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it was the jung-in class (“middle class people”) who later enjoyed and developed the music. In this chapter. Local literati and the middle class emerged as new consumers of music. the Joseon Dynasty experienced social. Currently the term pungnyu is used synonymously with Yeongsanhoesang when it is related to literati music culture. The present orchestral suite Yeongsanhoesang exemplifies how music has changed along with people. and modern day performance practice of Yeongsanhoesang and the historical and socio-cultural dimensions of music making within its historical contexts. society and culture. political and economic changes after the seventeenth century. most of the time. history. I examine the people. Up until the early Joseon period. Pungnyu music is often defined as music of pungnyu-bang. The origins of the institution are detailed in Seonsa. The emergence of pungnyu culture in Korean music history reflects the socio-cultural changes of particular periods. and in its current form is the result of gradual changes throughout history. states in his preface to the “Nallang Pi” (Inscription on the Monument of Nallang) that: There is a wonderful and mysterious way in the country. However. a scholar and writer of Silla dynasty. repertoires. musical activities were mostly centered on court music as prescribed by the ruling elite. However. Pungnyu music was elegant and distinguished culture that was enjoyed by the members of high society purely for entertainment during leisure hours. The most popular repertoire played at pungnyu-bang was Yeongsanhoesang. Even though the class of people who gathered at the pungnyu-bang has changed throughout the history. The term pungnyu first appeared in the History of Three Kingdoms (Samguk sagi) in relation to activities in King Jinheung’s reign in the sixth century in Silla (57 BCE . society. Pungnyu music itself has been passed on for approximately five hundred years. Choi Chiwon. transmission. called Pungnyu. the literati’s private salon or club where literati gathered to enjoy music. remained cultivating one’s culture as suggested by Confucian teaching. In fact it embraces the Three Teachings [Buddhism. Jeong-ak genres encompass historical royal court and literati music of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910). and they cultivated a new music culture era in Korea.but but the term pungnyu had previously existed in Korea for a long time. Pungnyu (“wind and stream”) is the most representative instrumental jeong-ak today and that was performed privately for and by the literati. Confucianism and Taoism] and transforms .935 CE). the main purpose of the pungnyu-bang has. Understanding Pungnyu Even though today’s pungnyu music has been transmitted from the late Joseon.Classical Music : Instrumental 49 Pungnyu: Classical Instrumental Music Classical instrumental musical genres performing today in Korea are the body of music generally classified as jeong-ak (“proper music”). arts and poetry. it is ambiguous to define the body of music merely as the music of literati because although this music was originally performed at the court. which in turn affected the production and consumption of music.
and it is the teaching of Buddha that one should avoid evil and do many good deeds. achieve harmony with nature. and lifestyle. During this time. Dano (fifth day of fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (fifteenth day of eighth lunar month). government artists and court musicians and all were hereditary. and relevant to Korean collective and individual entertainment culture. pungnyu was a tool for transcending material and secular desires and developing peace of mind. The rigid social class structure began to come apart in the mid sixteenth century and by the nineteenth century. politics and culture. pungnyu is defined as refined and stylish recreation. By enjoying these festive occasions. From the beginning of the dynasty. Patronage and Reception of Pungnyu Neo-Confucianism was widely disseminated in the late Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) and became the main political and philosophical ideology of the Joseon Dynasty. which by way of pungnyu. Along with shifts in yangban status. this privileged class seized power in all sectors. During the early Joseon period. according to Choi. is an indigenous Korean perspective that encompasses foreign philosophies and religions. thus. statute law clerks. or the Way. Pungnyu activities included enjoying nature by traveling and singing and dancing to . and Confucian literati cultivated their distinct pungnyu music culture accordingly. Museum mobile and yangban status had come unhinged. the royal court and aristocracy officials were the main musical patrons. symmetry and serenity in accordance with court and literati aesthetics. and culture. translators. medical officers. Pungnyu was deemed an important activity. an elite group of male youth. nature. They constituted the yangban who served as civil and military officials. originally for arts and culture steeped in Buddhism and Taoism. and refined arts. could result in harmony among people.50 Music of Korea Classical Music : Instrumental 51 myriad men. and every sector of Korean society was transformed after the Japanese invasion in 1592 and the Manchu Invasions in 1627 and 1636. it is the belief of Laozi that one should be at home in the action of inaction and practice the wordless doctrine. officers of central government. Practices of pungnyu can be traced to principle training methods of Hwarang groups. Exemplary music was expected to express peace. students who studies at the local educational institutions (hyanggyo). Pungnyu. the development of wholesale commerce and the economic success of the jung-in class made jung-in the new cultural consumers. the spread of Western learning. Pungnyu was the basic philosophy for Hwarang. purify the soul. As a reflective activity. Neo-Confucianism was a philosophical Confucianism that explained the origins of man and the universe in metaphysical terms. and control the mind. In particular. it was perhaps more conducive to an individual level of leisure. Music was a useful tool of self-discipline to achieve a proper state of mind and cultivate culture. Buddhism and Taoism-religious practices historically prevalent in Korea. The jung-in class actually comprised diverse professions and social classes: low ranking technicians. entertainment. scribes. the literati were the dominant social class. in Silla. Pungnyu. which was particularly emphasized. This shift brought about changes in power relations in the top (government-led) to down (people-led) art and culture system. accountants. and society revolved around the yangban. is used as a collective term indicating an aesthetic enjoyment of nature believed central to traditional Korean thought and in accord with Confucianism. The resultant social changes led to the Silhak (practical learning) social movement. Along with its connections to Hwarang principles. and pungnyu outlined the underlining basic assumptions. singing and dancing to train the body. The seventeenth century witnessed great changes in music patronage alongside socio-cultural and economic changes. the Joseon dynasty was much more socially <Figure 1> Playing geomun-go Kim Hongdo <Huwonyuyeon > (Second half of the 18th century) Nat’l. In terms of collective leisure. The sole profession of the yangban was the holding of public offices available through strict state examination. These groups developed into a more military organization as the Silla court centralized political power. the sons of yangban by mistresses and their descendants. It is a tenet of Confucius that one should be filial to one’s parents and loyal to one’s sovereign. Members dwelled in the mountains and enjoyed nature. Hwarang were educational institutions as well as social elite clubs where members gathered for all aspects of study. Space. New intellectual ideology and economic growth also brought changes in social-class hierarchy and modes of expression in the arts. While pungnyu played a part in seasonal festivals. and economic growth. and music was seen as a vehicle to achieve Confucian ideals. intrinsic to a tasteful lifestyle. Koreans have traditionally celebrated seasonal festivals such as Seol (lunar new year’s day). economy. The advent and development of a class of new private merchants is reflective of the artistic activities of the eighteenth century and the enlightenment movement of nineteenth century. people recharged by taking a break from hard work and remembering their ancestors. The Joseon dynasty experienced several invasions from neighboring dynasties. including government. jung-in were expanding their influence in society. officers at the provincial and local governments and local agencies. Later the term pungnyu was associated with the Neo-Confucian ideology of the Joseon period and the philosophical stance of the ruling elite of Korea. a view that supported the new literati ruling class in the Joseon period. Catholicism. Cultivating musical skills was seen as following Do (Tao in Chinese).
and Gwanak yeongsanhoesang. but rather are related to each other and variants of one piece.52 Music of Korea Classical Music : Instrumental 53 gradually changed. was deeply influenced by these two groups of people of mainly amateur musicians. resulting in the commodification of pungnyu music. haegeum. Pyeongjohoesang. Before the establishment of modern theatrical performance culture.1469-1494). the first treatise on Korean music.2 1) History According to Akakgwebeom book five. most of the pungnyu manuscripts are written for geomun-go and rarely for other instruments. Yeongsanhoesang was originally Buddhist vocal music which performed for court dance during the reign of Seongjong (r. Museum music reception have been changed this period which went beyond feudalistic class system and the culture of pungnyu-bang also has shifted along with society. and sometimes they invited professional musicians of gayageum. Pungnyu activities were mostly held at pungnyu-bang among pungnyugaek (pungnyu patrons): si-gaek (poets). The oldest notation of the music is found in Isusamsanjebon-geumbo (1651). These three variants have been found in a number of old notations. In musical practice of the early twentieth century pungnyu-bang exemplifies that music already emancipated from feudalistic Confucian ye-ak cosmology as well as conventional social class order. These manuscripts and scores have become the major source of research material on pungnyu music. Socio-historical contexts of <Figure 2> Pungnyu club scene <Danseong-yeonhoedo > (1725) Album of Painting and Calligraphy of Pungsan Kim Clan by Kim junghyu Nat’l. they re-discover geomun-go as the literati’s musical instrument of choice and developed a new pace for pungnyu music.1 Pungnyu-gaek gathered irregularly and to enjoy music and the arts and promote mutual friendship. The new supporter-consumers tried to internalize the concept of pungnyu by enjoying “refined” music. In the late Joseon dynasty. The pungnyu-bang was a non-profitable. Since these scores were written as prescriptive (memory aid) not descriptive means. However. the string ensemble. Amateur musicians who participated in pungnyu-bang activities sometimes transcribed the music to help memorize the melodies. Usually geomun-go was played among themselves. the pungnyu-bang was the only place where criticisms and creativity could be explored. Instrumental ensembles performed while female entertainers sang seven Chinese syllables of the first line of a Buddhist sutra Yeong san hoe sang bul bo sal Although many scholars trace the development of jungin-centered musical activities back to the seventeenth century and the rise of the jungin class. another main group of contributors to pungnyu culture was the Sarim-pa literati of the previous century. By participating and performing together at pungnyu-bang. and ga-gaek (singers). The Sarim-pa literati was a group of Confucian scholars who returned to their ancestors’ hometowns in the countryside to improve their hometown. Pungnyu music. thus. yul-gaek (instrumental musicians). and Yeongsanhoesang persisted longer than lyric songs at pungny-bang. and the interpretation of these have been a major focus of study for music historians in Korea. Pungnyu-gaek expanded and reconstructed new pungnyu culture by including variety of musical genres which formerly performed at the court. and spontaneous gathering space for chamber music performance. and daegeum to perform with them. Large numbers of these rural Sarim-pa scholars were the main consumers and patrons of pungnyu music in late Joseon. muk-gaek (painters and calligraphers). the wind ensemble. The former was mostly organized around public figures and amateur musicians and the latter became the center for famous professional musicians of the period. Yeongsanhoesang and gagok (lyric songs) were the main repertoires at pungnyu-bang. A written record of Yeoungsanhoesang first appears in the Akakgwebeom (1493). They were yangban scholars who practiced an extreme form of Neo-Confucian doctrine that emphasized righteousness. purely voluntary-based. Yeongsanhoesang is a suite which consists of five to fifteen pieces of different tunes. professional musicians also contributed to developing pungnyu music. They formed a mutual savings club or guild (yul-gye) to operate their own pungnyu-bang. the string and wind ensemble. and the term pungnyu itself refers to Yeongsanhoesang. this culture split into commercialized pungnyu-bang managed by gwonbeon (female entertainers) groups and voluntary-based pungnyu-bang led by associations. With the establishment of commercial pungnyu-bang. pungnyu have been spread throughout the country. especially in Seoul. There are three existing versions of Yeongsanhoesang: Hyeonak yeoungsanhoesang. during the nineteenth century. These are not independent pieces. with interpretation of notations still open for study. Some pungnyu-bang in this period began conducting commercially oriented activities. Yeongsanhoesang Yeongsanhoesang represents pungnyu. the major role and characteristics of the pungnyu-bang . morality. the development of pungnyu was achieved through voluntary musical activities and the pungnyu-bang was a very effective medium. In early twentieth century. and a practical ethos. Their base in the countryside became central to Neo-Confucian Joseon in the sixteenth century.
or bamboo pungnyu. and jwago. gayageum. The pieces of the current suite comprise a number of variants of similar materials originated from the first piece and which are also found in Hyeon-geum-o-eum tongnon and Hakpogeumbo in the late nineteenth century.<Hyeon- Pieces docume -nted Buddhist chant Text Yeongsanhoesang text Yeongsanhoesang (without text) Yeongsanhoe.Garakdeori Yeongsanhoe.o-eum tongnon> (1886) <Samjukgeum. sepiri and daegeum and danso In traditional ensembles. Period Historical Manuscripts 15th Century <Akakwebeom> (1493) book 5 Late 17th century <Isusamsanjebon geumbo> (1651) Late 17th century <Sinjeung geombo> (1680) Early 18th century <Hangeumsin-bo> (1724) <Eo-eunbo> (1779) Early 18th century <Yuyeji> Early 19th century bo> Early 19th century geum.Bonyeongsan sang Seyeongsan Garakdeori Yeombul Gunak (DaeyeongJungyeongsan Seyeongsan Garadeori Samhyeonhwanip Hahyeonhwanip Yeombul Taryeong Gunak Jungyeong-san san) Yeongsanhoe. this piece was played indoors by the literati. “also known as Jul-pungnyu (jul-literally string). It also eliminates Hahyeon dodeuri.nip Yeongsanhoe. currently three versions of Yeongsanhoesang are performed. <Table 1> Historical Development of Yeongsanhoesan 2) Ensemble types As mentioned earlier.” It is the longest version and combines string instruments with soft wind instruments. Pyeongjohoesang is usually used as court dance music accompaniment and wind part from this piece is performed as solo repertoire. functions and consisting pieces. Gunak. The same melodies used for court entertainment and festivals were also known by Confucian names. hyangpiri. The first is Hyeonak yeongsanhoesang (string yeongsanhoesang). Geomun-go hoesang. Another seventeenth-century geomun-go manuscript. Gwanak yeongsanhoesang is performed by a wind ensemble that combines the bowed strings haegeum and ajaeng with the strong double-reed hyangpiri. the bamboo flutes daegeum and dangjeok. This piece begins slowly and speeds up gradually through its nine pieces to a fast pace at the end. the music was expected to be sedate and mediate. The instruments are the zithers geomun-go. combining string instruments with strident winds. and jwago. it is also called as Daepungnyu. Samjukgeumbo (early nineteenth century) documents Seyeongsan. Pyeongjohoesang is performed with string ensemble with strident winds including geomun-go. Since the main instruments of the piece are wind instruments.Hwanip Samhyeonhoe. Its Confucian name is Pyojeongmanbangjigok. documents Yeongsanhoesang in the late eighteenth century.54 Music of Korea Classical Music : Instrumental 55 (Mass to the Buddha on the Spiritual Mountain). and the janggu with the addition of the fiddle haegeum. janggu. dangjeok. ajaeng. <Table 2> shows the versions of three Yeongsanhoesang with their names. This version is performed in the loud ensemble instrumentation. implying another function of the music and creating confusion for musicians and scholars. Since this instrumentation produces a loud sound. and Yeongsanhoesang sam-cheung jeji. At the same time. Since Hyeonak yeongsanhoesang was performed indoors at pungnyu-bang. the drums janggu. these texts were dropped and the music became purely instrumental during the seventeenth century. or Junggwangjigok. It is still accompanied by dance except for the last piece. Yuyeji (Artistic Amusement). Usually a single player performed on each instrument in the ensemble. These manuscripts support claims that the current Yeongsanhoesang was completed around this period. In effect. The rest of the pieces in the current Yeongsanhoesang suite are either newly created or variations of the original melody.ip ijang Du Hahyeonhwanip Yeombultaryeong Taryeong Gunaktaryeong Samhyeonhwa. Table 1 shows the development of Yeongsanhoesang. The second version of Yeongsanhoesang is Gwanak yeongsanhoesang (wind yeongsanhoesang). The suite consists of eight pieces and it eliminates Hahyeon dodeuri. and music was developed alongside their pungnyu activities. in which the melody is transposed down a fourth of the first version.Sangyeong sang (Sangyeongsa n) sang hwanip sang jeji sang gaptan san Jungyeongsan Seyeongsan Yeongsanhoe. haegeum. daegeum. The third version is Pyeongjohoesang. these manuscripts exemplify that Yeongsanhoesang became the most important pungnyu-bang repertoire and inspired new variants and directions. bowed chodophones are considered to be “wind instruments” because they are capable of sustaining a note by producing sound with the bow. This version uses the wind ensemble with winds and bowed strings and was played outdoors at the court banquets. In the past. Yeongsanhoesang began with the prototype version Sangyeongsan. this is the combination of the string ensemble and wind ensemble. Later.Taryeong . ensemble types. Yeongsanhoesang i-cheung jeji. it is not suitable for indoor music. instrumentation. gayageum and yanggeum. Few historical manuscripts have documented Yeongsanhoesang and these are useful to trace its historical development.
pungnyu music shares most of the distinctive musical features of Korean instrumental music: 1) instrumental music derived from vocal music. In string and wind ensembles. Hahyeon dodeuri. these variants were organized by Korean-style tempo schemes where the music begins slowly with dignity and serenity and gradually increases its tempo and ends with folk music energy and wit. Gajeun hoesang is the title when Yeongsanhoesang and Cheonnyeon manse are played one after another. the first and the second pieces of Yeongsanhoesang. Samhyeon dodeuri. variations and elaborations are added to an original melody. The unit of rhythmic pattern is important in Korean music. 6-beat dodeuri and taryeong rhythmic patterns are popularly used in folk music. and function. Yeombul dodeuri are based on 6-beat cycle and Taryeong and Gunak on 4-beat cycle. known as hwanip (or dodeuri) in Korean music. Byeolgok is the title when Yeongsanhoesang and Dodeuri are coupled. 3+2+2+3) . 4) single repertoire that can be several depending on its instrumentation as solo. To the original Sangyeongsan. Byeolgok eliminates some pieces and adds three new pieces with a fast tempo at the end. According to its occasion. For example. 6+4+4+6) 4-2. For example. and 10-beat patterns are divided into 3+2+2+3. Yeombul. Hwanip structure is basically variation and repetition. Yeongsanhoesang demonstrates the emergence of variants and illustrates the process of creating variants. The 20and 10-beat rhythmic patterns are basically mixed and asymmetrical with the duple and triple rhythms basic in Korean rhythmic structure. and these were techniques of expanding Yeongsanhoesang. Within a suite. Hahyeon hwanip. the third and the fourth pieces. the piece gradually evolved into an extended suite. the number of player of other instruments should be multiple. 3) Musical Features Pungnyu music is distinguished by subdued melodies and a very slow tempo reflective of the Confucian mind-set of the Joseon and Taoist practice. 6) no conductor and drum player or bak player lead the ensemble. The most important musical structure in Korean music is trisection. is based on 20-beat cycle while the pattern in Seyeongsan and Garakdeori. Individual pieces or extracts within the suite can be performed as independent concert repertoire today. Jungyeongsan and Seyeongsan were added. Trisection structure is found in the sequencing of Sangyeongsan-Jungyeongsan-Seyeongsan. 3) long performances due to suite form. The musical phrases were increased in length to match typical instrumental cadential patterns. trisections are organic compositions and present one large motive. At the same time. including Samhyeon hwanip. and 8) rhythmic patterns are the most important musical element. is based on 10-beat cycle. In string ensembles. As a result. Some parts in wind ensembles preferred higher registers to reflect how the uniquely instrumental performance style differs from the voice. are often coupled and played together. 20-beat rhythmic patterns are divided unevenly into 6+4+4+6. Sangyeongsan and Jungyeongsan (20-beat rhythmic cycle. size. 4-1. At the same time. each of the instruments should be performed by single performers for timbral balance. 2) new pieces as variants of one prototype or old melody. 5) tempo changes within the piece that follow the same pattern from slow to fast. To meet typical instrumental ornamentation patterns. Taryeong and Gunak. Rhythmic pattern shapes distinctive musical characteristics and a rhythmic change signals the beginning of the following piece. the rhythmic pattern of Sangyeongsan and Jungyeongsan. Seyeongsan and Garakdeori (10-beat rhythmic cycle. ensemble or duet. the numbers of players in ensembles varies: from a single performer to multiple players on most melodic instruments. <Example 1> Janggu rhythmic patterns in Yeongsanhoesang3 Gwanak Yeongsanhoesang Daepungnyu (Bamboo Pungnyu) or Samhyeon yeongsanhoesang Pyojeong manbangjigok (Pyojungmanbang) Wind ensemble Court dance accompaniment outdoor court entertainment music Pyeongjo hoesang Yuchosinjigok (yuchosin) String ensemble with strident winds Court entertainment music To complete a performance of the fullest form of Yeongsanhoesang takes more than fifty minutes. These three suites are individual repertoire but at the same time. 7) musicians are able to perform more than one instrument. It marks the tempo of a piece as well as the structure of the entire piece. The repertoire of the first version includes Yeongsanhoesang Cheonnyeon manse and Dodeuri. the daegeum or piri melody of the first piece. Then the pieces from popular dance music were added. Sangyeongsan of Pyeongjohoesang is one of the most frequently performed repertoires in contemporary concerts.56 Music of Korea Classical Music : Instrumental 57 <Table 2> Versions of Yeongsanhoesang Several changes were made in the process of transforming Yeongsanhoesang from vocal music into purely Function Pungnyu-bang music Indoor chamber music Versions Hyeonak Yeongsanhoesang Other name Julpungnyu (String Pungnyu) Geomun-gohoesang Confucian name Junggwangjigok Ensemble Types String ensemble with gentle winds instrumental pieces.
he organized Iri Yullim-gye (Iri Pungnyu-club) with other local amateur musicians like Chae Kyuhwan. Im Sukyun. Yeongnam pungnyu (Daegu. have performed pungnyu. almost every form of local style music has been lost with the dismantling of traditional culture and the modernization of Korean society. The drums signal the beginning of the piece about half-way through the rhythmic pattern. pungnyu lies between court music and folk music. Busan. Mokpo in Jeolla province). Hwang Sanggyu. Hahyeon dodeuri and Yeombul dodeuri (6-beat rhythmic cycle) At the end of nineteenth century. rhythm and ornamentation. Later this punygnyu club was transformed into a modern organization. geomun-go. and it works efficiently in this piece. yet these are also categorized as Hyangjje pungnyu or Min-gan pungnyu. At the same time. This countryside style or “Hyangjje jul pungnyu” is also divided into various forms with slightly different characteristics according to the regions: Honam pungnyu (Iri. Gongju. these vernacular style pungnyu were performed at their local pungnyu-bang by organizing yul-gye. In 1958. based on pyeongjo and gyemyeonjo. In terms of emotion based on melody.” have been passed down through their pupils and students. and tempo changes gradually move from slow to fast to allow rich and highly ornamented melodies. They are transmitted through yul-gye while the pungnyu in the Seoul area is currently transmitted by the loyal court musicians and NCKTPA musicians. in the process of music-making in regional pungnyu-bang. Kim Yeonsu. String pungnyu was passed down in Seoul and is now performed by The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts (NCKTPA) as Gyeongjje pungnyu (Seoul style pungnyu). with the emotional expression extremely restrained. Sanjo masters’ pungnyu have been performed and transmitted by gayageum masters. Samhyeon dodeuri. Jin Yangsu. and Haeseo pungnyu (Haeju in Hwanghae province in North Korea). Kim Yundeok (1918-1978). including Sim Sanggeon (1889-1965). Musical expressions of pungnyu also reflect the pungnyu philosophy of literati and Confucian ideology in the Joseon period. however. professional sanjo musicians also performed pungnyu. slow. Sin Changhyu. haegeum begin. Kwon Hakyeong were famous pungnyu patrons. so that musical expressions were able to transcend rigid social boundaries. Gayageum masters. Han Sukgu (1850-1925). Taryeong and Gunak (4-beat rhythmic cycle. Naepo pungnyu (Daejeon. then hyangpiri. These three instruments produce by responding to each other. and individual pungnyu has been performed and transmitted through professional musicians.58 Music of Korea Classical Music : Instrumental 59 4-3. Iri and Gurye pungnyu still survive based on amateur music-making practice. and syllabic. Han Seonggi (1889-1950). Han Sudong (1902-1929). Yeoneum is one of the most unique musical characteristic in Korean music. three squares take one beat) bang culture that is enjoyed by amateur musicians. It uses narrower vibrato and gentler musical expressions. Vernacular music shows a strong attachment with local music. Pungnyu spread to other regions and music became localized into regional-specific music in the nineteenth century. or aak. 4) Regional Pungnyu Current pungnyu music is derived mostly from eighteenth century pungnyu-bang in the Seoul (capital of Joseon) area. Perhaps this fusion was the result of pungnyu culture being cultivated by different classes and professions. Jin Jongha. . Kim Jukpa (1911-1989). pungnyu is restrained compared to folk music. However. Choe Changro. Kim Changjo (18651919). where they were nationally recognized as Property 83 in 1985. professional musicians also have contributed since they were invited to join pungnyu. Music is shaped as refined and subtle by narrow vibrato and unison melody serving as a sonic representation of Joseon pungnyu ideology. In its rhythmic patterns. The melodic features of Yeongsanhoesang are unison and heterophony. is usually strict. Iri Jeongak-won (Iri Jeongak institution). throughout the country until the mid twentieth century. Court music. The melodies of “Hyangjje pungnyu” are not as fixed as “Seoul pungnyu” since players remember different renditions of melodies transmitted through several players. Gyeongju in Gyeongsang province). sijo and gagok as old pungnyu-gaek did. and their pungnyu melodies are sometimes performed on concert stages today by their pupils. and it is transmitted through local amateur literati musicians in the countryside. pungnyu music is more melismatic. daegeum. Gurye. These local pungnyu are different from one another and reflect local musical flavors. Vernacular style hyangjje pungnyu was transmitted through modernized versions of traditional pungnyu- 4-4. and Seong Geumyeon (1923-1986). Up until the 1980s. Gimje. Aak pungnyu (elegant pungnyu) or Gugakwon pungnyu (NCKTPA pungnyu). However.4 Pungnyu melodies performed by sanjo musicians. Gwangju. Kang Taehong (1893-1957). and Choe Oksam (1902-1950) were very famous for their sanjo and pungnyu performance. Gayageum player Kang Nakseung at Iri and geomun-go and danso player Kim Mukyu have been appointed as property holders on hyangjje pungnyu. however. The mode of Yeongsanhoesang is distinct Korean style. Regional versions are called Hyangjje pungnyu (Regional or countryside style pungnyu) or Min-gan pungnyu (people’s or non-official pungnyu). “Hyangjje” indicates indigenous roots. it begins slow and dignified but ends with dance-like melodies that incorporate the light humor of folk music. Paik Nakjun (1876-1930). Kang Nakseung is not only famous for performing gayageum but also janggu. and Kim Yonggeun. Jeong Gilseon and Yi Bohan. However. these differences have disappeared and melodies and local flavors have standardized through exchanges among musicians and pungnyu associations. Regional pungnyu was performed The beginning of Gwanak yeongsanhoesang is unique and exceptional compared to other court music. many of these regional renditions have been lost except those performed in Iri and Gurye in Jeolla province. sometimes called “Gaein (individual or personal) pungnyu. Yesan in Chuncheong province). The heterophony produced by these techniques is called as yeoneum.
Currently. This marks a significant difference in the music as sanjo gayageum is smaller and much more flexible in terms of playing techniques. freer and less serious than Seoul style music. local amateur musicians. After 1910. winds ensemble. the vernacular pungnyu melody is much freer than the former. For “Seoul pungnyu.60 Music of Korea Classical Music : Instrumental 61 <Table 3> Renditions of Pungnyu accompaniment ensemble as well as individual instrument classes in geomun-go. danso and yanggeum Sanjo masters’ Pungnyu Sanjo masters and their pupils Gaein pungnyu Min-gan pungnyu Types of Pungnyu Current Performers Seoul Pungnyu NCKTPA Regional Pungnyu Local associations (amateur musicians) along with music theory. and sanjo masters’ pupils and associations. gasa. pungnyu repertoires are transmitted and performed regularly by the members of NCKTPA. especially in the case of the gayageum. Thus. and pungnyu music has become a major genre in Korean music. The curriculum of their institutions included classes in strings ensemble. Embellishments in melody and rhythmic division are more sophisticated and numerous. instrument. Unfortunately. the sound of pungnyu played by sanjo gayageum is lighter. Later the members organized a sponsor association. gayageum. court music was transmitted and survived by Iwangjik aakbu. Pungnyu and other jeong-ak repertoires are wellestablished forms of traditional music today. a private organization to preserve pungnyu culture. it has become the new repertoire of the former court musicians. and instrument-making--and taught Joseon and Western music together. Another distinctive characteristic in playing “Min-gan pungnyu” is the use of instruments. Thus. In 1909. These institutions and associations were the successors of pungnyu-bang associations of the Joseon period. Iwangjik aakbu taught court music along with general education. Beginning in 1935. Yi Dynastic Music Bureau. after a few years these institutions lost their educational functions due to financial difficulties and ended by having only three years worth of graduates. Other Names Aak pungnyu. a few pungnyu enthusiasts have established Joyang gurakbu (Joyang Club). Joseon Jeong-ak Jeonseupso was the first private music institution and had three divisions-voice. Gugakwon pungnyu Regular performance Performance repertoire Hyangjje pungnyu Min-gan pungyu Appointed as national properties in 1985 Recently reorganized and reconstructed by the pupils of sanjo masters The major difference between regional pungnyu and Seoul pungnyu lies in degrees of melodic elaboration. the institutions merely survived by staging weekly performances. <Figure 3> Performance of String Ensemble (Hyeonak yeongsanhoesang) Jeongnong-akhoe Musicians NCKTPA . jeong-ak became the umbrella term encompassing both music of the court and pungnyu-bang. gagok. The term jeong-ak (proper or elegant music) is believed to have originated from Jeong-ak Yujihoe and Joseon Jeong-ak Jeonseupso. the tradition of pungnyu-bang culture was transmitted through former members of the royal court ensemble. the term jeong-ak has been posed as counterpart to folk music. and professional jeong-ak performing groups. Thus. students learned jeong-ak repertoires including gagok and Yeongsanhoesang.” the so-called pungnyu gayageum or beobgeum is used which original and used in court music. Modern Day Transmission and Performance Practice Pungnyu traditions of Joseon began to wane after the corruption of the dynasty and class system. the predecessors of Joseon Jeong-akwon during the Japanese colonial occupation of Korea (1910-1945). distinguishing it from the repertoires that were performed by folk musicians whose social class was low in traditional society. Joyang gurakbu was re-organized into Joseon Jeong-ak Jeonseupso (Joseon Private Institute for Jeong-ak) in 1911. Compared to Seoul pungnyu. Instrumentation itself is not fixed in vernacular pungnyu because of its performance context. Jeong-ak Yujihoe (Association for Preservation of jeong-ak) which was supported by twelve nobilities. Pungnyubang culture was quickly dismantled in the early twentieth century. while vernacular pungnyu uses sanjo gayageum. During the Japanese occupation period. When pungnyu music was in danger. sijo and gagok ak encompass the body of music that was performed at functions of the historical royal court as well as pungnyu music which enjoyed and developed by the literati and the middle class. Two associations were private institutions which tried to preserve pungnyu culture through the education. Pungnyu music may have survived due to the activities of few performing groups. They are also taught in institutions such as universities that specialize in teaching Korean music and dance. In their third year of study. The repertoires of jeong- Gyeongjje pungnyu.
perform. this group is a private institution and modern day pungnyu-bang where people learn. Seoul: Royal Asiatic Society. Robert C. In this Jeonggan-bo notation. Musicians in modern days have discovered and reconstructed pungnyu music into modern concert repertoire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seoul/London: Jungeumsa and Faber Music. Kim Seongjin (daegeum). aesthetics. Solo parts of daegeum and piri from Pyeongjohoesang and Gwanak yeongsanhoesang have. see earlier section of this chapter on classical vocal music. Most of the group members are professors at universities and member of NCKTPA. comparative analysis. Their activities are not only performing but also recording and teaching Yeongsanhoesang.62 Music of Korea Classical Music : Instrumental 63 Further Readings Condit. gasa and sijo. Essays on Traditional Korean Music. Kim Jeongja. Another important professional group is Han-guk Jeong-akwon (Korean Jeong-ak Institution) which is the successor of Joseon Jeong-ak jeonseupso. . the professional group specialty in jeong-ak. 1987. a group of musicians organized Jeongnong akhoe. ed. mainly Yeongsanhoesang performance. Yi Seokjae. both heads simultaneously while symbolizes striking the leaf head of the drum with the left palm. Korean Branch. see Chapter 4 in this volume. pungnyu music is represented as indigenous Korean music as well as elegant aristocratic philosophy of old Korean society and sometimes it is interpreted and reconstructed as the symbol of tranquility of Zen. Music of the Korean Renaissance: Songs and Dances of the fifteenth Century. 1 For detailed information of gagok. Jo Unjo (haegeum). and promote pungnyu culture. Jeong Jaeguk (piri). Seo Hanbeom. The symbols shown here are conventional janggu symbols. Many studies are primarily based on old manuscripts and scores. In modern day Korea. playing techniques. Traditional Korean Music. become the major solo repertoires. Kim Seonhan (geomun-go). respectively. Kang Sajun. With two prominent masters in jeong-ak genres. daegeum player Kim Seongjin and piri player Jeong Jaeguk were appointed as the holders of Intangible Cultural Assets with their jeong-ak repertoires. the group has performed regularly in Korea and abroad. Korean Music: Its History and Its Performance. Kim Taeseop. For detailed information on sanjo. rhythmic structures and mode. After their debut in 1977. These pieces were reinterpreted as solo pieces by the musicians of the early twentieth century. The members of the group include Kim Cheongheung. each square takes one beat. and symbolizes striking symbolizes striking the right skin with the stick of the right hand. 4 3 The rhythmic cycle or pattern is given by the janggu drum. 1981. and socio-cultural analysis. In 1968. Established in 1947. 1984. Provine. Musical and structural analysis includes melodic. musical and structural analysis. transposition. and studies on ensemble types. Keith L. Lee Hye-gu. <Figure 4> Performance of Wind Ensemble (Gwanak yeongsanhoesang) NCKTPA 2 Studies on Yeongsanhoesang began in 1957 by the Korean music scholar Lee Hyegu. and Yang Yeonseop (gayageum). Bong Haeryong (danso). Pratt. 4. and trans. Jonathan. Studies have focused on the development process of the suite.