above the required cut-off level by an amount sufficient to ensure a
sound concrete at cut-off level and the surplus removed to ensure satisfactory bonding of the pile head to
the capping beam.

v. Sequence of Installation
The Contractor shall undertake piling works in accordance with the approved piling installation plan. Any
pile to be installed near to a recently installed pile shall be at least 3 times pile diameter away from the
recently installed pile. The commencement of installation of such nearby piles shall not be less than 24
hours after the completion of concreting of the recently installed pile.

The Engineer reserves the right to order changes to the approved sequence of piling if, based on work
completed, he considers it necessary to do so. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra
payment for additional plant movements, etc. resulting from such an order.

w. Rejected Piles
Any piling work rejected by the Engineer not truly constructed and installed in accordance with this
Specification shall be replaced or rectified by the Contractor with his own cost to the approval of the
Engineer and this includes reinstallation of piles, and the design and construction of a modified
foundation and also constructing of additional compensation piles.

x. Piling Records
The Contractor shall keep a record of each pile installed and shall furnish signed copies to the Engineer
daily. The information required and the format of records shall be in standard formats as approved by the
Engineer. As and when required the Engineer may ask for additional information or modify the standard
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formats. Such forms shall be provided by the Contractor before the commencement of piling work at his
expense.

Details of soil strata drilled and ground water level, if encountered during drilling, shall be recorded and
submitted. Levels of all strata changes shall be clearly recorded.

4.1.3 Piling tests


The Contractor shall allow carrying out integrity tests on 20% of piles, as nominated on the drawings or
by the Engineer for testing and detection of major faults, necking, discontinuities, and cross sectional
areas of the piles. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a testing program for approval at least two
weeks prior to the commencement of testing.

Integrity testing and reporting shall be carried out in accordance with requirements in DPWH Volume IIby
an independent testing organization approved by the Engineer.

If the results of the tests show that the pile or piles are defective, the pile or piles shall be treated as
faulty and shall be rejected unless the Contractor can demonstrate to the approval of the Engineer
effective remedial measures that will be carried out.

The results of tests shall be printed out immediately during tests with printer facility at site and submit to
the Engineer at site. The Engineer's interpretations and conclusions arrived at on the test results shall be
final.

4.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring

4.2.1 General
The Contractor shall engage specialist sub-contractors approved by the Engineer to install and monitor
instrumentation prior to the commencement of excavation and construction and throughout the Contract.
The instrumentation shall comprise ground surface and building settlement markers, and inclinometers.

The Contractor shall ensure that the drill hole locations for the instrumentation are clear of existing
underground services prior to commencement of drilling. In order to avoid any utilities and services the
required drill hole positions may be adjusted on Site to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any damage and any claims arising from such damage and shall make every
effort to make good the damage or have the damage made good as quickly as possible.

The Contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and permissions required from the local Authorities in
connection with the drilling and other instrumentation works prior to commencing the work. The
contractor shall bear the costs of all fees, charges, levies etc., which are payable to the Authorities in the
course of executing the Works.

4.2.2 Ground surface and building settlement markers


The Contractor shall engage a registered land surveyor approved by the Engineer to monitor the
settlement of the ground surface, buildings and other structures as indicated on the construction
drawings.

Details of typical acceptable installations for ground and building settlement points are shown on the
construction drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of any alternative
installations. The Contractor shall install survey nails of approved design as and when instructed by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall install the ground and building settlement markers prior to and during the excavation
and construction works, at locations agreed with the Engineer. The registered surveyor shall establish
the initial (datum) level of each survey point and submit records to the Engineer. The datum readings
shall be submitted prior to any excavation and construction works, unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer.

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The registered surveyor shall monitor and record the levels of the survey points throughout the duration
of the works, using a precise level and staff accurate to 0.5mm or better.

The frequency of survey readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be determined by
the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit the level readings on the survey points to the Engineer, both in approved
tabular and graphical formats, not later than 24 hours from the time of reading. The submission shall be
accompanied by scaled layout plans showing the locations of the ground and building settlement points
and survey nails which are surveyed.

4.2.3 Inclinometers
The Contractor shall engage an approved specialist sub-contractor to install inclinometer tubes in drill
holes sunk for this purpose and to monitor the inclinometers throughout the excavation and construction
works. Provisional inclinometer locations are shown on the instrumentation drawings. The depths of the
inclinometers will be determined by the Engineer.

Details of a typical inclinometer installation (in a drillhole) are shown on Drawing XXX. The Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of the installation including surface protection that he
proposes to adopt.

The material and method of installation of the inclinometer tubing shall be in accordance with the written
instructions of the manufacturer of the equipment. These instructions shall be submitted to the Engineer
for approval prior to the commencement of installation.

The backfilling grout shall be a bentonite cement mix with strength comparable to that of the surrounding
soil. The specialist sub-contractor shall submit full details of the proposed grout mix for the approval of
the Engineer. When required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall perform trial mixes and tests such
as laboratory unconfined tri-axial compression tests or vane shear tests to ensure the suitability of the
proposed grout mix.

Prior to installation, the end edges and the keyways of the inclinometer tubing’s shall be examined and
the sub-contractor shall remove any damaged tubing’s and provide replacements when required to do so
by the Engineer. The inclinometer tubing shall be inserted into the drill hole inside the temporary casing.
The top and bottom of the inclinometer tubing shall be fitted with an end cap and all tubing couplings
shall be riveted connections. While connecting the tubing’s, the inserted section shall be securely
clamped at ground level and the next section connected to it. All completed connections shall be
sufficiently wrapped with sealing tape to prevent ingress of grout. The tubes shall be filled with water to
overcome buoyancy.

After insertion of the inclinometer tubing, the hole shall be backfilled by pumping grout through a tremie
pipe. All grout mix quantities shall be monitored and recorded and submitted to the Engineer with full
details of the installation. Where required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall take samples of the
grout being used, for curing and subsequent strength testing. The grout shall be pumped initially to fill
the hole to the top of the temporary casing. The casing shall then be extracted in such a manner that the
level of the grout inside the hole shall be at all times higher than the bottom of the casing.

The sub-contractor shall flush the tubing’s after installation to remove all solids and flush again after two
days. The Contractor's registered surveyor shall determine the level of the top of the inclinometer tubing
after final trimming and the level shall be recorded on the installation record.

The sub-contractor shall keep full details of the drilling and installation and submit a complete record to
the Engineer within two working days after installation. The format of the record sheet shall be approved
by the Engineer prior to commencement of work.

The frequency of inclinometer readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be
determined by the Engineer.

The inclinometer readings shall be presented in both tabular and graphical formats which are to be
approved by the Engineer. Readings together with scaled layout plans showing the locations of the
inclinometers are to be submitted to the Engineer not later than 24 hours after they are taken.
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Concreting the finishing machine shall be brought forward, operating in a manner to avoid
damage or misalignment of joints. If uninterrupted operation of the finishing machine, to over and beyond
the joints causes segregation of concrete, damage to, or misalignment of the joints, the finishing machine
shall be stopped when the front screed is approximately 20 cm (8 inches) from the joint. Segregated
concrete shall be removed from in front of and off the joint. The front screed shall be lifted and set directly
on top of the joint and the forward motion of the finishing machine resumed. When the second screed is
close enough to permit the excess mortar in front of it to flow over the joint, it shall be lifted and carried
over the joint. Thereafter, the finishing machine may be run over the joint without lifting the screeds,
provided there is no segregated concrete immediately between the joint and the screed or on top of the
joint.

3. Machine Finishing

 Non-vibratory Method. The concrete shall be distributed or spread as soon as placed. As soon as the
concrete has been placed, it shall be struck off and screeded by an approved finishing machine. The
machine shall go over each area of pavement as many times and at such intervals as necessary to
give the proper compaction and leave a surface of uniform texture. Excessive operation over a given
area shall be avoided. The tops of the forms shall be kept clean by an effective device attached to
the machine and the travel of the machine on the forms shall be maintained true without wobbling or
other variation tending to affect the precision finish.During the first pass of the finishing machine, a
uniform ridge of concrete shall be maintained ahead of the front screed in its entire length.

 Vibratory Method. When vibration is specified, vibrators for full width vibration of concrete paving
slabs shall meet the requirements in Subsection 2.10.3.b. If uniform and satisfactory density of the
concrete is not obtained by the vibratory method at joints, along forms, at structures, and throughout
the pavement, the Contractor will be required to furnish equipment and method which will produce
pavement conforming to the Specifications. All provisions in item (a) above not in conflict with the
provisions for the vibratory method shall govern.

4. Hand Finishing

Hand finishing methods may only be used under the following conditions:

 In the event of breakdown of the mechanical equipment, hand methods may be used to finish the
concrete already deposited on the grade.

 In narrow widths or areas of irregular dimensions where operations of the mechanical equipment is
impractical, hand methods may be used.

Concrete, as soon as placed, shall be struck off and screeded. An approved portable screed shall be
used. A second screed shall be provided for striking off the bottom layer of concrete if reinforcement is
used.

The screed for the surface shall be at least 60 cm (2 feet) longer than the maximum width of the slab to
be struck off. It shall be of approved design, sufficiently rigid to retain its shape, and constructed either of
metal or other suitable material shod with metal.

Consolidation shall be attained by the use of suitable vibrator or other approved equipment.

In operation, the screed shall be moved forward on the forms with a combined longitudinal and
transverse shearing motion, moving always in the direction in which the work is progressing and so
manipulated that neither end is raised from the side forms during the striking off process. If necessary,
this shall be repeated until the surface is of uniform texture, true to grade and cross-section, and free
from porous areas.

5. Floating

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After the concrete has been struck off and consolidated, it shall be further smoothed, trued, and
consolidated by means of a longitudinal float, either by hand or mechanical method.

 Hand Method. The hand-operated longitudinal float shall be not less than 365 cm (12 feet) in length
and 15 cm (6 inches) in width, properly stiffened to prevent flexibility and warping. The longitudinal
float, resting on the side forms and spanning but not touching the concrete, shall be worked with a
sawing motion while held in a floating position parallel to the road center line, and moving gradually
from one side of the pavement to the other. Movement ahead along the center line of the pavement
shall be in successive advances of not more than one-half the length of the float. Any excess water
or soupy material shall be wasted over the side forms on each pass.

 Mechanical Method. The mechanical longitudinal float shall be of a design approved by the Engineer,
and shall be in good working condition. The tracks from which the float operates shall be accurately
adjusted to the required crown. The float shall be accurately adjusted and coordinated with the
adjustment of the transverse finishing machine so that a small amount of mortar is carried ahead of
the float at all times. The forward screed shall be adjusted so that the float will lap the distance
specified by the Engineer on each transverse trip. The float shall pass over each areas of pavement
at least two times, but excessive operation over a given area will not be permitted. Any excess water
or soupy material shall be wasted over the side forms on each pass.

 Alternative Mechanical Method. As an alternative, the Contractor may use a machine composed of a
cutting and smoothing float or floats suspended from and guided by a rigid frame. The frame shall be
carried by four or more wheels riding on, and constantly in contact with the side forms. If necessary,
following one of the preceding method of floating, long handled floats having blades not less than
150 cm (5 feet) in length and 15 cm (6 inches) in width may be used to smooth and fill in open-
textured areas in the pavement. Long-handled floats shall not be used to float the entire surface of
the pavement in lieu of, or supplementing, one of the preceding methods of floating. When strike off
and consolidation is done by the hand method and the crown of the pavement will not permit the use
of the longitudinal float, the surface shall be floated transversely by means of the long-handled float.
Care shall be taken not to work the crown out of the pavement during the operation. After floating,
any excess water and laitance shall be removed from the surface of the pavement by a 3-m straight-
edge or more in length. Successive drags shall be lapped one-half the length of the blade.

6. Final Finish

If the surface texture is broom finished, it shall apply when the water sheen has practically disappeared.
The broom shall be drawn from the center to the edge of the pavement with adjacent strokes slightly
overlapping. The brooming operation should be so executed that the corrugations produced in the
surface shall be uniform in appearance and not more than 1.5 mm in depth. Brooming shall be completed
before the concrete is in such condition that the surface will be unduly roughened by the operation. The
surface thus finished shall be free from rough and porous areas, irregularities, and depressions resulting
from improper handling of the broom. Brooms shall be of the quality size and construction and be
operated so as to produce a surface finish meeting the approval of the Engineer. Subject to satisfactory
results being obtained and approval of the Engineer, the Contractor will be permitted to substitute
mechanical brooming in lieu of the manual brooming herein described.

If the surface texture is belt finished, when straight-edging is complete and water sheen has practically
disappeared and just before the concrete becomes non-plastic, the surface shall be belted with 2-ply
canvass belt not less than 20 cm wide and at least 100 cm longer than the pavement width. Hand belts
shall have suitable handles to permit controlled, uniform manipulation. The belt shall be operated with
short strokes transverse to the center line and with a rapid advances parallel to the center line.

If the surface texture is drag finished, a drag shall be used which consists of a seamless strip of damp
burlap or cotton fabric, which shall produce a uniform of gritty texture after dragging it longitudinally along
the full width of pavement. For pavement 5 m or more in width, the drag shall be mounted on a travels on
the forms. The dimensions of the drag shall be such that a strip of burlap or fabric at least 100 cm wide is

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in contact with the full width of pavement surface while the drag is used. The drag shall consist of not
less than 2 layers of burlap with the bottom layer approximately 15 cm wider than the layer. The drag
shall be maintained in such condition that the resultant surface is of uniform appearance and reasonably
free from grooves over 1.5 mm in depth. Drag shall be maintained clean and free from encrusted mortar.
Drags that cannot be cleaned shall be discarded and new drags be substituted.

Regardless of the method used for final finish, the hardened surface of pavement shall have a coefficient
of friction of 0.25 or more. Completed pavement that is found to have a coefficient of friction less than
0.25 shall be grounded or scored by the Contractor at his expense to provide the required coefficient of
friction.

7. Edging at Forms and Joints

After the final finish, but before the concrete has taken its initial set, the edges of the pavement along
each side of each slab, and on each side of transverse expansion joints, formed joints, transverse
construction joints, and emergency construction joints, shall be worked with an approved tool and
rounded to the radius required by the Plans. A well – defined and continuous radius shall be produced
and a smooth, dense mortar finish obtained. The surface of the slab shall not be unduly disturbed by
tilting the tool during the use.

At all joints, any tool marks appearing on the slab adjacent to the joints shall be eliminated by brooming
the surface. In doing this, the rounding of the corner of the slab shall not be disturbed. All concrete on top
of the joint filler shall be completely removed.

All joints shall be tested with a straight-edge before the concrete has set and correction made if one edge
of the joint is higher than the other.

n. Surface Test
As soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently, the pavement surface shall be tested with a 3-m
straight-edge or other specified device. Areas showing high spots of more than 3 mm but not exceeding
6 mm in 3 m shall be marked and immediately ground down with an approved grinding tool to an
elevation where the area or spot will not show surface deviations in excess of 3 mm when tested with 3
m straight-edge. Where the departure from correct cross-section exceeds 12 mm, the pavement shall be
removed and replaced by and at the expense of the Contractor.

Any area or section so removed shall be not less than 1.5 m in length and not less than the full width of
the lane involved. When it is necessary to remove and replace a section of pavement, any remaining
portion of the slab adjacent to the joints that is less than 1.5 m in length, shall also be removed and
replaced.

o. Curing
Immediately after the finishing operations have been completed and the concrete has sufficiently set, the
entire surface of the newly placed concrete shall be cured in accordance with either one of the methods
described herein. Failure to provide sufficient cover material of whatever kind the Contractor may elect to
use, or the lack of water to adequately take care of both curing and other requirements, shall be a cause
for immediate suspension of concreting operations. The concrete shall not be left exposed for more than
½ hour between stages of curing or during the curing period.

In all congested places, concrete works should be designed so that the designed strength is attained.

1. Waterproof Paper

The top surface and sides of the pavement shall be entirely covered with waterproof paper, the units
shall be lapped at least 45 cm. The paper shall be so placed and weighted down so as to cause it to
remain in intimate contact with the surface covered. The paper shall have such dimension but each unit
as laid will extend beyond the edges of the slab at least twice the thickness of the pavement, or at
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pavement width and 60 cm strips of paper for the edges. If laid longitudinally, paper not manufactured in
sizes which will provide this width shall be securely sewed or cemented together, the joints being
securely sealed in such a manner that they do not open up or separate during the curing period. Unless
otherwise specified, the covering shall be maintained in place for 72 hours after the concrete has been
placed. The surface of the pavement shall be thoroughly wetted prior to the placing of the paper.

2. Impervious Membrane Method

The entire surface of the pavement shall be sprayed uniformly with white pigmented curing compound
immediately after the finishing of the surface and before the set of the concrete has taken place, or if the
pavement is cured initially with jute or cotton mats, it may be applied upon removal of the mats. The
curing compound shall not be applied during rain.

Curing compound shall be applied under pressure at the rate 4 L to not more than 14 m 2 by mechanical
sprayers. The spraying equipment shall be equipped with a wind guard. At the time of use, the compound
shall be in a thoroughly mixed condition with the pigment uniformly dispersed throughout the vehicle.
During application, the compound shall be stirred continuously by effective mechanical means. Hand
spraying of odd widths or shapes and concrete surface exposed by the removal of forms will be
permitted. Curing compound shall not be applied to the inside faces of joints to be sealed, but approved
means shall be used to insure proper curing at least 72 hours and to prevent the intrusion of foreign
material into the joint before sealing has been completed. The curing compound shall be of such
character that the film will harden within 30 minutes after application. Should the film be damaged from
any cause within the 72 hour curing period, the damaged portions shall be repaired immediately with
additional compound.

3. White Polyethylene Sheet

The top surface and sides of the pavement shall be entirely covered with polyethylene sheeting. The
units used shall be lapped at least 45 cm. The sheeting shall be so placed and weighted down so as to
cause it to remain intimate contact with the surface covered. The sheeting as prepared for use shall have
such dimension that each unit as laid will extend beyond the edges of the slab at least twice the
thickness of the pavement. Unless otherwise specified, the covering shall be maintained in place for 72
hours after the concrete has been placed.

p. Removal of Forms
Forms for concrete shall remain in place undisturbed for not less than twenty four (24) hours after
concrete pouring. In the removal of forms, crowbars should be used in pulling out nails and pins. Care
should be taken so as not to break the edges of the pavement. In case portions of the concrete are
spalled, they shall be immediately repaired with fresh mortar mixed in the proportion of one part of
Portland Cement and two parts fine aggregates. Major honeycomb areas will be considered as defective
work and shall be removed and replaced at the expense of the Contractor. Any area or section so
removed shall not be less than the distance between weakened plane joint nor less than the full width of
the lane involved.

q. Sealing Joints
Joints shall be sealed with asphalt sealant soon after completion of the curing period and before the
pavement is opened to traffic, including the Contractor’s equipment. Just prior to sealing, each joint shall
be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign materials including membrane curing compound and the joint faces
shall be clean and surface dry when the seal is applied.

The sealing material shall be applied to each joint opening to conform to the details shown on the Plans
or as directed by the Engineer. Material for seal applied hot shall be stirred during heating so that
localized overheating does not occur. The pouring shall be done in such a manner that the material will
not be spilled on the exposed surfaces of the concrete. The use of sand or similar material as a cover for
the seal will not be permitted.

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Preformed elastomeric gaskets for sealing joints shall be of the cross-sectional dimensions shown on the
Plans. Seals shall be installed by suitable tools, without elongation and secured in placed with an
approved lubricant adhesive which shall cover both sides of the concrete joints. The seals shall be
installed in a compressive condition and shall at time of placement be below the level of the pavement
surface by approximately 6 mm.

The seals shall be in one piece for the full width of each transverse joint.

r. Protection of Pavement
The Contractor shall protect the pavement and its appurtenances against both public traffic and traffic
caused by his own employees and agents. This shall include watchmen to direct traffic and the erection
of and maintenance of warning signs, lights, pavement or crossovers, etc.

All boreholes after thickness and/or strength determinations of newly constructed asphalt and concrete
pavements shall be immediately filled / restored with the prescribed concrete/asphalt mix after
completion of the drilling works.

Any damage to the pavement, occurring prior to final acceptance, shall be repaired or the pavement be
replaced.

s. Concrete Pavement- Slip Form Method


If the Contract calls for the construction of pavement without the use of fixed forms, the following
provisions shall apply:

a. Grade

After the grade or base has been placed and compacted to the required density, the areas which will
support the paving machine shall be cut to the proper elevation by means of a properly designed
machine. The grade on which the pavement is to be constructed shall then be brought to the proper
profile by means of properly designed machine. If the density of the base is disturbed by the grading
operation, it shall be corrected by additional compaction before concrete is placed. The grade should be
constructed sufficiently in advance of the placing of the concrete. If any traffic is allowed to use the
prepared grade, the grade shall be checked and corrected immediately before the placing of concrete.

b. Placing Concrete

The concrete shall be placed with an approved slip-form paver designed to spread, consolidate, screed
and float-finish the freshly placed concrete in one complete pass of the machine in such a manner that a
minimum of hand finish will be necessary to provide a dense and homogenous pavement in conformance
with the Plans and Specifications. The machine shall vibrate the concrete for the full width and depth of
the strip of pavement being placed. Such vibration shall be accompanied with vibrating tubes or arms
working in the concrete or with a vibrating screed or pan operating on the surface of the concrete. The
sliding forms shall be rigidly held together laterally to prevent spreading of the forms. The forms shall trail
behind the paver for such a distance that no appreciable slumping of the concrete will occur, and that
necessary final finishing can be accomplished while the concrete is still within the forms. Any edge slump
of the pavement, exclusive of edge rounding, in excess of 6 mm shall be corrected before the concrete
has hardened.

The concrete shall be held at a uniform consistency, having a slump of not more than 40 mm (1-1/2
inches). The slip form paver shall be operated with as nearly as possible a continuous forward movement
and that all operations of mixing, delivering and spreading concrete shall be coordinated so as to provide
uniform progress with stopping and starting of the paver held to a minimum. If, for any reason, it is
necessary to stop the forward movement of the paver the vibratory and tamping elements shall also be
stopped immediately. No tractive force shall be applied to the machine, except that which is controlled
from the machine.

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c. Finishing

The surface smoothness and texture shall meet the requirements of Subsection 2.10.3.m.

d. Curing

Unless otherwise specified, curing shall be done in accordance with one of the methods included in
Subsection 2.10.3.o. The curing media shall be applied at the appropriate time and shall be applied
uniformly and completely to all surfaces and edges of the pavement.

e. Joints

All joints shall be constructed in accordance with Subsection 2.10.3.l.

f. Protection against Rain

In order that the concrete may be properly protected against rain before the concrete is sufficiently
hardened, the Contractor will be required to have available at all times, materials for the protection of the
edges and surface of the unhardened concrete. Such protective materials shall consist of standard metal
forms or wood planks having a nominal thickness of not less than 50 mm (2 inches) and a nominal width
of not less than the thickness of the pavement at its edge for the protection of the pavement edges, and
covering material such as burlap or cotton mats, curing paper or plastic sheeting materials for the
protection of the surface of the pavement. When rain appears imminent, all paving operations shall stop
and all available personnel shall begin placing forms against the sides of the pavement and covering the
surface of the unhardened concrete with the protective covering.

t. Acceptance of Concrete
The strength level of the concrete will be considered satisfactory if the averages of all sets of three (3)
consecutive strength test results equal or exceed the specified strength, fc’ and no individual strength
test result is deficient by more than 15% of the specified strength, fc’.

Concrete deemed to be not acceptable using the above criteria may be rejected unless the Contractor
can provide evidence, by means of core tests, that the quality of concrete represented by failed test
results is acceptable in place. At least three (3) representative cores shall be taken from each member or
area of concrete in place that is considered deficient. The location of cores shall be determined by the
Engineer so that there will be at least impairment of strength of the structure. The obtaining and testing of
drilled cores shall be in accordance with AASHTO T 24.

Concrete in the area represented by the cores will be considered adequate if the average strength of the
cores is equal to at least 85% of, and if no single core is less than 75% of, the specified strength, fc’.

If the strength of control specimens does not meet the requirements of this Subsection, and it is not
feasible or not advisable to obtain cores from the structure due to structural considerations, payment of
the concrete will be made at an adjusted price due to strength deficiency of concrete specimens as
specified hereunder:

Deficiency in Strength of Percent (%) of Contract


Concrete Specimens, Percent (%) Price Allowed
Less than 5 100
5 to less than 10 80
10 to less than 15 70

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15 to less than 20 60
20 to less than 25 50
25 or more 0

u. Opening to Traffic
The Engineer will decide when the pavement may be opened to traffic. The road will not be opened to
traffic until test specimens molded and cured in accordance with AASHTO T 23 have attained the
minimum strength requirements in Subsection 7.1. If such tests are not conducted prior to the specified
age the pavement shall not be operated to traffic until 14 days after the concrete was placed. Before
opening to traffic, the pavement shall be cleaned and joint sealing completed.

v. Tolerance and Pavement Thickness


 General

The thickness of the pavement will be determined by measurement of cores from the completed
pavement in accordance with AASHTO T 148.

The completed pavement shall be accepted on a lot basis. A lot shall be considered as 1000 linear
meters of pavement when a single traffic lane is poured or 500 linear meters when two lanes are poured
concurrently. The last unit in each slab constitutes a lot in itself when its length is at least ½ of the normal
lot length. If the length of the last unit is shorter than ½ of the normal lot length, it shall be included in the
previous lot.

Other areas such as intersections, entrances, crossovers, ramp, etc., will be grouped together to form a
lot. Small irregular areas may be included with other unit areas to form a lot.

Each lot will be divided into five (5) equal segments and one core will be obtained from each segment in
accordance with AASHTO T 24.

 Pavement Thickness

It is the intent of this Specification that the pavement has a uniform thickness as called for on the Plans
for the average of each lot as defined. After the pavement has met all surface smoothness requirements,
cores for thickness measurements will be taken.

In calculating the average thickness of the pavement, individual measurements which are in excess of
the specified thickness by more than 5 mm will be considered as the specified thickness plus 5 mm and
measurement which are less than the specified thickness by more than 25 mm shall not be included in
the average. When the average thickness for the lot is deficient, the contract unit price will be adjusted
for thickness in accordance with paragraph 3 below.

Individual areas within a segment found deficient in thickness by more than 25 mm shall be evaluated by
the Engineer, and if in his judgment, the deficient areas warrant removal, they shall be removed and
replaced by the Contractor with pavement of the specified thickness at his entire expense. However, if
the evaluation of the Engineer is that the deficient area should not be removed and replaced; such area
will not be paid.

When the measurement of any core is less than the specified thickness by more than 25 mm, the actual
thickness of the pavement in this area will be determined by taking additional cores at no less than 5 m
intervals parallel to the center line in each direction from the affected location until a core is found in each
direction, which is not deficient in thickness by more than 25 mm. The area of slab for which no payment
will be made shall be the product of the paving width multiplied by the distance along the center line of
the road between transverse sections found not deficient in thickness by more than 25 mm. The
thickness of the remainder of the segment to be used to get the average thickness of each lot shall be

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determined by taking the average thickness of additional cores which are not deficient by more than 25
mm.

 Adjustment for Thickness

When the average thickness of the pavement per lot is deficient, payment for the lot shall be adjusted as
follows:

Deficiency in the Average Thickness per lot (mm) Percent (%) of ContractPrice Per Lot
0–5 100% payment
6 – 10 95% payment
11 – 15 85% payment
16 – 20 70% payment
21 – 25 50% payment
More than 25 Remove and replace/ No payment

No acceptance and final payment shall be made on completed pavement unless core test for thickness
determination is conducted, except for Barangay Roads where the implementing office is allowed to
waive such test.

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4.3 Curb and Gutter

4.3.1 Description
This Item shall consist of the construction of curb and gutter either Precast or Cast in place, made of
concrete in accordance with this Specification at the location, and in conformity with the lines, grades,
dimensions and design, shown on the Plans or as required by the Engineer.

4.3.2 Materials Requirements

a. Material for Bed Course


Bed course materials as shown on the Plans shall consist of cinders, sand, slag, gravel, crushed stone,
or other approved porous material of such grading that all the particles will pass through 12.5 mm (1/2
inch) sieve.

b. Concrete
Concrete shall be of the class indicated on the Plans and shall conform to the requirements of Item 7.1,

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Building Excavation and Filing

4.4 Excavation for Building Works


4.4.1 Extent

Locate underground services before any work is started. Check with Territorial Authorities and services
providers for details and locations of services within and adjacent to the area of the works. Any
information provided by the Principal will be from available drawn records but with no guarantees as to
location, depth, alignment, or if everything present has actually been shown.
In sealed areas, saw cut the edges of the excavation in straight lines, to ensure a neat finish can be
achieved at restitution.

Remove all topsoil, rubbish, vegetation, and loose material. Excavate to the depths shown in the
Drawings. Allow clearance for formwork and working space as necessary. Do not remove topsoil or
excavate within the drip line of retained trees etc. unless directed, and then only by hand methods to
avoid damage to roots etc.

The Engineer shall approve all excavations before any following works begin, and the Engineer may
order the Contractor to vary the depths and/or widths as work proceeds.

The word "approve" and its derivatives when used in relation to ground prepared for the execution of the
Contract Works shall mean acceptance by the Engineer that the ground as prepared meets the
requirements of the design for the construction which is to be placed on that ground, which approval shall
be automatically cancelled if any change whatsoever arising from any cause whatsoever occurs to that
ground before it is protected by the construction in question, thus necessitating an up-to-date approval by
the Engineer before construction may proceed.

Protect survey pegs and bench marks, and any other features marked to be retained.

4.4.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations

Secure and maintain all excavations and keep them clear of water and fallen materials. Provide and
maintain shoring, planking strutting, pumping, baling, as required and for safety.

The Contractor shall plan and execute his work so that, as soon as he has reached a level at which the
excavation is approved by the Engineer, he shall be able to protect such excavated surface effectively
against damage. Should the Contractor fail to provide adequate protection (resulting in the Engineer's
approval being withdrawn), he shall excavate over the area in question to a further level approved by the
Engineer, such additional excavation and the consequential additional backfilling being at no extra cost to
the Principal.

Form sumps outside the foundation lines and pump from those. Undertake silt control measures if
discharging to the storm water drainage system.

4.4.3 Contractor’s Risk

The following are contractual risks that the Contractor is required to allow for in his price and rates:
e. No extension of time shall be granted in respect of Variations to the amounts of excavations and
consequential following work ordered by the Engineer as 3.1.1 EXTENT above.
f. Variations in its nature from part to part of the Site which the Engineer, in his absolute discretion,
considers to be of a minor nature only, shall not entitle the Contractor to alter his quoted rates.

4.4.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials

Turf and topsoil shall be stockpiled on Site where directed by the Engineer. All other excavated materials
shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

All excavated material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the
Site.

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Approved excavated hard filling shall be re-used. Any contaminated hard fill and all other excavated
material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

4.5 Filling for Building Work


4.5.1 Extent

The whole of the space between the approved excavated surface and the underside of the concrete
construction of the structure shall be filled as under. The minimum depth of compacted hard filling shall
be 150 mm.

4.5.2 Materials

i. The top 150 mm of all fill beneath the structure shall consist of 50 mm all-in clean graded hard fill for
which the Los Angeles abrasion loss shall not exceed 40% and the Plasticity Index shall not exceed
8.
j. Below that level, clean hard fill as above but containing no pieces larger than 150 mm may be used.
k. All trenches under the 2GL Glucose Extension shall be backfilled with hard fill as above.
l. The Engineer will require approving hard fill material before it is placed.

4.5.3 Construction

Where ground is to be filled, hard fill shall be used, compacted in layers not exceeding 200 mm (loose)
thickness by at least 12 passes of an 8 tonne roller. The standard of compaction achieved shall be such
that a slow pass of the roller (or if in the opinion of the Engineer the use of such a roller would be
impracticable, an equivalent pass) discloses no perceptible vertical movement of the hard fill.

Should any hard fill become contaminated or should any placed filling be disturbed by any cause
whatsoever, such hard fill shall be dug out, replaced and re-compacted to the Engineer's directive at no
cost to the Principal.

4.5.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to be stable
under the full load until such time as the wall concrete and the slab on top of the wall have reached the
designed strength. Therefore, in order to be able to safely backfill and compact behind the wall, the
Contractor shall take whatever steps may be necessary in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent
any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to withstand
the action of compacting machinery behind and above it until such time as the wall concrete has reached
its designed strength. Should the Contractor wish to backfill and compact before this concrete has
reached its designed strength he shall be wholly responsible for taking whatever steps may be necessary
in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has been designed solely to retain
the material behind it and not at any time to withstand the weight and effect of compacting machinery
behind it. The Contractor is therefore wholly responsible for taking all measures necessary in the way of
shoring, strutting etc., to ensure that no damage occurs to the wall during this operation.

4.5.5 Waterproof Structure

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the waterproofing treatment of the retaining wall and he shall be
wholly responsible for providing physical protection to this waterproofing, (such as flat sheeting) to
ensure no damage is inflicted on the waterproofing. The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for
providing a waterproof structure. Refer Tanking section.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the drainage provisions behind the wall, as shown in the Drawings
viz: field tile or equivalent drain (connected to the storm water drainage system) and, for 300 mm back
from the rear face of the wall, free-draining fill material. Refer Civil specifications.

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5. Piling
5.1 Bored Piling for Retention System

5.1.1 General
Piling works shall be executed in accordance with the Issued for Construction drawings, this Specification
and relevant standards listed in Section 1.

In the event that the provisions of other standards cause ambiguity or conflict with the requirements of
this Specification, the latter shall take precedence unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall engage a suitably qualified engineer to determine the allowable vibration limits for
the works and propose a suitable vibration monitoring plan with the stipulated vibration limits stated. The
vibration limits and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of any piling works.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer for approval at least two weeks prior to
commencement of piling works. The information required and the format of records shall be in a standard
template prepared by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. It shall include, but not limited to, the
following: length of temporary casing, details of the constituent materials of any drilling fluid used for
stabilization, the method of inspection, details of the concrete design mix, concreting method, the
minimum time between the completion of one pile and the commencement of the next, and the pattern of
construction.

The Contractor shall submit a pile installation plan to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of pile working. The proposed sequence and timing of pile installation shall be such that
the installation works shall not cause any damage to adjacent piles. Piling works shall not commence
until approval of the Engineer has been obtained.

Unless otherwise described in this section, reinforcement and concrete for piling work shall comply with
the requirements of Concreting Work and Reinforcement Steel Bars in this Specification.

5.1.2 Piling installation

y. Setting Out
The Contractor shall employ an approved Licensed Surveyor who will set up the positions of the piles as
shown in the Issued for Construction drawings. The Contractor will be responsible for the accuracy of
location and positioning of each pile.

The Contractor shall preserve the pegs set out by the Surveyor. Should any peg be displaced or lost it
must be replaced by a Licensed Surveyor to the approval of the Engineer. Upon completion of all piling
works, the Contractor shall produce as-built drawings showing the positions of all piles as installed. The
positions of piles shall be verified by a Licensed Surveyor.

z. Tolerances
7. Position
The pile heads shall be positioned as shown on the Issued for Construction drawings within a maximum
deviation of 75mm in either direction from its design position.

8. Verticality
For bored cast-in-situ piles, the maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical at any
level is 1(H) in 150 (V). The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of Engineer the pile
verticality is within the allowable tolerance.

9. Correction
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Should piles be installed outside these tolerances affecting the design, the Contractor shall propose and
carry out immediate remedy measure to the approval of the Engineer.

aa. Drilling Fluid


Where drilling fluid is required to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the proposed drilling fluid mix must
be included in the method statement and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Unless specified otherwise by the manufacturer, bentonite slurry properties shall comply with follows:

11. The density measured using a mud balance shall be about 1.12 g/ml.
12. The Marsh viscosity (946ml) tested in accordance with ASTM D6910 shall be 40±10 seconds.
13. pH value measured using a pH meter shall be between 8 to 11 inclusive.
14. The sand content tested in accordance with ASTM D4381 shall be less than 5%.
15. Fluid loss tested in accordance with ASTM D5891 shall be less than 18 ml/30 mins.
Properties of drilling fluid other than bentonite shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The frequency of testing and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Piling
Contractor and submitted to the Engineer together with the pile installation plan for approval. As a
minimum, the drilling fluid shall be tested for:

9. Fresh drilling fluid;


10. Drilling fluid taken from the bottom of bore hole before concreting;
11. Circulated drilling fluid after desanding; and
12. Drilling fluid left in the bore holes for more than 12 hours.
The circulated drilling fluid may be reused provided the tested properties fall within the range as specified
above.

bb. Boring and Excavation


The piling rig must be capable of installing piles to the depth as shown on the Issued for Construction
drawings with provision for contingencies.

The side of all boreholes shall be kept intact and no loose material shall be permitted to fall into the
bottom of the boreholes.

The borehole shall be filled with drilling fluid to an adequate level to sufficiently stabilize the borehole
when drilling fluid is used during drilling. If drilling fluid alone is not sufficient to prevent the ground water
from intrusion or the borehole side walls from collapse, temporary casings of appropriate size and length
shall be used in conjunction with the drilling fluid to support the side of the borehole

Where temporary casings are employed to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the bottom of casing
shall be kept a minimum of one meter or more below the unstable strata to prevent the inflow of soil and
the formation of cavities in the surrounding ground.

Temporary casings shall be thin-walled mild steel cylindrical casing, spirally welded or other similar
construction. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand without damage or
distortion all handling, construction and ground stresses to which they will be subjected, including
preventing concrete from within the pile from displacing soft soil or soil squeezing in and displacing fresh
concrete. The casings shall have an internal diameter not less than the specified pile diameter. They
shall be free of significant distortion, of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length and free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles. The
joints of casings shall be reasonably watertight.

If temporary casings are damaged during installation in a manner which prevents the proper formation of
the pile, such casings shall be withdrawn from the bore before concrete is placed, repaired if necessary
or other action taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

The pile toe shall be founded at the levels shown on the Issued for Construction drawings.

cc. Spillage and Disposal

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All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of drilling fluid on the site in areas outside the
immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded drilling fluid shall be removed from the site without delay. In
disposal of unwanted drilling fluid, the Contractor shall comply with government regulations and shall
propose a proper disposal method to be approved by the Engineer.

dd. Cleaning Out


Upon completion of boring, the bottom of the bored hole shall be cleaned of all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil and sediment soil to expose a firm base of undisturbed material using a suitable and
effective method to be approved by the Engineer.

All boreholes shall be protected from the possibility of any surface water entering the hole from time to
time and until the hole is completed and ready to be concreted.

ee. Inspection of bored holes


Where practicable, all boreholes shall be inspected for their full length before concreting. Inspection shall
be carried out from the ground level by the Engineer prior to concrete being placed in the borehole. For
such inspection to be carried out safely, the Contractor shall provide all facilities and assistance to enable
the inspection to be done.

The base of the boring shall be inspected by approved method to ensure that all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil is removed and that the sides of the boring will remain stable during the subsequent
concreting operations. The verticality and position of the boring shall be checked to ensure that they
meet the specified tolerances.

ff. Placement of Reinforcement


Reinforcement cages shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that they remain at correct level during the lifting
and placing of the concrete and the extraction of temporary lining tubes.

Reinforcement shall be maintained in its correct position during concreting of the pile.

Concrete spacers shall be provided at every three meter intervals. Details by which the Contractor plans
to ensure the correct cover to and position of the reinforcement shall be approved by the Engineer.

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 meters in length shall be in one
continuous length unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a method statement on the manner by which he intends to lower
reinforcement cages into pile shafts. Where tack welding is carried out on pile reinforcement for the
purpose of hoisting, such welding shall be located only within the top 100mm of each reinforcement
cage.

Reinforcement shall be free from rust and mud and not be placed until inspected and accepted. If required by
the Engineer, reinforcement cages shall be flushed with fresh water to remove accumulated salts or other
deposits immediately prior to lowering into the pile shaft.

gg. Concreting in bored holes


Before placing concrete, agreed measures shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that there is no
accumulation of contaminated drilling fluid, silt or other deleterious material at the base of the bore.
Contaminated drilling fluid could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe and affecting the
performance of the pile.

Concrete to be placed under drilling fluid shall be placed using a tremie concrete pipe in accordance with
relevant design standards listed in Section 1.

Concrete placement shall be halted should a delay or breakdown occur during the concreting operation
which in the opinion of the Engineer, could cause a cold joint, entrapment of latency in the tremie
concrete, or otherwise lead to defective concrete. Before the remainder of the pile shaft can be
concreted, the pile shall be dewatered and the top surface of the tremie concrete cut back to sound
concrete and cleaned of all laitance and weak concrete. The remainder of the pile shall either be cast by

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tremie or in the dry, as directed by the Engineer. If this remedial work cannot be carried out due to
construction difficulty, the Contractor will need to construct a replacement pile.

The concrete for each pile shall be from the same source. The Contractor is to ensure that the supply
from whatever source (whether site-mixed or ready-mixed) is of sufficient quantity so that concrete for
each pile shall be placed without such interruption.

The actual volume of concrete used for each pile must be measured and compared with the calculated
volume required. If the difference between these two volumes indicates a possible necking, the
Contractor shall propose and carry out appropriate tests and measures to the approval of the Engineer to
ensure the adequacy of the pile.

Any consequences causing the pile to be rejected by the Engineer due to supply of concrete shall be at
the Contractor's own risk.

The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic
concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed. The method of placing shall be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and the placement of
concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in the pile shaft. No spoil, liquid or other deleterious matter shall
be allowed to contaminate the concrete.

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within remains sufficiently workable to ensure
that the concrete is not lifted and that the resultant pile is continuous and of full section. Temporary
casings shall be extracted not more than two hours after concreting has completed.

When casings are withdrawn as concreting proceeds, a sufficient head of concrete shall be maintained to
prevent the entry of ground water which may cause reduction of cross-section of the pile. No concrete
shall be placed after the bottom of the casings has been lifted above the top of the concrete. Concrete
shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained.

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where the withdrawal of casing could result in excess
heads of water or drilling fluid. Excess pressure heads are caused by the displacement of water or fluid
by concrete as the concrete flows into its final position against the wall of the shaft. Precautions such as
the use of two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) shall be deemed an acceptable
method of construction in this case.

The top of the pile shall be brought above the required cut-off level by an amount sufficient to ensure a
sound concrete at cut-off level and the surplus removed to ensure satisfactory bonding of the pile head to
the capping beam.

hh. Sequence of Installation


The Contractor shall undertake piling works in accordance with the approved piling installation plan. Any
pile to be installed near to a recently installed pile shall be at least 3 times pile diameter away from the
recently installed pile. The commencement of installation of such nearby piles shall not be less than 24
hours after the completion of concreting of the recently installed pile.

The Engineer reserves the right to order changes to the approved sequence of piling if, based on work
completed, he considers it necessary to do so. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra
payment for additional plant movements, etc. resulting from such an order.

ii. Rejected Piles


Any piling work rejected by the Engineer not truly constructed and installed in accordance with this
Specification shall be replaced or rectified by the Contractor with his own cost to the approval of the
Engineer and this includes reinstallation of piles, and the design and construction of a modified
foundation and also constructing of additional compensation piles.

jj. Piling Records


The Contractor shall keep a record of each pile installed and shall furnish signed copies to the Engineer
daily. The information required and the format of records shall be in standard formats as approved by the
Engineer. As and when required the Engineer may ask for additional information or modify the standard
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formats. Such forms shall be provided by the Contractor before the commencement of piling work at his
expense.

Details of soil strata drilled and ground water level, if encountered during drilling, shall be recorded and
submitted. Levels of all strata changes shall be clearly recorded.

5.1.3 Piling tests


The Contractor shall allow carrying out integrity tests on 20% of piles, as nominated on the drawings or
by the Engineer for testing and detection of major faults, necking, discontinuities, and cross sectional
areas of the piles. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a testing program for approval at least two
weeks prior to the commencement of testing.

Integrity testing and reporting shall be carried out in accordance with requirements in DPWH Volume IIby
an independent testing organization approved by the Engineer.

If the results of the tests show that the pile or piles are defective, the pile or piles shall be treated as
faulty and shall be rejected unless the Contractor can demonstrate to the approval of the Engineer
effective remedial measures that will be carried out.

The results of tests shall be printed out immediately during tests with printer facility at site and submit to
the Engineer at site. The Engineer's interpretations and conclusions arrived at on the test results shall be
final.

5.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring

5.2.1 General
The Contractor shall engage specialist sub-contractors approved by the Engineer to install and monitor
instrumentation prior to the commencement of excavation and construction and throughout the Contract.
The instrumentation shall comprise ground surface and building settlement markers, and inclinometers.

The Contractor shall ensure that the drill hole locations for the instrumentation are clear of existing
underground services prior to commencement of drilling. In order to avoid any utilities and services the
required drill hole positions may be adjusted on Site to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any damage and any claims arising from such damage and shall make every
effort to make good the damage or have the damage made good as quickly as possible.

The Contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and permissions required from the local Authorities in
connection with the drilling and other instrumentation works prior to commencing the work. The
contractor shall bear the costs of all fees, charges, levies etc., which are payable to the Authorities in the
course of executing the Works.

5.2.2 Ground surface and building settlement markers


The Contractor shall engage a registered land surveyor approved by the Engineer to monitor the
settlement of the ground surface, buildings and other structures as indicated on the construction
drawings.

Details of typical acceptable installations for ground and building settlement points are shown on the
construction drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of any alternative
installations. The Contractor shall install survey nails of approved design as and when instructed by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall install the ground and building settlement markers prior to and during the excavation
and construction works, at locations agreed with the Engineer. The registered surveyor shall establish
the initial (datum) level of each survey point and submit records to the Engineer. The datum readings
shall be submitted prior to any excavation and construction works, unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer.

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The registered surveyor shall monitor and record the levels of the survey points throughout the duration
of the works, using a precise level and staff accurate to 0.5mm or better.

The frequency of survey readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be determined by
the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit the level readings on the survey points to the Engineer, both in approved
tabular and graphical formats, not later than 24 hours from the time of reading. The submission shall be
accompanied by scaled layout plans showing the locations of the ground and building settlement points
and survey nails which are surveyed.

5.2.3 Inclinometers
The Contractor shall engage an approved specialist sub-contractor to install inclinometer tubes in drill
holes sunk for this purpose and to monitor the inclinometers throughout the excavation and construction
works. Provisional inclinometer locations are shown on the instrumentation drawings. The depths of the
inclinometers will be determined by the Engineer.

Details of a typical inclinometer installation (in a drillhole) are shown on Drawing XXX. The Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of the installation including surface protection that he
proposes to adopt.

The material and method of installation of the inclinometer tubing shall be in accordance with the written
instructions of the manufacturer of the equipment. These instructions shall be submitted to the Engineer
for approval prior to the commencement of installation.

The backfilling grout shall be a bentonite cement mix with strength comparable to that of the surrounding
soil. The specialist sub-contractor shall submit full details of the proposed grout mix for the approval of
the Engineer. When required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall perform trial mixes and tests such
as laboratory unconfined tri-axial compression tests or vane shear tests to ensure the suitability of the
proposed grout mix.

Prior to installation, the end edges and the keyways of the inclinometer tubing’s shall be examined and
the sub-contractor shall remove any damaged tubing’s and provide replacements when required to do so
by the Engineer. The inclinometer tubing shall be inserted into the drill hole inside the temporary casing.
The top and bottom of the inclinometer tubing shall be fitted with an end cap and all tubing couplings
shall be riveted connections. While connecting the tubing’s, the inserted section shall be securely
clamped at ground level and the next section connected to it. All completed connections shall be
sufficiently wrapped with sealing tape to prevent ingress of grout. The tubes shall be filled with water to
overcome buoyancy.

After insertion of the inclinometer tubing, the hole shall be backfilled by pumping grout through a tremie
pipe. All grout mix quantities shall be monitored and recorded and submitted to the Engineer with full
details of the installation. Where required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall take samples of the
grout being used, for curing and subsequent strength testing. The grout shall be pumped initially to fill
the hole to the top of the temporary casing. The casing shall then be extracted in such a manner that the
level of the grout inside the hole shall be at all times higher than the bottom of the casing.

The sub-contractor shall flush the tubing’s after installation to remove all solids and flush again after two
days. The Contractor's registered surveyor shall determine the level of the top of the inclinometer tubing
after final trimming and the level shall be recorded on the installation record.

The sub-contractor shall keep full details of the drilling and installation and submit a complete record to
the Engineer within two working days after installation. The format of the record sheet shall be approved
by the Engineer prior to commencement of work.

The frequency of inclinometer readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be
determined by the Engineer.

The inclinometer readings shall be presented in both tabular and graphical formats which are to be
approved by the Engineer. Readings together with scaled layout plans showing the locations of the
inclinometers are to be submitted to the Engineer not later than 24 hours after they are taken.
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Concreting.
c. Expansion Joint Filler
Expansion joint filler shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 153.

d. Cement Mortar
Cement mortar shall consist of one part of Portland cement and two parts of fine aggregates with water
added as necessary to obtain the required consistency. The mortar shall be used within 30 minutes of
preparation.

5.2.4 Construction Requirements

a. Bedding
Excavation shall be made to the required depth and the base upon which the curb and/or gutter is to be
set shall be compacted to a firm and even surface. All soft and unsuitable material shall be removed and
replaced with suitable material.

Bed course material shall be placed and compacted to form a bed of the required thickness as shown on
the Plans.

b. Precast Curb and Gutter


1. Placing

The precast concrete curb and gutter shall be set in 20mm of cement mortar as specified in Subsection
4.3.2.d to the line level and grade as shown on the approved Plans. The precast curb shall not be more
than 20cm in width at the top portion and not be more than 25cm at the base. The precast curb and
gutter shall be 1.0 m in length and shall be put side by side consecutively with joint in between.

Joints between consecutive curb and gutter shall be filled with cement mortar to the full section of the
curb and gutter. Expansion joints shall be formed at intervals shown on the Plans. Where a curb and
gutter is placed next to a concrete pavement, expansion joints in the curb and gutter shall be located
opposite expansion joints in the pavement.

Minor defects shall be repaired with mortar containing one part of Portland cement and two parts of fine
aggregates. Plastering shall not be permitted and all rejected portions shall be removed and replaced at
the Contractor’s expense. The exposed surface shall be finished by rubbing the surfaces with a wetted
soft brick or wood until they are smooth. The surfaces shall be wetted thoroughly, either by dipping the
brick or wood in water, or by throwing water on the surfaces with a brush. After the concrete has been
rubbed smooth using water, it shall then be rubbed with a thin grout containing one part of Portland
cement and one part of fine aggregate. Rubbing with grout shall continue until uniform color is produced.

2. Handling Precast Curb and Gutter

 In preparation for the handling of precast curb and gutter, all fabricated curb and gutter of one (1)
meter in length shall be provided or inserted with 2-1ӯ PVC pipes for fitting at their required
locations. The PVC pipes shall be placed 25 mm from both edge during the fresh concrete is in plastic
state.
 Precast curb and gutter shall be lifted on upright position and not at the points of support and shall be
the same during transporting and storage.
 Extreme care shall be exercised in handling and moving precast curb and gutter to avoid cracking.
 No precast curb and gutter shall be used that does not reach its final position in the forms with the
required time stipulated prior to installation.

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 Precast curb and gutter shall be transferred to the construction site. Fresh curb and gutter shall not be
placed against in-situ concrete which has been in a position for more than 30 minutes.
 Precast curb and gutter may only be transported to the delivery point in truck agitators or truck mixer
operating at the speed designated by the manufacturer of the equipment, provided that the
consistency and workability of the mix concrete upon discharge at the delivery point is suitable for
adequate placement.

5.3 Sidewalk

5.3.1 Description
This Item shall consist of the construction of Portland Cement concrete sidewalk in accordance with this
Specification and to the lines, grades, levels and dimensions shown on the Plans, or as required by the
Engineer.

5.3.2 Material Requirements

a. Portland Cement Concrete


The cement concrete shall be Class A as specified in Item 8.1,

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Building Excavation and Filing

5.4 Excavation for Building Works


5.4.1 Extent

Locate underground services before any work is started. Check with Territorial Authorities and services
providers for details and locations of services within and adjacent to the area of the works. Any
information provided by the Principal will be from available drawn records but with no guarantees as to
location, depth, alignment, or if everything present has actually been shown.
In sealed areas, saw cut the edges of the excavation in straight lines, to ensure a neat finish can be
achieved at restitution.

Remove all topsoil, rubbish, vegetation, and loose material. Excavate to the depths shown in the
Drawings. Allow clearance for formwork and working space as necessary. Do not remove topsoil or
excavate within the drip line of retained trees etc. unless directed, and then only by hand methods to
avoid damage to roots etc.

The Engineer shall approve all excavations before any following works begin, and the Engineer may
order the Contractor to vary the depths and/or widths as work proceeds.

The word "approve" and its derivatives when used in relation to ground prepared for the execution of the
Contract Works shall mean acceptance by the Engineer that the ground as prepared meets the
requirements of the design for the construction which is to be placed on that ground, which approval shall
be automatically cancelled if any change whatsoever arising from any cause whatsoever occurs to that
ground before it is protected by the construction in question, thus necessitating an up-to-date approval by
the Engineer before construction may proceed.

Protect survey pegs and bench marks, and any other features marked to be retained.

5.4.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations

Secure and maintain all excavations and keep them clear of water and fallen materials. Provide and
maintain shoring, planking strutting, pumping, baling, as required and for safety.

The Contractor shall plan and execute his work so that, as soon as he has reached a level at which the
excavation is approved by the Engineer, he shall be able to protect such excavated surface effectively
against damage. Should the Contractor fail to provide adequate protection (resulting in the Engineer's
approval being withdrawn), he shall excavate over the area in question to a further level approved by the
Engineer, such additional excavation and the consequential additional backfilling being at no extra cost to
the Principal.

Form sumps outside the foundation lines and pump from those. Undertake silt control measures if
discharging to the storm water drainage system.

5.4.3 Contractor’s Risk

The following are contractual risks that the Contractor is required to allow for in his price and rates:
g. No extension of time shall be granted in respect of Variations to the amounts of excavations and
consequential following work ordered by the Engineer as 3.1.1 EXTENT above.
h. Variations in its nature from part to part of the Site which the Engineer, in his absolute discretion,
considers to be of a minor nature only, shall not entitle the Contractor to alter his quoted rates.

5.4.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials

Turf and topsoil shall be stockpiled on Site where directed by the Engineer. All other excavated materials
shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

All excavated material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the
Site.

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Approved excavated hard filling shall be re-used. Any contaminated hard fill and all other excavated
material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

5.5 Filling for Building Work


5.5.1 Extent

The whole of the space between the approved excavated surface and the underside of the concrete
construction of the structure shall be filled as under. The minimum depth of compacted hard filling shall
be 150 mm.

5.5.2 Materials

m. The top 150 mm of all fill beneath the structure shall consist of 50 mm all-in clean graded hard fill for
which the Los Angeles abrasion loss shall not exceed 40% and the Plasticity Index shall not exceed
8.
n. Below that level, clean hard fill as above but containing no pieces larger than 150 mm may be used.
o. All trenches under the 2GL Glucose Extension shall be backfilled with hard fill as above.
p. The Engineer will require approving hard fill material before it is placed.

5.5.3 Construction

Where ground is to be filled, hard fill shall be used, compacted in layers not exceeding 200 mm (loose)
thickness by at least 12 passes of an 8 tonne roller. The standard of compaction achieved shall be such
that a slow pass of the roller (or if in the opinion of the Engineer the use of such a roller would be
impracticable, an equivalent pass) discloses no perceptible vertical movement of the hard fill.

Should any hard fill become contaminated or should any placed filling be disturbed by any cause
whatsoever, such hard fill shall be dug out, replaced and re-compacted to the Engineer's directive at no
cost to the Principal.

5.5.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to be stable
under the full load until such time as the wall concrete and the slab on top of the wall have reached the
designed strength. Therefore, in order to be able to safely backfill and compact behind the wall, the
Contractor shall take whatever steps may be necessary in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent
any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to withstand
the action of compacting machinery behind and above it until such time as the wall concrete has reached
its designed strength. Should the Contractor wish to backfill and compact before this concrete has
reached its designed strength he shall be wholly responsible for taking whatever steps may be necessary
in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has been designed solely to retain
the material behind it and not at any time to withstand the weight and effect of compacting machinery
behind it. The Contractor is therefore wholly responsible for taking all measures necessary in the way of
shoring, strutting etc., to ensure that no damage occurs to the wall during this operation.

5.5.5 Waterproof Structure

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the waterproofing treatment of the retaining wall and he shall be
wholly responsible for providing physical protection to this waterproofing, (such as flat sheeting) to
ensure no damage is inflicted on the waterproofing. The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for
providing a waterproof structure. Refer Tanking section.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the drainage provisions behind the wall, as shown in the Drawings
viz: field tile or equivalent drain (connected to the storm water drainage system) and, for 300 mm back
from the rear face of the wall, free-draining fill material. Refer Civil specifications.

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6. Piling
6.1 Bored Piling for Retention System

6.1.1 General
Piling works shall be executed in accordance with the Issued for Construction drawings, this Specification
and relevant standards listed in Section 1.

In the event that the provisions of other standards cause ambiguity or conflict with the requirements of
this Specification, the latter shall take precedence unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall engage a suitably qualified engineer to determine the allowable vibration limits for
the works and propose a suitable vibration monitoring plan with the stipulated vibration limits stated. The
vibration limits and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of any piling works.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer for approval at least two weeks prior to
commencement of piling works. The information required and the format of records shall be in a standard
template prepared by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. It shall include, but not limited to, the
following: length of temporary casing, details of the constituent materials of any drilling fluid used for
stabilization, the method of inspection, details of the concrete design mix, concreting method, the
minimum time between the completion of one pile and the commencement of the next, and the pattern of
construction.

The Contractor shall submit a pile installation plan to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of pile working. The proposed sequence and timing of pile installation shall be such that
the installation works shall not cause any damage to adjacent piles. Piling works shall not commence
until approval of the Engineer has been obtained.

Unless otherwise described in this section, reinforcement and concrete for piling work shall comply with
the requirements of Concreting Work and Reinforcement Steel Bars in this Specification.

6.1.2 Piling installation

kk. Setting Out


The Contractor shall employ an approved Licensed Surveyor who will set up the positions of the piles as
shown in the Issued for Construction drawings. The Contractor will be responsible for the accuracy of
location and positioning of each pile.

The Contractor shall preserve the pegs set out by the Surveyor. Should any peg be displaced or lost it
must be replaced by a Licensed Surveyor to the approval of the Engineer. Upon completion of all piling
works, the Contractor shall produce as-built drawings showing the positions of all piles as installed. The
positions of piles shall be verified by a Licensed Surveyor.

ll. Tolerances
10. Position
The pile heads shall be positioned as shown on the Issued for Construction drawings within a maximum
deviation of 75mm in either direction from its design position.

11. Verticality
For bored cast-in-situ piles, the maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical at any
level is 1(H) in 150 (V). The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of Engineer the pile
verticality is within the allowable tolerance.

12. Correction
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Should piles be installed outside these tolerances affecting the design, the Contractor shall propose and
carry out immediate remedy measure to the approval of the Engineer.

mm. Drilling Fluid


Where drilling fluid is required to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the proposed drilling fluid mix must
be included in the method statement and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Unless specified otherwise by the manufacturer, bentonite slurry properties shall comply with follows:

16. The density measured using a mud balance shall be about 1.12 g/ml.
17. The Marsh viscosity (946ml) tested in accordance with ASTM D6910 shall be 40±10 seconds.
18. pH value measured using a pH meter shall be between 8 to 11 inclusive.
19. The sand content tested in accordance with ASTM D4381 shall be less than 5%.
20. Fluid loss tested in accordance with ASTM D5891 shall be less than 18 ml/30 mins.
Properties of drilling fluid other than bentonite shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The frequency of testing and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Piling
Contractor and submitted to the Engineer together with the pile installation plan for approval. As a
minimum, the drilling fluid shall be tested for:

13. Fresh drilling fluid;


14. Drilling fluid taken from the bottom of bore hole before concreting;
15. Circulated drilling fluid after desanding; and
16. Drilling fluid left in the bore holes for more than 12 hours.
The circulated drilling fluid may be reused provided the tested properties fall within the range as specified
above.

nn. Boring and Excavation


The piling rig must be capable of installing piles to the depth as shown on the Issued for Construction
drawings with provision for contingencies.

The side of all boreholes shall be kept intact and no loose material shall be permitted to fall into the
bottom of the boreholes.

The borehole shall be filled with drilling fluid to an adequate level to sufficiently stabilize the borehole
when drilling fluid is used during drilling. If drilling fluid alone is not sufficient to prevent the ground water
from intrusion or the borehole side walls from collapse, temporary casings of appropriate size and length
shall be used in conjunction with the drilling fluid to support the side of the borehole

Where temporary casings are employed to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the bottom of casing
shall be kept a minimum of one meter or more below the unstable strata to prevent the inflow of soil and
the formation of cavities in the surrounding ground.

Temporary casings shall be thin-walled mild steel cylindrical casing, spirally welded or other similar
construction. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand without damage or
distortion all handling, construction and ground stresses to which they will be subjected, including
preventing concrete from within the pile from displacing soft soil or soil squeezing in and displacing fresh
concrete. The casings shall have an internal diameter not less than the specified pile diameter. They
shall be free of significant distortion, of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length and free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles. The
joints of casings shall be reasonably watertight.

If temporary casings are damaged during installation in a manner which prevents the proper formation of
the pile, such casings shall be withdrawn from the bore before concrete is placed, repaired if necessary
or other action taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

The pile toe shall be founded at the levels shown on the Issued for Construction drawings.

oo. Spillage and Disposal

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All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of drilling fluid on the site in areas outside the
immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded drilling fluid shall be removed from the site without delay. In
disposal of unwanted drilling fluid, the Contractor shall comply with government regulations and shall
propose a proper disposal method to be approved by the Engineer.

pp. Cleaning Out


Upon completion of boring, the bottom of the bored hole shall be cleaned of all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil and sediment soil to expose a firm base of undisturbed material using a suitable and
effective method to be approved by the Engineer.

All boreholes shall be protected from the possibility of any surface water entering the hole from time to
time and until the hole is completed and ready to be concreted.

qq. Inspection of bored holes


Where practicable, all boreholes shall be inspected for their full length before concreting. Inspection shall
be carried out from the ground level by the Engineer prior to concrete being placed in the borehole. For
such inspection to be carried out safely, the Contractor shall provide all facilities and assistance to enable
the inspection to be done.

The base of the boring shall be inspected by approved method to ensure that all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil is removed and that the sides of the boring will remain stable during the subsequent
concreting operations. The verticality and position of the boring shall be checked to ensure that they
meet the specified tolerances.

rr. Placement of Reinforcement


Reinforcement cages shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that they remain at correct level during the lifting
and placing of the concrete and the extraction of temporary lining tubes.

Reinforcement shall be maintained in its correct position during concreting of the pile.

Concrete spacers shall be provided at every three meter intervals. Details by which the Contractor plans
to ensure the correct cover to and position of the reinforcement shall be approved by the Engineer.

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 meters in length shall be in one
continuous length unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a method statement on the manner by which he intends to lower
reinforcement cages into pile shafts. Where tack welding is carried out on pile reinforcement for the
purpose of hoisting, such welding shall be located only within the top 100mm of each reinforcement
cage.

Reinforcement shall be free from rust and mud and not be placed until inspected and accepted. If required by
the Engineer, reinforcement cages shall be flushed with fresh water to remove accumulated salts or other
deposits immediately prior to lowering into the pile shaft.

ss. Concreting in bored holes


Before placing concrete, agreed measures shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that there is no
accumulation of contaminated drilling fluid, silt or other deleterious material at the base of the bore.
Contaminated drilling fluid could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe and affecting the
performance of the pile.

Concrete to be placed under drilling fluid shall be placed using a tremie concrete pipe in accordance with
relevant design standards listed in Section 1.

Concrete placement shall be halted should a delay or breakdown occur during the concreting operation
which in the opinion of the Engineer, could cause a cold joint, entrapment of latency in the tremie
concrete, or otherwise lead to defective concrete. Before the remainder of the pile shaft can be
concreted, the pile shall be dewatered and the top surface of the tremie concrete cut back to sound
concrete and cleaned of all laitance and weak concrete. The remainder of the pile shall either be cast by

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tremie or in the dry, as directed by the Engineer. If this remedial work cannot be carried out due to
construction difficulty, the Contractor will need to construct a replacement pile.

The concrete for each pile shall be from the same source. The Contractor is to ensure that the supply
from whatever source (whether site-mixed or ready-mixed) is of sufficient quantity so that concrete for
each pile shall be placed without such interruption.

The actual volume of concrete used for each pile must be measured and compared with the calculated
volume required. If the difference between these two volumes indicates a possible necking, the
Contractor shall propose and carry out appropriate tests and measures to the approval of the Engineer to
ensure the adequacy of the pile.

Any consequences causing the pile to be rejected by the Engineer due to supply of concrete shall be at
the Contractor's own risk.

The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic
concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed. The method of placing shall be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and the placement of
concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in the pile shaft. No spoil, liquid or other deleterious matter shall
be allowed to contaminate the concrete.

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within remains sufficiently workable to ensure
that the concrete is not lifted and that the resultant pile is continuous and of full section. Temporary
casings shall be extracted not more than two hours after concreting has completed.

When casings are withdrawn as concreting proceeds, a sufficient head of concrete shall be maintained to
prevent the entry of ground water which may cause reduction of cross-section of the pile. No concrete
shall be placed after the bottom of the casings has been lifted above the top of the concrete. Concrete
shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained.

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where the withdrawal of casing could result in excess
heads of water or drilling fluid. Excess pressure heads are caused by the displacement of water or fluid
by concrete as the concrete flows into its final position against the wall of the shaft. Precautions such as
the use of two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) shall be deemed an acceptable
method of construction in this case.

The top of the pile shall be brought above the required cut-off level by an amount sufficient to ensure a
sound concrete at cut-off level and the surplus removed to ensure satisfactory bonding of the pile head to
the capping beam.

tt. Sequence of Installation


The Contractor shall undertake piling works in accordance with the approved piling installation plan. Any
pile to be installed near to a recently installed pile shall be at least 3 times pile diameter away from the
recently installed pile. The commencement of installation of such nearby piles shall not be less than 24
hours after the completion of concreting of the recently installed pile.

The Engineer reserves the right to order changes to the approved sequence of piling if, based on work
completed, he considers it necessary to do so. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra
payment for additional plant movements, etc. resulting from such an order.

uu. Rejected Piles


Any piling work rejected by the Engineer not truly constructed and installed in accordance with this
Specification shall be replaced or rectified by the Contractor with his own cost to the approval of the
Engineer and this includes reinstallation of piles, and the design and construction of a modified
foundation and also constructing of additional compensation piles.

vv. Piling Records


The Contractor shall keep a record of each pile installed and shall furnish signed copies to the Engineer
daily. The information required and the format of records shall be in standard formats as approved by the
Engineer. As and when required the Engineer may ask for additional information or modify the standard
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formats. Such forms shall be provided by the Contractor before the commencement of piling work at his
expense.

Details of soil strata drilled and ground water level, if encountered during drilling, shall be recorded and
submitted. Levels of all strata changes shall be clearly recorded.

6.1.3 Piling tests


The Contractor shall allow carrying out integrity tests on 20% of piles, as nominated on the drawings or
by the Engineer for testing and detection of major faults, necking, discontinuities, and cross sectional
areas of the piles. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a testing program for approval at least two
weeks prior to the commencement of testing.

Integrity testing and reporting shall be carried out in accordance with requirements in DPWH Volume IIby
an independent testing organization approved by the Engineer.

If the results of the tests show that the pile or piles are defective, the pile or piles shall be treated as
faulty and shall be rejected unless the Contractor can demonstrate to the approval of the Engineer
effective remedial measures that will be carried out.

The results of tests shall be printed out immediately during tests with printer facility at site and submit to
the Engineer at site. The Engineer's interpretations and conclusions arrived at on the test results shall be
final.

6.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring

6.2.1 General
The Contractor shall engage specialist sub-contractors approved by the Engineer to install and monitor
instrumentation prior to the commencement of excavation and construction and throughout the Contract.
The instrumentation shall comprise ground surface and building settlement markers, and inclinometers.

The Contractor shall ensure that the drill hole locations for the instrumentation are clear of existing
underground services prior to commencement of drilling. In order to avoid any utilities and services the
required drill hole positions may be adjusted on Site to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any damage and any claims arising from such damage and shall make every
effort to make good the damage or have the damage made good as quickly as possible.

The Contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and permissions required from the local Authorities in
connection with the drilling and other instrumentation works prior to commencing the work. The
contractor shall bear the costs of all fees, charges, levies etc., which are payable to the Authorities in the
course of executing the Works.

6.2.2 Ground surface and building settlement markers


The Contractor shall engage a registered land surveyor approved by the Engineer to monitor the
settlement of the ground surface, buildings and other structures as indicated on the construction
drawings.

Details of typical acceptable installations for ground and building settlement points are shown on the
construction drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of any alternative
installations. The Contractor shall install survey nails of approved design as and when instructed by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall install the ground and building settlement markers prior to and during the excavation
and construction works, at locations agreed with the Engineer. The registered surveyor shall establish
the initial (datum) level of each survey point and submit records to the Engineer. The datum readings
shall be submitted prior to any excavation and construction works, unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer.

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The registered surveyor shall monitor and record the levels of the survey points throughout the duration
of the works, using a precise level and staff accurate to 0.5mm or better.

The frequency of survey readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be determined by
the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit the level readings on the survey points to the Engineer, both in approved
tabular and graphical formats, not later than 24 hours from the time of reading. The submission shall be
accompanied by scaled layout plans showing the locations of the ground and building settlement points
and survey nails which are surveyed.

6.2.3 Inclinometers
The Contractor shall engage an approved specialist sub-contractor to install inclinometer tubes in drill
holes sunk for this purpose and to monitor the inclinometers throughout the excavation and construction
works. Provisional inclinometer locations are shown on the instrumentation drawings. The depths of the
inclinometers will be determined by the Engineer.

Details of a typical inclinometer installation (in a drillhole) are shown on Drawing XXX. The Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of the installation including surface protection that he
proposes to adopt.

The material and method of installation of the inclinometer tubing shall be in accordance with the written
instructions of the manufacturer of the equipment. These instructions shall be submitted to the Engineer
for approval prior to the commencement of installation.

The backfilling grout shall be a bentonite cement mix with strength comparable to that of the surrounding
soil. The specialist sub-contractor shall submit full details of the proposed grout mix for the approval of
the Engineer. When required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall perform trial mixes and tests such
as laboratory unconfined tri-axial compression tests or vane shear tests to ensure the suitability of the
proposed grout mix.

Prior to installation, the end edges and the keyways of the inclinometer tubing’s shall be examined and
the sub-contractor shall remove any damaged tubing’s and provide replacements when required to do so
by the Engineer. The inclinometer tubing shall be inserted into the drill hole inside the temporary casing.
The top and bottom of the inclinometer tubing shall be fitted with an end cap and all tubing couplings
shall be riveted connections. While connecting the tubing’s, the inserted section shall be securely
clamped at ground level and the next section connected to it. All completed connections shall be
sufficiently wrapped with sealing tape to prevent ingress of grout. The tubes shall be filled with water to
overcome buoyancy.

After insertion of the inclinometer tubing, the hole shall be backfilled by pumping grout through a tremie
pipe. All grout mix quantities shall be monitored and recorded and submitted to the Engineer with full
details of the installation. Where required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall take samples of the
grout being used, for curing and subsequent strength testing. The grout shall be pumped initially to fill
the hole to the top of the temporary casing. The casing shall then be extracted in such a manner that the
level of the grout inside the hole shall be at all times higher than the bottom of the casing.

The sub-contractor shall flush the tubing’s after installation to remove all solids and flush again after two
days. The Contractor's registered surveyor shall determine the level of the top of the inclinometer tubing
after final trimming and the level shall be recorded on the installation record.

The sub-contractor shall keep full details of the drilling and installation and submit a complete record to
the Engineer within two working days after installation. The format of the record sheet shall be approved
by the Engineer prior to commencement of work.

The frequency of inclinometer readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be
determined by the Engineer.

The inclinometer readings shall be presented in both tabular and graphical formats which are to be
approved by the Engineer. Readings together with scaled layout plans showing the locations of the
inclinometers are to be submitted to the Engineer not later than 24 hours after they are taken.
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Concreting.
b. Expansion Joint Filler
Unless otherwise ordered, the preformed joint filler shall have a thickness of 5 mm and shall conform to
the requirements of Item 2.10,Portland Cement Concrete Pavement.

c. Forms
Forms shall be of wood or metal as approved by the Engineer and shall extend to the full depth of the
concrete. All forms shall be straight, free from warps and of adequate strength to resist distortion.

d. Bed Course Material


Bed course material consists of cinders, sand, slag, gravel, and crushed stone or other approved
permeable granular material of such grading that all particles shall pass a 12.5 mm (1/2 inch) sieve.

6.2.4 Construction Requirements

a. Cement Concrete Sidewalk


Excavation shall be as specified above. The bed course material shall be placed in accordance with the
Item 2.7, Aggregate Subbase Course.

All forms shall be staked securely in position at the correct line and level. Preformed joint filler shall be
set in position shown on the Plans before placing of the concrete is started. The top of the joint filler shall
be placed 5 mm below the top surface of the finished sidewalk.

The mixing, placing, finishing and curing of concrete shall be as specified in Item 9.1,

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Building Excavation and Filing

6.3 Excavation for Building Works


6.3.1 Extent

Locate underground services before any work is started. Check with Territorial Authorities and services
providers for details and locations of services within and adjacent to the area of the works. Any
information provided by the Principal will be from available drawn records but with no guarantees as to
location, depth, alignment, or if everything present has actually been shown.
In sealed areas, saw cut the edges of the excavation in straight lines, to ensure a neat finish can be
achieved at restitution.

Remove all topsoil, rubbish, vegetation, and loose material. Excavate to the depths shown in the
Drawings. Allow clearance for formwork and working space as necessary. Do not remove topsoil or
excavate within the drip line of retained trees etc. unless directed, and then only by hand methods to
avoid damage to roots etc.

The Engineer shall approve all excavations before any following works begin, and the Engineer may
order the Contractor to vary the depths and/or widths as work proceeds.

The word "approve" and its derivatives when used in relation to ground prepared for the execution of the
Contract Works shall mean acceptance by the Engineer that the ground as prepared meets the
requirements of the design for the construction which is to be placed on that ground, which approval shall
be automatically cancelled if any change whatsoever arising from any cause whatsoever occurs to that
ground before it is protected by the construction in question, thus necessitating an up-to-date approval by
the Engineer before construction may proceed.

Protect survey pegs and bench marks, and any other features marked to be retained.

6.3.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations

Secure and maintain all excavations and keep them clear of water and fallen materials. Provide and
maintain shoring, planking strutting, pumping, baling, as required and for safety.

The Contractor shall plan and execute his work so that, as soon as he has reached a level at which the
excavation is approved by the Engineer, he shall be able to protect such excavated surface effectively
against damage. Should the Contractor fail to provide adequate protection (resulting in the Engineer's
approval being withdrawn), he shall excavate over the area in question to a further level approved by the
Engineer, such additional excavation and the consequential additional backfilling being at no extra cost to
the Principal.

Form sumps outside the foundation lines and pump from those. Undertake silt control measures if
discharging to the storm water drainage system.

6.3.3 Contractor’s Risk

The following are contractual risks that the Contractor is required to allow for in his price and rates:
i. No extension of time shall be granted in respect of Variations to the amounts of excavations and
consequential following work ordered by the Engineer as 3.1.1 EXTENT above.
j. Variations in its nature from part to part of the Site which the Engineer, in his absolute discretion,
considers to be of a minor nature only, shall not entitle the Contractor to alter his quoted rates.

6.3.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials

Turf and topsoil shall be stockpiled on Site where directed by the Engineer. All other excavated materials
shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

All excavated material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the
Site.

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Approved excavated hard filling shall be re-used. Any contaminated hard fill and all other excavated
material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

6.4 Filling for Building Work


6.4.1 Extent

The whole of the space between the approved excavated surface and the underside of the concrete
construction of the structure shall be filled as under. The minimum depth of compacted hard filling shall
be 150 mm.

6.4.2 Materials

q. The top 150 mm of all fill beneath the structure shall consist of 50 mm all-in clean graded hard fill for
which the Los Angeles abrasion loss shall not exceed 40% and the Plasticity Index shall not exceed
8.
r. Below that level, clean hard fill as above but containing no pieces larger than 150 mm may be used.
s. All trenches under the 2GL Glucose Extension shall be backfilled with hard fill as above.
t. The Engineer will require approving hard fill material before it is placed.

6.4.3 Construction

Where ground is to be filled, hard fill shall be used, compacted in layers not exceeding 200 mm (loose)
thickness by at least 12 passes of an 8 tonne roller. The standard of compaction achieved shall be such
that a slow pass of the roller (or if in the opinion of the Engineer the use of such a roller would be
impracticable, an equivalent pass) discloses no perceptible vertical movement of the hard fill.

Should any hard fill become contaminated or should any placed filling be disturbed by any cause
whatsoever, such hard fill shall be dug out, replaced and re-compacted to the Engineer's directive at no
cost to the Principal.

6.4.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to be stable
under the full load until such time as the wall concrete and the slab on top of the wall have reached the
designed strength. Therefore, in order to be able to safely backfill and compact behind the wall, the
Contractor shall take whatever steps may be necessary in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent
any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to withstand
the action of compacting machinery behind and above it until such time as the wall concrete has reached
its designed strength. Should the Contractor wish to backfill and compact before this concrete has
reached its designed strength he shall be wholly responsible for taking whatever steps may be necessary
in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has been designed solely to retain
the material behind it and not at any time to withstand the weight and effect of compacting machinery
behind it. The Contractor is therefore wholly responsible for taking all measures necessary in the way of
shoring, strutting etc., to ensure that no damage occurs to the wall during this operation.

6.4.5 Waterproof Structure

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the waterproofing treatment of the retaining wall and he shall be
wholly responsible for providing physical protection to this waterproofing, (such as flat sheeting) to
ensure no damage is inflicted on the waterproofing. The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for
providing a waterproof structure. Refer Tanking section.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the drainage provisions behind the wall, as shown in the Drawings
viz: field tile or equivalent drain (connected to the storm water drainage system) and, for 300 mm back
from the rear face of the wall, free-draining fill material. Refer Civil specifications.

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7. Piling
7.1 Bored Piling for Retention System

7.1.1 General
Piling works shall be executed in accordance with the Issued for Construction drawings, this Specification
and relevant standards listed in Section 1.

In the event that the provisions of other standards cause ambiguity or conflict with the requirements of
this Specification, the latter shall take precedence unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall engage a suitably qualified engineer to determine the allowable vibration limits for
the works and propose a suitable vibration monitoring plan with the stipulated vibration limits stated. The
vibration limits and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of any piling works.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer for approval at least two weeks prior to
commencement of piling works. The information required and the format of records shall be in a standard
template prepared by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. It shall include, but not limited to, the
following: length of temporary casing, details of the constituent materials of any drilling fluid used for
stabilization, the method of inspection, details of the concrete design mix, concreting method, the
minimum time between the completion of one pile and the commencement of the next, and the pattern of
construction.

The Contractor shall submit a pile installation plan to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of pile working. The proposed sequence and timing of pile installation shall be such that
the installation works shall not cause any damage to adjacent piles. Piling works shall not commence
until approval of the Engineer has been obtained.

Unless otherwise described in this section, reinforcement and concrete for piling work shall comply with
the requirements of Concreting Work and Reinforcement Steel Bars in this Specification.

7.1.2 Piling installation

ww. Setting Out


The Contractor shall employ an approved Licensed Surveyor who will set up the positions of the piles as
shown in the Issued for Construction drawings. The Contractor will be responsible for the accuracy of
location and positioning of each pile.

The Contractor shall preserve the pegs set out by the Surveyor. Should any peg be displaced or lost it
must be replaced by a Licensed Surveyor to the approval of the Engineer. Upon completion of all piling
works, the Contractor shall produce as-built drawings showing the positions of all piles as installed. The
positions of piles shall be verified by a Licensed Surveyor.

xx. Tolerances
13. Position
The pile heads shall be positioned as shown on the Issued for Construction drawings within a maximum
deviation of 75mm in either direction from its design position.

14. Verticality
For bored cast-in-situ piles, the maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical at any
level is 1(H) in 150 (V). The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of Engineer the pile
verticality is within the allowable tolerance.

15. Correction
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Should piles be installed outside these tolerances affecting the design, the Contractor shall propose and
carry out immediate remedy measure to the approval of the Engineer.

yy. Drilling Fluid


Where drilling fluid is required to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the proposed drilling fluid mix must
be included in the method statement and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Unless specified otherwise by the manufacturer, bentonite slurry properties shall comply with follows:

21. The density measured using a mud balance shall be about 1.12 g/ml.
22. The Marsh viscosity (946ml) tested in accordance with ASTM D6910 shall be 40±10 seconds.
23. pH value measured using a pH meter shall be between 8 to 11 inclusive.
24. The sand content tested in accordance with ASTM D4381 shall be less than 5%.
25. Fluid loss tested in accordance with ASTM D5891 shall be less than 18 ml/30 mins.
Properties of drilling fluid other than bentonite shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The frequency of testing and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Piling
Contractor and submitted to the Engineer together with the pile installation plan for approval. As a
minimum, the drilling fluid shall be tested for:

17. Fresh drilling fluid;


18. Drilling fluid taken from the bottom of bore hole before concreting;
19. Circulated drilling fluid after desanding; and
20. Drilling fluid left in the bore holes for more than 12 hours.
The circulated drilling fluid may be reused provided the tested properties fall within the range as specified
above.

zz. Boring and Excavation


The piling rig must be capable of installing piles to the depth as shown on the Issued for Construction
drawings with provision for contingencies.

The side of all boreholes shall be kept intact and no loose material shall be permitted to fall into the
bottom of the boreholes.

The borehole shall be filled with drilling fluid to an adequate level to sufficiently stabilize the borehole
when drilling fluid is used during drilling. If drilling fluid alone is not sufficient to prevent the ground water
from intrusion or the borehole side walls from collapse, temporary casings of appropriate size and length
shall be used in conjunction with the drilling fluid to support the side of the borehole

Where temporary casings are employed to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the bottom of casing
shall be kept a minimum of one meter or more below the unstable strata to prevent the inflow of soil and
the formation of cavities in the surrounding ground.

Temporary casings shall be thin-walled mild steel cylindrical casing, spirally welded or other similar
construction. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand without damage or
distortion all handling, construction and ground stresses to which they will be subjected, including
preventing concrete from within the pile from displacing soft soil or soil squeezing in and displacing fresh
concrete. The casings shall have an internal diameter not less than the specified pile diameter. They
shall be free of significant distortion, of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length and free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles. The
joints of casings shall be reasonably watertight.

If temporary casings are damaged during installation in a manner which prevents the proper formation of
the pile, such casings shall be withdrawn from the bore before concrete is placed, repaired if necessary
or other action taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

The pile toe shall be founded at the levels shown on the Issued for Construction drawings.

aaa. Spillage and Disposal

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All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of drilling fluid on the site in areas outside the
immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded drilling fluid shall be removed from the site without delay. In
disposal of unwanted drilling fluid, the Contractor shall comply with government regulations and shall
propose a proper disposal method to be approved by the Engineer.

bbb. Cleaning Out


Upon completion of boring, the bottom of the bored hole shall be cleaned of all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil and sediment soil to expose a firm base of undisturbed material using a suitable and
effective method to be approved by the Engineer.

All boreholes shall be protected from the possibility of any surface water entering the hole from time to
time and until the hole is completed and ready to be concreted.

ccc. Inspection of bored holes


Where practicable, all boreholes shall be inspected for their full length before concreting. Inspection shall
be carried out from the ground level by the Engineer prior to concrete being placed in the borehole. For
such inspection to be carried out safely, the Contractor shall provide all facilities and assistance to enable
the inspection to be done.

The base of the boring shall be inspected by approved method to ensure that all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil is removed and that the sides of the boring will remain stable during the subsequent
concreting operations. The verticality and position of the boring shall be checked to ensure that they
meet the specified tolerances.

ddd. Placement of Reinforcement


Reinforcement cages shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that they remain at correct level during the lifting
and placing of the concrete and the extraction of temporary lining tubes.

Reinforcement shall be maintained in its correct position during concreting of the pile.

Concrete spacers shall be provided at every three meter intervals. Details by which the Contractor plans
to ensure the correct cover to and position of the reinforcement shall be approved by the Engineer.

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 meters in length shall be in one
continuous length unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a method statement on the manner by which he intends to lower
reinforcement cages into pile shafts. Where tack welding is carried out on pile reinforcement for the
purpose of hoisting, such welding shall be located only within the top 100mm of each reinforcement
cage.

Reinforcement shall be free from rust and mud and not be placed until inspected and accepted. If required by
the Engineer, reinforcement cages shall be flushed with fresh water to remove accumulated salts or other
deposits immediately prior to lowering into the pile shaft.

eee. Concreting in bored holes


Before placing concrete, agreed measures shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that there is no
accumulation of contaminated drilling fluid, silt or other deleterious material at the base of the bore.
Contaminated drilling fluid could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe and affecting the
performance of the pile.

Concrete to be placed under drilling fluid shall be placed using a tremie concrete pipe in accordance with
relevant design standards listed in Section 1.

Concrete placement shall be halted should a delay or breakdown occur during the concreting operation
which in the opinion of the Engineer, could cause a cold joint, entrapment of latency in the tremie
concrete, or otherwise lead to defective concrete. Before the remainder of the pile shaft can be
concreted, the pile shall be dewatered and the top surface of the tremie concrete cut back to sound
concrete and cleaned of all laitance and weak concrete. The remainder of the pile shall either be cast by

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tremie or in the dry, as directed by the Engineer. If this remedial work cannot be carried out due to
construction difficulty, the Contractor will need to construct a replacement pile.

The concrete for each pile shall be from the same source. The Contractor is to ensure that the supply
from whatever source (whether site-mixed or ready-mixed) is of sufficient quantity so that concrete for
each pile shall be placed without such interruption.

The actual volume of concrete used for each pile must be measured and compared with the calculated
volume required. If the difference between these two volumes indicates a possible necking, the
Contractor shall propose and carry out appropriate tests and measures to the approval of the Engineer to
ensure the adequacy of the pile.

Any consequences causing the pile to be rejected by the Engineer due to supply of concrete shall be at
the Contractor's own risk.

The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic
concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed. The method of placing shall be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and the placement of
concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in the pile shaft. No spoil, liquid or other deleterious matter shall
be allowed to contaminate the concrete.

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within remains sufficiently workable to ensure
that the concrete is not lifted and that the resultant pile is continuous and of full section. Temporary
casings shall be extracted not more than two hours after concreting has completed.

When casings are withdrawn as concreting proceeds, a sufficient head of concrete shall be maintained to
prevent the entry of ground water which may cause reduction of cross-section of the pile. No concrete
shall be placed after the bottom of the casings has been lifted above the top of the concrete. Concrete
shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained.

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where the withdrawal of casing could result in excess
heads of water or drilling fluid. Excess pressure heads are caused by the displacement of water or fluid
by concrete as the concrete flows into its final position against the wall of the shaft. Precautions such as
the use of two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) shall be deemed an acceptable
method of construction in this case.

The top of the pile shall be brought above the required cut-off level by an amount sufficient to ensure a
sound concrete at cut-off level and the surplus removed to ensure satisfactory bonding of the pile head to
the capping beam.

fff. Sequence of Installation


The Contractor shall undertake piling works in accordance with the approved piling installation plan. Any
pile to be installed near to a recently installed pile shall be at least 3 times pile diameter away from the
recently installed pile. The commencement of installation of such nearby piles shall not be less than 24
hours after the completion of concreting of the recently installed pile.

The Engineer reserves the right to order changes to the approved sequence of piling if, based on work
completed, he considers it necessary to do so. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra
payment for additional plant movements, etc. resulting from such an order.

ggg. Rejected Piles


Any piling work rejected by the Engineer not truly constructed and installed in accordance with this
Specification shall be replaced or rectified by the Contractor with his own cost to the approval of the
Engineer and this includes reinstallation of piles, and the design and construction of a modified
foundation and also constructing of additional compensation piles.

hhh. Piling Records


The Contractor shall keep a record of each pile installed and shall furnish signed copies to the Engineer
daily. The information required and the format of records shall be in standard formats as approved by the
Engineer. As and when required the Engineer may ask for additional information or modify the standard
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formats. Such forms shall be provided by the Contractor before the commencement of piling work at his
expense.

Details of soil strata drilled and ground water level, if encountered during drilling, shall be recorded and
submitted. Levels of all strata changes shall be clearly recorded.

7.1.3 Piling tests


The Contractor shall allow carrying out integrity tests on 20% of piles, as nominated on the drawings or
by the Engineer for testing and detection of major faults, necking, discontinuities, and cross sectional
areas of the piles. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a testing program for approval at least two
weeks prior to the commencement of testing.

Integrity testing and reporting shall be carried out in accordance with requirements in DPWH Volume IIby
an independent testing organization approved by the Engineer.

If the results of the tests show that the pile or piles are defective, the pile or piles shall be treated as
faulty and shall be rejected unless the Contractor can demonstrate to the approval of the Engineer
effective remedial measures that will be carried out.

The results of tests shall be printed out immediately during tests with printer facility at site and submit to
the Engineer at site. The Engineer's interpretations and conclusions arrived at on the test results shall be
final.

7.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring

7.2.1 General
The Contractor shall engage specialist sub-contractors approved by the Engineer to install and monitor
instrumentation prior to the commencement of excavation and construction and throughout the Contract.
The instrumentation shall comprise ground surface and building settlement markers, and inclinometers.

The Contractor shall ensure that the drill hole locations for the instrumentation are clear of existing
underground services prior to commencement of drilling. In order to avoid any utilities and services the
required drill hole positions may be adjusted on Site to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any damage and any claims arising from such damage and shall make every
effort to make good the damage or have the damage made good as quickly as possible.

The Contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and permissions required from the local Authorities in
connection with the drilling and other instrumentation works prior to commencing the work. The
contractor shall bear the costs of all fees, charges, levies etc., which are payable to the Authorities in the
course of executing the Works.

7.2.2 Ground surface and building settlement markers


The Contractor shall engage a registered land surveyor approved by the Engineer to monitor the
settlement of the ground surface, buildings and other structures as indicated on the construction
drawings.

Details of typical acceptable installations for ground and building settlement points are shown on the
construction drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of any alternative
installations. The Contractor shall install survey nails of approved design as and when instructed by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall install the ground and building settlement markers prior to and during the excavation
and construction works, at locations agreed with the Engineer. The registered surveyor shall establish
the initial (datum) level of each survey point and submit records to the Engineer. The datum readings
shall be submitted prior to any excavation and construction works, unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer.

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The registered surveyor shall monitor and record the levels of the survey points throughout the duration
of the works, using a precise level and staff accurate to 0.5mm or better.

The frequency of survey readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be determined by
the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit the level readings on the survey points to the Engineer, both in approved
tabular and graphical formats, not later than 24 hours from the time of reading. The submission shall be
accompanied by scaled layout plans showing the locations of the ground and building settlement points
and survey nails which are surveyed.

7.2.3 Inclinometers
The Contractor shall engage an approved specialist sub-contractor to install inclinometer tubes in drill
holes sunk for this purpose and to monitor the inclinometers throughout the excavation and construction
works. Provisional inclinometer locations are shown on the instrumentation drawings. The depths of the
inclinometers will be determined by the Engineer.

Details of a typical inclinometer installation (in a drillhole) are shown on Drawing XXX. The Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of the installation including surface protection that he
proposes to adopt.

The material and method of installation of the inclinometer tubing shall be in accordance with the written
instructions of the manufacturer of the equipment. These instructions shall be submitted to the Engineer
for approval prior to the commencement of installation.

The backfilling grout shall be a bentonite cement mix with strength comparable to that of the surrounding
soil. The specialist sub-contractor shall submit full details of the proposed grout mix for the approval of
the Engineer. When required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall perform trial mixes and tests such
as laboratory unconfined tri-axial compression tests or vane shear tests to ensure the suitability of the
proposed grout mix.

Prior to installation, the end edges and the keyways of the inclinometer tubing’s shall be examined and
the sub-contractor shall remove any damaged tubing’s and provide replacements when required to do so
by the Engineer. The inclinometer tubing shall be inserted into the drill hole inside the temporary casing.
The top and bottom of the inclinometer tubing shall be fitted with an end cap and all tubing couplings
shall be riveted connections. While connecting the tubing’s, the inserted section shall be securely
clamped at ground level and the next section connected to it. All completed connections shall be
sufficiently wrapped with sealing tape to prevent ingress of grout. The tubes shall be filled with water to
overcome buoyancy.

After insertion of the inclinometer tubing, the hole shall be backfilled by pumping grout through a tremie
pipe. All grout mix quantities shall be monitored and recorded and submitted to the Engineer with full
details of the installation. Where required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall take samples of the
grout being used, for curing and subsequent strength testing. The grout shall be pumped initially to fill
the hole to the top of the temporary casing. The casing shall then be extracted in such a manner that the
level of the grout inside the hole shall be at all times higher than the bottom of the casing.

The sub-contractor shall flush the tubing’s after installation to remove all solids and flush again after two
days. The Contractor's registered surveyor shall determine the level of the top of the inclinometer tubing
after final trimming and the level shall be recorded on the installation record.

The sub-contractor shall keep full details of the drilling and installation and submit a complete record to
the Engineer within two working days after installation. The format of the record sheet shall be approved
by the Engineer prior to commencement of work.

The frequency of inclinometer readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be
determined by the Engineer.

The inclinometer readings shall be presented in both tabular and graphical formats which are to be
approved by the Engineer. Readings together with scaled layout plans showing the locations of the
inclinometers are to be submitted to the Engineer not later than 24 hours after they are taken.
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Concreting. The Portland cement concrete shall be placed to the total depth shown on the plans.
The surface shall be cut through to a depth of 10 mm with a trowel at intervals of 1 m or, were required,
in straight lines perpendicular to the edge of sidewalk. The surface shall then be brushed. The edges of
the sidewalk and the transverse cuts shall be shaped with a suitable tool so formed as to round the
edges to a radius of 15 mm.

7.3 Interlocking Precast Concrete Blocks

7.3.1 Description
This work item shall consist of constructing/installing Interlocking Precast Concrete Blocks for paving and
for the protection of coastal areas and riverbeds, in conformity with the lines, grades and dimensions
shown in the plans and specifications.

The works will involve incidental excavation/trimming and embankment build-up; slope stabilization and
installation of appropriate Interlocking Precast Concrete Blocks; Precast Concrete Paving Blocks for
paving works.

7.3.2 Material Requirements

Interlocking Precast Concrete Blocks


a. Concrete Paving Blocks

Concrete paving blocks shall be free from defects that would interfere in the interlocking property or
impair the strength or performance of the units, individually or as a whole. It shall conform to ASTM C
936M, Standard Specification for Interlocking Concrete Paving Units.

Aggregates for concrete paving blocks shall be either lightweight or normal weight or a mixture of both. It
shall be lifted and placed with one hand, and have an exposed face area of less than or equal to 0.065
m2 with an aspect ratio (length divided by thickness) of less than or equal to 4.

A thickness of 60mm shall be given to concrete paving blocks laid along and over pedestrian areas and
driveways while 80 mm for areas under constant vehicular traffic.

Samples tested using ASTM C 418, Standard Test Methods for Abrasion Resistance of Concrete by
Sandblasting shall have a volume loss of not more than 15 cm3/ 50 cm2 and average thickness loss
shall not exceed 3mm. The average absorption shall not be less than or equal to 5%, with individual unit
of no greater than 7%.

The length or width of concrete paving blocks shall not differ by more than + 1.6 mm from approved
samples. Heights of units shall not differ more than +3.2 mm from the specified standard dimension.

b. Aggregate Base Material

Aggregate base materials shall conform to the applicable requirements of Item 2.8, Aggregate Base
Course.

c. Bedding sand

Bedding sand shall be clean, washed natural or manufactured sand which conforms to ASTMC 33M,
Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates.

d. Joint sand

Joint sand shall conform to ASTM C 144, Standard Specification for Aggregate for Masonry Mortar.

e. Edge Restraints

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Edge restraints are a key part of interlocking concrete paving blocks. By providing lateral resistance to
loads, they maintain continuity and interlock among the paving blocks. For pedestrian areas and
driveways, edge restraints shall be steel, aluminum, timber, troweled (hidden) concrete curb or plastic
edging specifically designed for concrete paving blocks. Formed or precast concrete restraints are
required for streets, parking lots and roads.

7.3.3 Construction Requirements

Concrete Paving Blocks


Compaction of sub grade shall be at least 98% of standard Proctor density as specified in ASTM D 698,
Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (600 kN-
m/m3). However, modified Proctor density (ASTM D 1557, Standard Test Method for Laboratory
Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (2,700 kN-m/m3» is preferred, especially for
areas under constant vehicular traffic.

In moist or wet areas, and where the soil is expansive, geotextile shall be installed to separate the soil
from the aggregate base. Bases for pedestrian areas and residential driveways shall be compacted a
minimum98% of standard Proctor density. For vehicular areas, compaction shall be at least 98% of
modified Proctor density as determined by ASTM D 1557, Standard Test Method for Laboratory
Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (2,700 kN-m/m3). Variation in final base surface
elevations shall not exceed +10 mm when tested with a 3 m straightedge.

Edge restraints shall be set at the correct level, especially if the tops of the restraints are used for
screeding the bedding sand. Their elevations shall be checked prior to placing the sand and concrete
paving blocks. Edge restraints are typically installed before the bedding sand and paving blocks are laid.
The sand shall be spread evenly over the base course and screeded to a nominal 25 mm thickness, not
exceeding 40 mm thickness. After the sand is screeded, it shall not be disturbed.

Concrete paving blocks shall be installed in accordance with patterns shown on the drawings. Typical
joints between the paving concrete blocks shall be between 2 mm to 5 mm wide on average. Cut
concrete paving blocks shall be used to fill gaps along the edge of the pavement. Gaps less than 10 mm
shall be filled with sand or filled by shifting courses of concrete paving blocks.

After a substantial area of concrete paving blocks have been placed, the concrete paving blocks shall be
compacted into the sand using a vibrating plate compactor which is capable of exerting a minimum of 22
kN of centrifugal compaction force and operate at 75- 90 hertz. Simultaneously, dry joint sand is swept
into the joints and the paving blocks shall be compacted again until the joints are full.

Final surface elevations shall not vary more than + 10 mm under a 3 m straightedge, unless otherwise
specified. The top of the concrete paving blocks shall be 3 to 10 mm above adjacent catch basins, utility
covers, or drain channels. The top of the installed concrete paving blocks shall be 3 to 6 mm above the
final elevations to compensate for possible minor settling. Sealers or joint sand stabilizers shall be
applied if needed.

7.3.4 Sampling and Testing


Sampling and Testing for Interlocking Concrete Blocks shall conform to ASTM C 140M, Sampling and
Testing Concrete Masonry Units and Related Units.

7.3.5 Delivery, Storage and Handling


Materials delivered to the site shall be inspected for damage, unloaded and stored atleast through proper
handling. The Contractor shall designate storage site ready for use before the materials are delivered.
Avoid leaving the delivered materials placed unattended on the ground where probable contact and/or
exposure to dirt and debris may occur. Materials shall be so handled with utmost care to ensure
undamaged condition upon delivery.

7.3.6 Method of Measurement

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The quantity to be paid for under this item shall be the number of square meter unit comprising the areas
shown in the plans where the Interlocking Precast Concrete Blocks will be laid and shall be determined
by direct measurements of the actual dimensions.

7.3.7 Basis of Payment


The quantity as determined in Subsection 7.3.2 shall be paid for at unit price stipulated in the Contract
Bill of Quantities. The payment shall constitute the full compensation for furnishing all the necessary
materials, providing necessary equipment and tools in installing the appropriate Interlocking Precast
Blocks, labor cost and all the incidental expenses necessary to complete the work.

Payment will be made under:

Pay Item Number Description Unit of Measurement


7.3.2 Concrete Paving Blocks Square Meter

7.4 Road Sign

7.4.1 Description
This Item shall consist of furnishing and installing road signs in accordance with this Specification and to
the details shown on the Plans, or as required by the Engineer.

The road signs shall comply in all respects with the “Philippine International Road Signs Manual”
published by the Department of Public Works and Highways, Manila. The categories of road signs are
designated in the Manual, namely, danger warning signs, regulatory signs and informative signs, or guide
signs. These are referred to in the Contract as warning signs and informatory signs, respectively.

Road signs shall be classified as standard or non-standard. Standard signs consist of all warning signs,
regulatory signs and informatory signs with the exception of direction signs, place identification signs and
the line. Non-standard signs consist of all informatory signs which are not classified as standard signs.

The size of warning and regulatory signs is the length of the side of triangular signs (measured from the
points of intersection of the extension of the edges), the horizontal width of octagonal signs and the
diameter of circular signs.

7.4.2 Reflective Sheeting


The reflective sheeting used on the road signs shall consist of spherical lens elements embedded within
a transparent plastic having a smooth, flat surface with a protected precoat adhesive which shall be
pressure sensitive for manual application, or tack free heat activated for mechanical vacuum-heat
application.

The minimum reflective brightness values of the reflective sheeting as compared to a magnesium oxide
(MgO) shall be as given in Table 7.4.2. The brightness of the reflective sheeting totally wet by rain shall
be not less than 90% of the given values.

Table 7.4.2– Reflective Brightness of Traffic Signs Surfaces

Minimum Reflective
Angle of
Color Angle of Incidence Brightness Value
Divergence
Compared with MgO
-40 0.50 15
Red 200 0.50 10
500 0.50 3
-40 0.50 75
White
200 0.50 70

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500 0.50 70
-40 0.50 35
Yellow 200 0.50 35
500 0.50 10
-40 0.50 6
Blue 200 0.50 4.5
500 0.50 0.5

The reflective sheeting shall be sufficiently flexible to permit application and adhesion to a moderately
embossed surface. It shall show no damage when bent 90oC over a 50 mm diameter mandrel.

The sheeting shall be solvent-resistant so as to be capable of withstanding cleaning with petrol, diesel
fuel, mineral spirits, and turpentine methanol.

The sheeting shall show no cracking or reduction in reflectivity after being subjected to the dropping of a
25 mm diameter steel ball from a height of 2 m into its surface.

The adhesive shall permit the reflective sheeting to adhere accurately 48 hours after application of
temperatures of up to 90oC.

The reflective material shall be weather-resistant and, following cleaning in accordance with
manufacturer’s recommendations, shall show no discoloration, cracking, blistering, peeling or any
dimensional change.

Samples of reflective sheeting shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

7.4.3 Posts and Frames


Wide flange posts and frames shall be fabricated from structural steel conforming to ASTM A 283 Grade
D. In lieu of wide flange steel posts, the Contractor may use tubular steel posts conforming to ASTM A
501. All posts shall be thoroughly cleaned, free from grease, scale and rust and shall be given one coat
of rust-inhibiting priming paint and two coats of gray paint.

7.4.4 Nuts and Bolts


Nuts, bolts, washers and other metal parts shall be hot-dip galvanized after fabrication in accordance
with the requirements of AASHTO M 111.

7.4.5 Concrete Foundation Blocks


The concrete for the foundation blocks shall be Class A in accordance with Item 10.1 works and shall be
of the size shown on the Plans.

7.4.6 Excavation and Backfilling


Holes shall be excavated to the required depth to the bottom of the concrete foundation as shown on the
Plans.

Backfilling shall be carried out by using suitable material approved by the Engineer and shall be
compacted in layers not exceeding 150 mm in depth. Surplus excavated material shall be disposed of by
the Contractor as directed by the Engineer.

7.4.7 Erection of Posts


The posts shall be erected vertically in position inside the formwork of the foundation block prior to the
placing of the concrete and shall be adequately supported by bracing to prevent movement of the post
during the placing and setting of concrete. The posts shall be located at the positions shown on the
Plans.

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7.4.8 Sign Panel Installation


Sign panels shall be installed in accordance with the details shown on the Plans. Any chipping or
bending of the sign panels shall be considered as sufficient cause to require replacement of the panels at
the Contractor’s expense.

The exposed portion of the fastening hardware on the face of the signs shall be painted with enamels
matching the background color.

All newly erected traffic road signs shall be covered until ordered removed by the Engineer.

7.5 Pavement Markings

7.5.1 Description
This item shall consist of placing markings on the finished pavement. The work shall include the
furnishing of premixed reflectorized traffic paint or reflectorized pavement marking paint conforming to
the requirements of AASHTO M 248, whichever is called for in the Contract, sampling and packing,
preparing the surface, and applying the paint to the pavement surface, all in accordance with this
Specification.

The paint shall be applied to the size, shape and location of the markings shown on the Plans, or as
required by the Engineer.

7.5.2 Premixed Reflectorized Traffic Paints


Premixed reflectorized traffic paint is a paint in which the glass beads are mixed in the paint during the
process of manufacture, so that upon application and drying, the paint line is capable of retroreflection of
the light beams.

Premixed reflectorized traffic paints which are available in both white and yellow are paints that provide
reflective marking for concrete, bituminous, bricks or stone surface of highways, tunnels, streets, parking
lots and airports.

Classification
Premixed reflectorized traffic paint shall be classified according to the following types based on the
vehicles used:

 Type I – Alkyd
 Type II – Chlorinated Rubber Alkyd

7.5.3 Material Requirements


The paint shall consist of pigments, vehicles and glass beads so combined as to produce a paint that will
conform to the following requirements.

a. Condition in container – The packaged material shall be free from lumps and mixed readily to a
smooth homogenous state.
b. Skinning – The packaged material shall not skin within 48 hours in a ¾ filled, tightly closed container.
c. Appearance of Dried Film – The paint film shall dry to a smooth uniform finish.
d. Flexibility – The dried paint film shall not show cracking or flaking after being bent about 180 degrees
over a 12.7 mm mandrel.
e. Resistance to Water – The dried paint film shall not show blistering, peeling, wrinkling and
discoloration when immersed in water for 18 hours.
f. The paint shall also conform to the physical properties specified in Table 7.5.3.f.

Table 7.5.3.f – Physical Properties

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Properties Type I and Type II


Minimum Maximum
Specific Gravity 1.5 -
Drying Time, No Pick Up,
Minutes - 40
Consistency (Kreb Units) at 20 C 65 95

g. Premixed reflectorized traffic paint composition shall conform to the requirements given in Table
7.5.3.g.

Table 7.5.3.f – Composition Requirements

Requirements
Paint Composition
Type I Type II
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum
Total Dry Solids, percent
By weight 60 - 60 -
Titanium Dioxide, Rutile
Percent by weight 16.0 - 16.0 -
Medium Chrome Yellow,
Percent by weight 12.0 - 12.0 -
Extenders, percent by wt.,
White 13.0 - 13.0
Yellow - 17.0 - 17.0
Non-volatile Content
(based on the vehicle)
percent by weight 40 - 41 -
Glass Beads, percent by
Weight 31.0 35.0 31.0 35.0

h. Glass Spheres or Beads Requirements:

Quantity: The amount of glass beads to be mixed with the paint shall be 500 grams per liter of paint.
Beads Diameter: The percentage of beads that will pass through the US
Standard Sieves shall be as follows:

Sieve No. (um) Mass Percent Passing


70 (212 – um) – 0.850 100
80 (186 – um) – 0.600 85-100
140 (106 – um) – 0.300 15-55
230 ( 63 – um) – 0.150 0-10

Index of Refraction: The index of refraction of the beads shall be within the range of 1.50 to 1.60 when
tested by the liquid immersion method at 29⁰C.

Appearance: The glass beads shall be transparent, colorless and the sum of particles that are fused,
plane, angular and colored and contain bubbles shall not exceed 20 percent

7.5.4 Construction Requirements


The painting of lane markers and traffic strips shall include the cleaning of the pavement surfaces, the
application, protection and drying of the paint coatings, the protection of pedestrians, vehicular or other
traffic, the protection of all parts of the road structure and its appurtenances against disfigurement by
spatters, splashes or smirches of paints or of paint materials, and the supplying of all tools, labor and

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traffic paint necessary for the entire work.

The paint shall not be applied during rain or wet weather or when the air is misty, or when in the opinion
of the Engineer, conditions are unfavorable for the work. Paint shall not be applied upon damp pavement
surfaces, or upon pavement which has absorbed heat sufficient to cause the paint to blister and produce
a porous film of paint.

The application of paint shall preferably be carried out by a machine specially made for this purpose but
where brushes are used; only round or oval brushes not exceeding 100 mm in width will be permitted.
The paint shall be so applied as to produce a uniform, even coating in close contact with the surface
being painted.

Traffic paint shall be applied to the pavement at the rate of 0.33 L /m 2 and shall dry sufficiently to be free
from cracking in from 15 to 30 minutes.

All markings shall present a clean cut, uniform and workmanlike appearance. Markings that fail to have a
uniform, satisfactory appearance either by day or night shall be corrected by the Contractor in a manner
acceptable to the Engineer and at no cost to the Client.

7.5.5 Sampling
The paint shall be sampled in accordance with PNS 484/ISO 1512 or other Philippine Standard Method
of Sampling Paints and Varnishes.

7.5.6 Test Methods


The paints shall be tested in accordance with the methods specified in PNS 461 or other Philippine
Standard Method of Tests for Paints and Varnishes.

7.5.7 Packing, Packaging and Marking


The paints shall be packed, packaged and marked in accordance with PNS 140.

7.6 Sprigging

7.6.1 Description
This Item shall consist of planting sprigs of living grass plants in accordance with this Specification at
locations shown on the Plans or as required by the Engineer.

7.6.2 Material Requirements

a. Sprigs
Sprigs shall be healthy living stems (stolons or rhizomes) with attached roots or perennial turf-forming
grasses of the kinds shown on the Plans, harvested without adhering soil and obtained from approved
sources in the locality of the work where the sod is heavy and thickly matted. The presence of
objectionable grasses, weeds or other detrimental material will be a cause for rejection.

b. Fertilizers
Fertilizers shall be standard commercial fertilizers supplied separately or in mixture containing the
percentages of total nitrogen, available phosphoric acid and water-soluble potash. They shall be
furnished in standard containers with name, weight and guaranteed analysis of contents clearly marked.
The fertilizers may be supplied in the following form:

 A dry, free-flowing fertilizer soluble in water, suitable for application by a common fertilizer spreader.
 A finely ground fertilizer, soluble in water suitable for application by power sprayer.
 A granular or pellet form suitable for application by blower equipment.

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c. Ground Limestone
Ground limestone shall contain not less than 85 percent of calcium and magnesium carbonates and shall
be of such fineness that 100 percent shall pass through a 2.00 mm sieve and not less than 35 percent
through a 0.150 mm sieve. Granulated slag may be substituted in lieu of ground limestone subject to the
approval of the Engineer of an adjusted application rate that will provide the equivalent total neutralizing
power of the specified limestone.

d. Mulch Material
Mulch material shall be hay, straw or other local non-toxic material.

7.6.3 Construction Requirements

a. Harvesting Sprigs
The Contractor shall notify the Engineer at least 5 days before sprigs are to be harvested and the source
shall be approved by the Engineer before harvesting begins.

To begin harvesting, grass and woods shall be mowed to a height of 50 to 75 mm and all clippings
removed. Sprigs shall then be loosened by cross-disking, shallow plowing or other acceptable methods.
After loosening the sprigs from the soil, they shall be gathered in small piles or windrows, watered and
kept moist until planted.

Not more than 24 hours shall elapse between harvesting and planting sprigs, except that when weather
or other uncontrollable condition interrupts the work, a time extension may be granted, provided the
sprigs are still moist and viable. Sprigs that have heated in stockpiles, permitted to dry out or otherwise
seriously damaged during harvesting or delivery shall be rejected and be disposed off as directed.

b. Advance Preparation and Cleanup


After grading of areas has been completed and before applying fertilizer and ground limestone, areas to
be sprigged shall be raked or otherwise cleared of stone larger than 50 mm in diameter, sticks, stumps
and other debris which might interfere with sprigging, growth of grasses or subsequent maintenance of
grass-covered areas. If any damage by erosion or other causes has occurred after grading of areas and
before beginning the application of fertilizer and ground limestone, the Contractor shall repair such
damage. This may include filling gullies, smoothing irregularities and repairing other incidental damage.

c. Applying Fertilizer and Ground Limestone


Following advance preparation and cleanup, fertilizer shall be uniformly spread at the rate indicated on
the Plans. If use of ground limestone is required, it shall be spread at the rate shown on the Plans. These
materials shall be incorporated into the soil to a depth of not less than 50 mm by disking, raking or other
methods acceptable to the Engineer. Stones larger than 50 mm in diameter, large clods, roots and other
litter brought to the surface by this operation shall be removed.

On steep slopes where fertilizer and ground limestone cannot be incorporated effectively by mechanical
equipment, they may be applied with power sprayers, blower equipment or other approved method and
need not be incorporated into the soil.

d. Planting Sprigs
Sprigging shall not be done during windy weather or when the ground is dry, excessively wet or
otherwise untillable. Sprigs shall be planted in existing ground or in formed embankments or on topsoil as
shown on the Plans. If the soil is not moist when the sprigs are being set, water shall be applied until the
soil is moist and in a workable condition. One or more of the following methods shall be used, whichever
is directed by the Engineer:

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1. Broadcast Sprigging – Sprigs shall be broadcast by hand or by suitable equipment in a uniform layer
over the prepared surface with spacing between sprigs not to exceed 150 mm. The sprigs shall then
be forced into the soil to a depth of 50 mm to 100 mm with a straight spade or similar tool, or with a
disk harrow or other equipment set to cover the sprigs to the required depth.
2. Row Sprigging – Furrows shall be opened along the approximate contour of slopes at the spacing
and depth indicated on the Plans. Sprigs shall be placed without delay in continuous row in the open
furrow with successive sprigs touching and shall be covered immediately.
3. Spot Sprigging – Spot sprigging shall be performed as specified under row sprigging, except that,
instead of planting in continuous rows, groups of four sprigs or more shall be spaced 450 mm apart
in the rows.

e. Mulching and Compacting


After planting or sprigs has been completed and prior to compacting, the surface shall be cleared of
stones larger than 50 mm in diameter, large clods, roots and other litter brought to the surface during
sprigging.

If mulching of sprigged areas is shown on the Plans, the sprigged area shall be covered with mulch in
accordance with the requirements of Subsection 7.6.2.d, within 24 hours from the time sprigging has
been completed, weather and soil conditions permitting.

If mulching is not shown on the Plans, the sprigged area shall be compacted within 24 hours from the
time sprigging has been completed, weather and soil conditions permitting, by cultipackers, rollers or
other satisfactory equipment operated at right angles to the slopes. Compaction shall not be done when
the soil is in such condition that it is picked up by the equipment, nor shall clay soils be compacted if so
directed by the Engineer.

f. Maintenance of Sprigged Areas


The Contractor shall protect sprigged areas against traffic by warning signs or barricades approved by
the Engineer. Surfaces gullied or otherwise damaged following sprigging shall be repaired by re-grading
and re-sprigging as directed. The Contractor shall mow water as directed and otherwise maintain
sprigged areas in a satisfactory condition until final inspection and acceptance of the work.

7.7 Sodding

7.7.1 Description
This Item shall consist of furnishing and laying of live sod on the shoulders, slopes, ditches, or other
locations as designated, construction of sod ditch checks or similar appurtenances, as shown on the
Plans or as ordered and laid out in the field by the Engineer, all in accordance with this Specification.

7.7.2 Material Requirements


The sod shall consist of healthy, dense, well-rooted growth of permanent and desirable grasses
indigenous to the general locality where it is to be used and shall be free from weeds or undesirable
grasses. At the time the sod is cut, the grass on the sod shall have a length of approximately 50 mm (if
longer, the grass shall be cut to approximately this length) and the sod shall have been raked free from
debris.

The sod shall be cut into uniform squares approximately 300 mm x 300 mm, but not larger than is
convenient for handling and transporting.

The thickness of the sod shall be uniform as possible approximately 40 mm or more depending on the
nature of the sod, so that practically all of the dense root system of the grasses will be retained, but
exposed, in the sod strip and that the sod can be handled without undue tearing or breaking.

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In the event the sod to be cut is in a dry condition as to cause scrumbling or breaking during cutting
operations, the Contractor, at his own expense, shall apply water in sufficient quantities at least 12 hours
before cutting to provide a well-moistened condition of the sod to the depth to which it is to be cut. Sods
shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

7.7.3 Construction Requirements

a. Preparation of the Earth Bed


The area to be sodded shall be constructed to the required cross-section and contour, and the tops and
bottoms of the slopes shall be rounded as shown in the typical roadway sections. The areas to be
sodded shall be free from stones, roots or other undesirable foreign materials. The soil on the area to be
sodded shall be loosened and brought to a reasonably fine texture to a depth of not less than 30 mm by
means of equipment on hand methods adapted for the purpose.

b. Placing the Sod


The earth bed upon which the sod is to be placed shall be moistened to the loosened depth, if not
naturally sufficiently moist, and the sod shall be placed thereon within 24 hours after the same has been
cut.

Unless otherwise required, the sod on slopes shall be laid on horizontal strips beginning at the bottom of
the slope and working upwards. When placing sod in ditches, or in the construction of sod ditch checks
or similar appurtenances, the length of the strips shall be laid at right angles to the direction of the flow of
the water.

Sod shall be laid so that the joints caused by abutting ends of sod strip are not continuous. Each sod
strip shall be so laid as to abut snugly against the strip previously laid.

As the sod is being laid it shall be lightly tamped with suitable wooden or metal tampers sufficiently to set
or press the sod into the underlying soil.

At points where it is anticipated that water may flow over a sodded area, the upper edges of the sod
strips shall be turned into the soil to be below the adjacent area and a layer of earth place over this
juncture and thoroughly compacted. At the limits of sodded areas, the end strips shall be turned in and
treated similarly.

c. Staking the Sod


On all slopes steeper than one vertical to four horizontal, sod shall be pegged with stakes 200-300 mm in
length, spaced as required by the nature of the soil and steepness of slope. Stakes shall be driven into
the sod at right angles to the slope until flush with the bottom of the grass blades.

d. Top Dressing
After staking has been completed, the surface shall be cleared of loose sod, excess soil or other foreign
material, whereupon a thin layer of topsoil shall be scattered over the sod as a top dressing and the
areas shall then be thoroughly moistened by sprinkling with water.

e. Watering
The Contractor shall regularly water and maintain sodded areas in a satisfactory condition for the
duration of the Contract and until final acceptance of the work by the Engineer.

7.8 Pipe Culverts and Storm Drains

7.8.1 Description

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This item shall consist of the construction or reconstruction of pipe culverts and storm drains, hereinafter
referred to as “conduit” in accordance with this Specification and in conformity with the lines and grades
shown on the Plans or as established by the Engineer.

7.8.2 Material Requirements


Material shall meet the requirements specified in the following specifications:

Concrete sewer, storm drain and culvert pipe AASHTO M 170 or AASHTO M242

PVC storm drains ASTM D2729

Rubber gaskets AASHTO M 198

Bedding material shall conform to the requirements of Subsection 7.7.3.b, Bedding.

Backfill material shall conform to the requirements of Subsection 7.7.3.f, Backfilling.

When the location of manufacturing plants allow, the plants will be inspected periodically for compliance
with specified manufacturing methods, and material samples will be obtained for laboratory testing for
compliance with materials quality requirements. This shall be the basis for acceptance of manufacturing
lots as to quality.

Prior to and during incorporation of materials in the work, these materials will be subjected to the latest
inspection and approval of the Engineer.

7.8.3 Construction Requirements

a. Trenches Excavation
Trenches shall be excavated in accordance with the requirement of Item 2.3, Excavation to a width
sufficient to allow for proper jointing of the conduit and thorough compaction of the bedding and backfill
materials under and around the conduit. Where feasible, trench wall shall be vertical.

The completed trench bottom shall be firm for its full length and width. Where required, in the case of
crop drains, the trench shall have a longitudinal camber of the magnitude specified.

When so specified on the Plans, the excavation for conduits placed in embankment fill, shall be made
after the embankment has been completed to the specified or directed height above the designed grade
of the conduit.

b. Bedding
The bedding shall conform to one of the classes specified. When no bedding class is specified, the
requirements for Class C bedding shall apply.

Class A bedding shall consist of a continuous concrete cradle conforming to the plan details.

Class B bedding shall consist of bedding the conduit to a depth of not less than 30 percent of the vertical
outside diameter of the conduit. The minimum thickness of bedding material beneath the pipe shall be
100 mm. The bedding material shall be sand or selected sandy soil all of which passes a 9.5 mm sieve
and not more than 10 percent of which passes a 0.075 mm sieve. The layer of the bedding material shall
be shaped to fit the conduit for at least 15 percent of its total height. Recesses in the trench bottom shall
be shaped to accommodate the bell when bell and spigot type conduit is used.

Class C bedding shall consist of bedding the conduit to a depth of not less than 10 percent of its total
height. The foundation surface, completed in accordance with Item 2.3, Structure Excavation, shall be
shaped to fit the conduit and shall have recesses shaped to receive the bells, if any. For flexible pipe, the
bed shall be roughly shaped and a bedding blanket of sand or fine granular material as specified above
shall be provided as follows:

Pipe Corrugation Depth Minimum Bedding Depth

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10 mm 25 mm
25 mm 50 mm
50 mm 75 mm

For large diameter structural plate pipes the shaped bed need not exceed the width of bottom plate.

c. Laying Conduit
The conduit laying shall begin at the downstream end of the conduit line. The lower segment of the
conduit shall be in contact with the shaped bedding throughout its full length. Bell or groove ends of rigid
conduits and outside circumferential laps of flexible conduits shall be placed facing upstream. Flexible
conduit shall be placed with longitudinal laps or seams at the sides.

Paved or partially-lined conduit shall be laid such that the longitudinal center line of the paved segment
coincides with the flow line. Elliptical and elliptically reinforced conduits shall be placed with the major
axis within 5degrees of a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis of the conduit.

d. Jointing Conduit
Rigid conduits may either be of bell and spigot or tongue and groove design unless another type is
specified. The method of joining conduit sections shall be such that the ends are fully entered and the
inner surfaces are reasonably flush and even.

Joints shall be made with rubber gaskets. Rubber ring gaskets shall be installed so as to form a
Flexible water-tight seal.

Conduits shall be inspected before any backfill is placed. Any pipe found to be out of alignment, unduly
settled, or damaged shall be taken up and re-laid or replaced.

e. Field Strutting
When required by the Plans, vertical diameter of round flexible conduit shall be increased 5 percent by
shop elongation or by means of jacks applied after the entire line of conduit has been installed on the
bending but before backfilling. The vertical elongation shall be maintained by means of sills and struts or
by horizontal ties shall be used on paved invert pipe.

Ties and struts shall be 300 mm in place until the embankment is completed and compacted, unless
otherwise shown on the Plans.

These construction specifications shall also apply in the case of re-laid conduits. In addition, all conduits
salvaged for relaying shall be cleaned of all foreign materials prior to reinstallation.

f. Backfilling
Materials for backfilling on each side of the conduit for the full trench width and to an elevation of 300 mm
above the top of the conduit shall be fine, readily compactable soil or granular material selected from
excavation or from a source of the Contractor’s choice, and shall not contain stones that would be
retained one 50 mm sieve, chunks of highly plastic clay, or other objectionable material. Granular backfill
material shall have not less than 95 percent passing a 12.5 massive and not less than 95 percent
retained on a 4.75 mm sieve. Oversized material, if present, shall be removed at the source of the
material, except as directed by the Engineer.

When the top of the conduit is flushed with or below the top of the trench, backfill material shall be placed
at or near optimum moisture content and compacted in layers not exceeding 150 mm (compacted) on
both sides to an elevation 300 mm above the top of the conduit. Care shall be exercised to thoroughly
compact the backfill under the haunches of the conduit. The backfill shall be brought up evenly on both
sides of the conduit for the full required length. Except where negative projecting embankment-type
installation is specified, the backfill material shall be placed and compacted for the full depth of the
trench.

When the top of the conduit is above the top of the trench, backfill shall be placed at or near optimum
moisture content and compacted in layers not exceeding 300 mm (compacted) and shall be brought up

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evenly on both sides of the conduit for its full length to an elevation 300 mm above the top of the conduit.
The width of the backfill on each side of the conduit for the portion above the top of the trench shall be
equal to twice the diameter of the conduit or 3.5 m, whichever is less. The backfill material used in the
trench section and the portion above the top of the trench for a distance on each side of the conduit
equal to the horizontal inside diameter and to 300 mm above the top of the conduit shall conform to the
requirements for backfill materials in this Subsection. The remainder of the backfill shall consist of
materials from excavation and borrow that is suitable for embankment construction.

All conduits after being bedded and backfill as specified in this Subsection shall be protected by one
meter cover of fill before heavy equipment is permitted to cross during construction of the roadway.

g. Imperfect Trench
Under this method, for rigid conduit, the embankment shall be completed as described in Subsection
7.7.3.2, Backfilling, to a height above the conduit equal to the vertical outside diameter of the conduit plus
300 mm. A trench equaling width to the outside horizontal diameter of the conduit and to the length
shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer shall then be excavated to within 300 mm of the top of
the conduit, trench walls being as nearly vertical as possible. The trench shall be loosely filled with highly
compressible soil. Construction of embankment above shall then proceed in a normal manner.

7.8.4 Method of Measurement


Conduit of the different types and sizes, both new and re-laid, will be measured by the linear meter in
place. Conduit with sloped or skewed ends will be measured along the invert.

Each section will be measured by the number of units installed.

Branch connection and elbows will be included in the length measurement for conduit, or they may be
measured by the number of units installed.

Class B bedding material placed and approved shall be measured by the cubic meter in place.

When the Bid Schedule contains an estimated quantity for “Furnishing and Placing Backfill Material, Pipe
Culvert”, the quantity to be paid for will be the number of cubic meter complete in place and accepted,
measured in final position between limits as follows:

1. Measurement shall include backfill material in the trench up tithe top of the original ground line but
will not include any material placed outside of vertical planes 450 mm up outside of and parallel to
the inside wall of pipe at its widest horizontal dimension.

2. When the original ground line is less than 300 mm above the top of the pipe, the measurement will
also include the placing of all backfill materials, above the original ground line adjacent to the pipe for
a height of 300 mm above the top of pipe and for distance on each side of the pipe not greater than
the widest horizontal dimension of the pipe.

3. The measurement shall include the placing of backfill material in all trenches of the imperfect trench
method. Materials re-excavated for imperfect trench construction will be measured for payment under
Item 2.3, Structure Excavation.

7.8.5 Basis of Payment


The accepted quantities of conduit, determined as provided in Section 7.8.4, Method of Measurement,
shall be paid for at the contract unit price per linear meter for the conduit of the types and sizes specified
complete in place. End sections and, when so specified, branch connections and elbows, shall be paid
for at the contract unit price per piece for the kind and size specified complete in place.

Excavation for culverts and storm drains, including excavation below flow line grade and for imperfect
trench, shall be measured and paid for as provided in Item 2.3, Structure Excavation.

Concrete for Class A bedding will be paid for under Item 10.1, Concreting Works.

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When the Bid Schedule does not contain as estimated quantity for “Furnishing and Placing Backfill
Material, Pipe Culvert” payment for placing backfill material around pipe culverts will be considered as
included in the payment for excavation of the backfill material.

Payment will be made under:

Payment Item Number Description Unit of Measurement


Pipe Culverts, - mm
7.8(1) Linear Meter
Class -

Storm Drain, - mm
7.8(2) Linear Meter
Class -

7.9 Manholes, Inlets and Catch Basins

7.9.1 Description
This item shall consist of the construction, reconstruction or adjustment of manholes, inlets and catch
basins in accordance with this Specification and unreasonably close conformity with the lines and grades
shown on the Plans or as established by the Engineer.

7.9.2 Material Requirements


Concrete for these structures shall meet the requirements of Item 10.1,

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Building Excavation and Filing


7.10 Excavation for Building Works
7.10.1 Extent

Locate underground services before any work is started. Check with Territorial Authorities and services
providers for details and locations of services within and adjacent to the area of the works. Any
information provided by the Principal will be from available drawn records but with no guarantees as to
location, depth, alignment, or if everything present has actually been shown.
In sealed areas, saw cut the edges of the excavation in straight lines, to ensure a neat finish can be
achieved at restitution.

Remove all topsoil, rubbish, vegetation, and loose material. Excavate to the depths shown in the
Drawings. Allow clearance for formwork and working space as necessary. Do not remove topsoil or
excavate within the drip line of retained trees etc. unless directed, and then only by hand methods to
avoid damage to roots etc.

The Engineer shall approve all excavations before any following works begin, and the Engineer may
order the Contractor to vary the depths and/or widths as work proceeds.

The word "approve" and its derivatives when used in relation to ground prepared for the execution of the
Contract Works shall mean acceptance by the Engineer that the ground as prepared meets the
requirements of the design for the construction which is to be placed on that ground, which approval shall
be automatically cancelled if any change whatsoever arising from any cause whatsoever occurs to that
ground before it is protected by the construction in question, thus necessitating an up-to-date approval by
the Engineer before construction may proceed.

Protect survey pegs and bench marks, and any other features marked to be retained.

7.10.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations

Secure and maintain all excavations and keep them clear of water and fallen materials. Provide and
maintain shoring, planking strutting, pumping, baling, as required and for safety.

The Contractor shall plan and execute his work so that, as soon as he has reached a level at which the
excavation is approved by the Engineer, he shall be able to protect such excavated surface effectively
against damage. Should the Contractor fail to provide adequate protection (resulting in the Engineer's
approval being withdrawn), he shall excavate over the area in question to a further level approved by the
Engineer, such additional excavation and the consequential additional backfilling being at no extra cost to
the Principal.

Form sumps outside the foundation lines and pump from those. Undertake silt control measures if
discharging to the storm water drainage system.

7.10.3 Contractor’s Risk

The following are contractual risks that the Contractor is required to allow for in his price and rates:
k. No extension of time shall be granted in respect of Variations to the amounts of excavations and
consequential following work ordered by the Engineer as 3.1.1 EXTENT above.
l. Variations in its nature from part to part of the Site which the Engineer, in his absolute discretion,
considers to be of a minor nature only, shall not entitle the Contractor to alter his quoted rates.

7.10.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials

Turf and topsoil shall be stockpiled on Site where directed by the Engineer. All other excavated materials
shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

All excavated material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the
Site.

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Approved excavated hard filling shall be re-used. Any contaminated hard fill and all other excavated
material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

7.11 Filling for Building Work


7.11.1 Extent

The whole of the space between the approved excavated surface and the underside of the concrete
construction of the structure shall be filled as under. The minimum depth of compacted hard filling shall
be 150 mm.

7.11.2 Materials

u. The top 150 mm of all fill beneath the structure shall consist of 50 mm all-in clean graded hard fill for
which the Los Angeles abrasion loss shall not exceed 40% and the Plasticity Index shall not exceed
8.
v. Below that level, clean hard fill as above but containing no pieces larger than 150 mm may be used.
w. All trenches under the 2GL Glucose Extension shall be backfilled with hard fill as above.
x. The Engineer will require approving hard fill material before it is placed.

7.11.3 Construction

Where ground is to be filled, hard fill shall be used, compacted in layers not exceeding 200 mm (loose)
thickness by at least 12 passes of an 8 tonne roller. The standard of compaction achieved shall be such
that a slow pass of the roller (or if in the opinion of the Engineer the use of such a roller would be
impracticable, an equivalent pass) discloses no perceptible vertical movement of the hard fill.

Should any hard fill become contaminated or should any placed filling be disturbed by any cause
whatsoever, such hard fill shall be dug out, replaced and re-compacted to the Engineer's directive at no
cost to the Principal.

7.11.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to be stable
under the full load until such time as the wall concrete and the slab on top of the wall have reached the
designed strength. Therefore, in order to be able to safely backfill and compact behind the wall, the
Contractor shall take whatever steps may be necessary in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent
any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to withstand
the action of compacting machinery behind and above it until such time as the wall concrete has reached
its designed strength. Should the Contractor wish to backfill and compact before this concrete has
reached its designed strength he shall be wholly responsible for taking whatever steps may be necessary
in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has been designed solely to retain
the material behind it and not at any time to withstand the weight and effect of compacting machinery
behind it. The Contractor is therefore wholly responsible for taking all measures necessary in the way of
shoring, strutting etc., to ensure that no damage occurs to the wall during this operation.

7.11.5 Waterproof Structure

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the waterproofing treatment of the retaining wall and he shall be
wholly responsible for providing physical protection to this waterproofing, (such as flat sheeting) to
ensure no damage is inflicted on the waterproofing. The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for
providing a waterproof structure. Refer Tanking section.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the drainage provisions behind the wall, as shown in the Drawings
viz: field tile or equivalent drain (connected to the storm water drainage system) and, for 300 mm back
from the rear face of the wall, free-draining fill material. Refer Civil specifications.

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8. Piling
8.1 Bored Piling for Retention System

8.1.1 General
Piling works shall be executed in accordance with the Issued for Construction drawings, this Specification
and relevant standards listed in Section 1.

In the event that the provisions of other standards cause ambiguity or conflict with the requirements of
this Specification, the latter shall take precedence unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall engage a suitably qualified engineer to determine the allowable vibration limits for
the works and propose a suitable vibration monitoring plan with the stipulated vibration limits stated. The
vibration limits and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of any piling works.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer for approval at least two weeks prior to
commencement of piling works. The information required and the format of records shall be in a standard
template prepared by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. It shall include, but not limited to, the
following: length of temporary casing, details of the constituent materials of any drilling fluid used for
stabilization, the method of inspection, details of the concrete design mix, concreting method, the
minimum time between the completion of one pile and the commencement of the next, and the pattern of
construction.

The Contractor shall submit a pile installation plan to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of pile working. The proposed sequence and timing of pile installation shall be such that
the installation works shall not cause any damage to adjacent piles. Piling works shall not commence
until approval of the Engineer has been obtained.

Unless otherwise described in this section, reinforcement and concrete for piling work shall comply with
the requirements of Concreting Work and Reinforcement Steel Bars in this Specification.

8.1.2 Piling installation

iii. Setting Out


The Contractor shall employ an approved Licensed Surveyor who will set up the positions of the piles as
shown in the Issued for Construction drawings. The Contractor will be responsible for the accuracy of
location and positioning of each pile.

The Contractor shall preserve the pegs set out by the Surveyor. Should any peg be displaced or lost it
must be replaced by a Licensed Surveyor to the approval of the Engineer. Upon completion of all piling
works, the Contractor shall produce as-built drawings showing the positions of all piles as installed. The
positions of piles shall be verified by a Licensed Surveyor.

jjj. Tolerances
16. Position
The pile heads shall be positioned as shown on the Issued for Construction drawings within a maximum
deviation of 75mm in either direction from its design position.

17. Verticality
For bored cast-in-situ piles, the maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical at any
level is 1(H) in 150 (V). The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of Engineer the pile
verticality is within the allowable tolerance.

18. Correction
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Should piles be installed outside these tolerances affecting the design, the Contractor shall propose and
carry out immediate remedy measure to the approval of the Engineer.

kkk. Drilling Fluid


Where drilling fluid is required to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the proposed drilling fluid mix must
be included in the method statement and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Unless specified otherwise by the manufacturer, bentonite slurry properties shall comply with follows:

26. The density measured using a mud balance shall be about 1.12 g/ml.
27. The Marsh viscosity (946ml) tested in accordance with ASTM D6910 shall be 40±10 seconds.
28. pH value measured using a pH meter shall be between 8 to 11 inclusive.
29. The sand content tested in accordance with ASTM D4381 shall be less than 5%.
30. Fluid loss tested in accordance with ASTM D5891 shall be less than 18 ml/30 mins.
Properties of drilling fluid other than bentonite shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The frequency of testing and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Piling
Contractor and submitted to the Engineer together with the pile installation plan for approval. As a
minimum, the drilling fluid shall be tested for:

21. Fresh drilling fluid;


22. Drilling fluid taken from the bottom of bore hole before concreting;
23. Circulated drilling fluid after desanding; and
24. Drilling fluid left in the bore holes for more than 12 hours.
The circulated drilling fluid may be reused provided the tested properties fall within the range as specified
above.

lll. Boring and Excavation


The piling rig must be capable of installing piles to the depth as shown on the Issued for Construction
drawings with provision for contingencies.

The side of all boreholes shall be kept intact and no loose material shall be permitted to fall into the
bottom of the boreholes.

The borehole shall be filled with drilling fluid to an adequate level to sufficiently stabilize the borehole
when drilling fluid is used during drilling. If drilling fluid alone is not sufficient to prevent the ground water
from intrusion or the borehole side walls from collapse, temporary casings of appropriate size and length
shall be used in conjunction with the drilling fluid to support the side of the borehole

Where temporary casings are employed to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the bottom of casing
shall be kept a minimum of one meter or more below the unstable strata to prevent the inflow of soil and
the formation of cavities in the surrounding ground.

Temporary casings shall be thin-walled mild steel cylindrical casing, spirally welded or other similar
construction. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand without damage or
distortion all handling, construction and ground stresses to which they will be subjected, including
preventing concrete from within the pile from displacing soft soil or soil squeezing in and displacing fresh
concrete. The casings shall have an internal diameter not less than the specified pile diameter. They
shall be free of significant distortion, of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length and free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles. The
joints of casings shall be reasonably watertight.

If temporary casings are damaged during installation in a manner which prevents the proper formation of
the pile, such casings shall be withdrawn from the bore before concrete is placed, repaired if necessary
or other action taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

The pile toe shall be founded at the levels shown on the Issued for Construction drawings.

mmm. Spillage and Disposal

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All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of drilling fluid on the site in areas outside the
immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded drilling fluid shall be removed from the site without delay. In
disposal of unwanted drilling fluid, the Contractor shall comply with government regulations and shall
propose a proper disposal method to be approved by the Engineer.

nnn. Cleaning Out


Upon completion of boring, the bottom of the bored hole shall be cleaned of all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil and sediment soil to expose a firm base of undisturbed material using a suitable and
effective method to be approved by the Engineer.

All boreholes shall be protected from the possibility of any surface water entering the hole from time to
time and until the hole is completed and ready to be concreted.

ooo. Inspection of bored holes


Where practicable, all boreholes shall be inspected for their full length before concreting. Inspection shall
be carried out from the ground level by the Engineer prior to concrete being placed in the borehole. For
such inspection to be carried out safely, the Contractor shall provide all facilities and assistance to enable
the inspection to be done.

The base of the boring shall be inspected by approved method to ensure that all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil is removed and that the sides of the boring will remain stable during the subsequent
concreting operations. The verticality and position of the boring shall be checked to ensure that they
meet the specified tolerances.

ppp. Placement of Reinforcement


Reinforcement cages shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that they remain at correct level during the lifting
and placing of the concrete and the extraction of temporary lining tubes.

Reinforcement shall be maintained in its correct position during concreting of the pile.

Concrete spacers shall be provided at every three meter intervals. Details by which the Contractor plans
to ensure the correct cover to and position of the reinforcement shall be approved by the Engineer.

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 meters in length shall be in one
continuous length unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a method statement on the manner by which he intends to lower
reinforcement cages into pile shafts. Where tack welding is carried out on pile reinforcement for the
purpose of hoisting, such welding shall be located only within the top 100mm of each reinforcement
cage.

Reinforcement shall be free from rust and mud and not be placed until inspected and accepted. If required by
the Engineer, reinforcement cages shall be flushed with fresh water to remove accumulated salts or other
deposits immediately prior to lowering into the pile shaft.

qqq. Concreting in bored holes


Before placing concrete, agreed measures shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that there is no
accumulation of contaminated drilling fluid, silt or other deleterious material at the base of the bore.
Contaminated drilling fluid could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe and affecting the
performance of the pile.

Concrete to be placed under drilling fluid shall be placed using a tremie concrete pipe in accordance with
relevant design standards listed in Section 1.

Concrete placement shall be halted should a delay or breakdown occur during the concreting operation
which in the opinion of the Engineer, could cause a cold joint, entrapment of latency in the tremie
concrete, or otherwise lead to defective concrete. Before the remainder of the pile shaft can be
concreted, the pile shall be dewatered and the top surface of the tremie concrete cut back to sound
concrete and cleaned of all laitance and weak concrete. The remainder of the pile shall either be cast by

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tremie or in the dry, as directed by the Engineer. If this remedial work cannot be carried out due to
construction difficulty, the Contractor will need to construct a replacement pile.

The concrete for each pile shall be from the same source. The Contractor is to ensure that the supply
from whatever source (whether site-mixed or ready-mixed) is of sufficient quantity so that concrete for
each pile shall be placed without such interruption.

The actual volume of concrete used for each pile must be measured and compared with the calculated
volume required. If the difference between these two volumes indicates a possible necking, the
Contractor shall propose and carry out appropriate tests and measures to the approval of the Engineer to
ensure the adequacy of the pile.

Any consequences causing the pile to be rejected by the Engineer due to supply of concrete shall be at
the Contractor's own risk.

The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic
concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed. The method of placing shall be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and the placement of
concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in the pile shaft. No spoil, liquid or other deleterious matter shall
be allowed to contaminate the concrete.

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within remains sufficiently workable to ensure
that the concrete is not lifted and that the resultant pile is continuous and of full section. Temporary
casings shall be extracted not more than two hours after concreting has completed.

When casings are withdrawn as concreting proceeds, a sufficient head of concrete shall be maintained to
prevent the entry of ground water which may cause reduction of cross-section of the pile. No concrete
shall be placed after the bottom of the casings has been lifted above the top of the concrete. Concrete
shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained.

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where the withdrawal of casing could result in excess
heads of water or drilling fluid. Excess pressure heads are caused by the displacement of water or fluid
by concrete as the concrete flows into its final position against the wall of the shaft. Precautions such as
the use of two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) shall be deemed an acceptable
method of construction in this case.

The top of the pile shall be brought above the required cut-off level by an amount sufficient to ensure a
sound concrete at cut-off level and the surplus removed to ensure satisfactory bonding of the pile head to
the capping beam.

rrr. Sequence of Installation


The Contractor shall undertake piling works in accordance with the approved piling installation plan. Any
pile to be installed near to a recently installed pile shall be at least 3 times pile diameter away from the
recently installed pile. The commencement of installation of such nearby piles shall not be less than 24
hours after the completion of concreting of the recently installed pile.

The Engineer reserves the right to order changes to the approved sequence of piling if, based on work
completed, he considers it necessary to do so. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra
payment for additional plant movements, etc. resulting from such an order.

sss. Rejected Piles


Any piling work rejected by the Engineer not truly constructed and installed in accordance with this
Specification shall be replaced or rectified by the Contractor with his own cost to the approval of the
Engineer and this includes reinstallation of piles, and the design and construction of a modified
foundation and also constructing of additional compensation piles.

ttt. Piling Records


The Contractor shall keep a record of each pile installed and shall furnish signed copies to the Engineer
daily. The information required and the format of records shall be in standard formats as approved by the
Engineer. As and when required the Engineer may ask for additional information or modify the standard
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formats. Such forms shall be provided by the Contractor before the commencement of piling work at his
expense.

Details of soil strata drilled and ground water level, if encountered during drilling, shall be recorded and
submitted. Levels of all strata changes shall be clearly recorded.

8.1.3 Piling tests


The Contractor shall allow carrying out integrity tests on 20% of piles, as nominated on the drawings or
by the Engineer for testing and detection of major faults, necking, discontinuities, and cross sectional
areas of the piles. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a testing program for approval at least two
weeks prior to the commencement of testing.

Integrity testing and reporting shall be carried out in accordance with requirements in DPWH Volume IIby
an independent testing organization approved by the Engineer.

If the results of the tests show that the pile or piles are defective, the pile or piles shall be treated as
faulty and shall be rejected unless the Contractor can demonstrate to the approval of the Engineer
effective remedial measures that will be carried out.

The results of tests shall be printed out immediately during tests with printer facility at site and submit to
the Engineer at site. The Engineer's interpretations and conclusions arrived at on the test results shall be
final.

8.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring

8.2.1 General
The Contractor shall engage specialist sub-contractors approved by the Engineer to install and monitor
instrumentation prior to the commencement of excavation and construction and throughout the Contract.
The instrumentation shall comprise ground surface and building settlement markers, and inclinometers.

The Contractor shall ensure that the drill hole locations for the instrumentation are clear of existing
underground services prior to commencement of drilling. In order to avoid any utilities and services the
required drill hole positions may be adjusted on Site to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any damage and any claims arising from such damage and shall make every
effort to make good the damage or have the damage made good as quickly as possible.

The Contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and permissions required from the local Authorities in
connection with the drilling and other instrumentation works prior to commencing the work. The
contractor shall bear the costs of all fees, charges, levies etc., which are payable to the Authorities in the
course of executing the Works.

8.2.2 Ground surface and building settlement markers


The Contractor shall engage a registered land surveyor approved by the Engineer to monitor the
settlement of the ground surface, buildings and other structures as indicated on the construction
drawings.

Details of typical acceptable installations for ground and building settlement points are shown on the
construction drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of any alternative
installations. The Contractor shall install survey nails of approved design as and when instructed by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall install the ground and building settlement markers prior to and during the excavation
and construction works, at locations agreed with the Engineer. The registered surveyor shall establish
the initial (datum) level of each survey point and submit records to the Engineer. The datum readings
shall be submitted prior to any excavation and construction works, unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer.

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The registered surveyor shall monitor and record the levels of the survey points throughout the duration
of the works, using a precise level and staff accurate to 0.5mm or better.

The frequency of survey readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be determined by
the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit the level readings on the survey points to the Engineer, both in approved
tabular and graphical formats, not later than 24 hours from the time of reading. The submission shall be
accompanied by scaled layout plans showing the locations of the ground and building settlement points
and survey nails which are surveyed.

8.2.3 Inclinometers
The Contractor shall engage an approved specialist sub-contractor to install inclinometer tubes in drill
holes sunk for this purpose and to monitor the inclinometers throughout the excavation and construction
works. Provisional inclinometer locations are shown on the instrumentation drawings. The depths of the
inclinometers will be determined by the Engineer.

Details of a typical inclinometer installation (in a drillhole) are shown on Drawing XXX. The Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of the installation including surface protection that he
proposes to adopt.

The material and method of installation of the inclinometer tubing shall be in accordance with the written
instructions of the manufacturer of the equipment. These instructions shall be submitted to the Engineer
for approval prior to the commencement of installation.

The backfilling grout shall be a bentonite cement mix with strength comparable to that of the surrounding
soil. The specialist sub-contractor shall submit full details of the proposed grout mix for the approval of
the Engineer. When required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall perform trial mixes and tests such
as laboratory unconfined tri-axial compression tests or vane shear tests to ensure the suitability of the
proposed grout mix.

Prior to installation, the end edges and the keyways of the inclinometer tubing’s shall be examined and
the sub-contractor shall remove any damaged tubing’s and provide replacements when required to do so
by the Engineer. The inclinometer tubing shall be inserted into the drill hole inside the temporary casing.
The top and bottom of the inclinometer tubing shall be fitted with an end cap and all tubing couplings
shall be riveted connections. While connecting the tubing’s, the inserted section shall be securely
clamped at ground level and the next section connected to it. All completed connections shall be
sufficiently wrapped with sealing tape to prevent ingress of grout. The tubes shall be filled with water to
overcome buoyancy.

After insertion of the inclinometer tubing, the hole shall be backfilled by pumping grout through a tremie
pipe. All grout mix quantities shall be monitored and recorded and submitted to the Engineer with full
details of the installation. Where required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall take samples of the
grout being used, for curing and subsequent strength testing. The grout shall be pumped initially to fill
the hole to the top of the temporary casing. The casing shall then be extracted in such a manner that the
level of the grout inside the hole shall be at all times higher than the bottom of the casing.

The sub-contractor shall flush the tubing’s after installation to remove all solids and flush again after two
days. The Contractor's registered surveyor shall determine the level of the top of the inclinometer tubing
after final trimming and the level shall be recorded on the installation record.

The sub-contractor shall keep full details of the drilling and installation and submit a complete record to
the Engineer within two working days after installation. The format of the record sheet shall be approved
by the Engineer prior to commencement of work.

The frequency of inclinometer readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be
determined by the Engineer.

The inclinometer readings shall be presented in both tabular and graphical formats which are to be
approved by the Engineer. Readings together with scaled layout plans showing the locations of the
inclinometers are to be submitted to the Engineer not later than 24 hours after they are taken.
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Concreting.
Joint Mortar- Unless otherwise indicated on the Plans, joints mortar shall be composed of one part
Portland Cement and two parts fine aggregate by volume to which hydrated lime has been added in an
amount equal to 10 percent of the cement by weight. All materials for mortar shall meet the requirements
of Item Item11.1,

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Building Excavation and Filing


8.3 Excavation for Building Works
8.3.1 Extent

Locate underground services before any work is started. Check with Territorial Authorities and services
providers for details and locations of services within and adjacent to the area of the works. Any
information provided by the Principal will be from available drawn records but with no guarantees as to
location, depth, alignment, or if everything present has actually been shown.
In sealed areas, saw cut the edges of the excavation in straight lines, to ensure a neat finish can be
achieved at restitution.

Remove all topsoil, rubbish, vegetation, and loose material. Excavate to the depths shown in the
Drawings. Allow clearance for formwork and working space as necessary. Do not remove topsoil or
excavate within the drip line of retained trees etc. unless directed, and then only by hand methods to
avoid damage to roots etc.

The Engineer shall approve all excavations before any following works begin, and the Engineer may
order the Contractor to vary the depths and/or widths as work proceeds.

The word "approve" and its derivatives when used in relation to ground prepared for the execution of the
Contract Works shall mean acceptance by the Engineer that the ground as prepared meets the
requirements of the design for the construction which is to be placed on that ground, which approval shall
be automatically cancelled if any change whatsoever arising from any cause whatsoever occurs to that
ground before it is protected by the construction in question, thus necessitating an up-to-date approval by
the Engineer before construction may proceed.

Protect survey pegs and bench marks, and any other features marked to be retained.

8.3.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations

Secure and maintain all excavations and keep them clear of water and fallen materials. Provide and
maintain shoring, planking strutting, pumping, baling, as required and for safety.

The Contractor shall plan and execute his work so that, as soon as he has reached a level at which the
excavation is approved by the Engineer, he shall be able to protect such excavated surface effectively
against damage. Should the Contractor fail to provide adequate protection (resulting in the Engineer's
approval being withdrawn), he shall excavate over the area in question to a further level approved by the
Engineer, such additional excavation and the consequential additional backfilling being at no extra cost to
the Principal.

Form sumps outside the foundation lines and pump from those. Undertake silt control measures if
discharging to the storm water drainage system.

8.3.3 Contractor’s Risk

The following are contractual risks that the Contractor is required to allow for in his price and rates:
m. No extension of time shall be granted in respect of Variations to the amounts of excavations and
consequential following work ordered by the Engineer as 3.1.1 EXTENT above.
n. Variations in its nature from part to part of the Site which the Engineer, in his absolute discretion,
considers to be of a minor nature only, shall not entitle the Contractor to alter his quoted rates.

8.3.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials

Turf and topsoil shall be stockpiled on Site where directed by the Engineer. All other excavated materials
shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

All excavated material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the
Site.

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Approved excavated hard filling shall be re-used. Any contaminated hard fill and all other excavated
material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

8.4 Filling for Building Work


8.4.1 Extent

The whole of the space between the approved excavated surface and the underside of the concrete
construction of the structure shall be filled as under. The minimum depth of compacted hard filling shall
be 150 mm.

8.4.2 Materials

y. The top 150 mm of all fill beneath the structure shall consist of 50 mm all-in clean graded hard fill for
which the Los Angeles abrasion loss shall not exceed 40% and the Plasticity Index shall not exceed
8.
z. Below that level, clean hard fill as above but containing no pieces larger than 150 mm may be used.
aa. All trenches under the 2GL Glucose Extension shall be backfilled with hard fill as above.
bb. The Engineer will require approving hard fill material before it is placed.

8.4.3 Construction

Where ground is to be filled, hard fill shall be used, compacted in layers not exceeding 200 mm (loose)
thickness by at least 12 passes of an 8 tonne roller. The standard of compaction achieved shall be such
that a slow pass of the roller (or if in the opinion of the Engineer the use of such a roller would be
impracticable, an equivalent pass) discloses no perceptible vertical movement of the hard fill.

Should any hard fill become contaminated or should any placed filling be disturbed by any cause
whatsoever, such hard fill shall be dug out, replaced and re-compacted to the Engineer's directive at no
cost to the Principal.

8.4.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to be stable
under the full load until such time as the wall concrete and the slab on top of the wall have reached the
designed strength. Therefore, in order to be able to safely backfill and compact behind the wall, the
Contractor shall take whatever steps may be necessary in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent
any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to withstand
the action of compacting machinery behind and above it until such time as the wall concrete has reached
its designed strength. Should the Contractor wish to backfill and compact before this concrete has
reached its designed strength he shall be wholly responsible for taking whatever steps may be necessary
in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has been designed solely to retain
the material behind it and not at any time to withstand the weight and effect of compacting machinery
behind it. The Contractor is therefore wholly responsible for taking all measures necessary in the way of
shoring, strutting etc., to ensure that no damage occurs to the wall during this operation.

8.4.5 Waterproof Structure

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the waterproofing treatment of the retaining wall and he shall be
wholly responsible for providing physical protection to this waterproofing, (such as flat sheeting) to
ensure no damage is inflicted on the waterproofing. The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for
providing a waterproof structure. Refer Tanking section.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the drainage provisions behind the wall, as shown in the Drawings
viz: field tile or equivalent drain (connected to the storm water drainage system) and, for 300 mm back
from the rear face of the wall, free-draining fill material. Refer Civil specifications.

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9. Piling
9.1 Bored Piling for Retention System

9.1.1 General
Piling works shall be executed in accordance with the Issued for Construction drawings, this Specification
and relevant standards listed in Section 1.

In the event that the provisions of other standards cause ambiguity or conflict with the requirements of
this Specification, the latter shall take precedence unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall engage a suitably qualified engineer to determine the allowable vibration limits for
the works and propose a suitable vibration monitoring plan with the stipulated vibration limits stated. The
vibration limits and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of any piling works.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer for approval at least two weeks prior to
commencement of piling works. The information required and the format of records shall be in a standard
template prepared by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. It shall include, but not limited to, the
following: length of temporary casing, details of the constituent materials of any drilling fluid used for
stabilization, the method of inspection, details of the concrete design mix, concreting method, the
minimum time between the completion of one pile and the commencement of the next, and the pattern of
construction.

The Contractor shall submit a pile installation plan to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of pile working. The proposed sequence and timing of pile installation shall be such that
the installation works shall not cause any damage to adjacent piles. Piling works shall not commence
until approval of the Engineer has been obtained.

Unless otherwise described in this section, reinforcement and concrete for piling work shall comply with
the requirements of Concreting Work and Reinforcement Steel Bars in this Specification.

9.1.2 Piling installation

uuu. Setting Out


The Contractor shall employ an approved Licensed Surveyor who will set up the positions of the piles as
shown in the Issued for Construction drawings. The Contractor will be responsible for the accuracy of
location and positioning of each pile.

The Contractor shall preserve the pegs set out by the Surveyor. Should any peg be displaced or lost it
must be replaced by a Licensed Surveyor to the approval of the Engineer. Upon completion of all piling
works, the Contractor shall produce as-built drawings showing the positions of all piles as installed. The
positions of piles shall be verified by a Licensed Surveyor.

vvv. Tolerances
19. Position
The pile heads shall be positioned as shown on the Issued for Construction drawings within a maximum
deviation of 75mm in either direction from its design position.

20. Verticality
For bored cast-in-situ piles, the maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical at any
level is 1(H) in 150 (V). The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of Engineer the pile
verticality is within the allowable tolerance.

21. Correction
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Should piles be installed outside these tolerances affecting the design, the Contractor shall propose and
carry out immediate remedy measure to the approval of the Engineer.

www. Drilling Fluid


Where drilling fluid is required to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the proposed drilling fluid mix must
be included in the method statement and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Unless specified otherwise by the manufacturer, bentonite slurry properties shall comply with follows:

31. The density measured using a mud balance shall be about 1.12 g/ml.
32. The Marsh viscosity (946ml) tested in accordance with ASTM D6910 shall be 40±10 seconds.
33. pH value measured using a pH meter shall be between 8 to 11 inclusive.
34. The sand content tested in accordance with ASTM D4381 shall be less than 5%.
35. Fluid loss tested in accordance with ASTM D5891 shall be less than 18 ml/30 mins.
Properties of drilling fluid other than bentonite shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The frequency of testing and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Piling
Contractor and submitted to the Engineer together with the pile installation plan for approval. As a
minimum, the drilling fluid shall be tested for:

25. Fresh drilling fluid;


26. Drilling fluid taken from the bottom of bore hole before concreting;
27. Circulated drilling fluid after desanding; and
28. Drilling fluid left in the bore holes for more than 12 hours.
The circulated drilling fluid may be reused provided the tested properties fall within the range as specified
above.

xxx. Boring and Excavation


The piling rig must be capable of installing piles to the depth as shown on the Issued for Construction
drawings with provision for contingencies.

The side of all boreholes shall be kept intact and no loose material shall be permitted to fall into the
bottom of the boreholes.

The borehole shall be filled with drilling fluid to an adequate level to sufficiently stabilize the borehole
when drilling fluid is used during drilling. If drilling fluid alone is not sufficient to prevent the ground water
from intrusion or the borehole side walls from collapse, temporary casings of appropriate size and length
shall be used in conjunction with the drilling fluid to support the side of the borehole

Where temporary casings are employed to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the bottom of casing
shall be kept a minimum of one meter or more below the unstable strata to prevent the inflow of soil and
the formation of cavities in the surrounding ground.

Temporary casings shall be thin-walled mild steel cylindrical casing, spirally welded or other similar
construction. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand without damage or
distortion all handling, construction and ground stresses to which they will be subjected, including
preventing concrete from within the pile from displacing soft soil or soil squeezing in and displacing fresh
concrete. The casings shall have an internal diameter not less than the specified pile diameter. They
shall be free of significant distortion, of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length and free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles. The
joints of casings shall be reasonably watertight.

If temporary casings are damaged during installation in a manner which prevents the proper formation of
the pile, such casings shall be withdrawn from the bore before concrete is placed, repaired if necessary
or other action taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

The pile toe shall be founded at the levels shown on the Issued for Construction drawings.

yyy. Spillage and Disposal

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All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of drilling fluid on the site in areas outside the
immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded drilling fluid shall be removed from the site without delay. In
disposal of unwanted drilling fluid, the Contractor shall comply with government regulations and shall
propose a proper disposal method to be approved by the Engineer.

zzz. Cleaning Out


Upon completion of boring, the bottom of the bored hole shall be cleaned of all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil and sediment soil to expose a firm base of undisturbed material using a suitable and
effective method to be approved by the Engineer.

All boreholes shall be protected from the possibility of any surface water entering the hole from time to
time and until the hole is completed and ready to be concreted.

aaaa. Inspection of bored holes


Where practicable, all boreholes shall be inspected for their full length before concreting. Inspection shall
be carried out from the ground level by the Engineer prior to concrete being placed in the borehole. For
such inspection to be carried out safely, the Contractor shall provide all facilities and assistance to enable
the inspection to be done.

The base of the boring shall be inspected by approved method to ensure that all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil is removed and that the sides of the boring will remain stable during the subsequent
concreting operations. The verticality and position of the boring shall be checked to ensure that they
meet the specified tolerances.

bbbb. Placement of Reinforcement


Reinforcement cages shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that they remain at correct level during the lifting
and placing of the concrete and the extraction of temporary lining tubes.

Reinforcement shall be maintained in its correct position during concreting of the pile.

Concrete spacers shall be provided at every three meter intervals. Details by which the Contractor plans
to ensure the correct cover to and position of the reinforcement shall be approved by the Engineer.

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 meters in length shall be in one
continuous length unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a method statement on the manner by which he intends to lower
reinforcement cages into pile shafts. Where tack welding is carried out on pile reinforcement for the
purpose of hoisting, such welding shall be located only within the top 100mm of each reinforcement
cage.

Reinforcement shall be free from rust and mud and not be placed until inspected and accepted. If required by
the Engineer, reinforcement cages shall be flushed with fresh water to remove accumulated salts or other
deposits immediately prior to lowering into the pile shaft.

cccc. Concreting in bored holes


Before placing concrete, agreed measures shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that there is no
accumulation of contaminated drilling fluid, silt or other deleterious material at the base of the bore.
Contaminated drilling fluid could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe and affecting the
performance of the pile.

Concrete to be placed under drilling fluid shall be placed using a tremie concrete pipe in accordance with
relevant design standards listed in Section 1.

Concrete placement shall be halted should a delay or breakdown occur during the concreting operation
which in the opinion of the Engineer, could cause a cold joint, entrapment of latency in the tremie
concrete, or otherwise lead to defective concrete. Before the remainder of the pile shaft can be
concreted, the pile shall be dewatered and the top surface of the tremie concrete cut back to sound
concrete and cleaned of all laitance and weak concrete. The remainder of the pile shall either be cast by

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tremie or in the dry, as directed by the Engineer. If this remedial work cannot be carried out due to
construction difficulty, the Contractor will need to construct a replacement pile.

The concrete for each pile shall be from the same source. The Contractor is to ensure that the supply
from whatever source (whether site-mixed or ready-mixed) is of sufficient quantity so that concrete for
each pile shall be placed without such interruption.

The actual volume of concrete used for each pile must be measured and compared with the calculated
volume required. If the difference between these two volumes indicates a possible necking, the
Contractor shall propose and carry out appropriate tests and measures to the approval of the Engineer to
ensure the adequacy of the pile.

Any consequences causing the pile to be rejected by the Engineer due to supply of concrete shall be at
the Contractor's own risk.

The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic
concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed. The method of placing shall be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and the placement of
concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in the pile shaft. No spoil, liquid or other deleterious matter shall
be allowed to contaminate the concrete.

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within remains sufficiently workable to ensure
that the concrete is not lifted and that the resultant pile is continuous and of full section. Temporary
casings shall be extracted not more than two hours after concreting has completed.

When casings are withdrawn as concreting proceeds, a sufficient head of concrete shall be maintained to
prevent the entry of ground water which may cause reduction of cross-section of the pile. No concrete
shall be placed after the bottom of the casings has been lifted above the top of the concrete. Concrete
shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained.

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where the withdrawal of casing could result in excess
heads of water or drilling fluid. Excess pressure heads are caused by the displacement of water or fluid
by concrete as the concrete flows into its final position against the wall of the shaft. Precautions such as
the use of two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) shall be deemed an acceptable
method of construction in this case.

The top of the pile shall be brought above the required cut-off level by an amount sufficient to ensure a
sound concrete at cut-off level and the surplus removed to ensure satisfactory bonding of the pile head to
the capping beam.

dddd. Sequence of Installation


The Contractor shall undertake piling works in accordance with the approved piling installation plan. Any
pile to be installed near to a recently installed pile shall be at least 3 times pile diameter away from the
recently installed pile. The commencement of installation of such nearby piles shall not be less than 24
hours after the completion of concreting of the recently installed pile.

The Engineer reserves the right to order changes to the approved sequence of piling if, based on work
completed, he considers it necessary to do so. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra
payment for additional plant movements, etc. resulting from such an order.

eeee. Rejected Piles


Any piling work rejected by the Engineer not truly constructed and installed in accordance with this
Specification shall be replaced or rectified by the Contractor with his own cost to the approval of the
Engineer and this includes reinstallation of piles, and the design and construction of a modified
foundation and also constructing of additional compensation piles.

ffff. Piling Records


The Contractor shall keep a record of each pile installed and shall furnish signed copies to the Engineer
daily. The information required and the format of records shall be in standard formats as approved by the
Engineer. As and when required the Engineer may ask for additional information or modify the standard
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formats. Such forms shall be provided by the Contractor before the commencement of piling work at his
expense.

Details of soil strata drilled and ground water level, if encountered during drilling, shall be recorded and
submitted. Levels of all strata changes shall be clearly recorded.

9.1.3 Piling tests


The Contractor shall allow carrying out integrity tests on 20% of piles, as nominated on the drawings or
by the Engineer for testing and detection of major faults, necking, discontinuities, and cross sectional
areas of the piles. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a testing program for approval at least two
weeks prior to the commencement of testing.

Integrity testing and reporting shall be carried out in accordance with requirements in DPWH Volume IIby
an independent testing organization approved by the Engineer.

If the results of the tests show that the pile or piles are defective, the pile or piles shall be treated as
faulty and shall be rejected unless the Contractor can demonstrate to the approval of the Engineer
effective remedial measures that will be carried out.

The results of tests shall be printed out immediately during tests with printer facility at site and submit to
the Engineer at site. The Engineer's interpretations and conclusions arrived at on the test results shall be
final.

9.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring

9.2.1 General
The Contractor shall engage specialist sub-contractors approved by the Engineer to install and monitor
instrumentation prior to the commencement of excavation and construction and throughout the Contract.
The instrumentation shall comprise ground surface and building settlement markers, and inclinometers.

The Contractor shall ensure that the drill hole locations for the instrumentation are clear of existing
underground services prior to commencement of drilling. In order to avoid any utilities and services the
required drill hole positions may be adjusted on Site to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any damage and any claims arising from such damage and shall make every
effort to make good the damage or have the damage made good as quickly as possible.

The Contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and permissions required from the local Authorities in
connection with the drilling and other instrumentation works prior to commencing the work. The
contractor shall bear the costs of all fees, charges, levies etc., which are payable to the Authorities in the
course of executing the Works.

9.2.2 Ground surface and building settlement markers


The Contractor shall engage a registered land surveyor approved by the Engineer to monitor the
settlement of the ground surface, buildings and other structures as indicated on the construction
drawings.

Details of typical acceptable installations for ground and building settlement points are shown on the
construction drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of any alternative
installations. The Contractor shall install survey nails of approved design as and when instructed by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall install the ground and building settlement markers prior to and during the excavation
and construction works, at locations agreed with the Engineer. The registered surveyor shall establish
the initial (datum) level of each survey point and submit records to the Engineer. The datum readings
shall be submitted prior to any excavation and construction works, unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer.

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The registered surveyor shall monitor and record the levels of the survey points throughout the duration
of the works, using a precise level and staff accurate to 0.5mm or better.

The frequency of survey readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be determined by
the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit the level readings on the survey points to the Engineer, both in approved
tabular and graphical formats, not later than 24 hours from the time of reading. The submission shall be
accompanied by scaled layout plans showing the locations of the ground and building settlement points
and survey nails which are surveyed.

9.2.3 Inclinometers
The Contractor shall engage an approved specialist sub-contractor to install inclinometer tubes in drill
holes sunk for this purpose and to monitor the inclinometers throughout the excavation and construction
works. Provisional inclinometer locations are shown on the instrumentation drawings. The depths of the
inclinometers will be determined by the Engineer.

Details of a typical inclinometer installation (in a drillhole) are shown on Drawing XXX. The Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of the installation including surface protection that he
proposes to adopt.

The material and method of installation of the inclinometer tubing shall be in accordance with the written
instructions of the manufacturer of the equipment. These instructions shall be submitted to the Engineer
for approval prior to the commencement of installation.

The backfilling grout shall be a bentonite cement mix with strength comparable to that of the surrounding
soil. The specialist sub-contractor shall submit full details of the proposed grout mix for the approval of
the Engineer. When required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall perform trial mixes and tests such
as laboratory unconfined tri-axial compression tests or vane shear tests to ensure the suitability of the
proposed grout mix.

Prior to installation, the end edges and the keyways of the inclinometer tubing’s shall be examined and
the sub-contractor shall remove any damaged tubing’s and provide replacements when required to do so
by the Engineer. The inclinometer tubing shall be inserted into the drill hole inside the temporary casing.
The top and bottom of the inclinometer tubing shall be fitted with an end cap and all tubing couplings
shall be riveted connections. While connecting the tubing’s, the inserted section shall be securely
clamped at ground level and the next section connected to it. All completed connections shall be
sufficiently wrapped with sealing tape to prevent ingress of grout. The tubes shall be filled with water to
overcome buoyancy.

After insertion of the inclinometer tubing, the hole shall be backfilled by pumping grout through a tremie
pipe. All grout mix quantities shall be monitored and recorded and submitted to the Engineer with full
details of the installation. Where required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall take samples of the
grout being used, for curing and subsequent strength testing. The grout shall be pumped initially to fill
the hole to the top of the temporary casing. The casing shall then be extracted in such a manner that the
level of the grout inside the hole shall be at all times higher than the bottom of the casing.

The sub-contractor shall flush the tubing’s after installation to remove all solids and flush again after two
days. The Contractor's registered surveyor shall determine the level of the top of the inclinometer tubing
after final trimming and the level shall be recorded on the installation record.

The sub-contractor shall keep full details of the drilling and installation and submit a complete record to
the Engineer within two working days after installation. The format of the record sheet shall be approved
by the Engineer prior to commencement of work.

The frequency of inclinometer readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be
determined by the Engineer.

The inclinometer readings shall be presented in both tabular and graphical formats which are to be
approved by the Engineer. Readings together with scaled layout plans showing the locations of the
inclinometers are to be submitted to the Engineer not later than 24 hours after they are taken.
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Concreting.
Frames, Gratings, Covers and Ladder Rungs – Metal units shall conform to the plan dimensions and to
the following specification requirements for the designated materials. Metal gratings and covers which
are to rest on frames shall bear on them evenly. They shall be assembled before shipment and so
marked that the same pieces may be reassembled readily in the same position when installed.
Inaccuracy of bearings shall be corrected by machining, if necessary. A frame and a grating or cover to
be used with it shall constitute one pair.

All castings shall be uniformly coated with asphalt-based emulsion meeting the requirements of ASTM D
1187, Asphalt-base Emulsion for use as Protective Coating for Metal.

Samples of the material in casting shall be taken during the casting of the units and shall be separate
casting poured from the same material as the casting they represent.

Structural steel AASHTO M 183

Galvanizing, where specified for these units,


Shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 111

Reinforcing Steel AASHTO M 31

Pre-cast Concrete Units – These units shall be cast in substantial permanent steel forms. Structural
concrete used shall attain minimum 28-daycompressive strength of 20.682 Mpa (3000 psi). The pre-cast
units shall becured in accordance with AASHTO M 171. Water absorption of individual cores taken from
such units shall not exceed 7 percent. Additional reinforcement shall be provided as necessary to provide
for handling of the pre-cast units.

A sufficient number of cylinders shall be cast from the concrete for each unit permit compression tests at
7, 14 and 28 days, and to allow for at least 3cylinders for each test. If the strength requirement is met at 7
or 14 days, the units shall be certified for use 14 days from the date of casting. If the strength is not met
at 28 days, all units made from that batch or load will be rejected.

Cracks in units, honeycombed or patched areas in excess of 2,000 sq mm, excessive water absorption
and failure to meet strength requirements shall be the causes for rejection. Pre-cast reinforced concrete
manhole risers and tops shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 199.

The plants will be inspected periodically for compliance with specified manufacturing methods, and
material samples will be obtained for laboratory testing for compliance with material quality requirements.
This may be the basis for acceptance of manufacturing lots as the quality. All materials shall be
subjected to inspection for acceptance as to condition at the latest practicable time the Engineer has the
opportunity to check for compliance prior to or during incorporation of materials into the work.

9.2.4 Construction Requirements


Concrete construction shall conform to the requirements for Item Item 12.1,

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Building Excavation and Filing


9.3 Excavation for Building Works
9.3.1 Extent

Locate underground services before any work is started. Check with Territorial Authorities and services
providers for details and locations of services within and adjacent to the area of the works. Any
information provided by the Principal will be from available drawn records but with no guarantees as to
location, depth, alignment, or if everything present has actually been shown.
In sealed areas, saw cut the edges of the excavation in straight lines, to ensure a neat finish can be
achieved at restitution.

Remove all topsoil, rubbish, vegetation, and loose material. Excavate to the depths shown in the
Drawings. Allow clearance for formwork and working space as necessary. Do not remove topsoil or
excavate within the drip line of retained trees etc. unless directed, and then only by hand methods to
avoid damage to roots etc.

The Engineer shall approve all excavations before any following works begin, and the Engineer may
order the Contractor to vary the depths and/or widths as work proceeds.

The word "approve" and its derivatives when used in relation to ground prepared for the execution of the
Contract Works shall mean acceptance by the Engineer that the ground as prepared meets the
requirements of the design for the construction which is to be placed on that ground, which approval shall
be automatically cancelled if any change whatsoever arising from any cause whatsoever occurs to that
ground before it is protected by the construction in question, thus necessitating an up-to-date approval by
the Engineer before construction may proceed.

Protect survey pegs and bench marks, and any other features marked to be retained.

9.3.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations

Secure and maintain all excavations and keep them clear of water and fallen materials. Provide and
maintain shoring, planking strutting, pumping, baling, as required and for safety.

The Contractor shall plan and execute his work so that, as soon as he has reached a level at which the
excavation is approved by the Engineer, he shall be able to protect such excavated surface effectively
against damage. Should the Contractor fail to provide adequate protection (resulting in the Engineer's
approval being withdrawn), he shall excavate over the area in question to a further level approved by the
Engineer, such additional excavation and the consequential additional backfilling being at no extra cost to
the Principal.

Form sumps outside the foundation lines and pump from those. Undertake silt control measures if
discharging to the storm water drainage system.

9.3.3 Contractor’s Risk

The following are contractual risks that the Contractor is required to allow for in his price and rates:
o. No extension of time shall be granted in respect of Variations to the amounts of excavations and
consequential following work ordered by the Engineer as 3.1.1 EXTENT above.
p. Variations in its nature from part to part of the Site which the Engineer, in his absolute discretion,
considers to be of a minor nature only, shall not entitle the Contractor to alter his quoted rates.

9.3.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials

Turf and topsoil shall be stockpiled on Site where directed by the Engineer. All other excavated materials
shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

All excavated material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the
Site.

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Approved excavated hard filling shall be re-used. Any contaminated hard fill and all other excavated
material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

9.4 Filling for Building Work


9.4.1 Extent

The whole of the space between the approved excavated surface and the underside of the concrete
construction of the structure shall be filled as under. The minimum depth of compacted hard filling shall
be 150 mm.

9.4.2 Materials

cc. The top 150 mm of all fill beneath the structure shall consist of 50 mm all-in clean graded hard fill for
which the Los Angeles abrasion loss shall not exceed 40% and the Plasticity Index shall not exceed
8.
dd. Below that level, clean hard fill as above but containing no pieces larger than 150 mm may be used.
ee. All trenches under the 2GL Glucose Extension shall be backfilled with hard fill as above.
ff. The Engineer will require approving hard fill material before it is placed.

9.4.3 Construction

Where ground is to be filled, hard fill shall be used, compacted in layers not exceeding 200 mm (loose)
thickness by at least 12 passes of an 8 tonne roller. The standard of compaction achieved shall be such
that a slow pass of the roller (or if in the opinion of the Engineer the use of such a roller would be
impracticable, an equivalent pass) discloses no perceptible vertical movement of the hard fill.

Should any hard fill become contaminated or should any placed filling be disturbed by any cause
whatsoever, such hard fill shall be dug out, replaced and re-compacted to the Engineer's directive at no
cost to the Principal.

9.4.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to be stable
under the full load until such time as the wall concrete and the slab on top of the wall have reached the
designed strength. Therefore, in order to be able to safely backfill and compact behind the wall, the
Contractor shall take whatever steps may be necessary in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent
any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to withstand
the action of compacting machinery behind and above it until such time as the wall concrete has reached
its designed strength. Should the Contractor wish to backfill and compact before this concrete has
reached its designed strength he shall be wholly responsible for taking whatever steps may be necessary
in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has been designed solely to retain
the material behind it and not at any time to withstand the weight and effect of compacting machinery
behind it. The Contractor is therefore wholly responsible for taking all measures necessary in the way of
shoring, strutting etc., to ensure that no damage occurs to the wall during this operation.

9.4.5 Waterproof Structure

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the waterproofing treatment of the retaining wall and he shall be
wholly responsible for providing physical protection to this waterproofing, (such as flat sheeting) to
ensure no damage is inflicted on the waterproofing. The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for
providing a waterproof structure. Refer Tanking section.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the drainage provisions behind the wall, as shown in the Drawings
viz: field tile or equivalent drain (connected to the storm water drainage system) and, for 300 mm back
from the rear face of the wall, free-draining fill material. Refer Civil specifications.

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10. Piling
10.1 Bored Piling for Retention System

10.1.1 General
Piling works shall be executed in accordance with the Issued for Construction drawings, this Specification
and relevant standards listed in Section 1.

In the event that the provisions of other standards cause ambiguity or conflict with the requirements of
this Specification, the latter shall take precedence unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall engage a suitably qualified engineer to determine the allowable vibration limits for
the works and propose a suitable vibration monitoring plan with the stipulated vibration limits stated. The
vibration limits and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of any piling works.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer for approval at least two weeks prior to
commencement of piling works. The information required and the format of records shall be in a standard
template prepared by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. It shall include, but not limited to, the
following: length of temporary casing, details of the constituent materials of any drilling fluid used for
stabilization, the method of inspection, details of the concrete design mix, concreting method, the
minimum time between the completion of one pile and the commencement of the next, and the pattern of
construction.

The Contractor shall submit a pile installation plan to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of pile working. The proposed sequence and timing of pile installation shall be such that
the installation works shall not cause any damage to adjacent piles. Piling works shall not commence
until approval of the Engineer has been obtained.

Unless otherwise described in this section, reinforcement and concrete for piling work shall comply with
the requirements of Concreting Work and Reinforcement Steel Bars in this Specification.

10.1.2 Piling installation

gggg. Setting Out


The Contractor shall employ an approved Licensed Surveyor who will set up the positions of the piles as
shown in the Issued for Construction drawings. The Contractor will be responsible for the accuracy of
location and positioning of each pile.

The Contractor shall preserve the pegs set out by the Surveyor. Should any peg be displaced or lost it
must be replaced by a Licensed Surveyor to the approval of the Engineer. Upon completion of all piling
works, the Contractor shall produce as-built drawings showing the positions of all piles as installed. The
positions of piles shall be verified by a Licensed Surveyor.

hhhh. Tolerances
22. Position
The pile heads shall be positioned as shown on the Issued for Construction drawings within a maximum
deviation of 75mm in either direction from its design position.

23. Verticality
For bored cast-in-situ piles, the maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical at any
level is 1(H) in 150 (V). The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of Engineer the pile
verticality is within the allowable tolerance.

24. Correction
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Should piles be installed outside these tolerances affecting the design, the Contractor shall propose and
carry out immediate remedy measure to the approval of the Engineer.

iiii. Drilling Fluid


Where drilling fluid is required to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the proposed drilling fluid mix must
be included in the method statement and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Unless specified otherwise by the manufacturer, bentonite slurry properties shall comply with follows:

36. The density measured using a mud balance shall be about 1.12 g/ml.
37. The Marsh viscosity (946ml) tested in accordance with ASTM D6910 shall be 40±10 seconds.
38. pH value measured using a pH meter shall be between 8 to 11 inclusive.
39. The sand content tested in accordance with ASTM D4381 shall be less than 5%.
40. Fluid loss tested in accordance with ASTM D5891 shall be less than 18 ml/30 mins.
Properties of drilling fluid other than bentonite shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The frequency of testing and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Piling
Contractor and submitted to the Engineer together with the pile installation plan for approval. As a
minimum, the drilling fluid shall be tested for:

29. Fresh drilling fluid;


30. Drilling fluid taken from the bottom of bore hole before concreting;
31. Circulated drilling fluid after desanding; and
32. Drilling fluid left in the bore holes for more than 12 hours.
The circulated drilling fluid may be reused provided the tested properties fall within the range as specified
above.

jjjj. Boring and Excavation


The piling rig must be capable of installing piles to the depth as shown on the Issued for Construction
drawings with provision for contingencies.

The side of all boreholes shall be kept intact and no loose material shall be permitted to fall into the
bottom of the boreholes.

The borehole shall be filled with drilling fluid to an adequate level to sufficiently stabilize the borehole
when drilling fluid is used during drilling. If drilling fluid alone is not sufficient to prevent the ground water
from intrusion or the borehole side walls from collapse, temporary casings of appropriate size and length
shall be used in conjunction with the drilling fluid to support the side of the borehole

Where temporary casings are employed to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the bottom of casing
shall be kept a minimum of one meter or more below the unstable strata to prevent the inflow of soil and
the formation of cavities in the surrounding ground.

Temporary casings shall be thin-walled mild steel cylindrical casing, spirally welded or other similar
construction. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand without damage or
distortion all handling, construction and ground stresses to which they will be subjected, including
preventing concrete from within the pile from displacing soft soil or soil squeezing in and displacing fresh
concrete. The casings shall have an internal diameter not less than the specified pile diameter. They
shall be free of significant distortion, of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length and free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles. The
joints of casings shall be reasonably watertight.

If temporary casings are damaged during installation in a manner which prevents the proper formation of
the pile, such casings shall be withdrawn from the bore before concrete is placed, repaired if necessary
or other action taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

The pile toe shall be founded at the levels shown on the Issued for Construction drawings.

kkkk. Spillage and Disposal

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All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of drilling fluid on the site in areas outside the
immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded drilling fluid shall be removed from the site without delay. In
disposal of unwanted drilling fluid, the Contractor shall comply with government regulations and shall
propose a proper disposal method to be approved by the Engineer.

llll. Cleaning Out


Upon completion of boring, the bottom of the bored hole shall be cleaned of all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil and sediment soil to expose a firm base of undisturbed material using a suitable and
effective method to be approved by the Engineer.

All boreholes shall be protected from the possibility of any surface water entering the hole from time to
time and until the hole is completed and ready to be concreted.

mmmm. Inspection of bored holes


Where practicable, all boreholes shall be inspected for their full length before concreting. Inspection shall
be carried out from the ground level by the Engineer prior to concrete being placed in the borehole. For
such inspection to be carried out safely, the Contractor shall provide all facilities and assistance to enable
the inspection to be done.

The base of the boring shall be inspected by approved method to ensure that all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil is removed and that the sides of the boring will remain stable during the subsequent
concreting operations. The verticality and position of the boring shall be checked to ensure that they
meet the specified tolerances.

nnnn. Placement of Reinforcement


Reinforcement cages shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that they remain at correct level during the lifting
and placing of the concrete and the extraction of temporary lining tubes.

Reinforcement shall be maintained in its correct position during concreting of the pile.

Concrete spacers shall be provided at every three meter intervals. Details by which the Contractor plans
to ensure the correct cover to and position of the reinforcement shall be approved by the Engineer.

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 meters in length shall be in one
continuous length unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a method statement on the manner by which he intends to lower
reinforcement cages into pile shafts. Where tack welding is carried out on pile reinforcement for the
purpose of hoisting, such welding shall be located only within the top 100mm of each reinforcement
cage.

Reinforcement shall be free from rust and mud and not be placed until inspected and accepted. If required by
the Engineer, reinforcement cages shall be flushed with fresh water to remove accumulated salts or other
deposits immediately prior to lowering into the pile shaft.

oooo. Concreting in bored holes


Before placing concrete, agreed measures shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that there is no
accumulation of contaminated drilling fluid, silt or other deleterious material at the base of the bore.
Contaminated drilling fluid could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe and affecting the
performance of the pile.

Concrete to be placed under drilling fluid shall be placed using a tremie concrete pipe in accordance with
relevant design standards listed in Section 1.

Concrete placement shall be halted should a delay or breakdown occur during the concreting operation
which in the opinion of the Engineer, could cause a cold joint, entrapment of latency in the tremie
concrete, or otherwise lead to defective concrete. Before the remainder of the pile shaft can be
concreted, the pile shall be dewatered and the top surface of the tremie concrete cut back to sound
concrete and cleaned of all laitance and weak concrete. The remainder of the pile shall either be cast by

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tremie or in the dry, as directed by the Engineer. If this remedial work cannot be carried out due to
construction difficulty, the Contractor will need to construct a replacement pile.

The concrete for each pile shall be from the same source. The Contractor is to ensure that the supply
from whatever source (whether site-mixed or ready-mixed) is of sufficient quantity so that concrete for
each pile shall be placed without such interruption.

The actual volume of concrete used for each pile must be measured and compared with the calculated
volume required. If the difference between these two volumes indicates a possible necking, the
Contractor shall propose and carry out appropriate tests and measures to the approval of the Engineer to
ensure the adequacy of the pile.

Any consequences causing the pile to be rejected by the Engineer due to supply of concrete shall be at
the Contractor's own risk.

The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic
concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed. The method of placing shall be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and the placement of
concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in the pile shaft. No spoil, liquid or other deleterious matter shall
be allowed to contaminate the concrete.

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within remains sufficiently workable to ensure
that the concrete is not lifted and that the resultant pile is continuous and of full section. Temporary
casings shall be extracted not more than two hours after concreting has completed.

When casings are withdrawn as concreting proceeds, a sufficient head of concrete shall be maintained to
prevent the entry of ground water which may cause reduction of cross-section of the pile. No concrete
shall be placed after the bottom of the casings has been lifted above the top of the concrete. Concrete
shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained.

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where the withdrawal of casing could result in excess
heads of water or drilling fluid. Excess pressure heads are caused by the displacement of water or fluid
by concrete as the concrete flows into its final position against the wall of the shaft. Precautions such as
the use of two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) shall be deemed an acceptable
method of construction in this case.

The top of the pile shall be brought above the required cut-off level by an amount sufficient to ensure a
sound concrete at cut-off level and the surplus removed to ensure satisfactory bonding of the pile head to
the capping beam.

pppp. Sequence of Installation


The Contractor shall undertake piling works in accordance with the approved piling installation plan. Any
pile to be installed near to a recently installed pile shall be at least 3 times pile diameter away from the
recently installed pile. The commencement of installation of such nearby piles shall not be less than 24
hours after the completion of concreting of the recently installed pile.

The Engineer reserves the right to order changes to the approved sequence of piling if, based on work
completed, he considers it necessary to do so. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra
payment for additional plant movements, etc. resulting from such an order.

qqqq. Rejected Piles


Any piling work rejected by the Engineer not truly constructed and installed in accordance with this
Specification shall be replaced or rectified by the Contractor with his own cost to the approval of the
Engineer and this includes reinstallation of piles, and the design and construction of a modified
foundation and also constructing of additional compensation piles.

rrrr. Piling Records


The Contractor shall keep a record of each pile installed and shall furnish signed copies to the Engineer
daily. The information required and the format of records shall be in standard formats as approved by the
Engineer. As and when required the Engineer may ask for additional information or modify the standard
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formats. Such forms shall be provided by the Contractor before the commencement of piling work at his
expense.

Details of soil strata drilled and ground water level, if encountered during drilling, shall be recorded and
submitted. Levels of all strata changes shall be clearly recorded.

10.1.3 Piling tests


The Contractor shall allow carrying out integrity tests on 20% of piles, as nominated on the drawings or
by the Engineer for testing and detection of major faults, necking, discontinuities, and cross sectional
areas of the piles. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a testing program for approval at least two
weeks prior to the commencement of testing.

Integrity testing and reporting shall be carried out in accordance with requirements in DPWH Volume IIby
an independent testing organization approved by the Engineer.

If the results of the tests show that the pile or piles are defective, the pile or piles shall be treated as
faulty and shall be rejected unless the Contractor can demonstrate to the approval of the Engineer
effective remedial measures that will be carried out.

The results of tests shall be printed out immediately during tests with printer facility at site and submit to
the Engineer at site. The Engineer's interpretations and conclusions arrived at on the test results shall be
final.

10.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring

10.2.1 General
The Contractor shall engage specialist sub-contractors approved by the Engineer to install and monitor
instrumentation prior to the commencement of excavation and construction and throughout the Contract.
The instrumentation shall comprise ground surface and building settlement markers, and inclinometers.

The Contractor shall ensure that the drill hole locations for the instrumentation are clear of existing
underground services prior to commencement of drilling. In order to avoid any utilities and services the
required drill hole positions may be adjusted on Site to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any damage and any claims arising from such damage and shall make every
effort to make good the damage or have the damage made good as quickly as possible.

The Contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and permissions required from the local Authorities in
connection with the drilling and other instrumentation works prior to commencing the work. The
contractor shall bear the costs of all fees, charges, levies etc., which are payable to the Authorities in the
course of executing the Works.

10.2.2 Ground surface and building settlement markers


The Contractor shall engage a registered land surveyor approved by the Engineer to monitor the
settlement of the ground surface, buildings and other structures as indicated on the construction
drawings.

Details of typical acceptable installations for ground and building settlement points are shown on the
construction drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of any alternative
installations. The Contractor shall install survey nails of approved design as and when instructed by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall install the ground and building settlement markers prior to and during the excavation
and construction works, at locations agreed with the Engineer. The registered surveyor shall establish
the initial (datum) level of each survey point and submit records to the Engineer. The datum readings
shall be submitted prior to any excavation and construction works, unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer.

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The registered surveyor shall monitor and record the levels of the survey points throughout the duration
of the works, using a precise level and staff accurate to 0.5mm or better.

The frequency of survey readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be determined by
the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit the level readings on the survey points to the Engineer, both in approved
tabular and graphical formats, not later than 24 hours from the time of reading. The submission shall be
accompanied by scaled layout plans showing the locations of the ground and building settlement points
and survey nails which are surveyed.

10.2.3 Inclinometers
The Contractor shall engage an approved specialist sub-contractor to install inclinometer tubes in drill
holes sunk for this purpose and to monitor the inclinometers throughout the excavation and construction
works. Provisional inclinometer locations are shown on the instrumentation drawings. The depths of the
inclinometers will be determined by the Engineer.

Details of a typical inclinometer installation (in a drillhole) are shown on Drawing XXX. The Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of the installation including surface protection that he
proposes to adopt.

The material and method of installation of the inclinometer tubing shall be in accordance with the written
instructions of the manufacturer of the equipment. These instructions shall be submitted to the Engineer
for approval prior to the commencement of installation.

The backfilling grout shall be a bentonite cement mix with strength comparable to that of the surrounding
soil. The specialist sub-contractor shall submit full details of the proposed grout mix for the approval of
the Engineer. When required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall perform trial mixes and tests such
as laboratory unconfined tri-axial compression tests or vane shear tests to ensure the suitability of the
proposed grout mix.

Prior to installation, the end edges and the keyways of the inclinometer tubing’s shall be examined and
the sub-contractor shall remove any damaged tubing’s and provide replacements when required to do so
by the Engineer. The inclinometer tubing shall be inserted into the drill hole inside the temporary casing.
The top and bottom of the inclinometer tubing shall be fitted with an end cap and all tubing couplings
shall be riveted connections. While connecting the tubing’s, the inserted section shall be securely
clamped at ground level and the next section connected to it. All completed connections shall be
sufficiently wrapped with sealing tape to prevent ingress of grout. The tubes shall be filled with water to
overcome buoyancy.

After insertion of the inclinometer tubing, the hole shall be backfilled by pumping grout through a tremie
pipe. All grout mix quantities shall be monitored and recorded and submitted to the Engineer with full
details of the installation. Where required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall take samples of the
grout being used, for curing and subsequent strength testing. The grout shall be pumped initially to fill
the hole to the top of the temporary casing. The casing shall then be extracted in such a manner that the
level of the grout inside the hole shall be at all times higher than the bottom of the casing.

The sub-contractor shall flush the tubing’s after installation to remove all solids and flush again after two
days. The Contractor's registered surveyor shall determine the level of the top of the inclinometer tubing
after final trimming and the level shall be recorded on the installation record.

The sub-contractor shall keep full details of the drilling and installation and submit a complete record to
the Engineer within two working days after installation. The format of the record sheet shall be approved
by the Engineer prior to commencement of work.

The frequency of inclinometer readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be
determined by the Engineer.

The inclinometer readings shall be presented in both tabular and graphical formats which are to be
approved by the Engineer. Readings together with scaled layout plans showing the locations of the
inclinometers are to be submitted to the Engineer not later than 24 hours after they are taken.
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Concreting.
Metal frames shall be set in full mortar bed. Pipe sections shall be flushed on the inside of the structure
wall and projected outside sufficiently for proper connection with next pipe section. Masonry shall fit
neatly and tightly around the pipe.

When grade adjustment or existing structures is specified, the frames, covers and gratings shall be
removed and the walls reconstructed as required. The cleaned frames shall be reset at the required
elevation. Upon completion, each structure shall be cleaned of any accumulation of silt, debris, or foreign
matter of any kind and shall be kept clear of such accumulation until final acceptance of the work.

Excavation and backfill shall be done in accordance with Item 2.3, Structure Excavation.

10.2.4 Method of Measurement


Standard manholes, inlets and catch basins, both new and reconstructed as applicable, will be measured
by the unit. Any additional concrete, reinforcing steel, or masonry required for authorized increases in
heights of structures paid off under this Item and in excess of the standard height shown on the Plans will
be measured and paid for under Item 405, Structural Concrete and Item 13.22, Reinforcing Steel Bars,
as applicable. Structures noted on the Plans as “junction boxes” will be measured for payment as
manholes.

The number of concrete covers, pairs of metal frames and gratings, and pairs of metal frames and covers
will be measured as acceptably completed.

The number of existing manholes, inlets and catch basins adjusted as directed will be measured as
acceptably completed.

10.2.5 Basis of Payment


The accepted quantities, determined as provided in Subsection 10.2.4, Measurement of the Pay Items in
the Bill of Quantities will be paid for at the contract unit prices, which shall constitute full compensation for
furnishing and placing all materials and for all labor, equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to
complete the Item.

Excavation and backfill will be measured and paid for as provided in Item 2.3, Structure Excavation.

Payment will be made under:

Unit of Measurement
Pay Item Number Description

7.9(1) Manholes Each

7.9(2) Inlets, type Each

7.9 (3) Catch basins Each

7.9 (4) Concrete covers Each

7.9 (5) Metal frames and gratings, type Pair

7.9 (6) Metal frames and covers Pair

7.9 (7) Adjusting manholes Each

7.9 (8) Adjusting inlets Each

7.9 (9) Adjusting catch basin Each

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11. Building Excavation and Filing


11.1 Excavation for Building Works
11.1.1 Extent

Locate underground services before any work is started. Check with Territorial Authorities and services
providers for details and locations of services within and adjacent to the area of the works. Any
information provided by the Principal will be from available drawn records but with no guarantees as to
location, depth, alignment, or if everything present has actually been shown.
In sealed areas, saw cut the edges of the excavation in straight lines, to ensure a neat finish can be
achieved at restitution.

Remove all topsoil, rubbish, vegetation, and loose material. Excavate to the depths shown in the
Drawings. Allow clearance for formwork and working space as necessary. Do not remove topsoil or
excavate within the drip line of retained trees etc. unless directed, and then only by hand methods to
avoid damage to roots etc.

The Engineer shall approve all excavations before any following works begin, and the Engineer may
order the Contractor to vary the depths and/or widths as work proceeds.

The word "approve" and its derivatives when used in relation to ground prepared for the execution of the
Contract Works shall mean acceptance by the Engineer that the ground as prepared meets the
requirements of the design for the construction which is to be placed on that ground, which approval shall
be automatically cancelled if any change whatsoever arising from any cause whatsoever occurs to that
ground before it is protected by the construction in question, thus necessitating an up-to-date approval by
the Engineer before construction may proceed.

Protect survey pegs and bench marks, and any other features marked to be retained.

11.1.2 Maintain and Protect Excavations

Secure and maintain all excavations and keep them clear of water and fallen materials. Provide and
maintain shoring, planking strutting, pumping, baling, as required and for safety.

The Contractor shall plan and execute his work so that, as soon as he has reached a level at which the
excavation is approved by the Engineer, he shall be able to protect such excavated surface effectively
against damage. Should the Contractor fail to provide adequate protection (resulting in the Engineer's
approval being withdrawn), he shall excavate over the area in question to a further level approved by the
Engineer, such additional excavation and the consequential additional backfilling being at no extra cost to
the Principal.

Form sumps outside the foundation lines and pump from those. Undertake silt control measures if
discharging to the storm water drainage system.

11.1.3 Contractor’s Risk

The following are contractual risks that the Contractor is required to allow for in his price and rates:
q. No extension of time shall be granted in respect of Variations to the amounts of excavations and
consequential following work ordered by the Engineer as 3.1.1 EXTENT above.
r. Variations in its nature from part to part of the Site which the Engineer, in his absolute discretion,
considers to be of a minor nature only, shall not entitle the Contractor to alter his quoted rates.

11.1.4 Disposal of Excavated Materials

Turf and topsoil shall be stockpiled on Site where directed by the Engineer. All other excavated materials
shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

All excavated material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the
Site.

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Approved excavated hard filling shall be re-used. Any contaminated hard fill and all other excavated
material shall be removed from the Site, becoming the Contractor's property on leaving the Site.

11.2 Filling for Building Work


11.2.1 Extent

The whole of the space between the approved excavated surface and the underside of the concrete
construction of the structure shall be filled as under. The minimum depth of compacted hard filling shall
be 150 mm.

11.2.2 Materials

gg. The top 150 mm of all fill beneath the structure shall consist of 50 mm all-in clean graded hard fill for
which the Los Angeles abrasion loss shall not exceed 40% and the Plasticity Index shall not exceed
8.
hh. Below that level, clean hard fill as above but containing no pieces larger than 150 mm may be used.
ii. All trenches under the 2GL Glucose Extension shall be backfilled with hard fill as above.
jj. The Engineer will require approving hard fill material before it is placed.

11.2.3 Construction

Where ground is to be filled, hard fill shall be used, compacted in layers not exceeding 200 mm (loose)
thickness by at least 12 passes of an 8 tonne roller. The standard of compaction achieved shall be such
that a slow pass of the roller (or if in the opinion of the Engineer the use of such a roller would be
impracticable, an equivalent pass) discloses no perceptible vertical movement of the hard fill.

Should any hard fill become contaminated or should any placed filling be disturbed by any cause
whatsoever, such hard fill shall be dug out, replaced and re-compacted to the Engineer's directive at no
cost to the Principal.

11.2.4 Filling Behind Retaining Wall

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to be stable
under the full load until such time as the wall concrete and the slab on top of the wall have reached the
designed strength. Therefore, in order to be able to safely backfill and compact behind the wall, the
Contractor shall take whatever steps may be necessary in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent
any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has not been designed to withstand
the action of compacting machinery behind and above it until such time as the wall concrete has reached
its designed strength. Should the Contractor wish to backfill and compact before this concrete has
reached its designed strength he shall be wholly responsible for taking whatever steps may be necessary
in the way of shoring, strutting, etc., to prevent any damage to the wall occurring.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that the retaining wall has been designed solely to retain
the material behind it and not at any time to withstand the weight and effect of compacting machinery
behind it. The Contractor is therefore wholly responsible for taking all measures necessary in the way of
shoring, strutting etc., to ensure that no damage occurs to the wall during this operation.

11.2.5 Waterproof Structure

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the waterproofing treatment of the retaining wall and he shall be
wholly responsible for providing physical protection to this waterproofing, (such as flat sheeting) to
ensure no damage is inflicted on the waterproofing. The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for
providing a waterproof structure. Refer Tanking section.

The Contractor's attention is drawn to the drainage provisions behind the wall, as shown in the Drawings
viz: field tile or equivalent drain (connected to the storm water drainage system) and, for 300 mm back
from the rear face of the wall, free-draining fill material. Refer Civil specifications.

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12. Piling
12.1 Bored Piling for Retention System

12.1.1 General
Piling works shall be executed in accordance with the Issued for Construction drawings, this Specification
and relevant standards listed in Section 1.

In the event that the provisions of other standards cause ambiguity or conflict with the requirements of
this Specification, the latter shall take precedence unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall engage a suitably qualified engineer to determine the allowable vibration limits for
the works and propose a suitable vibration monitoring plan with the stipulated vibration limits stated. The
vibration limits and monitoring plan shall be submitted to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of any piling works.

The Contractor shall submit a method statement to the Engineer for approval at least two weeks prior to
commencement of piling works. The information required and the format of records shall be in a standard
template prepared by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. It shall include, but not limited to, the
following: length of temporary casing, details of the constituent materials of any drilling fluid used for
stabilization, the method of inspection, details of the concrete design mix, concreting method, the
minimum time between the completion of one pile and the commencement of the next, and the pattern of
construction.

The Contractor shall submit a pile installation plan to the Engineer at least two weeks prior to
commencement of pile working. The proposed sequence and timing of pile installation shall be such that
the installation works shall not cause any damage to adjacent piles. Piling works shall not commence
until approval of the Engineer has been obtained.

Unless otherwise described in this section, reinforcement and concrete for piling work shall comply with
the requirements of Concreting Work and Reinforcement Steel Bars in this Specification.

12.1.2 Piling installation

ssss. Setting Out


The Contractor shall employ an approved Licensed Surveyor who will set up the positions of the piles as
shown in the Issued for Construction drawings. The Contractor will be responsible for the accuracy of
location and positioning of each pile.

The Contractor shall preserve the pegs set out by the Surveyor. Should any peg be displaced or lost it
must be replaced by a Licensed Surveyor to the approval of the Engineer. Upon completion of all piling
works, the Contractor shall produce as-built drawings showing the positions of all piles as installed. The
positions of piles shall be verified by a Licensed Surveyor.

tttt. Tolerances
25. Position
The pile heads shall be positioned as shown on the Issued for Construction drawings within a maximum
deviation of 75mm in either direction from its design position.

26. Verticality
For bored cast-in-situ piles, the maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical at any
level is 1(H) in 150 (V). The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of Engineer the pile
verticality is within the allowable tolerance.

27. Correction
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Should piles be installed outside these tolerances affecting the design, the Contractor shall propose and
carry out immediate remedy measure to the approval of the Engineer.

uuuu. Drilling Fluid


Where drilling fluid is required to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the proposed drilling fluid mix must
be included in the method statement and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Unless specified otherwise by the manufacturer, bentonite slurry properties shall comply with follows:

41. The density measured using a mud balance shall be about 1.12 g/ml.
42. The Marsh viscosity (946ml) tested in accordance with ASTM D6910 shall be 40±10 seconds.
43. pH value measured using a pH meter shall be between 8 to 11 inclusive.
44. The sand content tested in accordance with ASTM D4381 shall be less than 5%.
45. Fluid loss tested in accordance with ASTM D5891 shall be less than 18 ml/30 mins.
Properties of drilling fluid other than bentonite shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The frequency of testing and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Piling
Contractor and submitted to the Engineer together with the pile installation plan for approval. As a
minimum, the drilling fluid shall be tested for:

33. Fresh drilling fluid;


34. Drilling fluid taken from the bottom of bore hole before concreting;
35. Circulated drilling fluid after desanding; and
36. Drilling fluid left in the bore holes for more than 12 hours.
The circulated drilling fluid may be reused provided the tested properties fall within the range as specified
above.

vvvv. Boring and Excavation


The piling rig must be capable of installing piles to the depth as shown on the Issued for Construction
drawings with provision for contingencies.

The side of all boreholes shall be kept intact and no loose material shall be permitted to fall into the
bottom of the boreholes.

The borehole shall be filled with drilling fluid to an adequate level to sufficiently stabilize the borehole
when drilling fluid is used during drilling. If drilling fluid alone is not sufficient to prevent the ground water
from intrusion or the borehole side walls from collapse, temporary casings of appropriate size and length
shall be used in conjunction with the drilling fluid to support the side of the borehole

Where temporary casings are employed to maintain the stability of a bored hole, the bottom of casing
shall be kept a minimum of one meter or more below the unstable strata to prevent the inflow of soil and
the formation of cavities in the surrounding ground.

Temporary casings shall be thin-walled mild steel cylindrical casing, spirally welded or other similar
construction. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand without damage or
distortion all handling, construction and ground stresses to which they will be subjected, including
preventing concrete from within the pile from displacing soft soil or soil squeezing in and displacing fresh
concrete. The casings shall have an internal diameter not less than the specified pile diameter. They
shall be free of significant distortion, of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length and free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles. The
joints of casings shall be reasonably watertight.

If temporary casings are damaged during installation in a manner which prevents the proper formation of
the pile, such casings shall be withdrawn from the bore before concrete is placed, repaired if necessary
or other action taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

The pile toe shall be founded at the levels shown on the Issued for Construction drawings.

wwww. Spillage and Disposal

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All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of drilling fluid on the site in areas outside the
immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded drilling fluid shall be removed from the site without delay. In
disposal of unwanted drilling fluid, the Contractor shall comply with government regulations and shall
propose a proper disposal method to be approved by the Engineer.

xxxx. Cleaning Out


Upon completion of boring, the bottom of the bored hole shall be cleaned of all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil and sediment soil to expose a firm base of undisturbed material using a suitable and
effective method to be approved by the Engineer.

All boreholes shall be protected from the possibility of any surface water entering the hole from time to
time and until the hole is completed and ready to be concreted.

yyyy. Inspection of bored holes


Where practicable, all boreholes shall be inspected for their full length before concreting. Inspection shall
be carried out from the ground level by the Engineer prior to concrete being placed in the borehole. For
such inspection to be carried out safely, the Contractor shall provide all facilities and assistance to enable
the inspection to be done.

The base of the boring shall be inspected by approved method to ensure that all loose, disturbed and/or
re-moulded soil is removed and that the sides of the boring will remain stable during the subsequent
concreting operations. The verticality and position of the boring shall be checked to ensure that they
meet the specified tolerances.

zzzz. Placement of Reinforcement


Reinforcement cages shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that they remain at correct level during the lifting
and placing of the concrete and the extraction of temporary lining tubes.

Reinforcement shall be maintained in its correct position during concreting of the pile.

Concrete spacers shall be provided at every three meter intervals. Details by which the Contractor plans
to ensure the correct cover to and position of the reinforcement shall be approved by the Engineer.

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 meters in length shall be in one
continuous length unless otherwise specified.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a method statement on the manner by which he intends to lower
reinforcement cages into pile shafts. Where tack welding is carried out on pile reinforcement for the
purpose of hoisting, such welding shall be located only within the top 100mm of each reinforcement
cage.

Reinforcement shall be free from rust and mud and not be placed until inspected and accepted. If required by
the Engineer, reinforcement cages shall be flushed with fresh water to remove accumulated salts or other
deposits immediately prior to lowering into the pile shaft.

aaaaa. Concreting in bored holes


Before placing concrete, agreed measures shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that there is no
accumulation of contaminated drilling fluid, silt or other deleterious material at the base of the bore.
Contaminated drilling fluid could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe and affecting the
performance of the pile.

Concrete to be placed under drilling fluid shall be placed using a tremie concrete pipe in accordance with
relevant design standards listed in Section 1.

Concrete placement shall be halted should a delay or breakdown occur during the concreting operation
which in the opinion of the Engineer, could cause a cold joint, entrapment of latency in the tremie
concrete, or otherwise lead to defective concrete. Before the remainder of the pile shaft can be
concreted, the pile shall be dewatered and the top surface of the tremie concrete cut back to sound
concrete and cleaned of all laitance and weak concrete. The remainder of the pile shall either be cast by

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tremie or in the dry, as directed by the Engineer. If this remedial work cannot be carried out due to
construction difficulty, the Contractor will need to construct a replacement pile.

The concrete for each pile shall be from the same source. The Contractor is to ensure that the supply
from whatever source (whether site-mixed or ready-mixed) is of sufficient quantity so that concrete for
each pile shall be placed without such interruption.

The actual volume of concrete used for each pile must be measured and compared with the calculated
volume required. If the difference between these two volumes indicates a possible necking, the
Contractor shall propose and carry out appropriate tests and measures to the approval of the Engineer to
ensure the adequacy of the pile.

Any consequences causing the pile to be rejected by the Engineer due to supply of concrete shall be at
the Contractor's own risk.

The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic
concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed. The method of placing shall be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and the placement of
concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in the pile shaft. No spoil, liquid or other deleterious matter shall
be allowed to contaminate the concrete.

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within remains sufficiently workable to ensure
that the concrete is not lifted and that the resultant pile is continuous and of full section. Temporary
casings shall be extracted not more than two hours after concreting has completed.

When casings are withdrawn as concreting proceeds, a sufficient head of concrete shall be maintained to
prevent the entry of ground water which may cause reduction of cross-section of the pile. No concrete
shall be placed after the bottom of the casings has been lifted above the top of the concrete. Concrete
shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained.

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where the withdrawal of casing could result in excess
heads of water or drilling fluid. Excess pressure heads are caused by the displacement of water or fluid
by concrete as the concrete flows into its final position against the wall of the shaft. Precautions such as
the use of two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) shall be deemed an acceptable
method of construction in this case.

The top of the pile shall be brought above the required cut-off level by an amount sufficient to ensure a
sound concrete at cut-off level and the surplus removed to ensure satisfactory bonding of the pile head to
the capping beam.

bbbbb. Sequence of Installation


The Contractor shall undertake piling works in accordance with the approved piling installation plan. Any
pile to be installed near to a recently installed pile shall be at least 3 times pile diameter away from the
recently installed pile. The commencement of installation of such nearby piles shall not be less than 24
hours after the completion of concreting of the recently installed pile.

The Engineer reserves the right to order changes to the approved sequence of piling if, based on work
completed, he considers it necessary to do so. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra
payment for additional plant movements, etc. resulting from such an order.

ccccc. Rejected Piles


Any piling work rejected by the Engineer not truly constructed and installed in accordance with this
Specification shall be replaced or rectified by the Contractor with his own cost to the approval of the
Engineer and this includes reinstallation of piles, and the design and construction of a modified
foundation and also constructing of additional compensation piles.

ddddd. Piling Records


The Contractor shall keep a record of each pile installed and shall furnish signed copies to the Engineer
daily. The information required and the format of records shall be in standard formats as approved by the
Engineer. As and when required the Engineer may ask for additional information or modify the standard
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formats. Such forms shall be provided by the Contractor before the commencement of piling work at his
expense.

Details of soil strata drilled and ground water level, if encountered during drilling, shall be recorded and
submitted. Levels of all strata changes shall be clearly recorded.

12.1.3 Piling tests


The Contractor shall allow carrying out integrity tests on 20% of piles, as nominated on the drawings or
by the Engineer for testing and detection of major faults, necking, discontinuities, and cross sectional
areas of the piles. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a testing program for approval at least two
weeks prior to the commencement of testing.

Integrity testing and reporting shall be carried out in accordance with requirements in DPWH Volume IIby
an independent testing organization approved by the Engineer.

If the results of the tests show that the pile or piles are defective, the pile or piles shall be treated as
faulty and shall be rejected unless the Contractor can demonstrate to the approval of the Engineer
effective remedial measures that will be carried out.

The results of tests shall be printed out immediately during tests with printer facility at site and submit to
the Engineer at site. The Engineer's interpretations and conclusions arrived at on the test results shall be
final.

12.2 Geotechnical Instrumental Monitoring

12.2.1 General
The Contractor shall engage specialist sub-contractors approved by the Engineer to install and monitor
instrumentation prior to the commencement of excavation and construction and throughout the Contract.
The instrumentation shall comprise ground surface and building settlement markers, and inclinometers.

The Contractor shall ensure that the drill hole locations for the instrumentation are clear of existing
underground services prior to commencement of drilling. In order to avoid any utilities and services the
required drill hole positions may be adjusted on Site to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any damage and any claims arising from such damage and shall make every
effort to make good the damage or have the damage made good as quickly as possible.

The Contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and permissions required from the local Authorities in
connection with the drilling and other instrumentation works prior to commencing the work. The
contractor shall bear the costs of all fees, charges, levies etc., which are payable to the Authorities in the
course of executing the Works.

12.2.2 Ground surface and building settlement markers


The Contractor shall engage a registered land surveyor approved by the Engineer to monitor the
settlement of the ground surface, buildings and other structures as indicated on the construction
drawings.

Details of typical acceptable installations for ground and building settlement points are shown on the
construction drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of any alternative
installations. The Contractor shall install survey nails of approved design as and when instructed by the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall install the ground and building settlement markers prior to and during the excavation
and construction works, at locations agreed with the Engineer. The registered surveyor shall establish
the initial (datum) level of each survey point and submit records to the Engineer. The datum readings
shall be submitted prior to any excavation and construction works, unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer.

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The registered surveyor shall monitor and record the levels of the survey points throughout the duration
of the works, using a precise level and staff accurate to 0.5mm or better.

The frequency of survey readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be determined by
the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit the level readings on the survey points to the Engineer, both in approved
tabular and graphical formats, not later than 24 hours from the time of reading. The submission shall be
accompanied by scaled layout plans showing the locations of the ground and building settlement points
and survey nails which are surveyed.

12.2.3 Inclinometers
The Contractor shall engage an approved specialist sub-contractor to install inclinometer tubes in drill
holes sunk for this purpose and to monitor the inclinometers throughout the excavation and construction
works. Provisional inclinometer locations are shown on the instrumentation drawings. The depths of the
inclinometers will be determined by the Engineer.

Details of a typical inclinometer installation (in a drillhole) are shown on Drawing XXX. The Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer for approval details of the installation including surface protection that he
proposes to adopt.

The material and method of installation of the inclinometer tubing shall be in accordance with the written
instructions of the manufacturer of the equipment. These instructions shall be submitted to the Engineer
for approval prior to the commencement of installation.

The backfilling grout shall be a bentonite cement mix with strength comparable to that of the surrounding
soil. The specialist sub-contractor shall submit full details of the proposed grout mix for the approval of
the Engineer. When required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall perform trial mixes and tests such
as laboratory unconfined tri-axial compression tests or vane shear tests to ensure the suitability of the
proposed grout mix.

Prior to installation, the end edges and the keyways of the inclinometer tubing’s shall be examined and
the sub-contractor shall remove any damaged tubing’s and provide replacements when required to do so
by the Engineer. The inclinometer tubing shall be inserted into the drill hole inside the temporary casing.
The top and bottom of the inclinometer tubing shall be fitted with an end cap and all tubing couplings
shall be riveted connections. While connecting the tubing’s, the inserted section shall be securely
clamped at ground level and the next section connected to it. All completed connections shall be
sufficiently wrapped with sealing tape to prevent ingress of grout. The tubes shall be filled with water to
overcome buoyancy.

After insertion of the inclinometer tubing, the hole shall be backfilled by pumping grout through a tremie
pipe. All grout mix quantities shall be monitored and recorded and submitted to the Engineer with full
details of the installation. Where required by the Engineer, the sub-contractor shall take samples of the
grout being used, for curing and subsequent strength testing. The grout shall be pumped initially to fill
the hole to the top of the temporary casing. The casing shall then be extracted in such a manner that the
level of the grout inside the hole shall be at all times higher than the bottom of the casing.

The sub-contractor shall flush the tubing’s after installation to remove all solids and flush again after two
days. The Contractor's registered surveyor shall determine the level of the top of the inclinometer tubing
after final trimming and the level shall be recorded on the installation record.

The sub-contractor shall keep full details of the drilling and installation and submit a complete record to
the Engineer within two working days after installation. The format of the record sheet shall be approved
by the Engineer prior to commencement of work.

The frequency of inclinometer readings will depend on the programme of the Works and will be
determined by the Engineer.

The inclinometer readings shall be presented in both tabular and graphical formats which are to be
approved by the Engineer. Readings together with scaled layout plans showing the locations of the
inclinometers are to be submitted to the Engineer not later than 24 hours after they are taken.
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13. Concreting Works


13.1 Concreting Works

13.1.1 General

Description
This item shall consist of furnishing, placing and finishing concrete in buildings and related structures, in
accordance with this specification and conforming to the lines, grades, and dimension shown on the plans.

Concrete for road pavement, drainage manhole, retaining walls, footings, beams, suspended slabs, slabs
on grade, walls, columns, up stands / down stands, nibs shall have strength of at least 28MPaunless
otherwise indicated in the design drawings.

Unless indicated all structures exposed to water such as reinforced concrete water tanks shall have a
compressive strength of at least 28MPa.

Concrete for road pavement shall have strength of at least 28MPa unless otherwise indicated in the
design drawings or in the Civil Specification above.

13.1.2 Material Requirement

a. Portland Cement / Hydraulic Cement


Cement shall conform to the requirements of the following cited specifications for the type specified or
permitted.

TYPE SPECIFICATION
Portland Cement AASHTO M 85 (ASTM C 150)
Blended Hydraulic Cements AASHTO M 240 (ASTM 595)
Masonry Cement AASHTO M 150 (ASTM C 91)
Chemical Admixtures AASHTO M 154 or M 194 (ASTM C 260 or
ASTM C 494)
Curing Compounds AASHTO M 148 or M 171

When types IV and V (AASHTO M85), P and PA (AASHTO M 150) cements are used, proper recognition
shall be given to the effects of slower strength gain on concrete proportioning and construction practices.
Types S and SA cements will be permitted only when blended with Portland cement in proportions approved
by the Engineer.

Unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer, the product of only one mill of any one brand and type of
Portland cement shall be used on the project.

The Contractor shall provide suitable means of storing and protecting the cement against dampness. Cement
which, for any reason, has become partially set or which contains lumps or caked cement will be rejected.
Cement salvaged from discarded or used bags shall not be used.

All slabs on grade shall be designed with a maximum water cement ratio of 0.42. Any decrease in workability
shall be compensated by using a plasticizer. Any proposed plasticizer is to be submitted to the Engineer for
review prior to confirming the concrete mix.

b. Concrete Aggregates

1. Fine Aggregates

Fine aggregates consist of natural sand, stone screenings or other inert materials with similar characteristics,
or combinations thereof, having hard, strong and durable particles approved by the Engineer. Fine aggregate

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from different sources of supply shall not be mixed or stored in the same pile nor used alternately in the same
class of concrete without the approval of the Engineer.

Fine aggregates shall not contain more than three (3) mass percent of material passing the 0.75 mm ( No.
200 sieve ) by washing nor more than one (1) mass percent each of clay lumps or shale. The use of beach
sand will not be allowed without the approval or the Engineer.If the fine aggregate is subjected to five (5)
cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test, the weighted loss shall not exceed 10 mass percent.

The fine aggregate shall be free from injurious amounts of organic impurities. If subjected to the colorimetric
test for organic impurities and a color darker than the standard is produced, it shall be rejected. However,
when tested for the effect of organic impurities of strength of mortar by AASHTO T71, the fine aggregate may
be used if the relative strength at 7 and 28 days is not less than 95 mass percent.

The fine aggregate shall be well-graded from coarse to fine and shall conform to Table13.1.2.a.

Table 13.1.2.a: Fine Aggregates

Sieve Designation Mass Percent Passing


9.5 mm ( 3/8 in ) 100
4.75 mm ( No. 4 ) 95-100
1.18 mm ( No. 16 ) 45-80
0.300 mm ( No. 50 ) 5-30
0.150 mm ( No. 100 ) 0-10

2. Coarse Aggregates

Coarse aggregates shall consist of crushed stone, gravel, blast furnace slag, or other approved inert materials
of similar characteristics, or combinations thereof, having hard, strong, durable pieces and free from any
adherent coatings.

Coarse aggregates shall not contain more than one (1) mass percent of material passing the 0.075 mm ( No.
200 ) sieve, not more than 0.25 mass percent of clay lumps, nor more than 3.5 mass percent of soft
fragments.

If the coarse aggregate is subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test, the weighted loss
shall not exceed 12 mass percent.

It shall have a mass percent or wear not exceeding 40 when tested by AASHTO T 96.If slag is used, its
density shall not be less than 1120 kg/m3 (70 lb/cu ft.). The gradation of the coarse aggregate shall conform to
Table13.1.2.b.

Only one grading specification shall be used from any one source.

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Table13.1.2.b: Grading Requirements for Coarse Aggregate

SIEVE DESIGNATION MASS PERCENT PASSING


STANDARD ALTERNATE GRADING GRADING GRADING
Mm U.S. Standard A B C
75.0 3 in 100 - -
63.0 2 ½ in. 90-100 100 100
50.0 2 in. - 90-100 95-100
37.5 1 ½ in. 25-60 35-70 -
25.0 1 in. - 0-15 35-70
19.0 ¾ in. 0-10 - -
12.5 ½ in. 0-5 0-5 10-30
4.75 No.4 - - 0-5

3. Aggregate Tests

Samples of the fine and coarse aggregates to be used shall be selected by the Engineer for tests at least
30 days before the actual concreting operations are to begin. It shall be the responsibility of the
Contractor to designate the source of sources of aggregates to give the Engineer sufficient time to obtain
the necessary samples and submit them for testing.

No aggregates shall be used until advice has been received that it has satisfactorily passed all tests to the
satisfaction of the Engineer, at which time written approval shall be given for its use.

4. Water

Water used in mixing, curing or other designated applications shall be reasonably clean and free of oil, salt,
acid, alkali, grass of other substances injurious to the finished product. Water will be tested in accordance with
and shall meet the requirements of Water (ref. DPWH Standard Specification for Public Works and
Highways). Water which is drinkable may be used without test. Where the source of water is shallow, the
intake shall be so enclosed as to exclude silt, mud, grass or other foreign materials.

5. Reinforcement

For steel reinforcement specification refer tothe Reinforcing Steel Bars section, below.

6. Rubber Stop

Water stop shall be used on all vertical, horizontal construction and expansion joint as needed.

7. Admixtures

Air-entraining admixtures, if used, shall conform to ASTM C 260.

Water-reducing admixtures, retarding admixtures, water-reducing, water proofing admixtures and water
reducing and accelerating admixtures, if used, shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 494.

c. Storage of Materials
Cement and aggregates shall be stored in such a manner as to prevent their deterioration of the intrusion
of foreign matter. Cement shall be stored, immediately upon arrival on the site of the work, in substantial,
waterproof bodegas, with a floor raised from the ground sufficiently high to be free from dampness.
Aggregates shall be stored in such a manner as to avoid the inclusion of foreign materials.

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1. Construction Requirements

Notations: The notations used in these regulations are defined as follows:


 F’c = compressive strength of concrete
 Fsp = ratio of splitting tensile strength to square root of compressive strength.

2. Concrete Quality

All plans submitted for approval of used for any project shall clearly show the specified strength, f’’c, of
concrete of the specified age for which each part of the structures was designed.

Concrete that will be exposed to sulfate containing of other chemically aggressive solutions shall be
proportioned in accordance with “Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for Concrete (ACI
613)” and “Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for Structural Lightweight Concrete (ACI
613A)”.

d. Methods of Determining the Proportions of Concrete


The concrete materials shall be proportioned in accordance with the requirements for each class of
concrete as specified in the Table below, using the absolute volume method as outlined in the American
Concrete Institute (ACI) Standard 211.1. “Recommended Practice for Selecting Proprtions for Normal
and Heavyweight Concrete”. Other methods of proportioning may be employed in the mix design with
prior approval of the Engineer. The mix shall be approved by the Engineer. A change in the source of
materials during the progress of work may necessitate a new mix design.

All sub structure and superstructure concrete shall be Class A, as specified in the Table 5.1.2.c below.

Table 5.1.2c Composition and Strength of Concrete for Use in Structures

Class of Minimum Cement Maximum Consistency Designated Minimum Compressive


Concrete Content Per m3 Water/Cement Range in Size of Strength of
Kg (bag**) Ratio kg/kg Slump Concrete 150x300mm Concrete
mm (inch) Aggregate Cylinder Specimen at
Square 28 days.
Opening Std. MPa
mm (psi)
A 360 (9 bags) 0.53 50-100 37.5 – 4.75 27.6
(2-4) (1-1/2” – No. (4,000)
4)

*The measuremed cement content shall be within plus or minus 2 mass percent of the design cement
content
** Based on 40kg/bag

The contractor is to be submit all proposed concrete mix designs to the Engineer for review prior to
ordering concrete,

The strength test shall be made at 7, 14 and 28 days at which the concrete is to receive load, as
indicated on the plans. A curve shall be established showing the relationship between water-cement ratio
(or cement content) and compressive strength. The maximum permissible water-cement ratio for the
concrete to be used in the structure shall be that shown by the curve to produce an average strength to
satisfy the requirements of the strength test of concrete provided that the water-cement ratio shall be no
greater than that required by concrete quality.

Where different materials are to be used for different portions of the work, each combination shall be
evaluated separately.

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e. Concrete Proportions and Consistency


The proportions of aggregate to cement for any concrete shall be such as to produce a mixture which will work
readily into the comers and angles of the form and around reinforcement with the method of placing employed
on the work, but without permitting the materials to segregate or excess free water to collect on the surface.
The methods of measuring concrete materials shall be such that the proportions can be accurately controlled
and easily checked at any time during the work.

f. Sampling and Testing of Structural Concrete


As work progress, at least one (1) set of sample consisting of three (3) concrete cylinder test specimens, 150 x
300 mm shall be taken from each class of concrete placed each day, and each serves to represent not more
than 75 cu m of concrete.

g. Consistency
Concrete shall have a consistency such that it will be workable in the required position. It shall be such a
consistency that it will flow around reinforcing steel but individual particles of the coarse aggregate when
isolated shall show a coating or mortar containing its proportionate amount of sand. The consistency of
concrete shall be gauged by the ability of the equipment to properly place it and not by the difficulty of mixing
water shall be determined by the Engineer and shall not be varied without his consent. Concrete as dry as it is
practical to place with equipment specified shall be used.

h. Strength Test of Concrete


When strength is a basis for acceptance, each class of concrete shall be represented by at least five tests (10
specimens). Two specimens shall be made for each test at a given age, and not less than one test shall be
made for each 115cu.m. of structural concrete, but there shall be at least one test for each days concreting.

The Engineer may require a number of additional tests during the progress of the work. Samples from which
compression test specimens are molded shall be secured in accordance with ASTM C 172. Specimens made
to check the adequacy of the proportions for strength of concrete or as a basis for acceptance of concrete shall
be made and laboratory-cured in accordance with ASTM C 31. Additional test specimens cured entirely under
field conditions may be required by the Engineer to check the adequacy of curing and protection of the
concrete. Strength tests shall be made in accordance with ASTM C 39.

The age for strength tests shall be 28 days or, where specified, the earlier age at which the concrete is to
receive its full load of maximum stress. Additional test may be made at earlier ages to obtain advance
information on the adequacy of strength development where age-strength relationships have been established
for the materials and proportions used.

To conform to the requirements of this item:

1. For structures designed in accordance with the working stress design method, the average of any five
consecutive strength tests of the laboratory-cured specimens representing each class of concrete shall be
equal on or greater than the specified strength, f’'c and not more than 20 percent of the strength test shall
have values less than that specified.
2. For structures designed in accordance with the ultimate strength design method, and for pre-stressed
structures the average of any three consecutive strength test of the laboratory cured specimens
representing each class of concrete shall be equal to or greater than the specified strength, f’’c and not
more than 10 percent of the strength tests shall have values less than the specified strength.

When it appears that the laboratory-cured specimens will fail to conform to the requirements for strength, the
Engineer shall have the right to order changes in the concrete sufficient to increase the strength to meet these
requirements. The strengths of the specimens cured on the job are intended to indicate the adequacy of
protection and curing of the concrete and may be used to determine when the forms may be stripped, shoring
removed, or the structure placed in service. When, in the opinion of the Engineer, the strengths of the job-cured
specimens, the Contractor may be required to improve the procedures for protecting and curing the concrete,
or when test of field-cured cylinders indicate deficiencies in protection and curing, the Engineer may require
test in accordance with ASTM Specification C 42 or order load tests as outlined in the load tests of structures
for that portion of the structure where the questionable concrete has been placed.

i. Batching

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When batches are hauled to the mixer, bulk cement shall be transported either in waterproof compartments or
between the fine and coarse aggregates. When cement is placed in contact with moist aggregates, batches will
be rejected unless mixed within 11/2 hours of such contact. Sacked cement may be transported on top of the
aggregates. Batchesshall be delivered to the mixer separate and intact. Each batch shall be dump cleanly into
the mixer without loss, and, when more than one batch is carried on the truck, without spilling of material from
one batch compartment into another.

j. Mixing and Delivery


Concrete may be mixed at the site of construction, at a central point or by a combination of central point and
truck mixing or by a combination of central point mixing and truck agitating. Mixing the delivery of concrete shall
be in accordance with the appropriate requirements of AASHT M 157 except as modified in the following
paragraphs of this section, for truck mixing or a combination of central point and truck mixing or truck agitating.

When volumetric measurements are authorized, the weight proportions shall be converted to equivalent
volumetric proportions. In such cases, suitable allowance shall be made for variations in the moisture condition
of the aggregates.

The mixer shall be operated at the drum speed as shown on the manufacturer’s name plate on the mixer. Any
concrete mixed less than the specified time shall be discarded and disposed of by the Contractor at his own
expenses.

The timing device on stationary mixers shall be equipped with a bell or other suitable warning device adjusted
to give a clearly audible signal each time the lock is released.

Reworking concrete will not be permitted. Admixtures for increasing the workability, for retarding the set, or for
accelerating the set or improving the pumping characteristics of the concrete will be permitted only when
specifically provided in the contract, or authorized in writing by the Engineer.

k. Concrete Finishes
Concrete floor finish shall have a mechanical steel trowelled finish unless otherwise indicated on the
Drawings. Refer to Section 5.1.3 for additional requirements for slabs on grade. Place, strike off,
consolidate, level and float to the proper elevation. Trowelling shall begin after surface has received a
float finish. Lightly tool all edges at construction joints and exercise care that slab edges are not
depressed along bulkheads during finishing operations. Provide standard trowel finish at all sub-slabs.

For all formed elements, such as beams, columns and walls are to be finished to a smooth finish. Abrupt
changes shall not exceed 4mm at construction joint nor 2mm at joints between adjacent shutters or
between abutting sheets of form face materials. Gradual variations shall not exceed 6mm. The contractor
shall take precautions both to eliminate grout loss leading to honeycombing and to avoid incidence of
scouring. All tie holes for formwork are to be completely filled with non-shrink grout.

l. Curing Concrete

All newly placed concrete shall be cured in accordance with this specification, unless otherwise directed by the
Engineer. The curing method shall be one or more of the following:

 Water Method – The concrete shall be kept continuously wet by the direct application of water such as
ponding or continuous sprinkling, or by continuous application of mist spray for a minimum period of 7
days after the concrete has been placed.
 Curing Compound – Surfaces exposed to the air may be cured by the application of an impervious
membrane if approved by the Engineer.
 Waterproof Membrane Method – The exposed finished surfaces of concrete shall be sprayed with
water, using a nozzle that so atomizes the flow that a mist and not a spray are formed until the
concrete has set, after which a curing membrane of waterproof paper or plastic sheeting shall be
placed.
 Forms – in Place Method – Formed surfaces of concrete may be cured by retaining the form in place.
The forms shall remain in place for a minimum period of 7 days after the concrete has been placed,
except that for members over 50 cm in least dimension, the forms shall remain in place for a minimum
period of 5 days.
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 Curing Cast-in-Site Concrete – All newly placed concrete cast-in into structures shall be cured by the
water method, the forms in place method, or as permitted herein, by the curing compound method.

During hot weather, proper attention shall be given to ingredients, production methods, handling, placing,
protections and curing to prevent excessive concrete temperatures or water evaporation that may impair
required strength or serviceability of the member or structure.

m. Acceptance of Concrete
The strength of concrete shall be deemed acceptable if the average of 3 consecutive strength test results is
equal to or exceed the specified strength and no individual test result falls below the specified strength by more
than 15%.

Concrete deemed to be not acceptable using the above criteria may be rejected unless Contractor can provide
evidence, by means of core tests, that the quality of concrete represented by the failed test result is acceptable
in place. Three (3) cores shall be obtained from the affected area and cured and tested in accordance with
AASHTO T 24. Concrete in the area represented by the cores will be deemed acceptable if the average of
cores is equal to or at least 85% and no sample core is less than 75% of the specified strength otherwise it
shall be rejected.

13.1.3 Concrete Slabs on Grade


In addition to the requirements listed in the specification, the following applies for internal Slabs on
Grade;

 A maximum water cement ratio of 0.42.


 Sikafloor- 3Quartztop dryshake hardener is to be machine trowelled into the fresh wet concrete.
 The use of Water reducing admixtures is not permitted.
 Addition of 15% fly ash Type ‘F’ by weight of cement shall be made.
 Curing shall be by the Water Method described above, but for a period of at least 14 days.
 Machine trowelled finish
 Refer to Architectural documents for all post applied finishes to concrete slabs

13.2 Reinforcing Steel Bars

13.2.1 General

This item shall consist of furnishing, bending, fabricating and placing of steel reinforcement of the type, size,
shape, and grade required in accordance with this specification and in conformity with the requirements
shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer.

13.2.2 Material Requirements


All reinforcement shall be deformed high grade with a minimum yield strength of 414MPa (60,000 psi)
unless noted otherwise.

Reinforcing steel shall conform to the requirements of the following specifications:

Deformed Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement AASHTO M31


(ASTM A 615M)
Deformed Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement AASHTO M 225
(ASTM A 496)
Welded Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement AASHTO M55
(ASTM A 185)
Cold-Drawn Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement AASHTO M 32
(ASTM A 82)
Fabricated Steel Bar of Rod Mats for concrete Reinforcement AASHTO M 54
(ASTM A 184)
Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric of Concrete Reinforcement (AASHTO M 221)

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(ASTM A 497)
Plastic Coated Dowel Bars AASHTO M 254
Type A
Low Alloy Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A 206

Bar reinforcement for concrete structures, except No. 2 bars shall be deformed in accordance with
AASHTO M 42, M31 and M53 for Nos. 3 through 11.

Dowel and tie bars shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M31 or AASHTO M42 except that rail
steel should not be used for tie bars that are to be bent and re-straightened during construction. Tie bars
shall be free from burring of other deformation restricting slippage in the concrete. A minimum of one half
(½) the length of each dowel bar shall be painted with one coat of approved lead of tar paint before
delivery to the site of the work.

The sleeves for dowel bars shall be metal of an approved design to cover 50 mm (2 inches), plus or
minus 6.3 mm of the dowel, with a closed end, and with a suitable stop to hold the end of the sleeve at
least 25mm (1 inch) from the end of the dowel bar. Sleeves shall be of such design that they do not
collapse during construction.

Plastic coated dowel bar conforming to AASHTO M 254 may be used.

13.2.3 Construction Requirements

a. Order List
Before materials are ordered, all order lists and bending diagrams shall be furnished by the Contractor,
for approval of the Engineer. The approval of order lists and bending diagrams by the Engineer shall in
no way relieve the Contractor of responsibility for the correctness of such lists and diagrams. Any
expenses incident to the revisions of materials furnished with the plans shall be borne by the Contractor.

b. Protection of Material
Steel reinforcement shall be stored above the surface of the ground upon platforms, skids, or other
supports and shall be protected as far as practicable from mechanical injury and surface deterioration
caused by exposure to conditions producing rust. When placed in the work reinforcement shall be free
from dirt, detrimental rust, loose scale, paint, grease, oil or other foreign materials. Reinforcement shall
be free from injurious defects such as cracks and laminations. Rust surface scars, surface irregularities
of mill scale will not be cause for rejection, provided the minimum dimensions as demonstrated.

c. Bending
All reinforcing bars requiring bending shall be cold-bent to the shapes shown on the plans or as required
by the Engineer. Bars shall be bent around a circular pin having the following diameters (d) in relation to
the diameter of the bar (d):

Nominal diameter Pin diameter (d)


D, mm
10 to 20 6d
25 to 28 8d
32 and greater 10d

Bends and hooks in stirrups or ties may be bent to the diameter of the principal bar enclosed therein.

d. Placing and Fastening


All steel reinforcement shall be accurately placed in the position shown on the plans or required by the
Engineer and firmly held there during the placing and setting of the concrete. Bars shall be tied at all
intersections except where spacing is less than 300 mm in each direction, in which case, alternate
intersections shall be tied, Ties shall be fastened on the inside. Distance from the forms shall be
maintained by means of stays, blocks, ties hangers, or other approved supports, so that it does not vary
from the position indicated on the plans by more than 6 mm. Blocks for holding reinforcement from
contact with the forms shall be precast mortar blocks of approved shapes and dimensions. Layers of bars
shall be separated by precast mortar blocks or by other equally suitable devices. The use of pebbles,
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pieces of broken stone or brick, metal pipe and wooden blocks shall not be permitted. Unless otherwise
shown on the plans or required by the Engineer, the minimum distance between bars shall be 40 mm.
Reinforcement in any member shall be placed and concrete begins. Concrete placed in violation of this
provision may be rejected and removal may be required. If fabric reinforcement is shipped in rolls, it shall
be straightened before being placed. Bundled bars shall be tied together at not more than 1.8 m
intervals.

e. Splicing
All reinforcement shall be furnished in the full lengths indicated on the plans. Splicing of bars except
where shown on the plans will not be permitted without the written approval of the Engineer. Splices shall
be staggered as far as possible and with a minimum separation of not less than 40 bar diameter. Not
more than one third of the bars may be spliced in the same cross-section, except where shown on the
plans.

Unless otherwise shown on the plans, bar shall be lapped a minimum distance of:

Grade 40 Grade 60
Splice type But not less than
Min.lap Min.lap
Tension 24 bar dia. 36 bar dia. 300 mm

Compression 20 bar dia. 24 bar dia. 300 mm

In lapped splices, the bars shall be placed in contact and wired together. Lapped splices will not be
permitted at locations where the concrete sections is insufficient to provide minimum clear distance of
one and one-third the maximum size of coarse aggregate between the splice and the nearest adjacent
bar. Welding of reinforcing steel shall be done only if detailed on the plans or if authorized by the
Engineer in writing. Spiral reinforcement shall be spliced by lapping at least one and a half turns or by
butt welding unless otherwise shown on the plans.

f. Lapping of Bar Mat


Sheets of mesh or bar mat reinforcement shall overlap each other sufficiently to maintain a uniform
strength and shall be securely fastened at the ends and edges. The overlap shall not be less than one
mesh in width.

g. Form / Deform Works


1. General

Formwork shall be re-checked of all established line and grade references so as to insure completed
work within the allowable tolerance specified. Pertinent design assumptions including assumed values of
live loads, rate of placement, height of drop, weight of moving equipment, and other pertinent information
prior to designing formworks shall be reviewed. The Contractor shall verify that reinforcement is free of
loose scale or rust and contaminants and shall be fabricated in accordance with fabrication requirements
herein specified and/or in the drawings. Reinforcement shall be checked of its allowable tolerances and
splicing requirement, and shall be kept in its proper position during placement of concrete. The
Contractor shall also check that all samples and certificates are submitted and approved. All items to be
embedded in concrete shall be complete and in their proper position. Partially set concrete shall not be
reworked and used. Vibrators shall not be used excessively and to transport concrete. Concrete flatwork
shall be struck level and floated to disappearance of water sheen and shall be finished as specified.
Concrete shall be cured as indicated and shall be protected from flowing water shock or excessive
vibration during curing.

2. Form Construction

Formwork shall include all temporary or permanent forms required for forming the concrete, together with
all temporary construction required for their support. Formwork shall have adequate cleanout opening to
permit inspection and cleaning. Joints shall be located at junction of formwork panels where feasible.
Formwork joints shall be solidly backed and leak proofed. Form surfaces on concrete side shall be given

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one - coat form oil after fabrication or cleaning and a second coat just prior to rebar placing. Excess oil
shall be wiped off. Form oil shall be kept off from reinforcement and embedded items. Forms shall be
properly maintained throughout the concrete work to accommodate rate and method of placing concrete;
to support load of wet concrete, and vertical horizontal pressure and impact loads during construction,
and to minimize abnormal deflections during and after concrete placement. Forms shall be provided with
positive means of adjustment to permit realignment or re-adjustment shores. Wooden formworks should
be virgin or should not be reused to ensure quality of work. Pre-formed steel formworks should be
cleaned before reusing.

3. Form Materials

Form systems shall be those specified below and supplied by Peri.

Wall Formwork
 Wall shutters/panels shall be CB-240 Sliding Rail Climbing Unit (roll back).
 GT24 wall girts used in conjunction with the shutters

Slab Formwork
 Peri-Up slab formwork system for shoring heights greater than 4m
 Multi Flex slab formwork system for all other locations
 Peri-Up and Multi Flex forwork systems shall be used in conjunction with GT24 girts

Column Formwork
 Steel facing forms to be used
 Particular column formwork to be those specified by Peri

Beam Formwork
 Particular beam formwork to be those specified by Peri

Form materials shall also comply with those set out below.
 Form lumber shall be stress graded or merchantable and shall be of non-staining species and
dressed on concrete forming side if to be used for exposed surfaces.
 Form plywood shall conform to PHILSA 1-2.
 Form oil, or coating shall be non-staining, compatible with subsequent finishing and bonding, and
shall be effective in sealing wood from moisture.
 Removal of Forms

Forms shall be removed in a manner and sequence to insure complete safety of structure, and without
damage to concrete surfaces. Side forms for beams, girders and walls three feet or less may be removed
as directed by the Engineer earlier than otherwise specified.

 Time of removal of forms shall be as follows:

i. Joints, beams and girder soffits.


a) Clear span less than 3m - 7 days.
b) Clear span 3m to 6m - 14 days.
c) Clear span over 6m - 21 days.

ii. Slabs.
a) Clear span 6m - 7days.
b) Clear span over 6m - 14 days

 Formwork

Formwork tolerance for cast-in-place concrete form plumb shall be as follows:

i. Lines and surfaces of columns, piers, walls and arises one cm. per 3.05m but not more than 3 cm.
ii. Exposed corner columns, control joints, grooves and all conspicuous lines:

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a) In any bay - ½ cm
b) Distances up to 6 M. - ½ cm
c) Distances up to 12 M. - 1 cm.

 Shoring

All trenches and other excavations shall be properly sheeted and braced, to furnish working conditions
acceptable to the Engineer. Bracing shall be so arranged as not to place any strains on portions of
completed work until the general construction has proceeded far enough to provide ample strength in the
opinion of the Engineer.

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14. Masonry Works

14.1.1 General

a. Description
Furnish all materials; equipment and all labor for the installation of concrete masonry unit work in strict
accordance with this section of the specification and the applicable drawings.

b. Quality Assurance
1. Reference Specification
 Portland Cement – Philippine Trade Standard 661-01-02-1972.
 Concrete Hollow Blocks – Philippine Trade Standard, 661-09-11, 1968.
 Steel Reinforcement Bar – Philippine Trade Standard, 681-04-02,1979

2. Tolerance
 Masonry: Masonry Units shall be set plumb and true to line with level horizontal joints within the
following tolerances:
a) Variation from the plumb in the lines and surfaces of columns, walls and arises:
b) In adjacent masonry units – 3mm.
c) In 3 m. – 6 mm.
d) In any storey or 1 cm.

 Variations of the linear building lines from established positions of columns, walls and partitions :
a) In any bay or 6 m. – 1.5 cm.
 In 12 m. – 2 cm.
 Joints
a) Nominal – 1 cm.
b) Maximum – 1.5 cm.

c. Product Delivery, Storage and Handling


1. Masonry Units
Masonry units shall be handled in manner to avoid chipping, breaking and intrusion of foreign matter.
Units shall be stored separately as regards to type, straight, shape and size above ground on level
platforms, allow air circulation, and to be protected from contact with soil. Units shall be protected from
wetting prior use.

2. Reinforcing Bars
Reinforcing bars shall be delivered in bundles, tagged or separated for prompt identification. Bars shall
be stored in a manner to avoid excessive rusting coating with grease, oil, dirt and objectionable materials
and shall be stocked on skids or rocks.

d. Products
1. Concrete Masonry
Concrete masonry unit shall conform to Philippine Trade Standard Specification 661-09-11 Type I with
normal thickness as indicated in the drawings. For exposed wall construction, the face of units shall be
equal and true, free of cracks, chips and other imperfections.

 Hollow load bearing units shall be Class A with compressive strength at 28 days as follows:
i. Average of five tests 800 psi
ii. Individual tests 1000 psi

 Hollow non-load bearings units shall have compressive strength at 28 days as follows:
i. Average of five tests 300 psi
ii. Individual tests 350 psi

 Material Uses

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i. Hollow load bearing units shall be used for all exterior and foundation walls and all other load
bearing walls.
ii. Hollow non-load bearing units shall be used for all interior non-load bearing walls and partitions
not exceeding 3 meters in height except that at the option of the Contractor, load bearing units
may be used in lieu of non-load bearing units

2. Special Masonry Unit


 Corner, corner return, control joint header, lintel and bond beams, sash, jamb and sill shall be as
manufactured commercially to suit specification requirements. Special masonry units shall be of
uniform texture and exposed surfaces to match the masonry units and be free of cracks and broken
edges.
 Lintel and bond beams, and sill shall be fabricated from 3000 psi compressive strength concrete.

3. Reinforcement
Reinforcing steel bars shall conform to Philippine Trade Standard Specification 681-04-02, Grade I of
sizes as indicated in the drawings. Splices shall be form by lapping bars as shown and wire tying them.
Splices in adjacent horizontal bars shall be staggered. Reinforcement for lintel and bond beams when not
indicated shall be not less than two of 12 mm.-diameter- bars.

4. Mortar and Grout


Mortar shall be mixed in the proportions of one part Portland cement and 6 parts sand and ¼ liter of
mortar Plasticizer (Sealoplaz). Mortar materials shall be measured by volumetric proportioning in
approved containers that will ensure that the specified proportions of materials will be controlled and
accurately maintained during the progress of the work. Measuring materials with shovels will not be
permitted. Unless specified otherwise, mortar shall be mixed in such a manner that the materials will be
distributed uniformly throughout the mass. A sufficient amount of water shall be added gradually and the
mass further mixed, not less than 3 minutes, until a mortar of plasticity necessary for the purposes
intended is obtained. Mortar boxes, pans, and/or mixer drums shall be kept clean and free of debris and
dried mortar. The mortar shall be used before the initial setting of the cement has taking place; reworking
of mortar in which cement has started to set will not be permitted.

Grout shall consist of a mixture of Portland cement conforming to Philippine Trade Standard Specification
661-01-02, Type I and aggregate as specified herein after. Water shall be added in sufficient quantity to
produce a fluid mixture. Fine grout shall be provided in grout spaces less than 2 inches in any horizontal
dimension or in which clearances between reinforcing and masonry is less than ¾ inch. Coarse grout
shall be provided in grout spaces 2 inches or greater in all horizontal dimensions or in which clearances
between reinforcing and masonry is less than ¾ inch. Coarse grout shall be provided in grout spaces 2
inches or greater in all horizontal dimensions and clearance between reinforcement and masonry is not
less than ¾ inch.

Fine grout shall be mixed in proportions in one part Portland cement and ¾ parts sand. Coarse grout
shall be mixed in proportions of one part Portland cement, 3 parts sand, and 3 parts of gravel passing a
3/8 -inch sieve.

e. Execution
1. Inspection
Proper handling and storage of materials shall be verified and test reports and certificates shall be
checked before the start of concrete masonry unit work. During installation, cracked or broken units shall
be rejected. Bond pattern and layout shall be checked to ensure minimum cutting and breaking of bond
units. Critical details such as control or expansion joints and reinforcing bars shall be verified for proper
installation. Proper procedures shall be utilized during work stoppage or between workdays. All finished
wall surfaces shall be cleared and ready for further protective coating.

2. Installation
 General Requirements

Only dry masonry units shall be laid and unless a different pattern in indicated, units shall be laid in
running bond pattern with vertical joints breaking on the center of units in course below. Masonry saws
maybe used to cut and fit masonry units, and wherever possible, full units of the proper sized shall be
used in lieu of cut units. Cutting and fitting where required to accommodate the work by others shall be

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done by masonry mechanics using power masonry saws. Unit shall be wet cut. All cut edges shall be
neat, true and sharp as possible. Units shall be laid with full mortar coverage on horizontal and vertical
faces shells except that webs shall also be bedded in all starting courses on footings and around cells
that are to be reinforced and filled with grout. One section of any wall shall not be carried up in advance
of the others. Horizontal reinforcement shall be deformed reinforcing bars. Step back-unfinished work for
joining with new work. Toothing shall not be permitted. Bolts, inserts, anchors and other built-in items
shall be installed as work progresses. Cells containing embedded items shall be solidly grouted.

 Reinforced Masonry

Units shall be laid with full head and bed joints in running bond and laying shall be done so as to
preserve the unobstructed vertical continuity of cores to be filled. Cross webs adjacent to vertical cores to
be filled with grout shall be fully embedded in mortar to prevent leakage of grout. Reinforcing shall be
positioned accurately as indicated and horizontal reinforcing shall be embedded in grouts as laying
proceeds. Only masonry units free from chipped edges or other imperfections shall be laid for all
exposed masonry surfaces. All wall openings shall be provided with an additional reinforcing bar all
around the opening. Rebar shall be 12- mm. diameter when not indicated in the plans. All mortar
protruding into grout spaces shall be removed prior to grouting. Cleanouts holes shall be provided at the
bottom of every core containing vertical reinforcement when grouting height exceeds 24 inches.
Cleanouts shall be plugged after reinforcement and final cleaning of the grout spaces have been
completed. Backfill foundation walls seven days after grouting of cells have been completed.

 Jointing

Joints in exposed masonry surfaces shall be tooled slightly concave, unless indicated otherwise. Tooling
rod shall be ½ inch minimum size. Joints shall be tooled when the mortar is ‘thumbprint’ hard. Joints in
concealed masonry and joints above electrical outlet boxes in wet areas shall be struck flush. Joints in
masonry shall be brushed to remove all loose and excess mortar. Reinforced masonry foundation walls
shall be backfilled a minimum of seven days after grouting of cells has been completed.

 Lintel and Bond Beams

Lintel and bond beams shall consist of beam units reinforced as indicated but with not less than two 12
mm. diameter bars where not indicated, and shall be filled with grout. When laying open bottom type
bond beam units over cells not to be filled with grout, a wire mesh or small mesh metal lath shall be
placed under bond beam units to contain grout within the spaces. Structural bond beams shall be
continuous at control joints and discontinuous at seismic and expansion joints. Sills shall be set with only
the ends bedded in mortar; remainder of sill joints shall be left open until painting. Slip type sills shall be
set in full mortar bed. Vertical joints in sills shall be pointed with mortar. Sills shall have drip grooves on
underside where units overhang the walls.

 Control Joints

Control joints on masonry walls shall be provided as indicated. Seating of control joints shall be specified
in section: CAULKING AND SEALING.

f. Pointing and Cleaning


All holes in exposed masonry surfaces shall be pointed. All defective joints shall be cut out and truck
point solid with mortar. Excess loose mortar shall be removed from all exposed masonry and finished
masonry surface shall be left free from loose mortar and stains. All exposed surfaces of masonry shall be
cleaned from the top down with either a solution of trisodium phosphate and household detergent or
muriatic acid and clean water. Surfaces shall be free from mortar stain, drippings, efflorescence and
other foreign substances.

Cleaning shall be as follows:

 Wet walls thoroughly before applying solution.


 Scrub walls with stiff fiber brushes.
 Apply cleaning solution in the following proportions:

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i. ½ cup trisodium phosphate and ½ cup household detergent dissolved in one gallon (3.78 liters)
of clean water.
ii. One part commercial grade of muriatic acid to nine parts of clean water.
Rinse surfaces with clean water.

g. Protection of Completed Works


Staining of masonry facing shall be prevented immediately by removing any misplaced grout or mortar.
All sills, ledges and offsets shall be protected from mortar droppings or other damages during
construction.

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15. Structural Steel

15.1.1 General
This specification includes materials, labour, equipment and services for the fabrication, surface
protection, storage, delivery to site, erection and connections of all structural steelwork and related work
indicated, in accordance with the contract drawings and construction specification.

15.1.2 Objective

The steel specification outlined in this section describes the basis of structural design and is applicable to
all structural steel works.

15.1.3 Normative References


The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies. Information on currently valid national and international
standards can be obtained from standards.

Structural steelwork shall comply with the current relevant Philippines Standard and International
Standards including the following:
NSCP C101-10 National Structural Code of the Philippines
AISC 303-10 Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges
AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings 2005
ASTM A36 Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
ASTM A992 Standard Specification for Structural Steel Shapes
ASTM A500 Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon
Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
ASTM A606 Standard Specification for Steel, Sheet and Strip, High Strength, Low-Alloy,
Hot Rolled and Cold-Rolled.
ASTM A325M Standard Specification for High-Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints
AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code – Steel
AWS A5.1 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

15.1.4 Technical Requirements

a. Steel type and grade


Structural steel shall comply with NSCP C101-10Chapter 5 and the following standards:
Plates Grade A36 ASTM A36
(minimum yield strength 250 MPa)
Hot Rolled Sections (wide Grade A992 ASTM A992
flange, channels and angles) (minimum yield strength 345MPa)
Welded Sections Grade A36 (250 MPa) ASTM A36
Hollow Sections Grade A992 (345MPa) ASTM A992

b. Bolts
All bolts nuts and washers are to be hot dipped galvanised in accordance with ASTM A123, A143 and
A385.

All bolt holes shall comply with the provisions of the RCSC Specification for Structural Steel Joints Using
ASTM A325 Bolts.

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All bolt types and bolting procedures shall be in accordance with the following procedures, as nominated
on the drawings:

 A325 Snug tight- High strength structural bolts of Strength Grade fu = 825MPa (120 ksi) conforming to
ASTM F568M, tightened using a standard wrench to a ‘snug-tight’ condition as acceptable by ASTM
or AISC 318 specification.
 A325 Tension Friction - High strength structural bolts of Strength Grade fu = 825 MPa (120 ksi)
conforming to ASTM F568M, fully tensioned as a friction-type joint in accordance with AISC 318.
 A325 Tension Bearing - High strength structural bolts of Strength Grade fu = 825 MPa (120 ksi)
conforming to ASTM F568M, fully tensioned as a bearing-type joint in accordance with AISC 318.

Fully tensioned bolts shall be tightened by either the part turn of the nut method or with the use of
coronet load indicating washers under the head. (Note that the load indicating washer protrusions are to
be in contact with the head of the bolt and not in contact with the steel through which the bolt passes).
Where the part turn method is used, the end of the bolt and nut are to be match (punch) marked before
the part turn is made. A bolt shall not be slackened after full tensioning. If it is necessary to slacken a
nut the bolt shall be rejected and a new bolt used.

All high tensile bolts shall be assembled with a hardened steel washer under the nut.

Purlin and girt bolting shall be in strict accordance with the purlin manufacturer’s recommendations.

c. Finishes
All steelwork shall be treated by the following method except where otherwise noted below.
 Degrease steel to ASTM A380.
 Properly prepare steel surface by abrasive blast cleaning in accordance with ASTM A380, normally
Sa 2 1/2.
 Before the steel surface shows any tarnishing, and on the same day, apply an approved inorganic
zinc silicate paint .The coating shall be applied in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions to give a minimum dry film thickness of 75m. This is to be applied in one full double
header coat. Avoid build up in corners and confined spaces.
 For all steel members, after erection touch up: wire brush with primer and one pack non epoxy top
coat paintto give a minimum dry film thickness of m per coat.

See Sectiond. Hot Dipped Galvanizing below, for requirements for submission of Contractor Method
Statement submission.

All steelwork painting shall comply with the Clients particular requirements for paints in food storage,
production areas and for corrosion protection. The Contractor’s attention is drawn to the Clients specific
document; Technical Instruction, GI-206.1-1 June 2007, Guidelines for Paints. A copy of which is
included in Appendix B.

d. Hot Dipped Galvanising


Steelwork to be galvanized:
 All external steelwork
 Holding Down Bolts
 All mild steel bolts, nuts and washers

Clean sections thoroughly and apply zinc coating by the hot-dip process to the requirements of AS/NZS
4680 to give a coating weight of not less than 600 grams per square metre.

The Contractor shall submit the Method Statement for the surface preparation for all finishes types and
protective treatment to the Engineer for his approval before commencement of fabrication works, giving
details of the protective treatment specification and shall indicate quality control and inspection to ensure
conformity with the AISC Standard Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.

e. Grouting

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Grouting is required to all interfaces between steel members and concrete. All grout to be high strength,
non-shrink and comply with ASTM C827.

15.1.5 Fabrication and Delivery

f. General
All work shall be done in accordance with the best modern practice and in no respect inferior to the
requirements of the Normative References listed above.

The fabricator of steelwork shall be a company experienced in delivering projects of a similar size and
complexity to that indicated on the drawings.

Prior to fabrication a site survey shall be carried out to confirm locations of any existing obstructions,
such as buildings and recently constructed items that may have an effect on the erection and final
steelwork positions.

g. Welding
General:All welds are to comply with AWS D1.1. All welders shall hold the AWS qualification for welding.

As much welding as possible shall be carried out in the workshop or on the ground prior to erection. Site
welding shall be of the same standard as shop welding, and shall not be done in rain or other wet
conditions or when the temperature of components is less than 5C. Touch up any site welds with zinc
rich paint.

Allow for thermal movement resulting from the following maximum change (range) in ambient
temperature in the design, fabrication, and installation of installed assemblies to prevent buckling,
opening up of joints, and overstressing of welds and fasteners.

Butt Welds: All butt welds shall be made in the shop and in the downward position and the Contractor
shall so arrange his work that this can be fulfilled. Single V butt welds shall have backing runs in
accordance with AWS D1.1.

Vertical Welds: Vertical welding shall have backing runs in accordance with AWS D1.1.

Preheating: Preheating shall be used when the following arise:


 Temperature of the parent metal is at or below 10C.
 All repairs
 Any incomplete weld which has been allowed to cool.

Repair of Welds: In the event of any weld requiring repair due to cracking, this shall be done as directed
by the Engineer and at the Contractor’s expense.
Fabricator’s Supervisor: A supervisory welder, holding an Australian Welding Institute Certificate, shall
be in attendance at all times whilst welding is being carried out.
Electrodes: Electrodes shall be Series E70XX, low hydrogen type and shall comply with AWS A5.1.
The electrodes shall be stored in a heated cabinet in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations and adjacent to the working area.

h. Identification
Every individual member shall be uniquely and plainly marked to show position and direction as
necessary for easy identification and correct placement.

Loose pieces for connections shall be attached to their respective members by wiring.

Bolts, where not in holes, shall be metal tagged, each type in a separate container.

The extent and size of all fillet welds that are to be made in the field shall be clearly marked.

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Exposed, unpainted steel shall be marked with tags.

i. Handling and Storage


The steelwork shall be handled in a manner that will not overstress or deform it, and every care is to be
taken when handling treated steelwork.

Members shall be stored above the ground surface so as to avoid contamination and damage. Steelwork
contaminated during storage shall be cleaned prior to erection.

Only padded slings shall be used to handle all treated steelwork.

15.1.6 Erection

a. Erection Procedure
The Contractor is to submit full details of his proposed erection procedure in writing to the Engineer at
least seven days prior to commencement of any work on site. This procedure is to include:

 The sequence of erection of the steelwork clearly indicating the erection order of all key components.
 Proposed lifting method and lifting points for all primary and secondary roof trusses.
 Method of stabilizing trusses and/or roof rafters until their permanent lateral restraint is complete.
 Method of temporarily stabilizing building until all vertical bracing elements are installed and
connection to the Process building is complete.
 Information on the carnage proposed at the various erection stages.
 Information on proposed access equipment and safety procedures.

The Engineer will review the erection procedure and may request additional measures to ensure
adequate stability of the steelwork at all times and to avoid overstressing of components during erection.
The Contractor is required to meet all reasonable requests by the Engineer to this end at no extra cost to
the Contract.

Once the erection procedure has been finalized, the Contractor shall not depart from the procedure
without first advising the Engineer in writing.

Under no circumstances is work to commence on site until a procedure considered satisfactory by the
Engineer has been submitted and finalized.

Submission to and review of the erection procedure by the Engineer is to allow the Engineer, as the
originator of the permanent design, to assure himself that the Contractor’s erection proposals and the
implementation of those proposals will not result in any impairment of the permanent works. It shall in no
way relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for the execution of the works and for the safe and
complete erection of the works. The tender will be deemed to include all costs associated with meeting
these requirements.

b. Protection of Existing Work


All appropriate measures shall be undertaken to protect the existing Egron 1 building. Only works
indicated in the Drawings to the existing building shall be permitted.

c. Temporary Works
Adequate allowances shall be made for temporary support to the structure during the erection process.
Unless connections and other details are provided or where the Contractor is required to design any
structural member/truss or temporary support system, the Contractor shall engage an approved
structural steelwork fabricator to design such details and prepare fabrication Drawings in accordance with
Subsection15.1.8.

The cost to design and construct of all temporary works shall be borne by the Contractor and included
within their offer.

d. Alignment & Tolerances


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It is the Contractor’s responsibility to establish the correct levels when erecting the steel to ensure that all
members after erection are level, plumb and straight.

On completion, all steelwork shall be accurate and within the tolerances nominated in AISC Code of
Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges.

e. Site Fabrication
Except where shown on the drawings, no site welding, grinding or flame cutting is to be carried out
without prior approval being obtained from the Engineer. No hot work shall be carried out without a hot
work permit being issued by the Engineer.

f. Modification to Existing Steel Member


No site welding to structural elements is allowable to be done on site including welding to existing steel
member, unless noted otherwise on the drawings or as approved by the engineer.

Where shown on the drawings, fabrication of holes for bolt on existing steel member shall be made by
drilling method.

g. Cleaning Up
On completion of work on site, clean up and leave the whole area ready for immediate use by following
Contractors to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Touch up all paintwork damaged during cartage and erection.

15.1.7 Compliance with the Requirements

a. Quality Assurance
The Contractor is to have in place a Quality Assurance Programme that is subject to continual monitoring
through quality audits by a recognised independent organisation. The supplier of all materials and
services, manufactured products etc shall provide to the Engineer proof of the quality of the above items
and a method of assuring that the required quality is maintained through the construction period.

b. Inspection and Tests


The contractor shall provide the services of a Welding Inspector who shall complete all inspections, tests
(including NDT) and reports required by this specification. This shall include any additional inspections,
tests and reports necessary due to the presence of any welding or related workmanship defects. The
Welding Inspector shall be a suitably qualified, independent party contracted directly to the Contractor.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the coordination of all testing and inspections required in the
Specification.

The Welding Inspector appointment shall be approved by the Engineer. The name, company, technical
qualifications of the proposed Welding Inspector shall be submitted to the Engineer for acceptance a
minimum of two weeks prior to commencing fabrication.

c. Extent and Frequency of Inspections


 The welds to be inspected shall be chosen by the Welding Inspector and agreed by the Engineer.
 100% of all welds shall be visually scanned for gross defects and to ensure that the welds have been
made.
 The first two welds of all weld types shall be visually examined for each welder. If problems are found
visually examine all welds for that welder until specified quality is achieved.
 100% of all welds shall be visually examined. If lack of fusion or cracking is suspected carry out
Magnetic Particle or Liquid Penetrant testing as the minimum level of testing to the suspect welds as
instructed by the Welding Inspector.
 A minimum of 25% of all welding shall be Non Destructively Tested by either Radiography, Ultrasonic,
Magnetic Particle or Liquid Penetrant testing for each welder. If problems are found increase testing to
100% for that welder until specified quality is achieved consistently.

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 If not specified, the type of Non Destructive Testing (NDT) shall be chosen by the Welding Inspector,
to suit the circumstances concerning the welds being tested and to meet the specification
requirements.

Any corrections to defective work shall be carried out in accordance with the Standard Code for Welding
in Building Construction of the American Welding Society.

The Contractor shall allow in his price for providing such assistance as may be required by the Engineer
for testing or inspecting materials and workmanship.

The inspector shall be allowed all the rights and privileges due to the Engineer. He may carry out himself
or have carried out by a NATA registered or otherwise approved laboratory, all tests he may order on
behalf of the Engineer.

d. Inspection and Test Plans


As part of the Quality Plan the Contractor shall prepare Inspection and Test Plans (ITP) for critical items
in the project detailing the Contractor’s proposals for inspections and testing as detailed in the technical
specification.

The Contractor shall nominate the person responsible for the quality control of each item of the ITP. The
Contractor shall maintain the ITPs during the works and make the ITPs available for inspection by the
Engineer on request.

The Contractor shall provide a copy of the completed Inspection and Test Plans to the Engineer on
completion of activities. Prior to date of Practical Completion the Contractor shall provide a copy of all
completed ITPs (if not already provided.) The acceptance of the completed ITPs shall be a requirement
for the issue of a Certificate of Practical Completion.

ITPs shall be prepared for critical activities as required in the Contractor’s Quality Plan including, but not
limited to;
 Steelwork Fabrication
 Painting and Finishes
 Steelwork Erection

e. Inspection and Testing Methods


All welding procedures shall be notified in advance to the inspector and such tests as he requires will be
carried out prior to their employment on the job.

The Engineer reserves the right to order any tests on workmanship including radiography, as he might
consider necessary. These tests will be at the Principal’s expense but any further testing as a
consequence of test failures will be at the Contractor’s expense.

All welders may be required to perform tests run to the satisfaction of the inspector. Pairs of plates
welded together as tests, in accordance with AWS A5.1 may be subjected to X-rays or physically tested
and the cost of such tests will be chargeable to the Contractor.

All steelwork shall be supplied in accordance with the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP
C101-10).Certified Mill test reports, or test certificates shall be provided as evidence of conformity with
the standard ASTM A6/A6M for hot-rolled structural shapes, plates and bars. For cold formed sections, a
certificate of conformity to ASTM A500 shall be submitted. These certificates shall be submitted for
approval prior to commencement of fabrication. Certificates shall only be accepted from testing
companies accredited by a testing authority recognized the Philippines. If materials supplied and installed
are subsequently proven to be not compliant with the specified standards it shall be the Contractor’s
responsibility and cost to undertake certified testing to prove conformance to the specified standards and
design specifications. Similarly, any rectification works that may subsequently be required to satisfy
specified code requirements shall be the responsibility of the Contractor.

A copy of test certificates for all Materials shall be provided to the Engineer on request and shall be in the
English language. These shall show all information necessary to confirm compliance with the quality
specified. High strength steel shall be marked accordingly by the supplier before delivery. Materials shall

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be identifiable at all stages of fabrication and traceable to the relevant Material certificates.

f. Hold Points
HP-01 Review of shop drawings
HP-02 Review of welding procedures
HP-03 Review of erection sequence and procedures

15.1.8 Drawings and Data Submissions


The Contractor shall supply the following information to the Engineer. Summary for Submissions
Required – Structural Steel

Item When Required


Details of QA including the inspection and Prior to commencement
test plan
Shop Drawings Prior to commencement
Welding Procedures Prior to fabrication
Mill certificates of all steel used Prior to fabrication
Weld inspection reports Weekly
Erection sequence and procedures Seven days prior to commencement on site

a. Shop Drawings
At the time of tender, the Contractor is to make his own assessment of the time and cost required to
produce shop drawings based on the tender documentation provided and make due allowance in the
tender Price. Shop drawings of all structural steel components shall be prepared by the Contractor at his
expense, from the information presented in the Drawings and any other relevant Contract documents.

It is the Contractor’s responsibility to ensure that the structural steel assembly as detailed on the shop
drawings complies with the Contract documents with respect to member size and cladding alignment.
Any checking done by the Engineer shall not relieve the Contractor of this responsibility.

On award of Contract, the Contractor is to promptly advise the Engineer of any additional information or
clarification he may require to expeditiously prepare the necessary shop drawings. Where discretion to
detail has been left to the Contractor in accordance with standard industry practice, the Contractor is to
obtain early approval from the Engineer for his proposed details.

All fabrication errors (whether or not occasioned by errors in the shop drawings) shall be corrected at no
extra cost to the Client.

Shop drawings are to be prepared in accordance with sound engineering practice having due
consideration to structural adequacy of member connections, concentric intersections of forces, etc.

The Contractor is required to submit detailed shop drawings of the work to the Engineer for review before
commencing fabrication. The engineer shall review the drawings and return any comments to the
Contractor generally within two weeks of receipt, for incorporation by the Contractor who shall resubmit 1
set of the amended shop drawings within a further week to the Engineer. The Contractor shall site
measure for all connections to existing buildings and detail accordingly.

Shop drawings shall be prepared to conform to the methods set out in ‘AISC Detailing for Steel
Construction”, except weld symbols which shall comply with AS 1101.3. The drawings shall provide
complete details of each assembly in the steelwork, together with all information relevant to their
fabrication, surface treatment and erection. Each component and connection shall show the relevant
work points.

Aspects to be covered by the shop drawings shall include, but not limited to the following:
 Dimensions of overall assemblies and individual components (verified by site measuremens)
 Full component drawings, showing all end preparations required for the following work.
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 Weld preparation, preheating requirements, and fully detailed welding descriptions.


 Component assembly details, both for shop assembly and site assembly.
 Finishes, including surface preparation and recoating time.
 Pre-camber and propping requirements.
 Material grades of sections, plates, bolts and welding consumables.

The Contract programme shall make due allowances in the steelwork procurement period for the
preparation, checking, review (as noted below unless agreed otherwise) and subsequent correction and
re-review of shop drawings. Prior to preparing shop drawings the Contractor shall provide and agree a
drawing delivery schedule and drawing format and numbering system with the Engineer.

Shop drawing review indicates only that the design intent has been correctly interpreted without the need
for further modification, other than the corrections indicated by the reviewer. Review of the shop drawings
does not relieve the Contractor of responsibility for the correctness of the shop drawings, site
dimensions, the overall design and performance, or for the ensuring the work is carried out in compliance
with the Contract. Neither can the review be construed as authorizing departures from the Contract.

Failure to present these drawings on time, or any requirement by the Engineer for amendment or
resubmission of a drawing, shall in no way relieve the Contractor of any of his obligations with reflect to
the programme, dates or any other obligations under the terms of the Contract.

b. Completion of works
Before the issue of the Certificate of Practical Completion the Contractor shall provide the Principal with
the following information.
 Completed Inspection and Test Plans (ITP).
 Signed statement that all steelwork has been carried out in accordance with the drawings, this
specification and National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP C101-10).

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16. Plastering Works

16.1.1 General

a. Scope
Guide specifications for the minimum requirements for the system and application of Portland cement
plaster (stucco). The Contractor shall provide all materials, labor and equipment necessary to complete
this system of Portland cement plaster as shown on drawings and/or as described herein.

Where products and or systems are specified they shall be installed in accordance with the Building
Codes and/or manufacturers requirements. Do not proceed with lathing or plastering until all products
and/or finish samples are approved, if required.

16.1.2 Materials
To be delivered to job in original containers with labels intact and legible. Storage and protection of all
products is the responsibility of the Contractor performing the scope of the work.

a. General Mix
 Accurate proportions of materials for each batch. Measuring devices of known volume for all
materials. Size batches for complete use within maximum of one hour after mixing.
 Withhold 10 mixing of water until mixing is almost complete then add as needed to produce necessary
consistency. Keep water to a minimum.
 Mix proportions by volume. Selection of either A, B, or C mix only. Do not inter-mix these three
sections or change volume proportions of these sections.
 Cement plaster directly over a concrete surface.
 Concrete surface must be clean of dust, loose particles, oil, and other foreign matter which would
affect a bond of cement plaster to concrete. Apply a liquid bonding agent to concrete surface per
manufacturer’s standards.
 Test bond of cement plaster to concrete surface.
 Cement plaster must be applied with sufficient force (by hand or machine) to develop full adhesion
between plaster and the substrate.
 Cement plaster base coat must be rodded off to a true flat plane. Even and level with screeds. Follow
this by wood floating.

b. Installation
All items to be attached so that they are level, plumb and true, and create a proper screed and depth for
the cement plaster. Attach building paper, lath, and accessories per standards and code.

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17. Health and Safety


All work must be undertaken in accordance with the local requirements in regards to Occupational Safety
and Health. The requirements of Statutory Authorities, Government Departments and relevant Executive
Orders and Laws shall be adhered to at all times. The Contractor shall comply fully both on and off Site
with the provisions of the National Building Code of the Philippines in all matters relating to construction
safety.

Where the elimination or isolation of on-Site hazards is not possible, appropriate and effective
equipment, clothing and work practices shall be used to minimize these hazards.

Health and Safety practices for welding should be in accordance with WTIA Technical Note 7.

During erection the structure shall be made safe against erection loading, including loading due to
erection equipment or its operation, and wind. Temporary propping, bracing and restraint shall be
provided as required to ensure that the structure is stable and safe at all times. Design of such temporary
support shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. Temporary bracing and restraint shall be left in place
until the erection is sufficiently advanced to allow safe removal.

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Annex A: Shop Drawing Check Form

I ..............................(name) of ......................... (firms name) being the Contractor's designated person


responsible for the preparation of the shop drawings required by specification clause 2.24, certify that the
drawings listed below have been prepared, reviewed, coordinated and checked prior to submission to the
Engineer in accordance with the requirements of clause 2.24.

SAMPLE CHECK LIST

The following check list is intended as a sample list of items that should be included in the Contractor's
review of shop drawings. The list is not exhaustive and additional items may be required to suit the specific
requirements of individual projects.

CHECKED
1.0 Shop Drawings prepared to an acceptable presentation standard. .............
2.0 Shop Drawing revisions noted and clouded. .............
3.0 Dimensions
- relevant dimensions indicated
- site measurement noted and checked .............
- dimensions coordinated and checked with the requirements of
the Contract documents and other trades.
4.0 Drawing numbers and revisions from which Shop Drawings have
been prepared noted on the Shop Drawing. .............
5.0 All relevant contract information including specification requirements
indicated on Shop Drawings. .............
6.0 Shop Drawings checked and coordinated with the requirements of all
Drawings and Specifications (eg Architectural, Civil, Structural, .............
Building Services, etc).
7.0 Shop Drawing checked and coordinated with the requirements of
other trades Shop Drawings. .............
8.0 Shop Drawings approved by the Contractor for fabrication, signed
and dated. .............

SIGNED: ...........................................

POSITION: ...........................................

DATE: ...........................................

Drawing Numbers to which certification applies.

DRAWING Nº REVISION Nº TITLE DATE ISSUED TO ENGINEER

Note: A complete copy of this form shall accompany all shop drawing submissions to the Engineer.

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Annex B: Nestle’s Technical Instruction GI-206.1-1, Guidelines for


Paints

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