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DESIGN GUIDE

for midas Civil

AASHTO LRFD
Prestressed Concrete Girder Design
Steel Composite Girder Design
Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating
The objective of this design guide is to outline the design
algorithms which are applied in midas Civil finite element
analysis and design system. The guide aims to provide
sufficient information for the user to understand the
scope, limitations and formulas applied in the design
features and to provide relevant references to the clauses
in the Design standards.

The design guide covers prestressed concrete girder


design, steel composite girder design and steel composite
girder bridge rating as per AASHTO LRFD.

It is recommended that you read this guide and review


corresponding tutorials, which are found on our web site,
http://www.MidasUser.com, before designing. Additional
information can be found in the online help available in
the program’s main menu.

DISCLAIMER
Developers and distributors assume no responsibility for
the use of MIDAS Family Program (midas Civil, midas FEA,
midas FX+, midas Gen, midas Drawing, midas SDS, midas
GTS, SoilWorks, midas NFX ; hereinafter referred to as
“MIDAS package”) or for the accuracy or validity of any
results obtained from the MIDAS package.

Developers and distributors shall not be liable for loss of


profit, loss of business, or financial loss which may be
caused directly or indirectly by the MIDAS package, when
used for any purpose or use, due to any defect or
deficiency therein. Accordingly, the user is encouraged to
fully understand the bases of the program and become
familiar with the users manuals. The user shall also inde-
pendently verify the results produced by the program.
Foreword
The objective of this design guide is to outline the design algorithms
which are applied in midas Civil finite element analysis and design
system. The guide aims to provide sufficient information for the user to
understand the scope, limitations and formulas applied in the design
features and to provide relevant references to the clauses in the Design
standards.

The design guide covers prestressed concrete girder design, steel


composite girder design and steel composite girder bridge rating as per
AASHTO LRFD.

It is recommended that you read this guide and review corresponding


tutorials, which are found on our web site, http://www.MidasUser.com,
before designing. Additional information can be found in the online
help available in the program’s main menu.

Organization
This guide is designed to help you quickly become productive with
the design options of AASHTO LRFD.

Chapter 1 provides detailed descriptions of the design parameters,


ULS/SLS checks, design outputs used for prestressed concrete
girder design to AASHTO LRFD.

Chapter 2 provides detailed descriptions of the design parameters,


ULS/SLS checks, design outputs used for steel composite girder
design to AASHTO LRFD.

Chapter 3 provides detailed descriptions of the design parameters,


ULS/SLS checks, design outputs used for steel composite bridge
load rating to AASHTO LRFR.
Contents
Chapter 1.
Prestressed Concrete Girder Design (AASHTO LRFD) 01
Strength Limit States
1. Flexural resistance 03
2. Shear resistance 16
3. Torsion resistance 28

Serviceability Limit States


1. Stress for cross section at a construction stage 34
2. Stress for cross section at service loads 40
3. Tensile stress for Prestressing tendons 44
4. Principal stress at a construction stage 47
5. Principal stress at service loads 49
6. Principal stress at service loads 51
7. Check crack 52

Chapter 2.
Steel Composite Girder Design (AASHTO LRFD) 55
Introduction
1. AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 Steel Composite 57
2. Considerations Steel Composite Design 59
3. Calculation of Plastic Moment and Yield Moment 59

Modeling and Design Variables


1. Modeling Design Variables 67

Application of AASHTO LRFD 12


1. I Girder Section 87
2. Box / Tub Girder Section 111
3. Shear Connector 127
4. Stiffener 131
5. Difference Between AASHTO-LRFD 4th(2007) and 6th(2012) 135
Steel Composite Design Result
1. Strength Limit State Result 138
2. Service Limit State Result 141
3. Constructibility Result 142
4. Fatigue Limit State Result 145
5. Shear Connector Result 146
6. Stiffener Result 147
7. Span Checking 148
8. Total Checking 149

Chapter 3.
Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating (AASHTO LRFD) 151
Introduction
1. AASHTO LRFR 2011 Bridge Load Rating 153
2. Load Rating Levels 155
3. Process of Load Rating 157

Modeling and Design Variables


1. Modeling Design Variables 158

Application of AASHTO LRFR 11


1. Rating Factor Calculation 171
2. Strength Limit State 178
3. Service Limit State 180
4. Fatigue Limit State 181

Bridge Load Rating Result


1. Result Tables 186
2. Rating Detail Table 191
3. Load Rating Report 194
Chapter 1.

Prestressed Concrete
Girder Design

AASHTO LRFD 7th (2014)


Chapter 1.
Prestressed Concrete Girder Design (AASHTO LRFD 14)
Prestressed concrete box girders and composite girders need to be designed to
satisfy the following limit states.

Ultimate Limit States


Flexural Resistance

Shear Resistance

Torsion Resistance

Serviceability Limit States


Stress for cross section at a construction stage

Stress for cross section at service loads

Tensile stress for Prestressing tendons

Principal stress at a construction stage

Principal stress at service loads

Check crack
Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design: AASHTO-LRFD 7th (2014)

Strength Limit States


1. Flexural resistance
The factored flexural resistance shall satisfy the following condition, Mu ≤ΦMn.
Where, Mu : Factored moment at the section due to strength load combination
ΦMn : Factored flexural resistance

1.1. Resistance Factor


AASHTO LRFD14
Resistance factor Φ shall be taken as follow. (5.5.4.2.1)

[Fig.1. 1] Resistance Factor

  0.75 if  t  0.002
dt
  0.583  0.25 if 0.002   t  0.005 (1.1)
c
  1.0 if  t  0.005

Where,
dt : Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the extreme tension steel element
c : Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis
εt : Net tensile Strain

In midas Civil, εt is applied as strain of a reinforcement which is entered at the extreme tensile
fiber.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 3


Input reinforcements to be used in the calculation of resistance in the dialog box below.
▶ Model>Properties>Section Manager>Reinforcements

Rebar coordinate
at the section

Entered rebar data

[Fig.1. 2] Input Longitudinal reinforcement

Once reinforcement is entered at the PSC section, the rebar which is placed at the closest
position to the extreme compression fiber will be used to calculate the strain. In short, the rebar
at the bottom most is used under the sagging moment. And the rebar at the top most is used
under the hogging moment.

Input tendon profile to be used in PSC design in the dialog box below.
▶ Load>Temp./Prestress>Section Manager >Tendon Profile

Tendon position which is placed at the closest


position to the extreme tensile fiber will be used
to calculate the strain.

[Fig.1.3] Tendon Profile

4 Design Guide for midas Civil


1.2 Calculate neutral axis depth
Neutral axis is determined by the iteration approach as shown in the figure below.

Initial c = H/2
Assume neutral axis depth, c
(H=Section Height)

Calculate Cc (Concrete) (1)

Calculate Ts, Cs (Reinforcement) (2)

Calculate Tps (Tendon) (3)

(4)
NO
Cc+Cs-(Ts+Tps)=0?

YES

Get neutral axis depth, c

[Fig.1. 4] Flow chart to calculate neutral axis depth, c

(1) Calculate force of concrete, Cc.


In midas Civil, the natural relationship between concrete stress and strain is considered as
the equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block.(Compressive strain limit of
concrete, εcu = 0.003)

[Fig.1. 5] Calculate force of concrete, Cc

Cc  0.85 f 'c Ac (1.2)

Where,
f 'c : Specified compressive strength of concrete for design
Compressive strength to be used in PSC design is defined in PSC Design Material dialog box.
  0.85 if f 'c  4.0ksi
 0.85  0.05( f 'c  4.0)  0.65 if f 'c  4.0ksi
Ac : Concrete area of compressive zone  (1c)  width

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 5


▶ PSC>PSC Design Data> PSC Design Material…

Concrete

[Fig.1. 6] PSC Design Material

Enter the concrete and reinforcement grade to be used in PSC design. The strength can be
checked for the selected material grade according to the selected material code. When
“None” is selected in Code field, the strength of concrete and reinforcement can be directly
entered.

AASHTO LRFD14
(5.7.2.2)

Fig.1. 3 PSC Design Material (Composite)

For the composite type PSC sections, the Design Material window changes to allow users to
define the material properties of the slab. The concrete and rebar material properties
entered for slab are used for every calculation such as the neutral axis calculation.

6 Design Guide for midas Civil


(2) Calculate force of reinforcement, Ts, Cs.
Tensile resistance due to longitudinal reinforcement (Ts)and compression resistance due to
concrete (Cs) is calculated as shown in the following equation.

Ts  As f s , Cs  As ' f s ' (1.3)

Where,
As, As’ : the cross sectional area of tensile and compressive reinforcement
It is entered in Section Manager>Reinforcements as shown in the Fig1. 2.
fs , fs’: the stress of tensile and compressive reinforcement

In order to calculate the tensile stress of reinforcement, midas Civil calculate the
corresponding strains as per the strain compatibility condition. And then the related tensile
stresses are calculated by the stress-strain relationship. The equation is shown as follows.

▪ Strain

dt  c c  dc
s   cu ,  s '   cu (1.4)
c c

Where,
εs : the strain of tensile reinforcement.
εs’ : the strain of compressive reinforcement.
εcu : the ultimate compressive strain in the concrete. (εcu = 0.003)
c : the neutral axis depth.
dt : Distance from the compression fiber of concrete to the extreme tensile fiber of reinforcement
dc : Distance from the compression fiber of concrete to the extreme compressive fiber of reinforcement

▪ Stress
If the tensile stress of reinforcement reaches its yield stress limit, tensile stress will be
applied as yield stress. If not, the tensile stress will be calculated as “εs x Es”.

 s Es ( fs  f y )  s ' Es ( fs '  f y )
fs   , fs '   (1.5)
 fy ( fs  f y )  fy ( fs '  f y )

Where,
Es : Modulus of elasticity in reinforcement
Fy : Yield tensile stress in reinforcement

(3) Calculate force of tendon, Tps.


Tensile resistance of prestressing steel, Tps, is calculated as shown in the following equation.

Tps   Ap f ps (1.6)

Where,
Ap : the cross sectional area of tendon.
fps : the stress of tendon.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 7


▶ PSC> Design Parameter> Parameters…

[Fig.1. 7] PSC Design parameter Dialog - Flexural Strength

Tensile stress of prestressing steel fps can be calculated by code or strain compatibility as
specified in PSC design Parameter dialog box. When code is selected in flexural strength option,
the tensile stress fps is calculated by the equation as per AASHTO-LRFD for bonded and
unbounded tendon respectively. When strain compatibility is used, the tensile stress fps is
calculated by the stress-strain relationship.

▶ Load>Temp./Prestress>Section Manager>Tendon Property

Tendon Type
Total Tendon Area

fpu
fpy

Bond Type

[Fig.1. 8] Tendon Property Dialog


▪ Tendon Type
Internal(Pre-Tension)
Internal(Post-Tension)
External

▪ Bond Type
Bonded: Section properties reflect the duct area after grouting.
When tendon type is specified as Internal (Pre-Tension), bond type will be taken as Bonded
Type.
Unbonded: Section properties exclude the duct area.

8 Design Guide for midas Civil


When tendon type is specified as external, bond type will be taken as Unbonded Type.

[Table1. 1] Applicable Bond Type by Tendon Types


Tendon Type Bond Type
Internal (Pre-tension) Bonded
Bonded
Internal (Post-tension)
Unbonded
External Unbonded

▪ Total Tendon Area


Enter the tendon area (Ap). Click to select the number of strands and diameter in order
to calculate the tendon area automatically.

▪ fpu, fpy
Enter the ultimate strength fpu and yield strength fpy of prestressing steel.
Tensile stress of prestressing steel fps will be calculated as shown in the following table.

[Table1. 2] Calculation of tensile stress of prestressing steel


Flexure Strength option Bond Type Tensile Stress
Bonded fps for Bonded Type
Code
Unbonded fps for Unbonded Type
Bonded Strain compatibility
Strain compatibility
Unbonded* fps for Unbonded Type
* When flexure strength option is entered as strain compatibility and bond type is entered as
unbonded type, tensile stress will be calculated using the code equation of unbonded tendon
instead of strain compatibility method. It is because strain compatibility method is valid for fully
bonded tendons.
Tensile stress of prestressing steel fps is calculated as follows.

▪Code equation for bonded type tendon AASHTO LRFD14


(5.7.3.1.1)
(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)
 c 
f ps  f pu 1  k  (1.7)
 d p 

 f py  AASHTO LRFD14
k  2 1.04   (1.8)
 f pu 
(5.7.3.1.1)
 (Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

Where,
fpy: Yield strength of prestressing steel
fpu: Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel
dp: Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons
c: Distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face

▪ Code equation for unbonded type tendon


AASHTO LRFD14
(5.7.3.1.2)
 dp  c  (Eq. 5.7.3.1.2-1)
f ps  f pe  900    f py (1.9)
 le 

2li
le  (1.10) AASHTO LRFD14
2  Ns (5.7.3.1.2)
(Eq. 5.7.3.1.2-2)

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 9


Where,
li : length of tendon between anchorages
Ni : number of support hinges crossed by the tendon between anchorages or discretely bonded point. It
is always applied as “0” in midas Civil.

▪ fps by Strain compatibility


When flexure resistance is calculated by strain compatibility method, tensile stress of
prestressing tendon is calculated by the stress-strain relationship.

[Fig.1. 9] Stress-strain model of prestressing tendon

(4) Determination of neutral axis position


In order to find the neutral axis, the iteration analysis will be performed until compressive
strength (C=Cc+Cs) becomes equal to the tensile strength (T=Ts+Tps).

The convergence criterion is applied as shown in the following equation.


• Convergence condition:

C
 1.0  0.001 (Tolerance) (1.11)
T

1.3 Calculate moment resistance Mn


Once the neutral axis is determined, flexural resistance is calculated by multiplying the
distance from the neutral axis.

M n  Cc ac  Cs as ' Ts as   Tps a pi  (1.12)

where,
ac, as, as’, api : the distance from neutral axis depth, c to concrete, reinforcement rebar, tendon.

10 Design Guide for midas Civil


0.85f’c
Cs
As’

a
Cc

as'
ac
ap
as
Ap Tps
As
Ts
[Fig.1. 10] Forces and distances from neutral axis depth for Mn

If a tendon in tension is located at the upper part from the neutral axis under the sagging
moment, the flexural resistance will have (-) sign and it will reduce the total moment
resistance.


M n  Cc ac  Cs as ' Ts as   Tps a pi  Tps' a 'pi  (1.13)

1.4 Factored Flexural Resistance


AASHTO LRFD14
(5.7.3.2.1)
Mr  Mn (1.14) (Eq. 5.7.3.2.1-1)

where,
Mn : nominal resistance
Φ : resistance factor

1.5 Minimum Reinforcement


The moment resistance with considering entered reinforcements or tendons shall satisfy the
following condition. AASHTO LRFD14
(5.7.3.3.2)

M r  max(1.33M u , M cr ) (1.15)

▪ Cracked Moment ( Mcr)


For composite sections, the equation 1.16 is used to calculate the cracked moment (Mcr).

  S  AASHTO LRFD14
M cr   3 ( 1 f r   2 f cpe ) Sc  M dnc  c  1  (1.16) (5.7.3.3.2)
  Snc  (Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

The Mdnc is taken from the Muy caused by the dead load of girder section during the
construction stage analysis.

The Snc value is obtained from the section modulus of the pre-composite section under the
tensile stress. The Sc value is taken from the section modulus of the post-composite section

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 11


under the tensile stress.
In midas Civil, cracked moment shall be calculated as per the following equation.
(For the composite type sections, the equation 1.16 is used; for the non-composite type
sections, the equation 1.17 is used.

M cr   3 ( 1 f r   2 fcpe )Sc  (1.17)

Where,
γ1 : flexural cracking variability factor
1.2 for precast segmental structures
1.6 for all other concrete structures

γ2 : prestress variability factor


1.1 for bonded tendons
1.0 for unbounded tendons
If both bonded and unbonded type tendons are assigned in a section,  2 will be applied as 1.0
which is more conservative value.

γ3 : ratio of specified minimum yield strength to ultimate tensile strength of the reinforcement
0.67 for A615 ,Grade 60 reinforcement
0.75 for A706, Grade 60 reinforcement
1.00 for prestressed concrete structures

In midas Civil,  3 wil be applied as 1.0.

fr : modulus of rupture of concrete specified in Article 5.4.2.6


In midas Civil, fr will be always applied as 0.37 f 'c . AASHTO LRFD14
(5.4.2.6)
(C5.4.2.6)
Sc : section modulus for the extreme fiber of the composite section where tensile stress is caused by
3
externally applied loads (in )
In midas Civil, section modulus under tension is applied.

fcpe : compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after allowance for all
prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied
loads (ksi)

It is obtained in elastic state (uncracked section) and the following equation has been
applied in midas Civil.

f cpe 
A f
ps e

A fe
ps e p
(1.18)
Ag S

Where,
f e : Effective prestress forces of prestressing tendons
e p : Distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the prestressing tendons
Aps : Area of prestressing tendon
Ag : Gross area of cross-section
S : Sectional modulus in compression

In midas Civil, construction type of PSC section is determined in PSC design parameter dialog
box.

12 Design Guide for midas Civil


▶ PSC> Design Parameter> Parameters…

[Fig.1. 4] PSC Design parameter Dialog - Construction Type

Construction type: Segmental, Non-Segmental


The selected construction type will affect the calculation of cracked moment, shear and
torsional resistance, and tensile stress limit of concrete.

1.6 Check moment resistance


In midas Civil, factored moment is obtained from load combinations specified in Load
Combinations dialog box. In AASHTO LRFD specification, load combinations need to be
generated as shown in the fig 1.12.

AASHTO LRFD14
(3.4.1)

[Fig.1. 5] Load Combinations and Load factors for strength limit state

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 13


▶Results>Load combinations>Concrete Design tab

Active:
Strength/Stress

Active:
Serviceability

[Fig.1. 6] Load Combinations dialog

In midas Civil, load combinations can be automatically generated by clicking [Auto


Generation…] button. The load combinations need to be generated in concrete design tab.
The most critical load combination among Strength/Stress type load combinations will be
used to obtain factored moment, factored shear force, and factored torsional moment. The
Service type load combinations will be used to verify the serviceability limit state.

The verification of flexural moment obtained from Strength/Stress type load combination
can be divided into two following cases.
1) No need to satisfy minimum reinforcement

M r  Mu (1.19)

2) Need to satisfy minimum reinforcement

M r  M u and M r  M cr (1.20)

1.7 Moment resistance verification

1.7.1 by Result Tables


The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check Flexural Strength…

[Fig.1. 7] Result table for moment resistance

14 Design Guide for midas Civil


Elem : Element number
Part : Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element.
Positive/Negative : Positive moment, negative moment.
LCom Name : Load combination name.
Type : Displays the set of member forces corresponding to moving load case or settlement load case for
which the maximum stresses are produced.
CHK : Flexural strength check for element
Muy : Design moment
Mcr : Crack Moment
Mny : Nominal moment resistance.
PhiMny : Design moment resistance.
Ratio : Muy/ PhiMny : Flexural resistance ratio, The verification is satisfied when it is less than 1.0.
PhiMny /min(1.33Muy, Mcr) : Verification of minimum reinforcement. The verification is satisfied when
it is less than 1.0. If the verification of minimum reinforcement is not required, it will be displayed as
1.0.

1.7.2 by Excel Report


Detail verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1. 8] Excel report for moment resistance

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 15


2. Shear resistance
Shear resistance without consideration of effects of torsion shall be verified to satisfy the
following condition.
AASHTO LRFD14
(5.5.4.2.1)
M u  Vn (1.21)

Where, strength reduction factor, Φ=0.9.

Refer to the clause 2.3 Torsion Resistance for the verification of shear resistance where the
effects of torsion are required to be considered. In AASHTO-LRFD (2012), the design for
shear and torsion will be performed for segmental and non-segmental box girders.

2.1 Classification of Segmental Box Girder


The program will consider a section is segmental box girder when the following 2 conditions
are satisfied.
1. In PSC Design Parameter dialog box, Construction Type is specified as Segment.
2. When a section is defined with PSC box section (ex. PSC-1CELL, 2CELL, 3CELL, nCELL,
cCELL2, PLAT, and Value type)

▶ Property > Section Property > Section >PSC

[Fig.1.16] PSC section data dialog

2.2 Parameters for shear


2.2.1 Effective web width (bv)
bv : effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth dv as determined in Article
5.8.2.9 (in.)

Effective web width (bv) is taken as web thickness. For PSC multi-cell girder, web thickness AASHTO LRFD14
can be automatically taken as a summation of thickness for all webs. Also this value can be (5.8.3.3.3)
entered by the user directly as shown in the figure below.

16 Design Guide for midas Civil


▶ Property > Section Property > Section >PSC

[Fig 1.17] Consideration of effective web width

1) When the user directly enters values for web thickness


Apply the minimum value among the entered web thickness values.
2) When “Auto” option is selected
Apply the minimum web thickness among t1, t2, and t3. These values are automatically
taken as a summation of thickness for both webs at the stress point, Z1, Z2, and Z3.

2.2.2 Effective shear depth (dv)


▪ Non-Segmental Box Girder
dv : effective shear depth takem as the distance , measured perpendicular to the neutral axis,
between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure; it need not be
taken less than the greater of 0.9de or 0.72h(in.)

In midas Civil, the value of effective shear depth, dv, is calculated as shown in the equation AASHTO LRFD14
below. (5.8.2.9)

 Mn 
dv  min  , 0.9de , 0.72h  (1.22)
 As f s  Aps f ps 
 

Aps f ps d p  As f s d s
de  (1.23)
Aps f ps  As f s

Where,
dp : Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons
ds : Distance from extreme fiber to the centroid of nonprestressed tensile reinforcement

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 17


[Fig.1.18] Effective shear depth

▪ Segmental Box Girder

dv : 0.8h or the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing
reinforcement , whichever is greater (in.)
AASHTO LRFD14
In midas Civil, the value of effective shear depth, dv, is calculated as shown in the equation (5.8.6.5)
below.

dv  max  0.8h, dt  (1.24)

Where,
h = Total height of a section
dt = Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons

2.2.3 Net longitudinal tensile strain (εs)


s is the net longitudinal tensile strain in the section at the centroid of the tension
reinforcement
AASHTO LRFD14
 Mu  (5.8.6.5)
  0.5 Nu  Vu  V p  Aps f po  (Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)
d
s   v  (1.25)
 Es As  E p Aps 
 
 

Where,
0   s  0.006
f po  0.7 f pu
M u  Vu  Vp dv
As and Ap are taken as area of nonprestressing and prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the
member respectively.

dv : 0.8h or the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing
reinforcement , whichever is greater (in.)

In midas Civil, the value of effective shear depth, dv, is calculated as shown in the equation
below.

dv  max  0.8h, dt  (1.26)

18 Design Guide for midas Civil


Where,
h : Total height of a section
dt : Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons

[Fig 1.19] Net longitudinal tensile strain

2.3 The nominal shear resistance, Vn


2.3.1 Vn (Non-Segmental Box Girder)
For non-segmental box girders, the nominal shear resistance, Vn, shall be determined as the
lesser of:

Vn  Vc  Vs  Vp (1.27)
AASHTO LRFD14
(5.8.3.3)
(Eq. 5.8.3.3-1)
Vn  0.25 fc'bv dv  Vp (1.28) (Eq. 5.8.3.3-2)

Where,
Vc : shear resistance component that relies on tensile stresses in the concrete
Vs : shear resistance component that relies on tensile stresses in the transverse reinforcement
Vp : shear resistance component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force.
In midas Civil, shear resistance due to prestressing force, Vp, includes primary prestress force. The
secondary effects from prestressing shall be included in the design shear force obtained from the load
combinations.
bv: Effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth, dv (refer to the clause
1.2.2.1 Effective web width)
dv: Effective shear depth (Refer to the clause 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth)

2.3.2 Vn (Segmental Box Girder)


For segmental box girders, the nominal shear resistance, Vn, shall be determined as the lesser
of:

Vn  Vc  Vs  Vp (1.29) AASHTO LRFD14


(5.8.6.5)
Vn  0.379 f c' bv dv  Vp (1.30) (Eq. 5.8.6.5-1)
(Eq. 5.8.6.5-2)

Where,
Vc : shear resistance component that relies on tensile stresses in the concrete
Vs : shear resistance component that relies on tensile stresses in the transverse reinforcement
Vp : shear resistance component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force.
In midas Civil, shear resistance due to prestressing force, Vp, includes primary prestress force. The
secondary effects from prestressing shall be included in the design shear force obtained from the

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 19


load combinations.
bv: Effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth, dv (refer to the clause
1.2.2.1 Effective web width)
dv: Effective shear depth (Refer to the clause 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth)

2.4 The nominal shear resistance by concrete, Vc


AASHTO LRFD14
Design for shear may utilize any of the two methods (simplified and general procedure) for (5.8.3.4)
prestressed sections identified in AASHTO-LRFD12. In midas Civil, sections can be designed
as per the general procedure.

2.4.1 Vc (Non-Segmental Box Girder) AASHTO LRFD14


(5.8.3.3)
(Eq. 5.8.3.3-3)
Vc  0.0316  f c ' bv dv (1.31)

Where,
bv: Effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth, dv (refer to the clause
1.2.2.1 Effective web width)
dv: Effective shear depth (Refer to the clause 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth)
β : Factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension and shear as
specified in Article 5.8.3.4
AASHTO LRFD14
For the sections containing at least the minimum amount of transverse reinforcement : (5.8.3.4.2)

4.8

(1  750 s ) (1.32)

When sections do not contain at least the minimum amount of shear reinforcement:

4.8 51

(1  750 s ) (39  S xe )
1.38
S xe  S x 12.0(in.)  S x  80.0(in.)
ag  0.63 (1.33)
,

Where,
Sx: The lesser of either dv or the maximum distance between layers of longitudinal
crack control reinforcement, where the area of the reinforcement in each layer is
not less than 0.003bvsx, as shown in Figure 5.8.3.4.2-3(in.) . In midas Civil, it is applied as dv.
ag : maximum aggregate size(in.)In midas Civil, it is applied as “1in.”.
εs: net longitudinal tensile strain in the section at the centroid of the tension reinforcement.Refer to the
clause 1.2.2.3 Net longitudinal tensile strain.

2.4.2 Vc (Segmental Box Girder)


AASHTO LRFD14
(5.8.3.4.2)
(Eq. 5.8.6.5-3)
Vc  0.0632K f c ' bv dv (1.34)

Where,
bv: Effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth, dv (refer to the clause
1.2.2.1 Effective web width)
dv: Effective shear depth (Refer to the clause 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth)
K: Stress variable K shall not be taken greater tham 1.0 for any section where the stress in the
extreme tension fiber, calculated on the basis of gross section properties, due to factored load
and effective prestress force after losses exceeds 0.19√f’c in tension

20 Design Guide for midas Civil


f pc AASHTO LRFD14
K  1 (1.35) (5.8.6.3)
0.0632 f c ' (Eq. 5.8.6.3-3)

In midas Civil, the value of K is calculated as below.


1) Calculate the tensile stress of tendon, ft, after losses Tendon based on the
uncracked section.

2) If ft  0.19 f c ' , K = min(K, 1.0) AASHTO LRFD14


(5.8.6.3)
If ft  0.19 f c ' , K = min(K, 2.0)

Where,
fpc : Unfactored compressive stress in concrete after prestress losses have occured either at the
centroid of the cross-section resisting transient loads or at the junction of the web and flange
where the centroid lies in the flange (ksi)
In midas Civil, fpc is calculated as follows.

When the centroid lies in the flange, verify the stress at a junction of the web and
flange.

f pc 
A ps fe

A ps feep
y jo int 
Nu
(1.36)
Ag Ig Ag

Where, yjoint is a distance from the centroid to the junction of the web and flange

When the centroid lies in the web, verify the stress at the centroid of the cross-section.

f pc 
A ps fe

Nu
(1.37)
Ag Ag

2.5 The nominal shear resistance by shear reinforcement, Vs


The nominal shear resistance by shear reinforcement, Vs, is calculated as follows:

2.5.1 Vs (Non-Segmental Box Girder)

Av f y dv (cot   cot  )sin  AASHTO LRFD14


Vs  (1.38) (5.8.3.3.3)
s (Eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

Where,
dv:Refer to 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Non-Segmental Box Girders)
θ: angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as determined in Article 5.8.3.4 (degrees)
; if the procedures of Article 5.8.3.4.3 are used, cotθ is defined therein.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 21


[Fig.1.20] angle of inclination of transverse Compressive stress

The following equation is incorporated in midas Civil:

  29  3500 s (1.39)
AASHTO LRFD14
(5.8.3.4.2)
(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3)

 s :Refer to 1.2.2.3 Net longitudinal tensile strain


α: Angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement to longitudinal axis (degrees)

Enter the Angle of transverse reinforcement as shown in Fig1.22.

s: Spacing of transverse reinforcement


Enter the Pitch of transverse reinforcement as shown in Fig1.22.

▶Model>Properties>Section Manager>Reinforcements

Transverse
Reinforcement

[Fig.1.21] Transverse Reinforcement

The required input data for transverse reinforcement are as follows:


- Pitch: Enter the spacing of transverse reinforcement
- Angle: Enter the angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement
- Aw: Enter the total area of all transverse reinforcements in the web

2.5.2 Vs (Segmental Box Girder)


midas Civil applies the following equation where the angle of inclination (α) of transverse
reinforcement is taken into account:

22 Design Guide for midas Civil


AASHTO LRFD14
Av f y dv (sin   cot  ) (5.8.3.3.3)
Vs  (1.40) ((Eq. 5.8.6.5-4)
s

Where,
dv: refer to 1.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Segmental Box Girders)
α: angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement to longitudinal axis (degrees)

Enter the Angle of transverse reinforcement as shown in Fig1.22.

2.6 Maximum spacing for transverse reinforcement (smax)


AASHTO LRFD14
The maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement can be checked by the following steps: (5.8.2.7)

1) Calculate the shear stress (vu) acting on the concrete.

Vu  V p AASHTO LRFD14
vu  (1.41) (5.8.2.7)
 bv dv (Eq. 5.8.2.9-1)

Where,
Φ = Use the shear strength reduction factor of 0.9.
bv: refer to 1.1.2.1 Effective web width
dv: refer to 1.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Non-Segmental Box Girders)

2) Calculate smax differently, depending on whether the section is Segmental Box Girder or
not and on the range of vu.
3) Compare the entered spacing of transverse reinforcement with smax.

2.6.1 smax (Non-Segmental Box Girder)

 If vu < 0.125f’c
AASHTO LRFD14
smax = 0.8dv ≤ 24.0 in.
(5.8.2.7)
 If vu ≥ 0.125f’c
smax = 0.4dv ≤ 12.0 in.

Where,
dv: refer to 2.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Non-Segmental Box Girders)

2.6.2 smax (Segmental Box Girder)

 If vu < 0.19√f’c
AASHTO LRFD14
smax = 0.8dv ≤ 36.0 in. (5.8.6.6)
 If vu ≥ 0.19√f’c
AASHTO LRFD14
smax = 0.4dv ≤ 18.0 in. (5.8.2.7)
Where,
dv: refer to 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Segmental Box Girders)

midas Civil calculates vu using Eq. 5.8.2.9-1 for the shear check and using Eq. 5.8.6.5-5
for the torsion check.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 23


2.7 Minimum required transverse reinforcement (Av,min)
The minimum required transverse reinforcement can be checked according to the following
steps:

1) Calculate the minimum required reinforcement, Av,min , differently dependng on


whether the section is Segmental Box Girder or not.

▪ For Non-Segmental Box Girders

bv s
Av ,min  0.0316 fc' (1.42) AASHTO LRFD14
fy (5.8.2.4)
(Eq. 5.8.2.5-1)

▪ For Segmental Box Girders

bw s
Av ,min  0.05 (1.43) (Eq. 5.8.2.5-2)
fy

In midas Civil bw=bv.


2) Calculate the shear strength of the section, and then verify the transverse
reinforcement using the following equations:

▪ For Vu < 0.5Φ(Vc+Vp)


Skip the transverse reinforcement checks.

▪ For Vu ≥ 0.5Φ(Vc+Vp)

Av ,req1 
Vu  0.5 (Vc  Vp ) s
 f y dv (sin   cot  )
(1.44)
Av,req 2  Av ,min
Av,req  min( Av,req1 , Av,req 2 )

If the area of transverse reinforcement (Av) is greater than or equal to Av,req , it says OK.
The area of transverse reinforcement (Av) is Aw which is entered from Fig.1.22.

24 Design Guide for midas Civil


2.8 Interface Shear
For the composite sections, the Shear Friction caused during construction sequences needs
to be considered. Therefore, the Interface Shear check function is activated for the pre-
composite section design check.

2.8.1 Calculate Vni

The Vni value is calculated based on the above calculation. The A cv is the Interfacial Shear
section area. The Acf value is the cross section of the shear reinforcement of the Interfacial
Shear section. The following equation (5.8.4.4-1) needs to be satisfied about the minimum
shear reinforcement rea.

The Pc value is the compressive force acting on the interface. In the program, the Pc value is
calculated based on the selfweight of slab.

The program suggests the factors used in design. In midas Civil, they are applied as shown
below:
Table. The design factors used in midas Civil

AASHTO-LRFD12 Standard

In Acv = bci x Lvi, bci value is taken from the Bvi input by the user and the Lvi value is taken
from the girder length of the program model.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 25


The Avf is the cross section of the reinforcement rebars in the interfacial shear plane (Acv).
The calculator is activated when the button is clicked. So that the cross section is
calculated based on the rebar diameter, number and gap inputted by the user.

The Vri value is calculated based on the above equation (5.8.4.1-1). Also, the Vri value
should be equal to or greater than Vui.
For PSC design check, the Φ is taken as 1.0.

The Interface Shear calculation can be reviewed in the MS Excel Report.

The Interface Shear check result can be also checked in the Shear Resistance Results table.

2.9 Check shear resistance


midas Civil checks the shear strength limit state for the Vmax and Vmin cases among the Active:
Strength/Stress load combinations, which are defined in Fig.1.12 Load Combinations dialog.

2.10 Check the shear resistance results


2.10.1 by Result Tables
The results can be checked as shown in the table below.
▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check Shear Strength…

[Fig.1.22] Result table for shear resistance

Elem : Element number


Part : Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element
Max./Min. : Maximum shear, minimum shear
LCom. Name : Load combination name.
Type : Displays the set of member forces corresponding to moving load case
or settlement load case for which the maximum stresses are produced.
CHK : Shear strength check for element
Vu : Maximum shear force among Strength/Stress load combinations
Mu : Bending moment for the LCom which has Vu
Vn : Nominal Shear resistance.
Phi : Resistance factor for shear
Vc : Shear resistance of concrete.

26 Design Guide for midas Civil


Vs : Shear resistance of shear reinforcement.
Vp : Shear force of the effective prestressing force.
PhiVn : Design Shear resistance.
de : Effective web width
dv : Effective depth for shear
ex : Longitudinal Strain
theta : Angle of inclination of transverse compressive stresses
beta : Factor indicating ability of transversely cracked concrete to transmit tension
and shear
Avs : Area of shear reinforcement
Ast : Area of longitudinal reinforcement
Al : Area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement
bv : Effective width
Avs_min : Minimum required transverse reinforcement
Avs_req : Required transverse reinforcement
Al_min : Minimum longitudinal torsional reinforcement
bv_min : Minimum effective web width

Vri : Nominal interface shear resistance


Vui : factored interface shear force due to total load based on the applicable strength and extreme
event load combinations.

2.10.2 by Excel Report


The detailed results, which contain the calculations, are produced in the Excel Report.
▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1.23] Excel Report for shear resistance

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 27


3. Torsion resistance
Check the combined shear and torsional resistance.

3.1 Dimension of section for torsion


The dimensions of section that are required for checking torsion are as follows:

Ao : Area enclosed by the shear flow path, including any area of holes therein (in2)
midas Civil uses the area of the closed section enclosed by the torsion reinforcement, instead of the
shear flow path.
Ph : Perimeter of the centerline of the closed transverse torsion reinforcement (in)
Acp : Total area enclosed by outside Perimeter of the concrete section (in2)
P : The length of the outside perimeter of concrete section (in)

Ao(ph

Acp(pc
)

[Fig.1.24] Dimension of section for torsion

**Additional information for the torsional area Ac and circumference Ph calculation of the composite
section.
In midas Civil, when Ao section is applied for the composite section, the girder and slab sections
(section areas with the Torsion Thk Offset applied in the Section Manager) are calculated separately
and then added. The Ph circumference is calculated based on the same approach but the value of
bw*2 is substracted in order to consider the contact area between the girder and slab.
ex)

3.2 Calculate torsional resistance


Torsional resistance can be checked according to the following steps:
1) Calculate the torsional cracking moment (Tcr) differently, depending on whether the
section is Segmental Box Girder or not.
2) Compare the factored torsional moment (Tu) with the limit, which differs depending on
the type of girder (segmental box girder or non-segmental box girder), in order to decide
whether the effect of torsion should be considered or not.
3) In case where the torsional effect should be considered, calculate the design torsional
strength and compare it with Tu.

28 Design Guide for midas Civil


3.2.1 Torsional cracking moment (Tcr)
▪ For Non-Segmental Box Girders

Acp2 f pc AASHTO LRFD14


Tcr  0.125 f c' 1 (1.45) (5.8.2.1)
pc 0.125 f c' (Eq. 5.8.2.1-4)

Where,
fpc: compressive stress in concrete after prestress losses have occurred at either the centroid of
the cross-section resisting transient loads or at the junction of the web and flange where the centroid
lies in the flange (ksi)

midas Civil calculates fpc as follows:


If the centroid lies in the flange: calculate at the junction of the web and flange.

f pc 
A ps fe

A ps fee p
y jo int (1.46)
Ag Ig

Where, yjoint is the distance from the centroid to the junction of the web and flange.

If the centroid lies in the web: calculate at the centroid of the corss-section.

f pc 
A ps fe
(1.47)
Ag

Acp2
pc shall be less than or equal to 2Aobv for a box section.

▪ For Segmental Box Girders

Tcr  0.0632 K fc' Aobe (1.48) AASHTO LRFD14


(5.8.6.3)
(Eq. 5.8.6.3-2)
Where,

K : Refer to the value of K specified in 2.1.4.2.

be : effective width of shear flow path, but not exceeding the minimum thickness of the webs
or flanges comprising the closed box section (in.). be shall be adjusted to account for
presence of ducts as specified in Article 5.8.6.1. midas Civil uses bv.

3.2.2 Condition for torsion check


▪ For Non-Segmental Box Girders

AASHTO LRFD14
Tu  0.25Tcr (1.49) (5.8.2.1)
(Eq. 5.8.2.1-3)

▪ For Segmental Box Girders

Tu  1/ 3Tcr (1.50) AASHTO LRFD14


(5.8.6.3)
(Eq. 5.8.6.3-1)
Where,
Φ = resistance factor for torsion(=0.9)

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 29


3.2.3 Torsional resistance
AASHTO LRFD14
In accordance with AASHTO-LRFD12, the torsional resistance should meet the condition (5.5.4.2.1)
Tu≤ΦTn for the cases of segmental box girders and non-segmental box girders.

▪ For Non-Segmental Box Girders

2 Ao At f y cot  AASHTO LRFD14


Tn  (1.51) (5.8.3.6.2)
s (Eq. 5.8.3.6.2-1)

Where,
At: area of one leg of closed transverse torsion reinforcement in solid menbers, or total area of
2
transverse torsion reinforcement in the exterior web of cellular members (in. ). Awt of Torsional
Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used.
s :Pitch of Torsional Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used.
Θ: angle of crack as determined in accordance with provisions of Article 5.8.3.4 with the
modifications to the expressions for v and Vu herein (degrees). The same equation, which was used for
the shear check, will be used:

  29  3500 s (1.52) AASHTO LRFD14


(5.8.3.4.2)
(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3)
 s : Refer to 1.2.2.3 Net longitudinal tensile strain.

▪ For Segmental Box Girders


2 Ao At f y AASHTO LRFD14
Tn  (1.53) (5.8.6.4)
s (Eq. 5.8.6.4-2)

Where,
At : Awt of Torsional Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used.
s : Pitch of Torsional Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used.

The reinforcement data used for the torsion check are as follows:

▶ Model>Properties>Section Manager>Reinforcements

Torsional
Reinforcement

[Fig.1.25] Transverse Reinforcement

- Pitch : spacing of transverse torsional reinforcement


- Awt : area of transverse torsional reinforcement

30 Design Guide for midas Civil


(the area of a single stirrup among the outer closed stirrups)
- Alt : area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement
(the area of all reinforcing steels which are close against the outer closed stirrups)

3.3 Check longitudinal reinforcement


Check the longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion. Check it for box sections and for
solid sections, respectively.

▪ For Solid sections


Aps is the area of tensile tendon and As is the area of tensile reinforcement.

2 2
Mu 0.5 Nu V   0.45 phTu  AASHTO LRFD14
Aps f ps  As f y    cot   u  Vp  0.5Vs     (5.8.3.6.3)
 dv      2 Ao  (Eq. 5.8.3.6.3-1)

(1.54)

Where,
dv: refer to 2.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Non-Segmental Box Girders)

▪ For Box sections

The Code suggests that the reinforcement for resisting torsion is limited to the
following equation for box sections:

Tn ph AASHTO LRFD14
Al  (1.55) (5.8.3.6.3)
2 Ao f y (Eq. 5.8.3.6.3-2)

midas Civil incorporates the above equation to check the longitudinal torsional
reinforcement. The Alt of Torsional Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used. Alt is
only for resisting warping torsion and is used only for box sections.

(Tu /  ) ph
Alt  (1.56) AASHTO LRFD14
2 Ao f y (5.8.6.4)
(Eq. 5.8.6.4-3)

3.4 Check combined torsional and shear stress


For Segmental Box Girders, check the combined shear and torsional stress.
AASHTO LRFD14
(5.8.6.5)
 Vu   Tu  (Eq. 5.8.6.5-5)
   0.474 f c
'
 (1.57)
 bv dv   2 Aobe 

Where,
bv: refer to 1.1.2.1 Effective web width
dv: refer to 1.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Segmental Box Girders)
be : effective thickness of the shear flow path of the elements making up the space truss model
resisting torsion calculated in accordance with Article 5.8.6.3 (in). midas Civil uses bv.

midas Civil calculates the maximum combined stress using the equation below.

Vu Tu
  0.474 f c' (1.58)
bv dv 2 Aobe

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 31


3.5 Check torsional moment resistance
midas Civil checks the combined shear and torsional strength limit state for the Vmax, Vmin and
Tmax cases among the Active: Strength/Stress load combinations, which are defined in Fig.1.12
Load Combinations dialog.

3.6 Check the torsional resistance results


3.6.1 by Result Tables
The results can be checked as shown in the table below.
▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check Combined Shear and Torsion
Strength…

[Fig.1.26] Result table for torsional resistance


Elem : Element number
Part : Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element
Max./Min.: Maximum torsion/shear, minimum torsion/shear
LCom Name: Load combination name.
Type: Displays the set of member forces corresponding to moving load case or settlement load case for
which the maximum stresses are produced.
CHK: Shear and torsion strength check for element
Vu : shear force for the corresponding LCom
Mu : bending moment for the corresponding LCom
Tu : torsional moment for the corresponding LCom
Vn : Nominal Shear resistance.
Tn : Nominal Torsional resistance.
Phi : strength reduction factor for shear
Phi_t : strength reduction factor for torsion
Vc : Shear resistance of concrete.
Vs : Shear resistance of shear reinforcement.
Vp : Shear force of the effective prestressing force.
PhiVn : Design Shear resistance.
Phi_tTn : Design Torsional resistance.
de : Effective web width
dv : Effective depth for shear
ex : Longitudinal Strain
theta : Angle of inclination of transverse compressive stresses
beta : Factor indicating ability of transversely cracked concrete to transmit tension and shear
Avs : Area of shear reinforcement
Ast : Area of longitudinal reinforcement
Al : Area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement
bv : Effective width
Avs_min : Minimum required transverse reinforcement
Avs_req : Required transverse reinforcement
Al_min : Minimum longitudinal torsional reinforcement
bv_min : Minimum effective web width
At : Area of transverse torsional reinforcement
At_req : Required transverse torsional reinforcement

32 Design Guide for midas Civil


3.6.2 by Excel Report
Detail verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.
▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1.27] Excel report for torsional resistance

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 33


Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design: AASHTO-LRFD 7th (2014)

Serviceabiltiy Limit States


1. Stress for cross section at a construction stage
The allowable stress at a construction stage differs depending on the generated stress
because the precompressed tensile zone is defined differently depending on the generated
stress. Therefore, the generated stress at every stage and step is compared to the
corresponding allowable stress, and the most unfavorable ratio of the generated stress to
the allowable stress is searched and checked against the criteria.
That is to say, calculate the ratio of generated stress to allowable stress for every stage and
see if the highest ratio meets the criteria.

1.1 Allowable stress of concrete


(1) Allowable compressive stress of concrete AASHTO LRFD14
(5.9.4.1.1)
σca = 0.60 f’ci (1.59)

Where, the definition of f’ci is stated in 2.1.2.

(2) Allowable tensile stress of concrete

AASHTO LRFD14
(5.9.4.1.2)

[Fig.1.28] Allowable tensile stress of concrete

34 Design Guide for midas Civil


Midas Civil calculates the allowable tensile stress of concrete using Table 5.9.4.1.2-1, as
stated in the table below:

[Table 1.3] Allowable tensile stress of concrete


Construction Case Allowable stress(ksi)
Type
Without bonded reinforcement and bonded σta = 0.0
Precompressed tendon
If reinforcement stress ≤ min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.24*SQRT(f'ci )
Tensile Zone With bonded reinforcement or bonded
tendon If reinforcement stress > min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.0
Non-Segment
Without bonded reinforcement and bonded σta = 0.0948f'ci ≤ 0.2
Other Than tendon
Precompressed If reinforcement stress ≤ min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.24*SQRT(f'ci)
Tensile Zone With bonded reinforcement or bonded
tendon If reinforcement stress > min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.0

With bonded Reinforcement stress≤ 0.5fy σta = 0.0948*SQRT(f'ci)


Precompressed tensile Zone reinforcement or bonded
Joint Reinforcement stress > 0.5fy σta = 0.0
tendon
Other cases σta = 0.0
Segment
If reinforcement stress ≤ min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.19*SQRT(f'ci )
With bonded reinforcement or bonded
Non Joint tendon If reinforcement stress > min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.0
Other cases σta = 0.0

Description on each item is as follows:


AASHTO LRFD14
(5.2)
Precompressed Tensile Zone: According to the Code, Precompressed Tensile Zone is defined
as Any region of a prestressed component in which prestressing causes compressive stresses
and service load effects cause tensile stresses.
midas Civil calculates the concrete stress in cross-section using the following methods
and defines the Precompressed Tensile zone at Before Loss (construction stage).
If it is compressive stress for TendonPrimary(CS)+Tendon Secondary(CS), and
if it is tensile stress for Summation(CS)-(Tendon primary+Tendon secondary).

Joint/non-Joint: In midas Civil, joints can be defined in the dialog below:


AASHTO LRFD14
▶PSC> PSC Segment Assignment (5.5.4.2.1)

[Fig.1.29] PSC Segment Assignment

As shown in Fig.2.2, if elements 1, 2 and 3 are assigned as one segment, i-end of element 1
and j-end of element 3 become the joints and the rest become the non-joints. AASHTO LRFD14
(C 5.9.1.4)
Bonded reinforcement
It is assumed that the tensile reinforcement or the tendon defined as Bond Type in Fig.1. 7
are bonded reinforcement.
Based on the aforementioned, if tensile reinforcement or bonded tendon is present in the
tension zone, it is assumed that bonded reinforcement exists.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 35


Check the stress in reinforcement
The Code states that the bonded reinforcement, which retains a specific stress value (0.5fy
or 30ksi), shall resist the tensile force on the tension zone. midas Civil applies the above
regulation as follows:
Compute the concrete triangular stress block on the tension zone, using the extreme fiber
tension stress and the extreme fiber compression stress of concrete.
Compute the tension force of concrete by multiplying the compression stress by the area
of the concrete triangular stress block.
Compute the tension force of reinforcement by multiplying the area of reinforcement and
tendon, which are included in the triangular stress block, by the specific stress (0.5fy or
30ksi).
If the tension force of reinforcement is larger than that of concrete, it is concluded that the
tensile stress of reinforcement satisfies the regulation.

[Fig.1.30] Check the tension force of reinforcement

1.2 Compressive strength of concrete at time of loading, f’ci


The Code defines f’ci as:
f’ci is specified compressive strength of concrete at time of initial loading or AASHTO LRFD14
precompressing; nominal concrete strength at time of application of tendon (5.3)
midas Civil computes the compressive strength of concrete (f’ci) during the construction
stages according to the construction days defined in Fig.2.4 and the function of
concrete strength defined in Fig.2.5.
The days for each construction stage can be defined in Fig2.4.

▶Load> Construction Stage> Compose construction Stage…

Stage Additional
Steps

Activation

[Fig.1.31] Compose construction Stage dialog


Stage>Duration:
Enter the duration of the construction stage.
It is the basic unit where elements become active or inactive, boundary conditions become
active or inactive and loads are applied or removed.

36 Design Guide for midas Civil


Additional Step>age:
Define the specific days for the analysis steps within the construction stage.
Within a construction stage where the model and boundary conditions remain unchanged,
changes in load application timing or additional loads may be incorporated through
additional steps.

Activation>Group List>age:
Select relevant element groups, which are applicable to the current stage, in the Group List
and activate the selected groups by moving them to Activation Group List. Specify the Age of
the selected element groups.
The age entered here will be used to reflect the effects of creep and shrinkage that took
place prior to the current construction stage. The age of the element, which is casted at the
start of the current construction stage, is zero. The age typically represents the time span
from the time of concrete casting to the time of removal of formwork during which the
concrete is considered as a structural element, that is to say the curing period of concrete.

Based on the inputs shown in Fig.2.4, midas Civil takes the following days for the
construction stage analysis:
The duration of the construction stage CS1 is 30 days, the duration of the additional step
within CS1 is 15 days, and the Activation age is 5 days.
The actual duration of CS1 is 35 days (Stage Duration + Activation age).
The compressive strength of concrete is computed at 5 days, 20 days and 35 days for CS1.
If the next stage CS2 is defined with the duration of 20 days, CS2 starts at 35 days and ends AASHTO LRFD14
at 55 days. (5.7.2.2)
The development of concrete compressive strength with days is defined in the dialog
below.

▶ Properties> Time Dependent Materials>Comp. Strength…

[Fig.1.32] Time Dependent Materials dialog

Development of Strength:
Define the function to compute the compressive strength of concrete during the
construction stages. Define a function by selecting ACI, CEB-FIP or Structural Concrete
Design Code, or directly define the values.
The compressive strength of concrete is computed by reflecting the variation of the modulus
of elasticity with concrete ages.
For CS1 the compressive strengths of concrete are computed at 5 days, 20 days and 35 days,
and they are compared to the corresponding stresses.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 37


1.3 Check stress for cross section at a construction stage
 c   ca ,  t   ta (1.60)

1.4 Check the stress results for cross section at a construction stage
1.4.1 by Result Tables
The results can be checked as shown in the table below.
▶ Design>PSC Design >PSC Design Result Tables>Check stress for cross section
at a construction stage…

[Fig.1.33] Result table for stress at a construction stage

Elem : Element number


Part : Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element
Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress
Stage : Construction stage at which stresses are maximum at the corresponding section.
CHK : Combined stress check for construction stages
FT : Combined Stress due to My and axial force at Top fiber
FB : Combined Stress due to My and axial force at Bottom fiber
FTL : Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Top Left fiber
FBL : Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Bottom Left fiber
FTR : Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Top Right fiber
FBR : Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Bottom Right fiber
FMAX : Maximum combined stress out of the above six components.
ALW : Allowable stress of cross section at construction stage.

Girder/Slab : The girder of the composite section is indicated as Girder(composite); the slab of the
composite section is indicated as Slab(composite); the non-composite PSC section is indicated as
Girder(PSC).

Right click on mouse >> Context Menu >> Activate Records


The results can be filtered and selected for the Girder and Slab. The results can be output separately for
the Girder(Composite) and Slab(Composite). For the non-composite PSC sections, the results are ouput
for the Girder(PSC). For the non-composite PSC sections, even if the Slab part is selected, the results are
not output for the Slab(Composite).

38 Design Guide for midas Civil


1.4.2 by Excel Report
Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.
▶ Design>PSC Design >PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1.34] Result table for stress at a construction stage

**The stress result is output for the girder and slab separately with the addition of the composite section
design check.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 39


2. Stress for cross section at service loads
The element stress at service loads after losses should meet the following conditions:
The maximum compressive stress at service loads after losses ≤ allowable compressive
stress of concrete: σc ≤ σca
The maximum tensile stress at service loads after losses ≤ allowable tensile stress of
concrete: σt ≤ σta

The Code suggests that the stresses in PSC structures after losses shall be checked for the AASHTO LRFD14
(5.9.4.2.1)
followings:
(5.9.4.2.2)
Check compressive stress: for the load combinations of Service Limit state 1
Check tensile stress: for the load combinations of Service Limit state 3

[Fig.1.35] Load Combination for Service Limit state

In midas Civil, the Load Cases to check compressive stress and tensile stress after losses can
be selected via the dialog box shown in Fig.2.9.
The Load Cases in Service Limit1 will be used to check compressive stress, and the Load
Cases in Service Limit3 will be used to check tensile stress.

[Fig.1.36] Concrete Allowable Stress Load Case dialog

40 Design Guide for midas Civil


2.1 Allowable stress of concrete
(1) Allowable compressive stress of concrete AASHTO LRFD14
(5.9.4.2.1)

[Fig.1.37] Allowable compressive stress of concrete

The following formula is incorporated in midas Civil:

σca = 0.45 f’c (1.61)

(2) Allowable tensile stress of concrete


AASHTO LRFD14
(5.9.4.2.2)

[Fig.1.38] Allowable tensile stress of concrete

midas Civil calculates the allowable tensile stress of concrete using Fig.2.11, as stated in the
table below:

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 41


[Table1.4] Allowable tensile stress of concrete
Construction Case Allowable stress(ksi)
Type
With bonded reinforcement or bonded corrosion condition - not Worse σ ta = 0.19*sqrt(fck)
Precompressed tendon
corrosion condition -severe σ ta = 0.0948*sqrt(fck)
Non-Segment Tensile Zone
Without bonded reinforcement and bonded σ ta = 0.0
tendon
Other Than Precompressed Tensile Zone σ ta = 0.0

(Precompressed Tensile Zone) and If reinforcement stress≤ 0.5fy, σ ta = 0.0948*SQRT(f'c)

Joint (With bonded reinforcement or bonded ) If reinforcement stress > 0.5fy, σ ta = 0.0
tendon
Other cases σ ta = 0.0
Segment
With bonded reinforcement or bonded If reinforcement stress ≤ min(0.5fy, 30ksi) , σ ta = 0.19*SQRT(f'c)
tendon
Non Joint If reinforcement stress > min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σ ta = 0.0

Other cases σ ta = 0.0

Description on each item is as follows:


Precompressed Tensile Zone
According to the Code, Precompressed Tensile Zone is defined as
AASHTO LRFD14
Any region of a prestressed component in which prestressing causes compressive stresses (5.2)
and service load effects cause tensile stresses.
midas Civil calculates the concrete stress in cross-section using the following methods
and defines the Precompressed Tensile zone at After Loss (construction stage).
-If it is compressive stress for TendonPrimary(CS)+Tendon Secondary(CS), and
-if it is tensile stress for Service Limit State load combination(SLS)-(Tendon
primary+Tendon secondary).

Corrosion Condition
The data for Corrosion Condition can be entered in the dialog box below:

▶ PSC> Design Parameter> Parameters…

[Fig.1.39] PSC Design parameter Dialog -corrosion condition

The input parameters and the corresponding terms defined in the Code are listed in the
table below:

42 Design Guide for midas Civil


[Table1.5] corrosion condition
Input parameter Term of the Code
Severe Severe
Moderate/Mild Not worse
1)
Joint/non-Joint : refer to 2.1.1
Bonded reinforcement : refer to 2.1.1
Check the stress in reinforcement : refer to 2.1.1

2.2 Check stress for cross section at service loads

 c   ca ,  t   ta (1.62)

2.3 Check the stress results for cross section at service loads
2.3.1 by Result Tables
The results can be checked as shown in the table below.
▶Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check stress for cross section at service
loads…

[Fig.1.40] Result table for stress at service loads

Elem: Element number


Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element
Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress
LCom Name: Load Combination Name
Type: Displays the set of member forces corresponding to moving load case or settlement load case for
which the maximum stresses are produced
CHK: Combined stress check for Service loads
FT: Combined Stress due to My and axial force at Top fiber
FB: Combined Stress due to My and axial force at Bottom fiber
FTL: Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Top Left fiber
FBL: Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Bottom Left fiber
FTR: Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Top Right fiber
FBR: Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Bottom Right fiber
FMAX: Maximum combined stress out of the above six components.
ALW: Allowable stress in concrete at service limit state.

Girder/Slab : The output is presented separately for the Composite Section as the Girder(composite)
and Slab(Composite).

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 43


2.3.2 by Excel Report
Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.
▶Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1.41] Excel report for stress at service loads

**The stress result is output separately for the Girder/Slab with the addition of the Composite Section
Design.

3. Tensile stress for Prestressing tendons


Compare the stress in tendon with the allowable stress for each tendon group.
After immediate losses at anchorages, the maximum stress in tendon ≤ allowable stress.
Elsewhere away from anchorages, the maximum stress in tendon ≤ allowable stress.
After all losses, the maximum stress in tendon ≤ allowable stress.

3.1 Allowable stress of tendon


The Code presents the following stress limits for tendons depending on the tendon types:

AASHTO LRFD14
(5.9.3)

[Fig.1.42] Stress Limit for Prestressing Tendons

44 Design Guide for midas Civil


Tendon Type can be specified from the Design parameters dialog.
▶ PSC> Design Parameter> Parameters…

[Fig.1.43] PSC Design parameter Dialog – Tendon Type


The input parameters of the dialog and the corresponding terms defined in the Code
are listed in the table below:

[Table1.6] Tendon Type


Input parameter Term of the Code
Low Relaxation Tendons Low Relaxation Strand
Stress Relieved Tendons Stress Relieved Strands
and Plane High-strength Bar
Prestressing Bar Deformed Hige-strength Bar

Pre/Post tensioning can be specified as showin in Fig.1. 8 Tendon Property Dialogue.


Midas Civil applies the stress limits for tendons differently, depending on the Tendon Type
and whether it is Pre/Post tensioning.
Allowable stress in tendon immediately after anchor set at anchorages(AFDL1)
The maximum allowable stress in tendon at anchorages after immediate losses. The values
for “At anchorages and couplers immediately after anchor set” of Table 5.9.3-1 are set as
the limits.

Allowable Stress in Tendon immediately after anchor set elsewhere(AFDL2)


The maximum allowable stress in tendon elsewhere along length of member away from
anchorages. The values for “Elsewhere along length of member away from anchorages…” of
Table 5.9.3-1 are set as the limits. This is not applicable to Pretension.

Allowable stress in tendon at service limit state after losses(AFLL1)


The maximum allowable stress in tendon at service limit state after all losses. The values for
“At service limit stage after losses” of Table 5.9.3-1 are set as the limits.

3.2 Check the stress in Prestressing tendons


3.2.1 by Result Tables
The stress results of tendon can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check tensile stress for Prestressing


tendons …

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 45


[Fig.1.44] Result table for tensile stress for prestressing tendon
Tendon: Tendon profile name.
For Post-tensioned:
FDL1: Stress in tendon at anchorages.
The maximum stress in tendon at anchorages after immediate losses
FDL2: Maximum stress in tendon along the length of the member away from anchorages,
immediately after anchor set.
The maximum stress in tendon elsewhere along length of member away from anchorages
immediately after anchor set
FLL1: Maximum stress in tendon after all losses at the last stage.
The maximum stress in tendon at service limit state after all losses
AFDL1: Allowable stress in tendon immediately after anchor set at
anchorages. The allowable stress for FDL1
AFDL2: Allowable stress in tendon immediately after anchor set elsewhere.
The allowable stress for FDL2
AFLL1: Allowable stress in tendon at service limit state after losses.
The allowable stress for FLL1
For Pre-tensioned:
FDL1: Stress in tendon.
FDL2: -
FLL1: Maximum stress in tendon after all losses at the last stage.
AFDL1: Allowable stress in tendon prior to transfer.
AFDL2: -
AFLL1: Allowable stress in tendon at service limit state after losses.

3.2.2 Tendon Time-dependent Loss Graph


The stress in each tendon for each construction stage can be checked from the dialog below:
▶ Result > Bridge> Tendon Loss Graph…

[Fig.1.45] Tendon Time-dependent Loss Graph

In the graph above the stress at the beginning represents the stress in tendon at anchorage
after immediate losses (FDL1), and the largest stress in the graph represents the maximum
stress in tendon elsewhere along length of member away from anchorages immediately
after anchor set (FDL2).

3.2.3 by Excel Report


Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.
▶Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

46 Design Guide for midas Civil


[Fig.1.46] Excel Report for tensile stress for prestressing tendons

4. Principal stress at a construction stage


Find the maximum principal tensile stress among the stress check points 1~10 of the cross-
section at a construction stage and compare it to the allowable stress. In other words,
maximum principal tensile stress ≤ allowable stress.

4.1 Allowable tensile stress


AASHTO LRFD14
(5.9.4.1.2)
The Code presents the following equation of allowable tensile stress for Segmentally
Constructed Bridges:

 ta  0.110 fci' (1.63)

Where, f’ci is identical to that of 2.1.2.

midas Civil applies the above equation for both Segment and Non-segment.

4.2 Maximum principal stress


The maximum principal tensile stress for each point at a constructions stage is computed as
follows:

 ps 
1
 x   z    x   z 2  4 s   t   p 2  (1.64)
2  

where,
σx : Sum of axial stresses in ECS x-direction
σz : Sum of axial stresses in ECS z-direction
τs : Shear stress due to shear.
τt : Shear stress due to torsion.
τp : Shear stress due to shear reinforcement.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 47


4.2.1 Beam stresses of PSC
The stress components to compute the maximum principal tensile stress can be checked
from the Result Table below:

▶ Results>Result Tables>Beam>Stress(PSC)…

[Fig.1.47] Beam stresses of PSC


Sig-xx (Axial): Axial stress due to the axial force (Fx) in the ECS x-direction
Sig-xx (Moment-y): Stress due to My (moment about the ECS y-axis) in ECS x-direction
Sig-xx (Moment-z): Stress due to Mz (moment about the ECS z-axis) in ECS x-direction
Sig-xx (Bar): Axial stress due to shear steel bars in the ECS x-direction
Sig-xx (Summation): Sum of the axial stress in the ECS x-direction and the axial stress
due to shear steel bars in the ECS x-direction
Sig-zz: Stress in the ECS z-direction
Sig-xz (shear): Sum of shear stresses due to shear force and shear steel bars
Sig-xz (torsion): Shear stress due to torsion
Sig-xz (bar): Shear stress due to shear steel bars
Sig-Is (shear): Transverse stress due to shear force
Sig-Is (shear+torsion): Transverse stress due to torsion and shear force
Sig-Ps1: Maximum principal stress
Sig-Ps2: Minimum principal stress

4.3 Check principal stress at a construction stage

 ps   ta
(1.65)

4.4 Check the principal stress results at a construction stage


4.4.1 by Result Tables
The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Principal stress at a construction stage …

[Fig.1.48] Result table for principal stress at a construction stage

Elem: Element number.


Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element.
Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress.
Stage: Construction stage.
CHK: Principal stress check for construction stages.
Sig_P1: Principal Stress at the left top of top flange.
Sig_P2: Principal Stress at the right top of top flange.
Sig_P3: Principal Stress at the right bottom of bottom flange.

48 Design Guide for midas Civil


Sig_P4: Principal Stress at the left bottom of bottom flange.
Sig_P5: Principal Stress at the top of left web.(at Z1 Level)
Sig_P6: Principal Stress at the top of right web.(at Z1 Level)
Sig_P7: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in left web.(at Z2 Level)
Sig_P8: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in right web.(at Z2 Level)
Sig_P9: Principal Stress at the bottom of left web.(at Z3 Level)
Sig_P10: Principal Stress at the bottom of right web.(at Z3 Level)
Sig_MAX: The maximum Principal stress among P1-P10.
Sig_AP: Allowable principal stress at neutral axis in the web.

4.2.2 by Excel Report


Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.
▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1.49] Excel Report for principal stress at a construction stage

5. Principal stress at service loads (Excluding torsional shear


stress)
Find the maximum principal tensile stress among the stress check points 1~10 of the cross-
section at service loads and compare it to the allowable stress. In other words, maximum
principal tensile stress ≤ allowable stress. Here the shear effect due to torsion is excluded.
2.5.1 Allowable tensile stress
The Code (Table .9.4.2.2-1) presents the following equation of allowable tensile stress
for Segmentally Constructed Bridges:

 ta  0.110 fc' (1.66) AASHTO LRFD14


(5.9.4.2.2)

midas Civil applies the above equation for both Segment and Non-segment.

2.5.2 Maximum principal stress


The maximum principal tensile stress for each point at a construction stage is computed as
follows:

 ps 
1
 x   z    x   z 2  4 s   t   p 2  (1.67)
2  
where,
σx : Sum of axial stresses in ECS x-direction
σz : Sum of axial stresses in ECS z-direction
τs : Shear stress due to shear.
τt : Shear stress due to torsion.
τp : Shear stress due to shear reinforcement.

5.2.1 Beam stresses of PSC


The stress components to compute the maximum principal tensile stress can be checked
from the Result Table below:

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 49


Refer to 3.4.2.1 Beam stresses of PSC.

5.3 Check principal stress at service loads

 ps   ta
(1.68)

5.4 Check the principal stress results at service loads


5.4.1 by Result Tables
The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables > Result table for principal stress at service
loads(excluding torsional shear stress)…

[Fig.1.50] Result table for principal stress at service loads (excluding torsional shear stress)

Elem: Element number.


Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element.
Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress.
Stage: Construction stage.
CHK: Principal stress check for construction stages.
Sig_P1: Principal Stress at the left top of top flange.
Sig_P2: Principal Stress at the right top of top flange.
Sig_P3: Principal Stress at the right bottom of bottom flange.
Sig_P4: Principal Stress at the left bottom of bottom flange.
Sig_P5: Principal Stress at the top of left web.(at Z1 Level)
Sig_P6: Principal Stress at the top of right web.(at Z1 Level)
Sig_P7: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in left web.(at Z2 Level)
Sig_P8: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in right web.(at Z2 Level)
Sig_P9: Principal Stress at the bottom of left web.(at Z3 Level)
Sig_P10: Principal Stress at the bottom of right web.(at Z3 Level)
Sig_MAX: The maximum Principal stress among P1-P10.
Sig_AP: Allowable principal stress at neutral axis in the web.

5.4.2 by Excel Report


Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1.51] Excel report for principal stress at service loads (excluding torsional shear stress)

50 Design Guide for midas Civil


6. Principal stress at service loads
Find the maximum principal tensile stress among the stress check points 1~10 of the cross-
section at service loads and compare it to the allowable stress. Here both shear and torsion
will be reflected in the stress calculation. In other words, maximum principal tensile stress ≤
allowable stress.

6.1 Allowable tensile stress


The Code (Table .9.4.2.2-1) presents the following equation of allowable tensile stress
for Segmentally Constructed Bridges:
AASHTO LRFD14
(5.9.4.2.2)

 ta  0.110 fc' (1.69)

midas Civil applies the above equation for both Segment and Non-segment.

6.2 Maximum principal stress


The maximum principal tensile stress for each point at a construction stage is computed as
follows:

 ps 
1
 x   z    x   z 2  4 s   t   p 2 
2   (1.70)

where,
σx : Sum of axial stresses in ECS x-direction
σz : Sum of axial stresses in ECS z-direction
τs : Shear stress due to shear.
τt : Shear stress due to torsion.
τp : Shear stress due to shear reinforcement.

6.2.1 Beam stresses of PSC


The stress components to compute the maximum principal tensile stress can be checked
from the Result Table below:
Refer to 3.4.2.1 Beam stresses of PSC.

6.3 Check principal stress at service loads

 ps   ta
(1.71)

6.4 Check the principal stress results at service loads


6.4.1 by Result Tables
The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Principal stress at service loads…

[Fig.1.52] Result table for principal stress at service loads

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 51


Elem: Element number.
Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element.
Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress.
Stage: Construction stage.
CHK: Principal stress check for construction stages.
Sig_P1: Principal Stress at the left top of top flange.
Sig_P2: Principal Stress at the right top of top flange.
Sig_P3: Principal Stress at the right bottom of bottom flange.
Sig_P4: Principal Stress at the left bottom of bottom flange.
Sig_P5: Principal Stress at the top of left web.(at Z1 Level)
Sig_P6: Principal Stress at the top of right web.(at Z1 Level)
Sig_P7: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in left web.(at Z2 Level)
Sig_P8: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in right web.(at Z2 Level)
Sig_P9: Principal Stress at the bottom of left web.(at Z3 Level)
Sig_P10: Principal Stress at the bottom of right web.(at Z3 Level)
Sig_MAX: The maximum Principal stress among P1-P10.
Sig_AP: Allowable principal stress at neutral axis in the web.

6.4.2 by Excel Report


Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1.53] Excel report for principal stress at service loads

7. Check crack
The limit state for crack can be checked by comparing the applied spacing of tensile
reinforcement with the maximum spacing of reinforcement.
In accordance with AASHTO-LRFD, the crack limit shall be checked for the “mild steel
reinforcement”. The applied spacing of tensile reinforcement shall be compared to the
computed maximum spacing of reinforcement.
In other words, applied spacing of reinforcement ≤ maximum spacing of reinforcement

7.1 Maximum spacing of reinforcement


The maximum spacing of reinforcement is computed as follows:
AASHTO LRFD14
(5.7.3.4)
700 e (Eq. 5.7.3.4-1)
smax   2d c (1.72)
 s f ss

dc
s  1  (1.73)
0.7(h  dc )

dc: thickness of concrete cover measured from extreme tension fiber to center of the flexural
reinforcement located closest thereto (in.)
fss: tensile stress in steel reinforcement at service limit state (ksi)
fss is computed according to the following steps:
1) Compute the concrete stress (fcs) at the location of tensile reinforcement using

52 Design Guide for midas Civil


the extreme fiber tension stress and the extreme fiber compression stress.
2) Compute the strain of concrete (εcs=fcs/Ec) with regard to fcs.
3) Compute fss (fss = Es εcs).
γe :exposure factor
1.00 for Class 1 exposure condition
0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition
Exposure condition can be entered in the PSC Design parameters dialog.

▶ PSC> Design Parameter> Parameters…

[Fig.1.54] PSC Design parameter Dialog - Exposure Factor

7.2 Spacing of reinforcement


The spacing of Longitudinal reinforcement entered from Section Manager>Reinforcements
shall be used as the applied spacing of tensile reinforcement.

▶ Model>Properties>Section Manager>Reinforcements

Spacing of
reinforcements

Top and bottom


reinforcement data

[Fig.1.55] Input Longitudinal reinforcement

When the positive moment is checked, the spacing of bottom reinforcements will be used.
When the negative moment is checked, the spacing of top reinforcements will be used.

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD 2014 53


7.3 Check the crack width at service loads

7.3.1 by Result Tables


The results can be checked as shown in the table below.
▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check crack width at service loads…

[Fig.1.56] Result table for crack width at service loads


Elem: Element number
Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element
Top/Bottom: At top of element, at bottom of element
LCom. Name: Load combination name.
Type: produce maximum and minimum member force components for the load combinations including
moving load cases or settlement load cases.
Check : OK/NG
FT : Stress at the top (+ compression, - tension)
FB : Stress at the bottom (+ compression, - tension)
s_use : The spacing of tensile reinforcement in use.
s_max : The calculated maximum spacing of reinforcement.

If the compressive stress is applied at the design check location, the crack check is omitted.

For the Composite Section, the deck crack is ignored. Therefore, the crack check at the slab
top of the composite section is not provided in midas Civil.
**Degree of Continuity at Various Limit States(5.14.1.4.5)

7.3.2 by Excel Report


Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1.57] Excel report for crack width at service loads

54 Design Guide for midas Civil


Chapter 2.

Steel Composite
Girder Design
AASHTO LRFD 6th (2012)
Chapter 2.
Steel Composite Girder Design (AASHTO LRFD 12)
Steel composite girders need to be designed to satisfy the following limit states.

Steel Composite I-Girder Bridge


Check Strength Limit State

Check Service Limit State

Check Fatigue Limit State

Check Constructability

Check Shear Connector

Check Longitudinal Stiffener


Chapter 2. Steel Composite Girder Design : AASHTO-LRFD 4thand6th (2007 & 2012)

Introduction
1. AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 Steel Composite
1.1 Check List of AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12Steel Composite
For AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 Steel Composite Design, Limit State Design is applied. The criteria
that Steel Composite Section must follow for Limit State Design is as follows.

(1) Cross-Section Proportion Limit State


Review on section properties, e.g. width-thickness ratio

(2) Strength Limit State


Review on flexure strength, shear strength and torsional strength

(3) Service Limit State


Review on permanent deformation

(4) Constructibility
Review on shear and flexure occurring from load combinations during construction stages

(5) Fatigue Limit State


Review on fatigue in steel and concrete materials in Steel Composite girder

1.2 Classification of Steel Composite


Steel Composite section can be categorized by the following classification groups.

(1) Section Shape Type


There are three main section shape types in midas Civil; I, Box and Tub shapes. In the case of
box and tub sections, there are two more cases, single or multiple box section.

[Table2. 1] Section Shape Type


I Box Tub

(2) Moment Type : Positive / Negative


For continuous beams, negative moments may occur around interior supports. Design code
may apply different formulas for these cases.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 57


(3) Bridge Type : Straight / Curved
Based on the horizontal alignment of a bridge, it can be classified as either straight or
curved. The program recognizes curved bridges based on the input of the girder radius
for each component.

Compact Type
(4) Compact Type : Compact / Noncompact / Slender
AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.2)

[Table2.2] Steel Section Classification

Type Description
A composite section in positive flexure, which satisfies specific steel
grade, web slenderness, and ductility requirements, is capable of
Compact
developing a nominal resistance exceeding the moment at first yield,
but not to exceed the plastic moment.
A composite section in positive flexure for which the nominal
Noncompact
resistance is not permitted to exceed the moment at first yield.
Cross-Section of a Compression member composed of plate
Slender components of sufficient slenderness such that local buckling in the
elastic range will occur.

1.3 Stiffeners of Steel Composite


The program considers transverse and longitudinal stiffeners.

[Table2 3] Types of Stiffeners

Type Description

Transverse stiffeners are usually provided to increase shear resistance by


tension field action. These work as anchors for the tension so that post
Transverse buckling shear resistance can be developed.
Stiffeners
It should be noted that elastic web shear buckling cannot be prevented
by transverse stiffeners.
Longitudinal stiffeners may be provided to increase flexural resistance
by preventing local buckling. These work as restraining boundaries for
compression elements so that inelastic flexural buckling stress can be
Longitudinal
developed in a web.
Stiffeners
It consists of either a plate welded longitudinally to one side of the web,
or a bolted angle.

[Fig.2.1] Longitudinal Stiffener and Transverse Stiffener

58 Design Guide for midas Civil


2. Considerations Steel Composite Design
2.1 Construction Stage for steel composite
During the construction of a steel composite bridge, the steel girder is constructed before the
construction of the concrete deck of the upper part of the structure. The steel composite section
is divided into three major steps.

[Table2.4] Construction Stage for Steel Composite Section


Construction stage
Description
for steel composite section

Only Steel Girder Only the steel girder has been


(non-composite) constructed.

Steel girder and Although the concrete deck has been


concrete deck constructed, it has not hardened yet.
as load Therefore, the weight of the wet
(non-composite) concrete is applied as a load condition.

After concrete is hardened, the


Steel girder and
strength and stiffness are formed.
concrete deck
Hereafter, the steel girder and
as member
concrete deck work as a complete
(composite)
composite section.

In order to find and portray the Steel Composite Section Design Process within the program,
utilize the Construction Stage function.

2.2 Time Dependent Material


▪ Steel composite section is composed of steel and concrete. Concrete is a time dependent
material and transforms due to creep and shrinkage. Also, the restraints imposed by the shear
connectors cause additional stresses within the composite section. Therefore, time dependent
characteristics (creep and shrinkage) must be taken into consideration.

▪ Modular ratio is the ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to that of concrete. The short-term
modular ratio "n" is used for transient loads in the program. Long-term modular ratio "3n" is used
for permanent loads acting after composite action. For normal-weight concrete, AASHTO-LRFD 07
and 12 recommend the values of the short-term modular ratio.

3. Calculation of Plastic Moment and Yield Moment


▪ The plastic moment Mp for a composite section is defined as the moment that causes yielding in
steel section and reinforcement and uniform stress distribution of 0.85 in compression concrete
slab. In positive flexure regions, the contribution of reinforcement in concrete slab is small and
can be neglected.
▪ The yield moment, My, for a composite section is defined as the moment that causes the first
yielding in one of the steel flanges or the moment at which an outer fiber first attans the yield
stress. My is the sum of the moments applied to the pre-composite steel section, the short-term
composite concrete and steel section, and the long-term composite concrete and steel section.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 59


3.1 Plastic Moment(Mp), Yield Moment( My) in Positive Flexure

(1) Cross section proportions


I section and Box/Tub steel composite sections must satisfy the following criteria regarding
cross section proportions. If the conditions have not been met after the design has been
completed, it will be indicated as an “NG” on the design report generated.

1) Web Proportions
[Table 2.5] Web Proportions
Case Condition
WEB
D
Web with longitudinal stiffener  150 For I section
AASHTO LRFD 12
tw (6.10.2.1.1-1)
(6.10.2.1.2-1)
D
Web without longitudinal stiffener  300
tw For Box/Tub Section
AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.11.2.1.2-1)
(6.11.2.1.3-1)
2) Flange Proportions
[Table 2.6] Flange Proportions
Section Type

I Box / Tub Flange


For I section
bf
 12.0 AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.2.2-1)
2t f bf
 12.0 (6.10.2.2-2)
(6.10.2.2-3)
D 2t f
bf  (6.10.2.2-4)
6 D
bf 
t f  1.1tw 6
For Box/Tub Section
AASHTO LRFD 12
I yc t f  1.1tw (6.11.2.2-1)
0.1   10 (6.11.2.2-2)
(6.11.2.2-3)
I yt

Where,
Iyc : moment of inertia of the compression flange of the steel section about the vertical axis in the
plane of the web
Iyt : moment of inertia of the tension flange of the steel section about the vertical axis in the plane
of the web

3 3
t fc b fc t ft b ft
I yc  , I yt  (2.1)
12 12

60 Design Guide for midas Civil


(2) Section Classification
Section Classification
Section Classification of Positive Flexure Moment AASHTO LRFD 12
6.10.6.2 (6.10.6.2)

Yes Straight Bridge?

min( F yc , F yt )  70 . 0 ksi No
d / t w  150 :Curved Bridge

D cp Es
2  3 . 76 No
tw F yc

Yes

Compact Section Noncompact Section

End
[Fig.2.2] Section Classification of Negative Positive Moment
Where,
𝐷𝑐𝑝 : depth of the web in compression at the plastic moment determined as per Article D6.3.2

▪ The Section Classifications of I, Box, Tub are all the same.


▪ In a positive moment, the following ductility conditions must be met at all times. If not, the
program will show NG.
Dp  0.42Dt
Ductility
(2.2) AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.7.3)

Where,
𝐷𝑝 : Distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite section at the
plastic moment
𝐷𝑡 : Total depth of the composite section

(3) Plastic Moment in Positive Moment (MP) Plastic Moment


If the positive moment is applied on a compact section, MP should be calculated as shown in AASHTO LRFD 12
(D6.1)
Table 2.7.

[Fig.2.3] Case of calculation of Mp in positive moment

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 61


̅ and Mp for section in Positive Flexure
[Table 2.7] Calculation of 𝐘 Mp for section
in Positive
Case PNA Condition ̅ and
Y Mp Flexure
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Table D6.1-1)
 D  P  Pc  Ps  Prt  Prb
Y   [ t  1]
Pt  Pw 2 Pw
Ⅰ In Web  Pc  Ps  Prb  Prt
P  2
M   w [Y  (t  Y ) 2 ] +
 2D 
 [ Ps d s  Prt d rt  Prb d rb  Pw d w  Pt d t ]

t c Pw + Pt − Ps − Prt − Prb
̅
Y = ( )[ + 1]
2 Pc
In Top Pt  Pw  Pc
Ⅱ P  2
flange  Ps  Prb  Prt
M   c [Y  (t  Y ) 2 ]
 2t c 
 [ Ps d s  Prt d rt  Prb d rb  Pw d w  Pt d t ]

Pc + Pw + Pt − Prt − Prb
Pt  Pw  Pc ̅
Y = (t s ) [ ]
Ps
Concrete c 
Ⅲ Deck,   rb  Ps  Prb  Prt Y 2P 
Below Prb  ts  M  s 
 2t s 
 
 [ Prt d rt  Prb d rb  Pc d c  Pw d w  Pt d t ]

Y  C rb
Pt  Pw  Pc  Prb
Concrete
Ⅳ Deck, c 
at Prb
  rb  Ps  Prt  Y 2P 
 ts  M  s   [ Prt d rt  Pc d c  Pw d w  Pt d t ]
 2t s 
 

 P  Pw  Pt  Prt  Prb 
Y  (t s )  c 
Concrete Pt  Pw  Pc  Prb  Ps 

Deck, c   Y 2P 
Above Prb   rt  Ps  Prt
t  M  s 
Below Prt  s   2t s 
 
 [ Prt d rt  Prb d rb  Pc d c  Pw d w  Pt d t ]

Y  C rt
Pt  Pw  Pc  Prb  Prt
Concrete
Ⅵ Deck, c 
at Prt
  rt  Ps  Y 2P 
 ts  M  s   [ Prb d rb  Pc d c  Pw d w  Pt dt ]
 2t s 
 

P  P  P  P  P 
Y  (t s )  rb c w t rt 
Pt  Pw  Pc  Prb  Prt  Ps 
Concrete
Ⅶ Deck, c   Y 2P 
  rt  Ps
Above Prt M  s 
 ts   2t s 
 
 [ Prt drt  Prbdrb  Pc dc  Pwd w  Pt dt ]

Where,

62 Design Guide for midas Civil


𝑑𝑟𝑡 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to the centerline of the top layer of longitudinal concrete
deck.
𝑑𝑟𝑏 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to the centerline of the bottom layer of longitudinal
concrete deck.
𝑑𝑡 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to the midthickness of the tension flange.
𝑑𝑤 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to middepth of the web.
𝑑𝑐 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to midthickness of the compression flange.
𝑑𝑠 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to midthickness of the concrete deck.

𝑃𝑟𝑡 = 𝐹𝑦𝑟 𝐴𝑟𝑡 (by reinforcement)


𝑃𝑟𝑏 = 𝐹𝑦𝑟 𝐴𝑟𝑏 (by reinforcement)
𝑃𝑡 = 𝑏𝑓𝑡 𝑡𝑓𝑡 𝐹𝑦𝑡 (by steel girder)
𝑃𝑤 = 𝐷 𝑡𝑤 𝐹𝑦𝑤 (by steel girder)
𝑃𝑐 = 𝑏𝑓𝑐 𝑡𝑓𝑐 𝐹𝑦𝑐 (by steel girder)
𝑃𝑠 = 0,85 𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑠 𝑡𝑠 (by concrete slab)

(4) Yield Moment in Positive Moment (My)


When a positive moment is applied on a compact section, My is calculated as shown in
Equation 2.3.

M y  Min(M yTop , M yBot ) (2.3) My


AASHTO LRFD 12
(D6.2.2)
Where,
MyTop : Yield Moment of Top Flange
MyBot : Yield Moment of Bottom Flange
M D1 M D2 M AD
Fy   
STop STop(3n ) STop( n )
(2.4) Fy

M yTop  M D1  M D 2  M AD AASHTO LRFD 12


(Eq. D6.2.2-1)

M D1 M D 2 M M_ytop
Fy    AD (2.5) AASHTO LRFD 12
S Bot S Bot (3n ) S Bot ( n ) (Eq. D6.2.2-2)

M yBot  M D1  M D 2  M AD

Where,
S: Non-composite section modulus
S3n : Long-term composite section modulus
Sn : Short-term composite section modulus
MD1 : Moment of non-composite section
MD2 : Moment of long-term composite section
MAD : Additional yield moment of short-term composite section

3.2 Plastic Moment(Mp), Yield Moment(My) in Negative Flexure


For I sections in negative flexure, Mp and My are calculated.

(1) Cross Section Proportions


For negative flexure, cross section proportions must meet the following requirements. If the
program does not meet the requirements, NG will be reported after the design.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 63


1) Web Proportions
[Table 2.8] Web Proportions
Case Condition
D
Web with longitudinal stiffeners  150
tw
D
Web without longitudinal stiffeners  300
tw

2) Flange proportions
[Table 2.9] Flange Proportions
Section Type : I / Box / Tub
bf
 12.0
2t f
D
bf 
6
t f  1.1t w
I yc
0.1   10
I yt

(2) Section Classification


Section Classification
AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.6.2.3)

[Fig.2.4] Section Classification of Negative Flexure Moment


Where,
𝐷𝑐 : Depth of the web in compression in the elastic range.
Iyc : moment of inertia of the compression flange of the steel section about the vertical axis in the plane
of the web
Iyt : moment of inertia of the tension flange of the steel section about the vertical axis in the plane of the
web

64 Design Guide for midas Civil


▪ Minimum Negative Flexure Concrete Deck Reinforcement
Under negative moment, concrete deck has to meet the minimum rebar ratio requirement.
Once the requirements of Equation 2.6 are satisfied, the next design step can be taken.
Ars  0.01Adeck (2.6)

(3) Plastic Moment in Negative Moment (Mp) Plastic Moment


AASHTO LRFD 12
Under negative moment, Mp is only calculated when Appendix A6 is used. Mp is calculated by (D6.1)
either of the two following methods. Please refer to Table 2.10 for the equations.

[Fig.2.5] Case of calculation of Mp in Negative Moment

̅ and Mp for section in Negative Flexure


[Table 2.10] Calculation of 𝐘 Mp for section in
Negative Flexure
Case PNA Condition ̅
Y and Mp AASHTO LRFD 12
(Table D6.1-2)
D Pc − Pt − Prt − Prb
̅
Y = ( )[ + 1]
2 Pw
In
Ⅰ Pc  Pw  Pt  Prb  Prt
Web Pw 2
Mp = ̅ + (D − ̅
[Y Y)2 ]
2D
+[Prt drt + Prb drb + Pt dt + Pc dc ]

t t Pw + Pc − Prt − Prb
̅
Y = ( )[ + 1]
2 Pt
In Top
Ⅱ Pc  Pw  Pt  Prb  Prt
flange Pt 2
Mp = ̅ + (t t − Y
[Y ̅)2 ]
2t
+[Prt drt + Prb drb + Pw dw + Pc dc ]

Where,
𝑃𝑟𝑡 = 𝐹𝑦𝑟𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑡 (by reinforcement)
𝑃𝑟𝑏 = 𝐹𝑦𝑟𝑏 𝐴𝑟𝑏 (by reinforcement)
𝑃𝑐 = 𝐹𝑦𝑐 𝑏𝑐 𝑡𝑐 (by steel girder)
𝑃𝑤 = 𝐹𝑦𝑤 𝐷𝑡𝑤 (by steel girder)
𝑃𝑡 = 𝐹𝑦𝑡 𝑏𝑡 𝑡𝑡 (by steel girder)

My in Negative
(4) Yield Moment in Negative Moment (My) Moment
AASHTO LRFD 12
When Appendix A6 is used for negative flexure, My is calculated and utilized. My is calculated (D6.2.3)
as shown below in Equation 2.7.
M y  Min(M yTop , M yBot ) (2.7)
Where,
MyTop : Yield Moment of Top Flange
MyBot : Yield Moment of Bottom Flange

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 65


M D1 M D 2 M
Fy    AD (2.8)
STop STop( R ) STop( R )
M yTop  M D1  M D 2  M AD (2.9)

M D1 M D 2 M
Fy    AD
S Bot S Bot ( R ) S Bot ( R )
(2.10)
M yBot  M D1  M D 2  M AD (2.11)
Where,
SR : Long-term composite section modulus with longitudinal reinforcements

66 Design Guide for midas Civil


Chapter 2. Steel Composite Girder Design : AASHTO-LRFD 4thand6th (2007/2012)

Modeling and Design


Variables
1. Modeling Design Variables
In this chapter, the design variable values, the meaning behind the design requirements, and the design process for
Steel Composite Design in midas Civil are explained.

1.1. Composite Section Data


The steel composite section is mainly composed of steel girder and concrete slab. Stiffeners can be added to steel
girder section while longitudinal reinforcement can be added to reinforce concrete slab. In this section, the input
methods for these sections and the meaning and application of design variables are explained.

Contents Explanation

1.1.1 Composite Section 1.1.1 Composite Section


(1) Composite Section Data (1) Composite Section Data
▶ Properties > Section > Section Properties> Add > 1) Girder Num
When the Girder Num is inputted as more than
Composite Tab
1, the moment of inertia of area in transverse
direction (Izz) is increased assuming that slab
behaves in consistence with each girder in
analysis. When the number of girder is inputted
as more than 1, it is excluded from the
consideration of design.

For design, Girder Num must be inserted as 1.


In such case, cross beams should be modelled
to consider the transverse stiffness instead of
increasing the girder number.

2) The value of Bc for the slab is used as the


effective width of the concrete deck.

3) Multiple Modulus of Elasticity Option


To design the steel composite section, the
modulus of elasticity for short-term and long-
term effect in creep and shrinkage can be input.
The modulus of elasticity input here is applied
for construction stage analysis of Steel
Composite section as shown in [Fig.2.7].
[Fig.2.6] Section Data Dialog Box

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 67


Contents Explanation

[Fig.2.7] Elastic Modulus ratio for Construction Stage

(2) Section Stiffener (2) Section Stiffener (Longitudinal)


1) Types of longitudinal stiffeners that are
▶ Properties > Section > Section Properties> Add useable are Flat, Tee, and U-Rib.
> Composite Tab > Stiffeners Button...
2) For I sections, stiffeners can be added on
either side of the web. For Box/Tub sections,
upper and lower flanges can be installed as well
as the web panel.
3) When the check box under c column is
checked on, the stiffness value of the stiffener
is considered in analysis. Otherwise, the value
is not considered for analysis. Regardless of
whether or not the check box is checked on or
off, longitudinal stiffeners are considered in
design.
Based on the assignment of longitudinal
stiffener, Rb, web load shedding factor varies
for stiffened web/unstiffened web. It is also
required for classifying the interior panels in
shear check as stiffener/unstiffened.

[Fig.2.8] Section Stiffener Dialog Box

1.1.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement


1.1.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement
In a steel composite section, the longitudinal
▶Design > Composite Design > Longitudinal reinforcements are arranged within the concrete
Reinforcement ... deck. The strength is calculated as shown in Table
2.11.

[Table 2.11] Applicability of material under the calculation


of strength
Positive Negative
Case
Flexure Flexure

Figure

[Fig.2.9] Longitudinal Reinforcement Dialog Box Concrete


Applied None
Slab
Reinforce
None Applied
-ment

68 Design Guide for midas Civil


Contents Explanation

1.1.3 Transverse Stiffener 1.1.3 Transverse Stiffener


(1) Transverse Stiffener Figure 2.10 shows the window in which users can
arrange transverse stiffeners in steel composite
▶ Design > Composite Design > Transverse Stiffener ...
section. When the transverse stiffeners are
installed, the existence and spacing between
stiffeners determine whether the web is stiffened
or unstiffened under strength limit state. Tension
field action in Shear check for Strength Limit State
is considered only for stiffened interior panels.

[Fig.2.10] Transverse Stiffener Dialog Box

[Fig.2.11] Transverse Stiffener Parameters

(1) Stiffener Type


1) One / Two Stiffener Option Button
Choose between one or two stiffeners. The two
stiffener option is available for I/Box/Tub
sections.

2) Pitch (do)
Pitch refers to transverse stiffener spacing. At
[Fig.2.12] Stiffener Type Dialog Box the strength limit state, this can be used to
distinguish between stiffened and unstiffened
webs or calculate shear strength of the web.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 69


1.2. Design Material Data
For the design of steel composite section, construction stage and time dependent material properties of concrete must
be defined. In this section, the input method for concrete's time dependent properties and steel composite section
material information is defined.

Contents Explanation

1.2.1 Time Dependent Material 1.2.1 Time Dependent Material


(1) Creep/Shrinkage (1) Creep/Shrinkage
▶ Properties > Time Dependent Material > The time dependent properties of concrete,
such as creep and shrinkage, are defined. During
Creep/Shrinkage ...
construction stage analysis of bridges, these
properties are utilized for concrete material.
During analysis, they are reflected in the
calculation of member forces but not reflected
in the design of the steel composite section.

[Fig.2.13] Add/Modify Time Dependent Material Dialog Box


(Creep/Shrinkage)

(2) Comp. Strength (2) Comp. Strength


▶ Properties > Time Dependent Material > Comp. In order to reflect the change in the modulus of
elasticity of the time dependent property of
Strength ...
concrete, the change in compressive strength or
modulus of elasticity is defined.

Aging effects may vary for each construction


stage since concrete is poured at different
locations. The varying aging effects are reflected
in the calculation of the member force but not
in the design of the composite sections.

[Fig.2.14] Add/Modify Time Dependent Material Dialog Box


(Compression Strength)

1.2.2 Modify Composite Material


1.2.2 Modify Composite Material The material utilized for steel composite
(1) Modify Composite Material sections are provided in the SRC material
▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Material ... properties. The materials should be defined as
SRC Type.

(1) Modify Composite Material


Figure 2.15 shows the dialog box where users

70 Design Guide for midas Civil


Contents Explanation

can type in material characteristics for the steel


composite section design. The material property
values entered will have a priority over the
values entered in Material Data dialog box.

1) Steel Girder Section - Steel


□ Hybrid Factor
Hybrid factor is considered in the case where
flanges and web have different material
properties.

2) Concrete of Concrete slab

3) Steel materials of Concrete slab

[Fig.2.15] Modify Composite Material Dialog Box

(2) Hybrid Factor(Rh)


(2) Hybrid Factor
When the check box for Hybrid Factor is
selected, icon on the right is activated. The
different materials for the top and bottom
flanges and web of the steel girder can be
defined. Hybrid Factor (Rh) is determined based
on these material information.

[Fig.2.16] Hybrid Factor Dialog Box

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 71


1.3. Design Parameters for Composite Section
Contents Explanation

1.3.1 Design Parameter 1.3.1 Design Parameter


▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Parameters ...
(1) Strength Resistance Factor
Strength Resistance Factor is defined.
By clicking , the resistance factors
are automatically set to the default values defined
in AASHTO LRFD 12. The values also may be
modified or entered manually.

(2) Girder Type for Box/Tub Section

□ Consider St.Venant Torsion and Distortion Stress


If the Multiple Box Sections option is selected,
lateral bending stress is considered in accordance
with St.Venant Torsion and Distortion Stress. If the
Single Box Sections option is selected, the lateral
bending stress is always considered.

(3) Options For Strength Limit State


□ Appendix A6 for Negative Flexure Resistance in
Web Compact/Noncompact Sections
If this option is checked, Appendix A6 is applied
for the flexure strength of straight composite I-
[Fig.2.17] Composite Steel Girder Design Parameter Dialog Box
sections in negative flexure with compact/
noncompact webs. Use of Appendix A6 is optional
in accordance with the code as shown below.

[Fig.2.18] Negative Flexure Resistance in Web


Compact/Noncompact Sections

□ Mn≤1.3RhMy in Positive Flexure and Compact


Sections(6.10.7.1.2-3)

Before deciding, whether to apply this check or


not, following conditions need to be manually
verified:

72 Design Guide for midas Civil


Contents Explanation

- The span under consideration and all


adjacent interior pier sections satisfy the
requirements of Article B6.2,
- The appropriate value of θRL from Article
B6.6.2 exceeds 0.009 radians at all adjacent
interior-pier sections
- In which case the nominal flexural resistance
of the section is not subject to the limitation
of Eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3.

If the above three conditions are not satisfied for


the compact sections under positive flexure in a
continuous span, the Mn value is restricted to
1.3RhMy.

□ Post-buckling Tension-field Action for Shear


Resistance (6.10.9.3.2)
If this option is checked, post buckling resistance
due to tension field action is considered in the
nominal shear resistance of an interior stiffened
web panel. If not, Vn is taken as, CVP.

where,
C = ratio of shear-buckling resistance to the shear
yield strength
Vp = plastic shear force.

(4) Design Parameters


Design and result outputs are generated for the
limit states checked in the Design Parameters.

1.3.2 Unbraced Length 1.3.2 Unbraced Length


▶ Design > Composite Design > Unbraced Length ... Unbraced length factor for steel composite section is
considered. The value input here has higher priority
than the value calculated from Span Group.
(1) Lb
Lateral Unbraced Length is used to calculate
lateral torsional buckling resistance in
compression flange of I Girder or top flange of Tub
Girder. If the lateral unbraced length is not added,
the program will use span lengths. If span lengths
are not defined either, the lateral unbraced length
is applied for the corresponding member length.

[Fig.2.19] Unbraced Length Dialog Box

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 73


Contents Explanation

1.3.3 Shear Connectors 1.3.3 Shear Connectors


▶ Design > Composite Design > Shear Connectors ... In this program, studs are used for shear connectors.
The parameters used for calculation are shown
below.

(1) Category
Category defined by 75yr-(ADTT)SL equivalent to
Infinite Life (Table 6.6.1.2.3-2)

(2) Fu
Shear Resistance of Shear Connector

(3) Shear Connector Parameters

[Fig.2.21] Shear Connector Parameters

(4) Length Between Maximum Moment and Zero


Moment
[Fig.2.20] Shear Connector Dialog Box
The Length between Maximum Moment and Zero
Moment needs to be inputted by users to verify
pitch as per strength limit state.

(5) Nominal Shear Force Calculation (6.10.10.4.2)


One of the two conditions needs to be selected
for the calculation of the nominal shear force, P
which is applied for the verification of pitch at the
strength limit state.

1.3.4 Fatigue Parameter


1.3.4 Fatigue Parameter
(1) Category
▶ Design > Composite Design > Fatigue Parameter ... Category defined by 75ye-(ADTT)SL equivalent to
infinite life (Table 6.6.1.2.3-2)

(2) (ADTT)SL
Number of trucks per day in a single-lane
averaged over the design life (3.6.1.4.2)
(ADTT)SL can be manually calculated as per
3.6.1.4.2-1.

(3) N
Number of stress range cycles per truck passage
Value can be taken from Table 6.6.1.2.5-2.

(4) Longitudinal Warping Stress Range

74 Design Guide for midas Civil


Contents Explanation

For the verification of fatigue, flexure stress is


calculated as the summation of Longitudinal
Bending Stress Range and Longitudinal Warping
Stress Range.

By choosing the Auto-Calculation option, fatigue


vertical bending moment is simply increased by
10% for the longitudinal warping stress.

Longitudinal warping stress range can be


manually calculated as per BEF (Beam on Elastic
Foundation) analogy presented by Wright and
Abdel-Samad. The designer guide to Box Girder by
Bethlehem Steel Corporation also presents this
method. Detailed calculations can be seen in
Design Example 5: Three Span Continuous Curved
Composite Tub-Girder Bridge (page 85-94).

Software calculations do not account for


Transverse Bending Stress due to Distorsion.
Therefore, transverse bending stress range at the
[Fig.2.22] Fatigue Parameters Dialog Box top or bottom corners of the tub section need to
be manually checked with the nominal fatigue
resistance.

If the User Input option is selected, longitudinal


bending stress range is summated with the
inputted value of the Longitudinal Warping Stress
Range for top or bottom flange depending upon
the flexure condition at the section.

These distorsion stresses are considered only for


the sections having box flange as those are the
section in which the torsion is considered.

1.3.5 Span Information 1.3.5 Span Information


▶ Structure > Wizard > Composite Bridge > Span The elements of composite sections are defined as
Information ... one Span Group. The Span Group will serve the
following functions.

(1) Finding the most critical parts of the group


unit and providing the corresponding results in
the Span Checking table. Refer to Chapter 7 of
"Steel Composite Design Result" for more
information.

(2) Calculation of Unbraced Length


When assigning a span group, support properties
are considered for calculating the unbraced
length.
The unbraced length can also be manually
inputted once the corresponding support
conditions under the support column are
selected. Using the span parameters inputted, the
unbraced length can be calculated automatically.
However, if the unbraced length is inputted in

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 75


Contents Explanation

Section 1.3.2, this value will be applied as the


unbraced length first.

(3) End web panels


For each element, location of support, if any, can
be identified as i or j. The stiffened webs with
supports are identified as end panels.
Also, the elements that are assigned with i or j for
the support are considered as end panels. Tension
field action is not considered for the end panel in
Shear Check.

[Fig.2.23] Span Information Dialog Box


1.3.6 Curved Bridge Information
1.3.6 Curved Bridge Information Once the girder radius value of the element units in
the steel composite section is entered, the
▶ Design > Composite Design > Curved Bridge Info ...
corresponding elements are categorized as curved
bridges.

(1) Radius is used for the review of shear


connectors' pitch and the moment of inertia of
area for the longitudinal stiffener attached to
web.

The curve type needs to be determined as convex


or concave so the program determines whether
the longitudinal stiffener is on the side of the web
away or toward from the center of the curvature.

Lateral bending stress due to curvature is


obtained from the analysis results and not using
V-Load equation.
[Fig.2.24] Curved Bridge Information Dialog Box
(2) If convex, left stiffener is on the side of the
web away from the center of curvature and right
stiffener is on the side of the web toward the
center of curvature. If concave, the opposite case
of the convex is applied.

Please refer to the table below for the equations


applied to each case.

76 Design Guide for midas Civil


Contents Explanation
[Table 2.12] Curvature Correction Factor for Longitudinal
Stiffener
Case
Z
  1
Left Stiffener 6
(6.10.11.3.3-3)
Convex Z
 1
Right Stiffener 12
(6.10.11.3.3-4)
Z
 1
Left Stiffener 12
(6.10.11.3.3-4)
Concave Z
  1
Right Stiffener 6
(6.10.11.3.3-3)
where,
β : Curvature correction factor for longitudinal stiffener
rigidity
Z : Curvature Parameter

1.3.7 Deck Overhang Loads


1.3.7 Deck Overhang Loads Design parameters for the Deck Overhang load can
be entered. The fl value obtained from F(Distributed
force) and P(Concentrated force) is not applied to
Box section, but only for I-section and top stiffener
of Tub section. The fl value for deck overhang is
considered only for the constructibility limit state.
Distributed Force, F
(1) Distributed Force, F
Distributed force values are inputted
Fl = F tan α

(2) Concentrated Force, P


Concentrated force values are inputted
Pl = P tan α

(3) Eccentricity of Overhang Loads, e


Eccentricity of overhang loads are inputted
-1
α = tan (e/D)

[Fig.2.25] Deck Overhang Loads Dialog Box The fl value is generated by combining the values
produced from the analysis and the value inputted
in this dialog box. If this feature is not used, fl value
only from the analysis results will be used. Lateral
bending moment due to uniformly distributed
lateral bracket force (Fl) is estimated as:
2
FL
Ml  l b (c6.10.3.4-2)
12
where,
Ml : flange lateral bending moment due to the eccentric
loadings from the forming brackets
[Fig.2.26] Deck Overhand Bracket
Fl : uniformly distributed lateral force
Lb : unbraced length

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 77


Contents Explanation

Lateral bending moment due to concentrated lateral


bracket force (Fl) assumed to be placed at the
middle of the unbraced length is estimated as:
Pl Lb
Ml  (c6.10.3.4-3)
8
where,
Ml : flange lateral bending moment due to the eccentric
loadings from the forming brackets
Pl : concentrated lateral force
Lb : unbraced length

P and F are the dead loads and construction loads


such as Deck Overhang Weight, Screed rail load,
Railing load, Walkway load, Machine Load, etc.
considered for the constructability check only.

The load coefficient applied to Erection (DC) Load


Case is applied to calculate the load in this case.

1.3.8 Design Force/Moment 1.3.8 Design Force/Moment


This feature displays design member forces (strong
▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Tables > Design
axis moment, My), weak-axis moment (Mz) and
Force/Moment... shear stress (VU) for the local axis of elements under
selected load combination of steel composite
section for each construction stage. For explanation
regarding design member forces under construction
stages, please refer to Section 1.5 in this chapter.

[Fig.2.27] Design Force/Moment Dialog Box

78 Design Guide for midas Civil


1.4 Load Combination for steel composite section
1.4.1 Application of load combination in midas Civil for AASHTO LRFD 12
(1) Application of load combinations and factors in midas Civil for AASHTO LRFD 12
The load combinations used for the review of each limit state as per Table 3.4.1-1, are shown below.

[Fig.2.28] Load Combinations and Load Factors

Using the Auto Generation feature of the program, the load combinations regulated by the design code can be
automatically generated. Load factors are considered for each load combinations in this program. Load factors are
considered only within the program, and γp value can be designated by Auto Generation feature.

[Fig.2.29] Load Factors for Permanent Loads, γp

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 79


Contents Explanation

(1) Auto Generation of Load Combinations (1) Auto Generation of Load Combinations
▶ Result > Combination > Load Combination > This feature automatically generates load
combinations under provision of AASHTO LRFD 12.
Composite Steel Girder Design > Auto Generation ...

1) Design Code
When load combinations are generated, they
strictly follow the design code selected by the
user.

2) Load Modifier (ηi)


Load modifier is a factor relating to ductility,
redundancy, and operational classification. It is
defined by the following equations.

For loads for which a maximum value of γ i is


appropriate:

ηi = ηD ηR ηI ≥ 0.95

For loads for which a minimum value of γ i is


appropriate:

ηi = 1/(ηD ηR ηI ) ≤ 1.0

Where,
ηD: a factor relating to ductility as per 1.3.3
ηR: a factor relating to redundancy as per 1.3.4
ηI: a factor relating to operational classification as per
1.3.5

3) Load Factors for Permanent Loads (γp)


Load Factors for Permanent Loads are as per
Table 3.4.1-2. Each option button for γp value is
activated when the corresponding static load case
is defined.

[Fig.2.30] Automatic Generation of Load Combinations


Dialog Box

If a user wishes to review limit states based on the load combinations defined manually, it can be done by
selecting the load combination of interest in Load Combination Type as in Section 1.4.2.

80 Design Guide for midas Civil


1.4.2 Used load combination for steel composite design
Load combinations used in the steel composite section design are defined under Load Combination Type.

Contents Explanation

(1) Load Combination Type (1) Load Combination Type


1) Strength Limit State
▶ Design > Composite Design > Load Combination Type...
Choose load combinations for use under
review of strength limit state.

2) Service Limit State


Choose load combinations for review of
usability limit state.

3) Fatigue 1 Limit State


Choose load combinations for review in
fatigue limit state (Fatigue Ⅰ Load
Combination is for infinite life design;
(ADTT)SL inputted in the software > (ADTT)SL,
equivalent to infinite life as per Table
6.6.1.2.3-2).

4) Fatigue 2 Limit State


Similarly, choose load combinations for
review in fatigue limit state (Conversely to
Fatigue I, Fatigue Ⅱ Load Combination is for
finite life design).

[Fig.2.31] Load Combination Type Dialog Box

1.5 Modeling Steel Composite Sections for Construction Staged Analysis


In this section, methods of construction stage modeling, implementation of concrete's time-dependent material
properties in steel composite section and 3 types of design member forces applied to steel composite section design
are explained. Construction stages of steel composite section can be implemented differently for case 1 to 3 as in table
2.13.

[Table 2.13] Modeling Construction Stage Cases for Steel Composite Design
Case Construction Stage Time Dependent Material(Creep / Shrinkage)

Case 1 Defined
Defined
Case 2 Not Defined (Apply modular ratio of 3n)

Case 3 Not Defined Not Defined (Apply modular ratio of 3n)

1.5.1 Member forces and stresses used in steel composite section design
(1) Member forces
For design of steel composite section, member forces per construction stage of steel composite section must be
calculated. The program considers two main factors for design and review of construction stage of steel
composite section.
▪Construction stages of steel composite section
▪Time dependent material properties of Concrete (Creep, Shrinkage and Compression Strength)

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 81


Design member forces used for design of steel composite section are divided into three main categories.

[Table 2.14]Design Force and Moment for Steel Composite Design

Design Force/Moment Description

Member forces before the concrete deck is activated. Only steel section properties
Dead (Before)
are used.
Member forces occurring due to erection load cases defined by user with the time
Dead (After) dependent material properties (Creep & Shrinkage) of concrete Long term section
properties are used.
Member forces from the post-construction state and load cases not included in
Short Term
the above categories. Short term section properties are used.

(2) Stress
Bending stress (fbu) used for design of steel composite section is calculated as in equation 2.12.
M D1 M D 2 M AD
f bu    (2.12)
S NC S LT S ST
Where,
Md1 : moment of non-composite section
Md2 : moment of long-term composite section
MAD : additional yield moment of short-term composite section
SNC : non-composite section modulus
SLT : long-term section modulus
SST : short-term section modulus
fbu : largest value of the flexural stress in the flanges at the section under consideration

On the other hand, lateral bending stress (fl) is calculated as in equation 2.13.
M uz  M lat
fl   0.6 Fyf (2.13)
Sl
Where,
fl : flange lateral bending stress
Sl: lateral section modulus of the flanges about z-axis
Muz : flexural moment about z-axis
Mlat : lateral bending moment in the flange calculated from the overhang loads
Fyf : specified minimum yield strength of a flange

1.5.2 Case 1
In Case 1, construction stages and time dependent material properties of concrete (Creep/Shrinkage) are defined.
Composite sections for Construction Stages function must be defined as well; otherwise, the sections shall be
excluded from design. If time dependent material property information is inputted as well as long-term modulus of
elasticity, long-term modulus of elasticity has higher priority in consideration of calculation.

82 Design Guide for midas Civil


▣ Define Composite Section for Construction Stage

Contents Explanation

Composite Section for Construction Stage Composite Section for Construction Stage
▶ Load >Load Type> Construction Stage > Composite For definition of construction stage, information
in this window must be defined.
Section for C.S...
(1) Active Stage
Construction stage where steel composite
section should be activated is inserted.

(2) Construction sequence


1) "Material Type" column
□ By choosing Element, material property of
the element is used.

□ By selecting Material, material information


chosen under "Material" Column is applied
with higher priority.

2) Composite Stage column


[Fig.2.32] Add/Modify Composite Section for Construction stages where steel girder and
concrete slab should be activated are chosen.
Construction Stage Dialog

3) Age column
Age information when each part is activated is
input. Information in this column has higher
priority over the age input during definition of
construction stage.

(1) Member forces under Dead (Before composite)


Member forces before activation of Concrete Deck are applied. (Refer to Table 2.4 in "Introduction") For design
purposes, Dead (Before) member forces are applied after multiplying the load factors applied in Dead Load (CS) in
Load Combination dialog box.

(2) Member forces under Dead (After composite)


For the member forces under Dead (After), in post-composite stages, the long-term modulus of elasticity is
determined by the time dependent material properties defined by users. Member forces under Dead (After)
consist of static load cases and construction stage load cases. If Dead Load of Component and Attachments (DC2),
Dead Load of Wearing Surfaces and Utilities (DW), Creep (CH), and Shrinkage (SH) are defined as erection loads,
they are accounted for the Dead (After).

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 83


▣Define Erection Load

Contents Explanation

(1) Define Erection Load (1) Define Erection Load


▶Analysis > Analysis Control > Construction Stage > Load Cases Erection Load is defined.
to be Distinguished from Dead Load for C.S Output >Add
(Modify/delete)... 1) Load Type for C.S
Determine the Load Type for the
construction stages of the composite
section. Load types are considered by
the software for auto generation of load
combinations.

2) Assignment Load Cases


Define Erection Load by selecting and
moving the Load Cases desired from the
List of Load Case panel to the Selected
Load Case panel.

[Fig.2.33] Define Erection Load Dialog

(3) Calculation of the short-term member forces


Short-term modulus of elasticity of the composite section is calculated based on the DB value inputted. All load
cases are considered as the short-term loads except the ones defined as Dead (Before) and Dead (After).

1.5.3 Case 2
In Case 2, construction stages are defined without the time dependent material property (Creep/Shrinkage)
information. Long term effects are considered using the long term modular ratio entered in the Section Data dialog
box. Sections for different construction stages must be defined and differentiated using the Composite Section for
Construction Stage definition. Otherwise, they will not be considered for the design check.

(1) Member forces under Dead (Before)


Dead (Before) is applied before the concrete deck is activated. (Refer to Table 2.4 in the "Introduction") For the
design, the Dead (CS) multiplied by the load factor is applied as the member force under Dead (Before).

(2) Member forces under Dead (After)


The effects of Creep/Shrinkage are reflected by applying the ratio of elastic modulus that is inputted in the
Section Data (Refer to Section 1.1.1 (1)) for the long-term stage. In other words, the Creep/Shrinkage effects are
reflected by using the section information with the ratio of elastic modulus that considers the time dependent
material property for the analysis and design. These long term modular ratios defined for considering creep and
shrinkage, auto generate Section Stiffness Scale Factors for the sections in which these are inputted. Section
Stiffness Scale Factors need to be activated in the construction stages in accordance with the Composite Section
for Construction Stage definition, i.e. the section stiffness scale factors are activated when the corresponding
section becomes composite as per the definition of composite section for CS. If users compose construction
stages and define Dead Load of Component and Attachments (DC2), Dead Load of Wearing Surfaces and Utilities
(DW), Creep (CH), and Shrinkage (SH) as Erection Load, the load cases will be included in the Dead (After).

(3) Short term member forces


The ratio of elastic modulus of the composite section is calculated using the DB value inputted. All the load cases
which are not activated in the Construction Stage are considered as the short-term loads.

84 Design Guide for midas Civil


1.5.4 Case 3
In case the construction stages are not defined, users can model and define steel composite sections by using the
Load Case for Pre-Composite Section function at
▶ Load > Load Type > Settlement/Misc. > Misc. > Pre-composite Section.
For this case, short- and long-term ratios of elastic modulus defined in the section data (Refer to Section 1.1.1 (1))
are used. In this case, instead of member forces per construction stages, member forces under Dead (Before) is used
to check the constructibility of the model.

(1) Member force under Dead (Before)


In the Load Cases for Pre-Composite Section dialog box, users can define which load cases to account for the
member forces and apply as Dead (Before) in design. Since this is for pre-composite state, the steel only section
properties are used (Refer to Section 1.1.1 (1)).

Dead Load (Before)

[Fig.2.34] Load Cases for Pre-Composite Section

(2) Member forces under Dead (After)


Member forces under Dead (After) use the long term section properties. These loads should be separated from
the short term member forces by the use of Analysis > Analysis Control > Boundary Change Assignment.

1) Data Selection
Check the box corresponding to Section Stiffness Scale Factor. As explained earlier, Section Stiffness Scale
Factors are used for considering the long term section properties.

2) Boundary Group Combination


Create a boundary group combination considering the appropriate boundary groups from the boundary
group list. The created boundary group combinations need to be selected for the post composite long term
load cases. For the static load cases assigned with the section stiffness scale factor boundary groups, long
term section property will be used.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 85


Dead Load (After)

[Fig.2.35] Load Cases for Post-Composite Section

(3) Short-term member forces


The ratio of elastic modulus from the database is used for the short-term loads of the composite section. All load
cases are considered for the short-term loads except the ones considered for the Dead (Before) and Dead (After).

86 Design Guide for midas Civil


Chapter 2. Steel Composite Girder Design : AASHTO-LRFD 4thand6th (2007/2012)

Application of AASHTO
LRFD 12
1. I Girder Section
1.1. Introduction
The program designs I-girder sections according to the orders in the flow chart below. This
chapter demonstrates how the AASHTO LRFD 12 is applied in the program.

[Fig.2.36] Flow chart of Composite I-girder bridge

Typical I-Sections have a cross section as shown below:

[Fig.2.37] I-Section in positive flexure

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 87


1.2 Strength Limit State
The program checks the strength limit states for the flexure, shear, and ductility of the composite
sections.
Strength Limit States
6.10.6

Check Ductility
6.10.7.3

Check flexural resistance


6.10.7 & 6.10.8

Check shear resistance


6.10.9

[Fig.2.38] Flow chart of Strength Limit States

1.2.1 Ductility
Ductility shall be checked to prevent premature crushing of concrete. For the verification of a
web section that is under positive flexure, the ductility shall be verified as:

D p  0.42 Dt (2.14)
Ductility
Where, AASHTO LRFD 12
Dp :distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite section at the plastic (Eq.6.10.7.3-1)
moment
Dt : total depth of the composite section

1.2.2 Flexural Resistance


There are four cases for checking flexural resistance of I Sections as shown below.
Check flexural resistance
6.10.7 & 6.10.8

Yes Positive Moment? No

Check Ductility f sd Straight


ks  Bridge?
D p M0c,.Ed42( zcd,bart / I y ,c,bar ) No
6.10.7.3 :Curved Yes
Bridge

Yes Slender Section?


Straight
Bridge?
Yes No No
:Curved :Compact or
Bridge Noncompact

Compact
No Use Optional
Section? No
APPENDIX A6?

Yes Yes

Case 1 : Case 2 : Case 3 : Case 4 :


Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of
Positive Flexure Moment in Positive Flexure Moment in Negative Flexure Moment Negative Flexure Moment by
Compact Section Noncompact Section using APPENDIX A6
6.10.7.1 6.10.7.2 6.10.8 APPENDIX A6

Positive Flexure Moment Negative Flexure Moment

End

[Fig.2.39] Flow chart of flexural resistance

(1) Case 1: Compact Section in Positive flexural moment

88 Design Guide for midas Civil


The flexural resistance shall be checked according to the flow chart below if the section is Case 1
under positive flexural moment, satisfies the ductility requirement and is a compact web. If AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.7.1)
the ductility requirement is not satisfied, the program will display NG in the design result
page.

Flow chart of Case 1


[Fig.2.40] Case 1 : Flow chart of flexural resistance of Positive Flexure Moment in Compact Section AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.7.1)
If a section is compact and under positive flexural moment, flexural resistance shall be
checked according to the following equation:

1
Mu  f l S xt   f M n (2.15) Flexural Resistance
3 AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq. 6.10.7.1.1-1)
Where,
fl : Flange lateral bending stress
Mn : Nominal flexural resistance of the section.
Mu : Bending moment about the major-axis of the cross-section.
ϕf : Resistance factor for flexure.

1) Nominal Flexural Resistance(Mn)


[Table 2.15]Calculation of Nominal Flexural Resistance(Mn)

Case Mn
Mn
Dp  0.1Dt Mn  M p AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq. 6.10.7.1.2-1)
 D 
Otherwise M n  M p 1.07  0.7 p  AASHTO LRFD 12
 Dt  (Eq. 6.10.7.1.2-2)

Where,

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 89


Mp : Plastic moment of the composite section determined as per Article D6.1.
Dp : distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite section at the
plastic moment
Dt : total depth of the composite section
2) Strength Resistance Factor for flexure (ϕf )
The design code defines the flexural reduction factor as 1.00. However, the program
primarily considers the factor that is inputted by users in the design parameters.

[Fig.2.41] Composite Steel Girder Design Parameter

3) Especially, the following requirement regarding the nominal flexural resistance must be
satisfied when " M n  1.3Rh M y in Positive Flexure and Compact Sections" is checked at
▶ Composite Steel Girder Design Parameters>Options for Strength Limit State. (Fig.2.41)
Nominal flexural
resistance
M n  1.3Rh M y (2.16) AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3)

(2) Case 2 : Positive flexural moment in noncompact section

90 Design Guide for midas Civil


The flexural resistance shall be checked according to the below flow chart if a section is Case 2
under positive flexural moment, satisfies the ductility requirement and is noncompact. AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.7.2)
Curved bridges are considered as noncompact sections.

Case 2 : Check flexural resistance of


Positive Flexure Moment in Noncompact Section
6.10.7.2

Check Compression flange


f bu   f F nc
F nc  R b R h F yc

6.10.7.2.1-1, 6.10.7.2.2-1

Check Tension flange


1
f bu  f l   f F nt
3
F nt  R h F yt
6.10.7.2.1-2, 6.10.7.2.2-2

End

[Fig.2.42] Case 2 : Flow chart of flexural resistance of Positive Flexure Moment in Noncompact Section

1) Compression flange
At the strength limit state, the compression flange shall satisfy the below criteria
regarding the flexure:
f bu   f Fnc (2.17) Compression flange
AASHTO LRFD 12
Fnc  Rb Rh Fyc (2.18) (Eq.6.10.7.2.1-1)
(Eq.6.10.7.2.2-1)
Where,
fbu : Flange stress calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending.
Fnc : Nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange.

2) Tension flange
The tension flange shall satisfy the below criteria regarding the flexure:
1
f bu  f l   f Fnt (2.19) Tension flange
3 AASHTO LRFD 12
Fnt  Rh Fyt (2.20)
(Eq.6.10.7.2.1-2)
(Eq.6.10.7.2.2-2)
Where,
fl: Flange lateral bending stress, 𝑓𝑙 ≤ 0.6 𝐹𝑤
Fnt : Nominal flexural resistance of the tension flange.
Rb : Web load-shedding factor.

(3) Case 3: Negative flexural moment in composite section and noncomposite section

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 91


The flexural resistance shall be checked according to the below flow chart if a section is
under negative flexural moment and is one of the following cases:
▪ Curved bridge
▪ Straight Bridge but slender section
▪ Straight Bridge and compact or noncompact, but Appendix A6 is not applied

[Fig.2.43] Case 3 : Flow chart of flexural resistance of Negative Flexure Moment

1) Discretely Braced Compression Flange


Compression Flange
For a compression flange, the following requirement shall be satisfied at the strength AASHTO LRFD 12
limit state: (6.10.8)
1
f bu  f l   f Fnc (2.21) (Eq.6.10.8.1.1-1)
3

Where,
Fnc  Min( Fnc( FLB ) , Fnc( LTB) ) (2.22)
Where,
Fnc(FLB) : Local Buckling Resistance based on Discretely Braced Compression Flange
Fnc(LTB) : Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance based on Discretely Braced Compression Flange

92 Design Guide for midas Civil


[Table 2.16] Calculation of Fnc(FLB)

Case Fnc( FLB )

 f   pf Fnc( FLB )  Rb Rh Fyc Fnc(FLB)


AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.8.2.2-1)
  F     pf 
 f   pf Fnc( FLB )  1  1  yr  f  RRF
 R F      b h yc
  h yc  rf 
pf  AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.8.2.2-2)

in which:
𝜆𝑓 : Slenderness ratio for the compression flange
𝜆𝑟𝑓 : Limiting slenderness ratio for a noncompact flange
Rb : web load-shedding factor determined as specified in Article 6.10.1.10.2
Rh : hybrid factor determined as specified in Article 6.10.1.10.1

b fc
f  (2.23)
2t fc
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.8.2.2-3)
E
 pf  0.38 (2.24)
Fyc
AASHTO LRFD 12
E (Eq.6.10.8.2.2-4)
rf  0.56 (2.25)
Fyr
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.8.2.2-5)
Fyr : compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding within the cross-section, including
residual stress effects, but not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the
smaller of 0.7Fyc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5Fyc .

[Table 2.17] Calculation of Fnc(LTB)


Fnc(FLB)
Case Fnc( LTB )
AASHTO LRFD 12

Fnc( LTB)  Rb Rh Fyc


(6.10.8.2.2)
Lb  Lp
AASHTO LRFD 12
  Fyr  Lb  L p 
Lp  Lb  Lr Fnc( LTB )  Cb 1  1    R R F  Rb Rh Fyc (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-1)
  L  L  b h yc
  Rh Fyc  r p 

AASHTO LRFD 12

Lb  Lr Fnc( LTB)  Fcr  Rb Rh Fyc (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-2)

AASHTO LRFD 12
Where, (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-3)
Cb: Moment gradient modified

[Table 2.18] Calculation of Cb


Case Cb

Unbraced cantilevers and for members


1.0 Calculation of Cb
where fmid/f2 >1 or f2=0
2 AASHTO LRFD 12
 f   f  (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-6)
For all other cases 1.75  1.05 1   0.3 1   2.3
 f2   f2 
AASHTO LRFD 12
Where, (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-7)

Lb : Unbraced length.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 93


Lp : Limiting unbraced length to achieve the nominal flexural resistance of R bRhFyc under uniform
bending.

E
L p  1.0rt (2.26)
Fyc AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.8.2.3-4)
E
Lr  rt (2.27)
Fyr AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.8.2.3-5)
Cb Rb E 2
(2.28)
Fcr 
( Lb / rt ) 2
AASHTO LRFD 12
1 Dc t w (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-8)
rt  b fc / 12(1  ) (2.29)
3 b fc t fc AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.8.2.3-9)

Lr : Limiting unbraced length to achieve the onset of nominal yielding in either flange under uniform
bending with consideration of compression flange residual stress effect (in).
Fcr : Elastic lateral torsional buckling stress.
rt : effective radius of gyration for lateral torsional buckling
Fyr : compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding within the cross-section, including
Dc : depth of the web in compression in the elastic range determined as per D6.3.1
fmid : Stress without consideration of lateral bending at the middle of the unbraced length of the
flange under consideration, calculated from the moment envelope value that produces the largest
compression at this point, or the smallest tension if this point is never in compression

2) Continuously braced Tension Flange


At the strength limit state, the following requirement shall be satisfied for the
continuously braced tension flange:
fbu   f Rh Fyt (2.30)
Tension Flange
AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.8.1.3)
(Eq.6.10.8.1.3-1)

(4) Case 4 : Flexural resistance of Negative Flexure Moment by using Appendix A6


The optional provisions of Appendix A6 shall apply to the sections in negative flexural and
straight bridges and compact and noncompact web I-sections according to the flow chart
below.

94 Design Guide for midas Civil


Check flexure resistance of
Negative Flexure Moment by using Appendix A6
APPENDIX A6

Calculate
Yes 2 D cp No
  pw ( D cp ) Web plastification Factor
: Compact web tw : Noncompact web

Mp   R h M yc   w   pw ( Dc )   M p Mp
R pc  R pc  1  1    
M yc   M p   rw   pw ( Dc )   M yc M yc
Mp   R h M yt   w   pw ( Dc )   M p Mp
R pt  R pt  1  1    
M yt
     
M p   rw   pw ( Dc )   M yt M yc

Discretely Braced
Compression Flange?
No
Yes :continuously
braced
Local Buckling Resistance
 f  Rf No
: Noncompact flange
Mu   f RpcM yc
No Built-up
:Rolled section Section?
Yes Mu   f RptM yt

Yes kc  4 / D / tw
: Compact flange kc  0.76
0.35 kc  0.76

  Fyr S xc   f  pf 
M nc( FLB)  Rpc M yc M nc( FLB)  1  1    RpcM yc
  RpcM yc  rf   pf 

Yes Lb  L p No L p  Lb  L r No

Yes

M nc( LTB)  Rpc M yc   F S  L  L  Mnc( LTB)  Fcr Sxc  RpcM yc


Mnc( FLB)  Cb 1 1 yr xc  b p  RpcM yc  RpcM yc
  
Lateral Torsional
  RpcM yc  Lr  Lp 
Buckling Resistance

M nc  minM nc FLB  , M nc LTB  

Check Flexural Resistance


1
Mu  fl Sxc   f M nc
3
f l  0 . 6 F yc

End

[Fig.2.44] Case 4: Flow chart of flexural resistance of Negative Flexure Moment


by using Appendix A6.

If Appendix A6 is applied at the strength limit state, the following four requirements
regarding flexure shall be satisfied. The design verification is done for the compression
and tension flanges.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 95


[Table 2.19] Limit State defined by Appendix A6

Case Limit State


1 Limit State by A6
Compression Mu  f l S xc   f M nc AASHTO LRFD 12
Discretely-Braced 3 (A6.1.1-1)
Flange Section 1
Tension M u  f l S xt   f M nt AASHTO LRFD 12
3 (A6.1.2-1)

Compression M u   f R pc M yc AASHTO LRFD 12


Continuously-Braced (A6.1.3-1)
Flange Section
Tension M u   f R pt M yt AASHTO LRFD 12
(A6.1.4-1)

Where,
ϕf : Resistance factor for flexure.
fl : Flange lateral bending stress, 𝑓𝑙 ≤ 0.6 𝐹𝑦𝑐
Mnc : Nominal flexural resistance based on the compression flange.
Mu : Bending moment about the major-axis of the cross-section.
Myc : Yield moment with respect to the compression flange.
Mnt : Nominal flexural resistance based on the tension flange.
Myt : Yield moment with respect to the tension flange.
Sxc : Elastic section modulus about the major axis of the section to the compression flange taken as
Myc/Fyc
Rpc : Web plastification factor for the compression flange.
Rpt : Web plastification factor for the tension flange.

[Table 2.20] Calculation of Rpc and Rpt

Case Web Plastification Factor


Mp Rpc and Rpt
2 Dcp R pc 
  pw ( Dcp ) Compact M yc AASHTO LRFD 12
tw (A6.2.1-4)
web Mp
R pt 
M yt AASHTO LRFD 12
(A6.2.1-5)
2 Dcp   R M     pw( Dc )  M p M
  pw ( Dcp ) R pc  1  1  h yc  w   p
   
M p  rw   pw( Dc )  M yc M yc
AASHTO LRFD 12
tw Noncompact   (A6.2.2-4)
web   Rh M yt  w   pw( Dc )  M p M p
& R pt  1  1    
  M p  rw   pw( Dc )  M yt M yt AASHTO LRFD 12
w < rw
(A6.2.2-5)

in which:
Mp: Plastic moment
Dc : Depth of the web in compression in the elastic range determined as per D6.3.1.
Dcp : Depth of the web in compression in the plastic moment.
My : Yield moment taken as the smaller of Myc and Myt.

𝜆𝑟𝑤 : Limiting slenderness ratio for a noncompact web


𝛌𝐫𝐰
E AASHTO LRFD 12
rw  5.7 (2.31) (A6.2.2-3)
Fyc
λw : Slenderness ratio for the web based on the elastic moment.
2 Dc
w  (2.32)
tw AASHTO LRFD 12
(A6.2.2-2)
𝜆𝑝𝑤(𝐷𝑐 ) : Limiting slenderness ratio for a compact web corresponding to 2D cp/tw

96 Design Guide for midas Civil


E 𝛌𝐩𝐰 (𝐃𝐜𝐩 )
Fyc  Dcp  (2.33) AASHTO LRFD 12
 pw( D )  2
 rw   (A6.2.1-2)
   Dc 
cp
Mp
 0.54  0.09 
 Rh M y 
 

1) Discretely braced Compression Flange


For the discretely braced compression flanges, the minimum of the local buckling
resistance and lateral torsional buckling resistance is used to perform the design check
as:
M nc  Min[ M nc( FLB ) , M nc( LTB) ]
(2.34)

Compression Flange
① Local buckling Resistance (Mnc(FLB)) AASHTO LRFD 12
(A6.3.2)
The local buckling resistance shall be calculated as shown in the following table:

[Table 2.21] Calculate Mnc(FLB)

Case kc M nc( FLB ) 𝑴𝒏𝒄


AASHTO LRFD 12
 f   pf (A6.3.2-1)
- M nc( FLB )  R pc M yc
(Compact flange)

Rolled k c  0.76 M nc( FLB )


 f   pf AASHTO LRFD 12
D   Fyr S xc   f   pf 
(Noncompact kc  4 /  1  1    R M (A6.3.2-2)
flange) Built-up tw 
  R pc M yc      pc yc
 rf pf 
0.35  k c  0.76
Where,
𝜆𝑓 : Slenderness ratio for the compression flange. 𝝀𝒇
AASHTO LRFD 12
b fc
f  (2.35)
(A6.3.2-3)
2t fc
𝜆𝑝𝑓 : Limiting slenderness ratio for a compact flange. 𝝀𝒑𝒇
AASHTO LRFD 12
E (A6.3.2-4)
 pf  0.38 (2.36)
Fyc
𝛌𝐫𝐟
𝜆𝑟𝑓 : Limiting slenderness ratio for a noncompact flange.
AASHTO LRFD 12
Ek c (A6.3.2-5)
rf  0.95 (2.37)
Fyr
𝑘𝑐 : Flange local buckling coefficient determined as per A6.3.2-6 for built-up sections and
0.76 for rolled shapes.
Fyr : compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding within the cross-section,
including residual stress effects, but not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as
the smaller of 0.7Fyc, RhFyt Sxt/Sxc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5Fyc
Sxc : Elastic section modulus about the major axis of the section to the compression flange
taken as Myc/Fyc
Sxt : Elastic section modulus about the major axis of the section to the tension flange taken as
Myt/Fyt

Mnc(LTB)
② Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance (Mnc(LTB)) AASHTO LRFD 12
(A6.3.3)
The lateral torsional buckling resistance is calculated as shown in the following table:

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 97


[Table 2.22] Calculation of Mnc(LTB)

Case M nc( LTB ) 𝐌𝐧𝐜(𝐋𝐓𝐁)


AASHTO LRFD 12
Lb  L p M nc( LTB)  R pc M yc (A6.3.3-1)

AASHTO LRFD 12
  Fyr S xc  Lb  L p  (A6.3.3-2)
L p  Lb  Lr M nc( LTB)  C b 1  1    R pc M yc  R pc M yc
  R pc M yc  Lr  L p  AASHTO LRFD 12
(A6.3.3-3)
Lb  Lr M nc( LTB)  Fcr S sc  R pc M yc

Where,
Lp : Limiting unbraced length to achieve the nominal flexure resistance R pcMyc under uniform
bending
Lp
L p  1.0rt
E (2.38) AASHTO LRFD 12
Fyc (A6.3.3-4)

Lr : Limiting unbraced length to achieve the nominal onset of yielding in either flange under
uniform bending with consideration of compression flange residual stress effects

E J  Fyr S xc h 
2 Lr
Lr  1.95rt 1  1  6.76  (2.39) AASHTO LRFD 12
Fyr S xc h  E J  (A6.3.3-5)

▪ Cb: moment gradient modifier, is divided into two cases and calculated according to
either A6.3.3-6 or A6.3.3.3-7 of AASHTO LRFD 12. For the detailed calculations, please
refer to the section "3.2 Strength Limit State > (1) Flexural Resistance > Case 3".

▪ Fcr : Elastic lateral torsional buckling stress


2
Cb 2 E J  Lb  (2.40) Fcr
Fcr  1  0.078  
 Lb 
2
S xc h  rt 
AASHTO LRFD 12
  (A6.3.3-8)
 rt 

▪J: St. Venant torsional constant


3 3 3
Dtw b fc t fc t fc b ft t ft t ft (2.41)
J  (1  0.63 ) (1  0.63 ) J
3 3 b fc 3 b ft AASHTO LRFD 12
(A6.3.3-9)

▪ rt : Effective radius of gyration for lateral torsional buckling


 1 Dctw  (2.42) rt
rt  b fc / 121   AASHTO LRFD 12
 3b t 
 fc fc 
(A6.3.3-10)

Where,
𝐹𝑦𝑟 : compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding within the cross-section, including
residual stress effects, but not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the smaller
of 0.7𝐹𝑦𝑐 , 𝑅ℎ 𝐹 𝑦𝑡 , 𝑆𝑥𝑡 /𝑆𝑥𝑐 and 𝐹𝑦𝑤 , but not less than 0.5 𝐹𝑦𝑐 .
h : Depth between the centerline of the flanges.
𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑑 : Major-axis bending moment at the middle of the unbraced length, calculated from the
moment envelop value that produces the largest compression at this point in the flange under
consideration, or the smallest tension if this point is never in compression. 𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑑 shall be due to
the factored loads and shall be taken as positive when it causes compression and negative when it
causes tension in the flange under consideration.
𝑀0 : moment at the brace point opposite to the one corresponding to 𝑀2 , calculated from the
moment envelope value that produces the largest compression at this point in the flange under
consideration, or the smallest tension if this point is never in compression(kip-in). M0 shall be
due to the factored loads and shall be taken as positive when it causes compression and negative
when it cause tension in the flange under consideration.

98 Design Guide for midas Civil


𝑀1 : moment at the brace point opposite to the one corresponding to 𝑀2 , calculated as the
intercept of the most critical assumed linear moment variation passing through 𝑀2 and either
𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑑 or 𝑀0 , whichever produces the smaller value of 𝐶𝑏 . 𝑀1 may be calculated as follows
- When the variation in the moment along the entire length between the brace points is
concave in shape
AASHTO LRFD 12
M1  M 0 (2.43) (A6.3.3-11)
- Otherwise
AASHTO LRFD 12
M 1  2M mid  M 2  M 0 (2.44) (A6.3.3-12)

𝑀2 : Except as noted below, largest major-axis bending moment st either end of the unbraced
length causing comrpession int the flange under consideration, calculated from the ciritical
moment envelop value. 𝑀2 shall be taken as positive. If the moment is zero or cause tension in
the flange under consideration at both ends if the unbraced length, 𝑀2 shall be taken as zero.
𝑀𝑦𝑐 : Yield moment with respect to the compression flange.
𝑀𝑦𝑡 : Yield moment with respect to the tension flange.

1.2.3 Shear resistance


Shear resistance of an I-web Steel Composite Section is checked as shown in the flow chart
below.
Shear resistance
Check shear resistance
6.10.9
AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.9)

Stiffened
No Yes
web?

Unstiffened webs Stiffened Web Panels


6.10.9.2 6.10.9.3
Interior
Web Panel? Yes
No :Stiffened
:Stiffened Interior
End panel
Web Panels

Calculate V n Calculate V n
2Dtw
V n  V cr  CV p V n  V cr  CV p b t  bfttft
fc fc 
 2.5

V p  0 . 58 F yw Dt w V p  0 . 58 F yw Dt w No Yes

6.10.9.2-1 6.10.9.3.3-1
6.10.9.2-2 6.10.9.3.3-2

Calculate V n Calculate V n

   
   
 0 . 87 (1  C )   0 . 87 (1  C ) 
Vn  V p C   V n  V p C 
2 
2
  d0  d0   d 

1   
D   1   0  
 D   D  

6.10.9.3.2-8 6.10.9.3.2-2

Check V n
Vu  V V n
6.10.9.1-1

End

[Fig.2.45] Flow chart of shear resistance

The program distinguishes Unstiffened and Stiffened webs according to the following
criteria:

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 99


[Table 2.23] Classification of Unstiffened web and Stiffened Web
Case Classification

Without a longitudinal stiffener and with transverse stiffener


spacing not exceeding 3D
Stiffened web
With one or more longitudinal stiffeners and with a transverse
stiffener spacing not exceeding 1.5D

Otherwise Unstiffened web


However, even stiffened webs are classified as unstiffened web if the check box is not
checked at ▶Composite Steel Girder Design Parameters >Options for Strength Limit
State>Post-buckling Tension-field Action for Shear Resistance. (Fig.2.41)

(1) Shear Resistance Check


Shear resistance shall be checked as:
Vu  vVn
(2.45) Shear resistance
Where, AASHTO LRFD 12
𝜙𝑣 : Resistance factor for shear. (Eq. 6.10.9.1-1)

Vn : Nominal shear resistance.


Vu : Shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the factored loads

1) Unstiffened Webs
The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs shall be taken as:
Unstiffened Webs
(2.46) AASHTO LRFD 12
Vn  Vcr  CV p
(6.10.9.2)
V p  0.58Fyw Dtw (2.47)
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq. 6.10.9.2-1)
Where, (Eq. 6.10.9.2-2)
Vcr : Shear -buckling resistance
Vp : plastic shear force
C : Ratio of shear-buckling resistance to shear yield strength

[Table2.24] Calculation of Ratio of shear-buckling resistance to shear yield strength, C


Case C
D Ek
 1.12 C  1.0
tw Fyw C
AASHTO LRFD 12
1.12 Ek
Ek D Ek C (Eq. 6.10.9.3.2-4)
1.12   1.40 D Fyw
Fyw t w Fyw
tw
1.57  Ek  AASHTO LRFD 12
Ek D C 2 
  (Eq. 6.10.9.3.2-5)
1.40  D   Fyw 
Fyw t w  
 tw  AASHTO LRFD 12
Where, (Eq. 6.10.9.3.2-6)
k : Shear-buckling coefficient
5 (2.48)
k 5 2
 do 
  AASHTO LRFD 12
D (Eq. 6.10.9.3.2-7)
2) Stiffened Webs
The nominal shear resistance is calculated differently for the two types of stiffened webs:

100 Design Guide for midas Civil


interior web panels and end web panels. All webs with a support assigned on its i or j
node in the Span Information (Fig.2.22) are considered as end panels and the others are Stiffened Webs
AASHTO LRFD 12
considered as interior web panels. (6.10.9.3)

[Fig.2.46] Classification of End Panel and Interior Panel

① End panels
The nominal shear resistance, Vn, of a web end panel shall be taken as:
Vn  Vcr  CV p (2.49)
End panels
V p  0.58Fyw Dtw AASHTO LRFD 12
(2.50) (6.10.9.3.3)
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1)
(Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-2)

② Interior web panels


There are two cases of an interior web panel as shown in the following table:
Interior web panel
AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.9.3.2)
[Table 2.25] Calculation of Vn and Vp of Interior web panel
Case Vn , V p

 
 
 0.87(1  C ) 
Vn  V p C 
2 Dtw 2 
 2.5   do  
1  
(b fct fc  b ft t ft )   D   AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-2)
V p  0.58Fyw Dtw

 
 
 0.87(1  C ) 
Vn  V p C  
2
 d  d 
Otherwise 1  o   o
 D 
 D  AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-8)
V p  0.58Fyw Dtw

Where,
𝑑0 : Transverse stiffener spacing
𝑉𝑛 : Nominal shear resistance of the panel

③ User's option

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 101
Users need to specify that the web is stiffened by checking the check box at:
User's option
▶Composite Steel Girder Design Parameters >Options for Strength Limit State AASHTO LRFD 12
>'Post-buckling Tension - Field Action for Shear Resistance (6.10.9.3.2)'. Depending (Eq.6.10.9.3.2-2)
on the user's verification, the calculation will differ as shown in the following table:

[Table 2.26] User's option: Post-buckling Tension-field Action for Shear Resistance
Check Vn , V p
  AASHTO LRFD 12
 
 0.87(1  C )  (Eq.6.10.9.3.2-8)
Vn  V p C  6.10.9.3.2-2
2 Dtw 2 
 2.5  d 
1  o  
(b fct fc  b ft t ft )   D  

V p  0.58Fyw Dtw 6.10.9.3.2-3


On
 
 
 0.87(1  C ) 
Vn  V p C  6.10.9.3.2-8
2 
Otherwise   do  
1  
  D  

V p  0.58Fyw Dtw 6.10.9.3.2-3

Vn  Vcr  CV p
Off V p  0.58Fyw Dtw

1.3 Service Limit State


Flange stress for permanent deformation and web bend-buckling are verified at the service limit
state. Service Limit State
AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.4.2)
The program does not check elastic deformation. Elastic deformation can be reviewed manually
after moving load analysis at: ▶ Results > Deformation

At the completion stage of the construction, the program applies Service II load combination,
specified in AASHTO LRFD 12 Article 6.10.4.2, and reviews the permanent deformation.
Therefore, the permanent deformation is reviewed only for the composite section since the
section cannot be non-composite in the completed state. But, the software can assume the
concrete deck in the composite section to be ineffective as per 6.10.4.2.1, which states that the
concrete deck may be assumed to be ineffective for both positive and negative flexure, provided
that the maximum tensile stresses in concrete deck at the section under consideration caused by
Service II loads are greater than 2fr. Software performs this check and determines whether to
consider the concrete deck to be effective or not.

The service limit state is reviewed as shown in the flow chart follows:

102 Design Guide for midas Civil


Service Limit State
6.10.4

Check Flexure Yield in flange


6.10.4.2

Check Top flange of Composite Section

f f  0 .95 R h F yf
6.10.4.2.2-1

Check Bottom flange of Composite Section


fl
f f   0 . 95 R h F yf
2
6.10.4.2.2-2

Check Nominal Bend-buckling Resistance for web


6.10.4.2

D
Positive Flexure and  150 ?
tw

No

Check Web Bend-buckling resistance for webs


f c  Fcrw
Yes
6.10.4.2.2-4

End

[Fig.2.47] Flow chart of Service Limit State

1.3.1 Flexure
Flange shall satisfy the following requirements at the service limit state for the top and
bottom flanges of the composite sections:

(1) Top Flange


The top steel flange of composite section shall satisfy the following requirement.
f f  0.95Rh Fyf (2.51)
Top Flange
AASHTO LRFD 12
(2) Bottom Flange (Eq.6.10.4.2.2-1)

The bottom steel flange of composite section shall satisfy the following requirement.
fl
ff   0.95Rh Fyf (2.52)
2 Bottom Flange
Where, AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.4.2.2-2)
𝑓𝑓 : Flange stress at the section under consideration due to the Service II loads calculated without
consideration of flange lateral bending
𝑓𝑙 : Flange lateral bending stress at the section under consideration due to the Service II loads
determined, 𝑓𝑙 ≤ 0.6 𝐹𝑤
𝑓𝑦𝑓 :specified minimum yield strength of a flange

1.3.2 Nominal Bend-buckling Resistance for webs


If composite section is in positive flexure and the web section property satisfies D/tw≤ 150,

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 103
use the service limit state shall be verified according to:
f c  Fcrw (2.53)
Nominal Bend-
Where, buckling Resistance
𝑓𝑐 : Compression-flange stress at the section under consideration due to the Service II loads calculated AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.4.2.2-4)
without consideration of flange lateral bending
Fcrw : Nominal bending-buckling resistance for webs with or without longitudinal stiffeners

0.9 Ek (2.54)
Fcrw  2
 Min ( Rh Fyc , Fyw / 0.7)
D
 
 tw  Fcrw
Where, AASHTO LRFD 12
k : bend- buckling coefficient (Eq.6.10.1.9.1-1)
9
k (2.55)
( Dc / D) 2
k
AASHTO LRFD 12
1.3.3 Concrete Deck (Eq.6.10.1.9.1-2)
The program verifies the stress of the concrete deck for shored construction cases in positive
flexure as per Article 6.10.1.7.

f deck  f r (2.56)
Where,
fdeck : longitudinal flexure stresses in the concrete deck with short-term modular ratio,n
Φfr : Φ shall be taken as 0.9 and fr shall be taken as the modulus of rupture of the concrete, 0.24 √f’c as
per Article 6.10.1.7

1.4 Check Constructibility


Constructibility shall be verified for the three categories as shown in the following chart:

Check Contructibility
6.10.3

Check flexural resistance


6.10.3.2.1 , 6.10.3.2.2

Check longitudinal stresses In concrete deck


6.10.3.2.4

Check Shear requirement for webs


6.10.3.4

[Fig.2.48] Flow chart of Constructibility limit stage

The constructibility is checked based on the design member forces under Dead (Before).

1.4.1 Flexure
The program shall verify lateral bending stress in discretely braced compression and tension
flanges during the construction stages, for when slabs are not deflected yet. Therefore, the
program considers all flanges as discretely braced flanges for the design check. Constructibility
is verified in terms of flexural resistance according to the following flow chart:

104 Design Guide for midas Civil


[Fig.2.49] Flow chart of flexural resistance in Constructibility Limit State

(1) Section classification


[Table 2.27] Section classification

Case Section Section classification


AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.6.2.3-1)
2 Dc E
 5.7 Compact or non-compact Web
tw Fyc
2 Dc E
 5.7 Slender Web
tw Fyc

(2) Discretely braced flanges in Compression


in compression
Discretely braced flanges in compression are verified according to the following three AASHTO LRFD 12
equations. (6.10.3.2.1)

1) Check flange nominal flexure yielding


For the critical stages of construction, the following equation shall be satisfied. However,
the requirement does not need to be checked if a section has slender web and its f l is
equal to 0.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 105
nominal yielding
f f  f l   f Rh Fyc (2.57) AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.3.2.1-1)

2)Check local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as per Article 6.10.8.2.2 and Article
6.10.8.2.3 respectively
1 flexural resistance
f f  f l   f Fnc (2.58) AASHTO LRFD 12
3 (Eq.6.10.3.2.1-2)

3) Check web bend buckling as per Article 6.10.1.9


Only for the sections with slender webs, the following equation shall be checked.
web bend buckling
f bu   f Fcrw (2.59) AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.3.2.1-3)
Where,
ϕf: resistance factor for flexure specified in 6.5.4.2
fbu : flange stress calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending.
𝑓𝑙 : flange lateral bending stress, 𝑓𝑙 ≤ 0.6 𝐹𝑤
𝑓𝑐𝑟𝑤 : nominal bending-buckling resistance for webs.
𝐹𝑛𝑐 : nominal flexure resistance of the flange.

(3) Discretely braced flanges in Tension in Tension


The following equation shall be checked for discretely braced tension flanges. AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.3.2.2)
f f  f l   f Rh Fyt (2.60) AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.3.2.2-1)

1.4.2 Concrete Deck


Concrete Deck
If the longitudinal tensile stress in concrete deck determined as per Article 6.10.1.1.1d, AASHTO LRFD 12
exceeds Φffr then the minimum one percent longitudinal reinforcement determined as per (6.10.3.2.4)
Article 6.10.1.7 is required at the section. Code recommends that the minimum reinforcement
should be No. 6 bars or smaller spaced at not more than 12 inches.

The total tensile force in the concrete deck is transmitted from the deck through the shear
connectors to the top flange. Software assumes the shear connectors to be sufficiently
present at this location to resist the force and prevent potential crushing of concrete.
Software doesn’t calculate the length over which this force must be transmitted. Shear
connector pitch calculations are as per Fatigue and Strength Limit State only.

Fdeck  f r (2.61)

Where,
f r  0.24 f 'c modulus of rupture of the normal-weight concrete
ϕ : 0.9
Fdeck: Longitudinal tensile stress in the concrete deck

My
Fdeck  (2.62) AASHTO LRFD 12
In (Eq. 6.10.1.1.1d)

Where,
𝑛 = Es /Ec

106 Design Guide for midas Civil


1.4.3 Shear
The program shall use the load combinations defined in the Load Combination Type (Refer to
Section 1.4.2 in this chapter) for the verification of the shear strength. Webs shall satisfy the
following requirement during critical stages of construction.
Vu  vVcr (2.63) AASHTO LRFD 12
Where, (Eq. 6.10.3.3-1)
𝑉𝑢 : shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the factored loads
ϕv: resistance factor for shear, ∅𝒗 = 𝟏. 𝟎 (Fig.2.41)
𝑽𝒄𝒓 : shear buckling resistance determined from Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1

The program checks the nominal resistance for unstiffened webs and stiffened webs with the
same formula as the tension field action is not considered for Constructibility check.
(1) Unstiffened/Stiffened web
1) The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened/stiffened webs shall be taken as: Unstiffened/
Vn  Vcr  CV p (2.64) Stiffened web
AASHTO LRFD 12
Vp  0.58Fyw Dtw (2.65) (Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1)
(Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-2)

2) Calculation of Ratio of shear-buckling resistance to shear yield strength, C


Please refer to Section 1.2.2 in this chapter for the calculation of C.

1.5 Fatigue Limit State Fatigue Limit State


For horizontally curved I-girder bridges, the range of fatigue stress due to major-axis bending AASHTO LRFD 12
plus lateral bending shall be investigated. Article 6.10.5 also mentions the requirements for (6.10.5)
Fracture. But Fracture Limit State is not considered in midas Civil. Code specifies the fatigue live
load in Article 3.6.1.4 for the Fatigue check. But in the software, fatigue check is performed only
for the moving load defined for the analysis.

For considering the fatigue live load as specified in code, user will have to define a user defined
vehicle and then manually edit the auto generated load combinations, so that the fatigue moving
vehicle is the only vehicle considered for fatigue check and is only included in fatigue
combination.

For fatigue limit state, software assumes the shear connector to be provided along the entire
length of the girder, ensuring composite action. Therefore, the concrete deck is assumed to be
effective in computing all stresses and stress ranges applied to the composite section in the
subsequent fatigue calculations.

1.5.1 Load Combinations Used for Fatigue Limit State Check


For this part of design check, AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 are applied differently in the program.
Please refer to Section 5.1 in this chapter for more information. Fatigue limit shall be verified
according to the two paths. Fatigue limit shall be verified according to Section 1.5.3(1) for the
load combinations that are inputted as Fatigue 1 Limit State Load Combination Type (Section
1.4.2 in Chapter "Modeling and Design Variables"). For the load combinations that are
inputted as Fatigue 2 Limit State, Section 1.5.3(2) shall be followed.

The program verifies the load combinations defined in the Load Combination Type. If users
define '(ADTT)SL ≤ 75 year (ADDTT)SL' Equivalent to Infinite Life, the verification shall
consider the Fatigue II Load Combination. Otherwise, this combination of fatigue limit state
shall be skipped and Fatigue I Load Combination shall be considered for verification.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 107
[Fig.2.50] Flow chart of Fatigue Limit Stage

1.5.2 Fatigue Limit State


For the compression flange, compressive stress due to unfactored dead load is compared
with the tensile stress due to factored live load before performing the fatigue check. If two
times the tensile stress due to factored live load is greater than the compressive stress due
to unfactored dead load, then only the fatigue check is performed.

For the tension flange, fatigue check is always performed.

(1) The fatigue limit state shall be verified according to the following.
Fatigue Limit State
 (f )  (F )n (2.68) AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.6.1.2.2-1)

Where,
𝜸 : Load factor for the fatigue load combination.
(𝚫𝐟) : Force effect, live load stress range due to the passage of the fatigue load.
(𝚫𝐅)𝐧 : Nominal fatigue resistance.

(2) The load factor, 𝛄, specified in the table below, shall be applied for the fatigue load
combination. These factors are automatically considered by the software, while auto
generating the load combinations.

[Table 2.28] Load combination and Load Factor


Load Factor
Load Combination DC, DD, DW, EH, EV, LL, IM, CE, AASHTO LRFD 12
WA WS WL
Limit State ES, EL, PS, CR, SH BR,PL, LS (Table. 3.4.1-1)
Fatigue I -
- 1.50 - - -
LL, IM &CE only
Fatigue II -
- 0.75 - - -
LL, IM &CE only

1.5.3 Nominal Fatigue Resistance


The nominal fatigue resistance is calculated differently for the load combinations in the
Service 1 Limit State and the Service 2 Limit State.

108 Design Guide for midas Civil


(1) Nominal Fatigue Resistance Due to the Load Combinations for Fatigue I Limit State
The program shall calculate the nominal fatigue resistance according to the input categories
made in the fatigue dialog box (Fig.2.22).

Nominal fatigue
(F ) n  (F )TH (2.69)
resistance
AASHTO LRFD 12
The program shall apply the nominal fatigue resistance according to Categories A, B, B', C, (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-1)
C', D, E, and E', specified in the table below. For all other cases, the nominal fatigue
resistance shall be considered as 24.0 ksi (165.0 MPa).

[Table 2.29] Constant-Amplitude Fatigue Thresholds, (ΔF)TH


Detail Threshold
Fatigue Thresholds
Category US Unit(ksi) LL, IM, CE, SI Unit(MPa) For US Unit,
BR,PL, LS AASHTO LRFD 12
A 24.0 165.0 (Table. 6.6.1.2.5-3)
B 16.0 110.0
For SI Unit
B' 12.0 82.7 AASHTO LRFD 07
C 10.0 69.0 (Table. 6.6.1.2.5-3)

C' 12.0 82.7


D 7.0 48.3
E 4.5 31.0
E' 2.6 17.9

(2) Nominal Fatigue Resistance due to the Load Combinations for Fatigue II Limit State
If Fatigue Resistance is verified for Fatigue Load Combination 2, the below equation shall be
used. For the verification, the program uses the design parameter values inputted by users
in the Fatigue dialog box (Fig.2.22).

1
 A 3 Fatigue Ⅱ
(F )n    (2.70) AASHTO LRFD 12
N (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-2)
N  (365)(75)n( ADTT ) SL AASHTO LRFD 12
(2.71) (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-3)

Where,
A : Constant taken from Table 2.30
n : Number of stress range cycles per truck passage taken from Table 2.31

[Table 2.30] Detail Category Constant, A A


Constant, A For US Unit,
Detail AASHTO LRFD 12
Category 8
US Unit (x 10 (ksi ))
3 ! 11
SI Unit (x10 (MPa ))
3
(Table. 6.6.1.2.5-1)
LL, IM, CE,
A 250.0 82.0 For SI Unit
BR,PL, LS
B 120.0 39.3 AASHTO LRFD 07
(Table. 6.6.1.2.5-1)
B' 61.0 20.0
C 44.0 14.4
C' 44.0 14.4
D 22.0 7.21
E 11.0 3.61
E' 3.9 1.28

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 109
[Table 2.31] Cycles per Truck Passage, n Cycles per
Truck Passage
Span Length AASHTO LRFD 12
Longitudinal Members (Table. 6.6.1.2.5-2)
>40.0 ft ≤40.0 ft
Simple span Girders 1.0 2.0
Continuous Near interior support 1.5 2.0
Girders Elsewhere 1.0 2.0
Cantilever Girders 5.0
Orthotropic Deck plate Connections
5.0
Subjected to Wheel Load Cycling
Trusses 1.0
Spacing
Transverse Members > 20.0 ft ≤20.0 ft
1.0 2.0
The n value inputted in the Fatigue Parameter dialog box (Fig.2.22) according to Table 2.31 is
used for the calculation.
Where,
(ADTT)SL : ADTT for single lane
for Webs
1.5.4 Special Fatigue Requirement for Webs AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.5.3)
The fatigue limit state shall be verified in terms of shear buckling resistance as:
AASHTO LRFD 12
Vu  Vcr (2.72) (Eq.6.10.5.3-1)
Where,
Vu : shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the unfactored permanent loads plus the
factored fatigue load

AASHTO LRFD 12
Vcr  CV p (2.73) (Eq.6.10.9.3.3-1)
AASHTO LRFD 12
V p  0.58Fyw Dtw (2.74)
(Eq.6.10.9.3.3-2)

110 Design Guide for midas Civil


2. Box / Tub Girder Section Box/tub

2.1 Introduction
Design of Box/Tub steel composite sections follow the same procedure as for I-Girders.

2.2 Strength Limit State


The program checks the strength limit states for the flexure, shear and ductility of the composite
sections.

Strength Limit States


6.11.6

Check Ductility
6.10.7.3

Check flexural resistance


6.11.7 & 6.11.8

Check shear resistance


6.10.9 & 6.11.9

[Fig.2.51] Flow Chart of Strength Limit State

2.2.1 Ductility
Ductility shall be checked to prevent premature crushing of concrete. If a section is under
positive flexure, ductility shall be verified as:
Ductility
DP  0.42 Dt (2.75) AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.7.3-1)

2.2.2 Flexure
(1) Classification of Composite Section for Flexure
There are four cases for checking flexural resistance of Box/Tub composite sections as
shown below.

Check flexural resistance


6.11.7 & 6.11.8

Yes Positive Moment ? No

Straight Compression
Bridge? flange?
Yes No
:Curved
Bridge
Yes No
Compact :Tension
No flange
Section?

Yes

Case 1 : Case 2 : Case 3 : Case 4 :


Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of
Positive Flexure Moment in Positive Flexure Moment in Negative Flexure Moment Negative Flexure Moment
Compact Section Noncompact Section & Compression flange & Tension flange
6.11.7.1 6.11.7.2 6.11.8.2 6.11.8.3

Positive Flexure Moment Negative Flexure Moment

End

[Fig.2.52] Strength Limit State for Flexure

The webs that are under positive flexure and satisfy the following requirements shall be

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 111
considered as compact sections. Otherwise, they shall be considered as non-compact sections
for the positive flexure design check. Sections of a curved bridge are considered to be non-
compact.

▪ Flange and web yield strength do not exceed 70 ksi (485 MPa) AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.11.6.2.2)
▪Web satisfies the requirements in Article 6.11.2.1 as shown below.
Webs without longitudinal stiffeners: D/tw ≤ 150
Webs with longitudinal stiffeners: D/tw ≤ 300
▪ Web slenderness limit satisfies the requirements in Article 6.11.6.2.2-1
2Dcp/tw ≤ 3.76√(E/Fyc)

The classification of the section under negative flexure, as compact /noncompact /slender is not
required for the design checks.

(2) Case 1 : Positive Flexural Moment in Compact Section

Case 1 : Check flexural resistance of


Positive Flexure Moment in Compact Section
6.11.7.1

Yes Dp  0.1Dt No

Calculate Mn Calculate Mn
 D 
M n  M p 1.07  0.7 p  Mn  M p
 Dt  Case 1
6.10.7.1.2-2 6.10.7.1.2-1 AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.11.7.1)
Check Flexural Resistance
Mu   f M n
6.10.7.1.1-1

End

[Fig.2.53] Case 1 : Flow Chart of Flexural resistance for Compact Section in Positive Flexure Moment

For compact sections, flexure at the strength limit state shall be verified as:

Mu   f Mn (2.76) AASHTO LRFD 12


(Eq.6.11.7.1.1-1)

Where,
1) Bending moment about the major-axis( Mu)
Mu is the bending moment about the major axis due to the factored loads. The maximum
bending moment from the load combinations, applied to Strength Limit State in the Load
Combination Type (Refer to Chapter "Modeling Design Variable" Section 1.4.2) is applied
as Mu.

2) Nominal flexure resistance(Mn)


[Table 2.32] Calculation of Mn of Compact Section in Positive Flexure
Mn
Case Mn AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.7.1.2-1)
D p  0.1Dt Mn  M p

112 Design Guide for midas Civil


AASHTO LRFD 12
 Dp  (Eq.6.11.7.1.2-2)
Otherwise M n  M p 1.07  0.7 
 Dt 

If a section is under positive flexure, plastic moment is calculated for the location of the
plastic neutral axis. For more information, please refer to Chapter "Introduction" Section
3.2.
Flexural resistance
3) f factor
AASHTO LRFD 12
Flexural resistance factor are taken as 1.00 in AASHTO LRFD 12. However, if the factor is (6.5.4.2)
defined by users in the design parameter dialog box, the user defined value is utilized as a
priority.
Case 2
AASHTO LRFD 12
(3) Case 2 : Non-compact Section in Positive Moment (6.11.7.2)
For non-compact sections, flexural strength limit state is verified as shown in the flow chart
follows. Webs of a curved bridge is considered to be non-compact sections.

Case2 : Check flexural resistance of


Positive Flexure Moment in Noncompact Section
6.11.7.2

Compression
Yes
flange? No
:Tension flange

Tub Section? No
Yes
:Box Section

Calculate Fnc Calculate Fnc CalculateFnt


Fnc  Fb Rh Fyc Fnc  Fb Rh Fyc  Fnt  Rh Fyt 
6.11.7.2.2-1 6.11.7.2.2-2 6.11.7.2.1-5

Check Flexural Resistance Check Flexural Resistance


f bu   f Fnc f bu   f Fnt
6.11.7.2.1-1 6.11.7.2.1-2

End

[Fig.2.54] Case 2 : Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Non-compact Section in Positive Flexure
Moment

1) Compression Flange
At the strength limit state, compression flanges shall satisfy the following in terms of Compression Flange
flexure. AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.7.2.1-1)
f bu   f Fnc (2.77)
The nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange, Fnc, is taken differently for box
and tub sections as:

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 113
[Table 2.33] Calculation of Fnc Fnc
AASHTO LRFD 12
Section Type Fnc (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-2)

Box Fnc  Fb Rh Fyc  AASHTO LRFD 12


(Eq.6.11.7.2.2-1)
Tub Fnc  Fb Rh Fyc

∆ and fv
AASHTO LRFD 12
Where, (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-3)
2 (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-4)
 f  T (2.78)
  1  3 v  fv 
F  in which : 2 Aot fc
 yc 

Δ : a factor dependent on St. Venant torsional shear stress in the bottom flange od the tub section.
Rb : Web load shedding factor

[Table 2.34] Calculation of Rb


Case Rb

Constructibility Limit State is reviewed


Rb
AASHTO LRFD 12
Composite web under positive flexure (Eq.6.10.1.10.2)
satisfies Article 6.10.2.1.1&6.11.2.1.2

One or more longitudinal stiffener & 1.0

D Ek
 0.95
tw Fyc

2 Dc
 rw
tw AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.1.10.2-3)
 awc  2 DC 
Otherwise, Rb  1     rw   1.0
 1200  300awc  tw 

Rh : Hybrid Factor

Hybrid Factor, Rh
[Table 2.35] Calculation of Rh AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.1.10.1)
Case Rh

12   (3   3 ) 2D t
Hybrid Section Rh   nw
12  2 in which: Afn

Non-Hybrid or
1.0
Web strength > flange strength

114 Design Guide for midas Civil


2) Tension Flange
At the strength limit state, tension flanges shall satisfy: Tension Flange
fbu   f Fnt (2.79) AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.7.2.1-2)

For both box and tub type composite sections, the nominal flexure resistance of tension
flange, Fnt shall be calculated as:
Fnt  Rh Fyt  (2.80) AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.7.2.1-5)

Where,
2 AASHTO LRFD 12
 f  T (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-6)
  1  3 v  fv  (2.81)
F  2 Ao t ft (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-7)
 yt  in which :

2
𝑓𝑣
If 1 − 3 ( ) < 0, consider ∆= 0 so that 𝐹𝑛𝑡 = 0
𝐹𝑦𝑡

(4) Case 3&Case 4 : Negative Flexure Case 3 and 4


Flexural resistance of negative flexure moment shall be verified as shown in the flow chart AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.11.7.2)
below. (6.11.8.2)
(6.11.8.3)

Check flexural resistance of Negative Flexure Moment


6.11.7.2 & 6.11.8.2 & 6.11.8.3

Compression No
Yes
flange? :Tension flange

No No
Yes Stiffened web? Tub Section? :Closed-Box
:Unstiffened Web Yes Section

Check flexural resistance Check flexural resistance Check flexural resistance Check flexural resistance
Of Longitudinal of Unsiffened Flange of Tension Flange of Tension Flange
Stiffened Flange of Tub Section Closed-box

6.11.8.2.2-1 6.11.8.2.2-1 6.11.8.3-1 6.11.7.2.2-5

Compression flange Tension flange


End

[Fig.2.55] Case 3 & Case 4 : Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Negative Flexural Moment

(5) Case 3 : Compression Flange in Negative Flexural Moment


For this part of design check, AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 are applied differently in the program.
Please refer to Section 5.4 in this chapter for more information.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 115
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.8.1.1-1)

[Fig.2.56] Case 3 : Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Compression Flange in Negative Flexure

The program shall distinguish unstiffened and longitudinally stiffened elements depending
on whether the longitudinal stiffener is applied on the compression flanges in the section
property dialog box. At the strength limit state, the following requirement shall be satisfied
in terms of flexure: Unstiffened Flange
AASHTO LRFD 12

fbu   f Fnc (2.82)


(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-1)

1) Unstiffened Flange
For unstiffened flanges, the following requirement shall be satisfied:

116 Design Guide for midas Civil


2
 f  Fcb
Fnc  Fcb 1   v  (2.83)
 v Fcv
AASHTO LRFD 12
 (Eq.6.11.8.2.2-2)
[Table 2.36] Calculation of Fcb
Case Fcb
 f  p Fcb  Rb Rh Fyc 
    0.3   f   p 
p   f  r Fcb  Rb Rh Fyc       
  Rh  r   p 
AASHTO LRFD 12
0.9 ERb k (Eq.6.11.8.2.2-3)
r   f Fcb 
f 2
AASHTO LRFD 12
Where, (Eq.6.11.8.2.2-4)
λf : slenderness ration for the compression flange

b fc Ek Ek
f  ,  p  0.57 and r  0.95 (2.84) AASHTO LRFD 12
t fc Fyc  Fyr (Eq.6.11.8.2.2-8)
(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-9)
(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-10)
For unstiffened flanges, 𝑘 = 4.0 and 𝑘𝑠 = 5.34.
2
 f  T
  1  3 v  fv 
F  2 Ao t fc
 yc  in which : AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-11)
(2.85)
(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-12)
Fyr : smaller of the compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding, with consideration of
residual stress effects, or the specified minimum yield strength of the web

Fyr  (  0.3) Fyc  Fyw (2.86) AASHTO LRFD 12


(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-13)
[Table 2.37] Calculation of Fcv
Case Fcv

Ek s Fcv
 f  1.12 Fcv  0.85Fyc
Fyc AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-5)
Ek s Ek s 0.65 Fyc Ek s
1.12   f  1.40 Fcv 
Fyc Fyc f AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-6)
0.9 Ek s
1.40
Ek s
 f Fcv 
Fyc f 2 AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-7)

2) Longitudinally Stiffened Flange


Also for longitudinally stiffened flanges, the following requirement shall be satisfied as for
unstiffened flanges. However, the plate-buckling coefficients, 𝑘 and 𝑘𝑠 , shall no longer be
constant but calculated to account for Fnc.

2
 f  Fnc
Fnc  Fcb 1   v  (2.87) AASHTO LRFD 12
 v Fcv  (Eq.6.11.8.2.2-1)
For longitudinally stiffened compression flanges, 𝑘 and 𝑘𝑠 are determined depending on
the number and location of stiffeners applied to the flanges.
①Plate-Buckling Coefficient for Uniform Normal Stress(k)
Depending on the number of uniformly spaced stiffeners, 𝑘 shall be taken as:

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 117
[Table 2.38] Calculation of k
Case n 1 n2
1 1 K
 8I  3  0.894 I s  3 AASHTO LRFD 12
k k   3s  k  3
 (Eq.6.11.8.2.3-1)
 wt fc   wt fc  (Eq.6.11.8.2.3-2)

1.0  k  4.0

② Plate-Buckling Coefficient for Shear Stress (ks)


1
 I 3
5.34  2.84 s 3  ks
 wt  AASHTO LRFD 12
k s  fc   5.34 (2.88) (Eq.6.11.8.2.3-3)
n  12
Where,
Is : moment of inertia of a single longitudinal flange stiffener about an axis parallel to the flange and
taken at the base of the stiffener
n : number of equally spaced longitudinal flange stiffeners
w : larger of the width of the flange between longitudinal flange stiffeners or the distance from a web
to the nearest longitudinal flange stiffener

[Fig.2.57] Definition of w

(6) Case 4 : Tension Flange in Negative Flexural Moment


For tension flanges, flexural resistance limit state shall be verified as shown in the flow
chart:
The flexural resistance of negative flexure moment and tension flange will be checked by
the process indicated in the flow chart below.

Case 4 : Check flexural resistance of


Negative Flexure Moment & Tension flange
6.11.8.3

Tub Section ?

Fnt  Rh Fyt Fnt  Rh Fyt 


6.11.8.3-1 6.11.7.2.2-5

Check Flexural Resistance


f bu   f Fnt
6.11.8.1.1-1

End

[Fig.2.58] Case 4 : Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Tension Flange in Negative Moment

The tension flanges shall be verified according to: Tension flanges


AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.8.1.2-1)

118 Design Guide for midas Civil


fbu   f Fnt (2.89)
Fnt shall be taken as:

[Table 2.39] Calculation of Fnt Fnt


AASHTO LRFD 12
Section Type Fnt (Eq.6.11.8.3-1

Tub Fnt  Rh Fyt AASHTO LRFD 12


(Eq.6.11.7.2.2-5)
Fnt  Rh Fyt  (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-6)
2
(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-7)
Closed-Box  f  T
  1  3 v 
F  in which : f v  2 A t
 yt  o ft

2.2.3 Shear
Box and tube type steel composite sections shall be verified for its shear strength as shown in
the flow chart:

Check Shear resistance


6.11.9

Yes Stiffened Web?

Interior Web Panel? No


Yes No :Unstiffened Web
:End panel

Case 1 : Case 2 : Case 3 :


Check Shear resistance of Check Shear resistance of Check Shear resistance of
Stiffened & Interior Web Panel Stiffened & End Web Panel Unstiffened Web
6.10.9.3.2 6.10.9.3.3 6.10.9.2

Stiffened Web Unstiffened Web

End

[Fig.2.59] Flow Chart of Shear Resistance

The program classifies stiffened and unstiffened webs as shown in the table below:

[Table 2.40] Classification of Stiffened Web and Unstiffened Web


Case Classification

Without a longitudinal stiffener and with transverse stiffener


spacing not exceeding 3D
Stiffened web
With one or more longitudinal stiffeners and with a transverse
stiffener spacing not exceeding 1.5D

Otherwise Unstiffened web

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 119
(1) Shear Strength Verification
Shear strength shall be verified as shown in the flow chart:

Check shear resistance


6.10.9

Stiffened
No Yes
web?

Unstiffened webs Stiffened Web Panels


6.10.9.2 6.10.9.3
Interior
Web Panel? Yes
No :Stiffened
:Stiffened Interior
End panel
Web Panels

Calculate V n Calculate V n
2Dtw
V n  V cr  CV p V n  V cr  CV p b t  bfttft
fc fc 
 2.5

V p  0 . 58 F yw Dt w V p  0 . 58 F yw Dt w No Yes

6.10.9.2-1 6.10.9.3.3-1
6.10.9.2-2 6.10.9.3.3-2

Calculate V n Calculate V n

   
   
 0 . 87 (1  C )   0 . 87 (1  C ) 
Vn  V p C   V n  V p C 
2 
  d  d0   d 
2

1  0   1  0 
  D  D   
  D  
6.10.9.3.2-8 6.10.9.3.2-2

Check V n
Vu  V V n
6.10.9.1-1

End

[Fig.2.60] Flow Chart of Strength Limit State for Shear


Shear strength
Shear strength shall be verified as: AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.9.1-1)
Vu  vVn (2.90)
Where,
ϕv: resistance factor for shear
Vu : shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the factored loads

1) Unstiffened web
For unstiffened webs, the nominal shear resistance (Vn) shall be taken as: Unstiffened web
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.9.2-1)
Vn  Vcr  CVp (2.91)
in which: AASHTO LRFD 12

Vp  0.58Fyw Dtw (2.92)


(Eq.6.10.9.2-2)

Where,
C : ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength
Vp : plastic shear force

120 Design Guide for midas Civil


2) Stiffened Web Shear Strength
Program shall determine whether a stiffened web belongs to an end panel or interior
panel depending on whether its nodes are supported or not in the span information. The
web shall be first identified as an end panel or an interior panel and, then, its shear
strength shall be verified. If a web is supported at its nodes, the web belongs to an end
panel; if not supported, it belongs to an interior panel.

① End panels End panels


For end panel webs, the nominal shear resistance shall be taken as: AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.9.3.3-1)

Vn  Vcr  CVp (2.93)


AASHTO LRFD 12
in which: (Eq.6.10.9.3.3-2)

Vp  0.58Fyw Dtw (2.94)

② Interior panels
For interior panels, the nominal shear resistance shall be taken as:

[Table 2.41] Calculation of Vn for Interior Panel


Case Nominal shear resistance (Vn)
  Interior panels
  AASHTO LRFD 12
2 Dtw  0.87(1  C ) 
 2.5 Vn  V p C 
2 
(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-2)
(b fct fc  b ft t ft )  d 
1  o  
  D  
 
  AASHTO LRFD 12
 0.87(1  C ) 
Otherwise, Vn  V p C  
(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-8)
2
 d  d 
1  o   o
 D 
 D 

Where,

[Table 2.42] Calculation of Ratio of the shear buckling resistance to the shear yield strength, C
C
Case C AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-4)
D Ek
 1.12 C  1.0
tw Fyw
AASHTO LRFD 12
1.12 Ek (Eq.6.10.9.3.2-5)
Ek D Ek C
1.12   1.40 D Fyw
Fyw t w Fyw
tw
AASHTO LRFD 12
1.57  Ek 
 (Eq.6.10.9.3.2-6)
Ek D C 2 
 
1.40  D   Fyw 
Fyw t w  
 tw 
Where, k
AASHTO LRFD 12
k: shear-buckling coefficient
(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-7)

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 121
(2.95)
5
k 5 2
 do 
 
D

(2) Check for Inclination Inclination


For box and tube composite sections, inclination of webs AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.9-1)
shall be considered. Shear force on each section shall be
evenly applied to its two webs after the consideration of
the incline angle as:

Vu
Vui  (2.96)
cos 

[Fig.2.61] Inclination of Web


Where,
Vui : shear on each web due to the factored loads
Vu : vertical shear due to the factored loads on one inclined web
θ: the angle of inclination of the web plate to the vertical(degrees)

2.3 Service Limit State


For box and tub composite sections, flexure and web bend-buckling at the service limit state are
verified as shown in the flow chart below. The program shall verify service limit state for the
composite sections at the completion stage of construction. Load combinations defined in the
Load Combination Type (Please Refer to Chapter "Modeling Design Variable" Section 1.4.2) shall
be used for the verification of the service limit state.

122 Design Guide for midas Civil


Service Limit State
6.11.4

Check Flexure Yield in flange


6.10.4.2

Check Top flange of Composite Section

f f  0 .95 R h F yf
Top steel flange
6.10.1.2.2-1
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.4.2.2-1)
Check Bottom flange of Composite Section
fl
f f   0 . 95 R h F yf
2
6.10.4.2.2-2

Check Nominal Bend-buckling Resistance for web


6.10.4.2

Bottom steel flange


Calculate Fcrw and k AASHTO LRFD 12
0.9 Ek (Eq.6.10.4.2.2-2)
Fcrw  2
 Min ( Rh Fyc , Fyw / 0.7) k
9
D (Dc / D) 2
 
 tw 
6.10.1.9.1-1 6.10.1.9.1-2

Check Web Bend-buckling resistance for webs

f c  Fcrw
6.10.4.2.2-4
Bend-buckling
AASHTO LRFD 12
End (Eq.6.10.4.2.2-4)

[Fig.2.62] Flow Chart of Service Limit State

Fcrw
AASHTO LRFD 12
2.3.1. Flexure (Eq.6.10.1.9.1-1)
Flexure shall be verified at top and bottom flanges. As per Article C6.11.4, Eq. 6.10.4.2.2-1 and
6.10.4.2.2-2 are checked only for compact sections in positive flexure. Thus in midas Civil,
these equations are not checked for negative flexure and noncompact sections in positive
flexure. k
AASHTO LRFD 12
(1) Verification of Top steel flange of composite sections for flexure (Eq.6.10.1.9.1-2)
Serviceability of top steel flanges shall be verified by comparing the stress as:

f f  0.95Rh Fyf (2.97)

(2) Verification of Bottom steel flange of composite sections for flexure


Serviceability of bottom steel flanges shall be verified by examining flexure as shown in the
equation below. If a web is under positive flexure and satisfies the requirements in AASHTO
LRFD 12 Article 6.11.2.1.2, its strength shall be determined to be satisfactory and
verification shall be skipped. For box and tub composite sections, flange lateral bending
stress shall be assumed as 0 for the design check.
fl
ff   0.95Rh Fyf (where, f l = 0) (2.98)
2

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 123
2.3.2. Web Bend Buckling
Except for sections in positive flexure in which the web satisfies the requirement of Article
6.11.2.1.2, all sections shall satisfy Eq.6.10.4.2.2-4 shown below.

Webs shall be verified in terms of bend-buckling as:


f c  Fcrw (2.99)
Where,
fc : compression-flange stress
Fcrw : nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs
0.9 Ek (2.100)
Fcrw  2
 Min ( Rh Fyc , Fyw / 0.7)
D
 
 tw 
in which:
k : bend-buckling coefficient
9
k (2.101)
( Dc / D) 2
Where,
Dc : Depth of the web in compression in the elastic range

2.4 Check Constructibility


For box and tub composite sections, constructibility shall be verified in terms of flexure and
shear. Member force under Dead (Before) shall be used as the design member force for the Tub Section
verification of constructibility limit strength. AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.3.2.1-1)
(Eq.6.10.3.2.1-2)

2.4.1 Flexure AASHTO LRFD 12


The program shall verify flexural strength by assuming that concrete hardening has not (Eq.6.10.3.2.1-3)
occurred yet and all section are discretely braced. The flexural verification shall be done in
three cases as shown in the figure follows.
Tub Section
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.3.2.2-1)

Check Constructibility
6.11.3

Compression No
Yes
flange? :Tension flange

No
Tub Section? :Closed-Box
Yes
Section

Check Flange stress Check Flange stress Check Flange stress Comp. Box Flange
of Tub Section in Compression of Closed-Box in Compression of Closed-Box in Tension AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.3.2-1)
6.10.3.2.1 6.11.3.2-1~2 6.11.3.2-3~5
(Eq.6.11.3.2-2)

End

[Fig.2.63] Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Constructibility Limit State Tension Box Flange
AASHTO LRFD 12
(1) Open Flange (top flange of tub section) in Compression and Tension (Eq.6.11.3.2-3)

1) Open flange in compression AASHTO LRFD 12


(Eq.6.11.3.2-4)
For tub composite sections, compression top flanges shall be verified for yielding, flexure (Eq.6.11.3.2-5)
and bend buckling of webs, as shown in the equation below. If 𝑓𝑙 = 0 for slender webs,

124 Design Guide for midas Civil


AASHTO LRFD 12 Eq.6.10.3.2.1-1 shall not be verified.
1
f bu  f l   f Rh Fyc and f bu  f l   f Fnc (2.102)
3
For slender webs, bend-buckling shall be verified as:
f bu   f Fcrw (2.103) Shear
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.3.3-1)
2) Open flange in tension
AASHTO LRFD 12
For tub composite sections, tension top flanges shall satisfy the requirement of Eq. (Eq.6.10.9.3.3-1)
6.10.3.2.2-1 which is same as that for I girder. (Eq.6.10.9.3.3-2)

(2) Noncomposite box flange (top flange of box section and bottom flange of tub or box
section) in Compression and Tension ( for constructability check, the top flange of box
section is designed as a noncomposite box flange)

1) Noncomposite box flange in compression

For box flanges in compression, constructibility shall be examined based on the


compressive stress due to flexure and bend buckling on webs. For sections with compact
or noncompact webs, Eq. 6.11.3.2-2 shall not be checked as per Article 6.11.3.2.
▪Verification of compression stress due to flexure : f bu   f Fnc (2.104)
▪ Verification of bend buckling on webs : f bu   f Fcrw (2.105)

2) Noncomposite box flange in tension and continuously braced box flange in tension or
compression shall satisfy the following requirement:

f bu   f Rh Fyf  (2.106)
Where,
2
 f  T
  1  3 v  fv 
F  2 Ao t f
 yf  in which :
(2.107)

2.4.2 Shear
For the verification of constructibility, shear shall be verified to prevent shear buckling at webs
according to the following requirement. The program shall distinguish end panel and interior
panel for the verification of shear-buckling resistance.
Vu  vVcr (2.108)
Where,
Vcr  CVp in which: Vp  0.58Fyw Dtw (2.109)

2.4.3 Concrete Deck


Constructibility of concrete deck shall not be verified for the box and tub steel composite
sections.

2.5 Fatigue Limit State


2.5.1 Load combinations of Fatigue Limit State
In this section, AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 are applied differently. For more information about
the 07 edition, please refer to Section 5.1 in this chapter. For more information on basic
considerations and assumptions for Fatigue Limit State, please refer to Section 1.5 in this
chapter. Fatigue limit state shall be verified as shown in the flow chart:

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 125
Fatigue Limit State
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.6.1.2.2-1)

[Fig.2.64] Flow Chart of Fatigue Limit State for Flexure

The verification of fatigue resistance shall follow Section 2.5.3(1) for the load combinations of
Fatigue 1 Limit State in Load Combination Type (Chapter "Modeling Design Variables" Section
1.4.2) and Section 2.5.3(2) for the load combinations of Fatigue 2 Limit State. However, if
'(ADTT)SL≤ 75year (ADTT)SL' is inputted, Fatigue II Load Combination is verified. Otherwise, the
verification needs not to be done.

2.5.2 Fatigue Limit State Fatigue Ⅰ


AASHTO LRFD 12
As per Article 6.11.5, one additional requirement specified particularly for tub girders sections (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-1)
is in regard to longitudinal warping and transverse bending stresses. When tub girders are AASHTO LRFD 12
subjected to torsion, their cross-sections become distorted, resulting in secondary bending (Table. 6.6.1.2.5-3)
stresses.
Therefore, longitudinal warping stresses and transverse bending stresses due to cross-section
distortion shall be considered for:
 Single tub girder in straight or horizontally curved bridges
 Multiple tub girders in straight bridges that do not satisfy requirements of Article
6.11.2.3 Fatigue Ⅱ
AASHTO LRFD 12
 Multiple tub girders in horizontally curved bridges (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-2)
 Any single or multiple tub girder with a tub flange that is not fully effective according (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-3)
to the provisions of Article 6.11.1.1.

For consideration of these distorsion stresses in the software, Longitudinal Warping Stress
Range input is required in the fatigue parameters dialog box. (Fig.2.21)

Fatigue limit state shall be verified per stress unit as:

 (f )  (F )n (2.110) AASHTO LRFD 12


(Table. 6.6.1.2.5-1)
(Table. 6.6.1.2.5-2)
Where,
γ : load factor for fatigue load combination
(∆f) : force effect, live load stress range due to the passage of the fatigue load
(∆F)n : nominal fatigue resistance Special Fatigue
Requirement
2.5.3 Nominal Fatigue Resistance AASHTO LRFD 12

126 Design Guide for midas Civil


The program’s calculation of Nominal Fatigue Resistance will be different based on whether the (Eq.6.10.5.3-1)
load combinations are entered into Fatigue 1 Limit State or Fatigue 2 Limit State. Between the
two values, the lower value will be applied and reviewed. ASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.5.3.3-1)
(1) The Nominal Fatigue Resistance of Fatigue I Limit State due to load combinations (Eq.6.10.5.3.3-2)
The program will calculate the Nominal Fatigue Resistance based on the category selected
in the Fatigue dialog window.

(F ) n  (F ) TH (2.111)

Within the program, categories of Nominal Fatigue Resistance, such as A, B, B', C, C', D, E,
and E' are applied as shown in [Table2.29].

(2) The Nominal Fatigue Resistance of Fatigue II Limit State due to load combinations
If fatigue review is performed with consideration to fatigue load combination 2, the
following equation is used to calculate the resistance value of fatigue.
1
 A 3
(F ) n    in which: N  (365)(75)n( ADTT ) SL (2.112)
Section Proportion
N AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.10.1.1)

Where,
A : Constant taken from Table 6.6.1.2.5-1
n : Number of stress range cycles per truck passage taken from Table 6.6.1.2.5-2 Pitch
(ADTT)SL : ADTT for single lane AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.10.1.2-1)

The value of the Detail Category Constant (A) and 75-yr (ADTT)SL Equivalent to Infinite Life
(n, truck per day) are each respectively applied in [Table2.30] and [Table2.31]. If, the n value
is entered into the Fatigue Parameter, this value will be applied first.
Center-to-Center
2.5.4 Special Fatigue Requirement for Webs Pitch
The program will perform the review of the fatigue due to the shear buckling of the web. AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.10.1.2)

Vu  Vcr (2.113) Vsr


Where, AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.10.1.2-2)
Vcr : shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the unfactored permanent loads plus the
factored fatigue load
Vcr  CVp in which: V p  0.58Fyw Dtw (2.114) Vfat
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.10.1.2-3)

Ffar
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.10.1.2-4)
3. Shear Connector (Eq.6.10.10.1.2-5)
When the shear connector is defined in the steel composite sections, the review of the shear
connectors is performed. The shear connector performs review of Pitch, Transverse spacing, Cover
and Penetration, Fatigue, Special Requirement for point, and strength limit state.

3.1 Section Proportion


For the ratio of height to diameter of the stud type shear connector, following equation is used.
h
 4.0 (2.115)
d

3.2 Pitch
The pitch is reviewed using the below equation.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 127
nZ r
p (2.116)
Vsr
Where,
Zr : shear fatigue resistance of an individual shear connector determined as per Article 6.10.10.2
n : number of shear connector in a cross section
Vsr : horizontal fatigue shear range per unit length

Also, the program checks if 𝑝 ≥ 6 × 𝑆𝑡𝑢𝑑 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 and 𝑝 ≤ 24 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠 are satisfied as well k
as Equation 2.116. AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.11.8.2.3-1)
(Eq.6.11.8.2.3-2)

Vsr  V   F 
fat
2
fat
2
(2.117)
in which :
Vfat: longitudinal fatigue shear range per unit length
Vf Q
V fat  (2.118)
I
Ffat : radial fatigue shear range per unit length taken as the largest of either
Abot f lg l Frc
F fat1  or F fat 2 
wR w
(2.119)
in which :
σflg: range of longitudinal fatigue stress in the bottom flange without consideration of flange lateral bending
Abot: area of the bottom flange
Frc : net range of cross-frame of diaphragm force at the top flange
l : distance between brace point
R : minimum girder radius within the panel
w : effective length of deck (in.) taken as 48.0 in., except at end supports where w may be taken as 24.0 in.
effective length of deck distance

▪ If it is straight members, the value of Ffat1 is 0.


▪ If it is a Box/Tub section, regardless of whether it is straight or curved, the value of Ffat1 is 0.
Zr
▪ The program will consider the value of Ffat2 as 0. AASHTO LRFD 12
▪ The center-to-center distance of the shear connectors cannot exceed 24inches and 6 times the (Eq.6.10.10.2-2)
diameter of the stud.
α
AASHTO LRFD 12
3.3 Transverse spacing (Eq.6.10.10.2-3)
(1) The transverse spacing of the shear connector must be more than 4 times the diameter of
the stud.
(2)The shear connectors must be located 1 inch inwards from the edge. Zr
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.10.2-1)
[Table 2.43] Calculation of plate-buckling coefficient for uniform normal stress, k
Case n=1 n=2
1 1
 8I  3  0.894 I s  3
K k   3s  k  3
 minimum number of
 wt fc   wt fc  shear connector
AASHTO LRFD 12
1.0  k  4.0 (Eq.6.10.10.4.1-2)

3.4 Cover and penetration


The following conditions must be met for the cover and penetration of the shear connector.
(1)The clear depth of concrete cover over the tops of the shear connector must not be at least
2.0 inches. Qr
(2) The shear connector must penetrate at least 2.0 inches into the concrete slab. AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.10.4.1-1)

128 Design Guide for midas Civil


3.5 Fatigue Shear Resistance, Zr
This part is applied differently in the AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12. For the 07 conditions, follow
Section 5.2 of this chapter. The fatigue shear resistance of the shear connector is calculated as
shown in the following table.

[Table 2.44] Calculation of Fatigue Shear Resistance , Zr


Shear
Connector Case Fatigue shear resistance ( Z r )
Type

Z r  d 2
Calculate P
Where, AASHTO LRFD 12
75  year ( ADTT ) SL  960 Case  (Eq.6.10.10.4.2-1)

Stud N 0 34.5
N 0 34.5  4.28 log N

75  year ( ADTT )SL  960 Zr  5.5d 2


P1p , P2p
AASHTO LRFD 12
3.6 Strength Limit State (Eq.6.10.10.4.2-2)
(1) Strength Limit State
After the strength limit state is calculated, the minimum number of shear connector (n) Is (Eq.6.10.10.4.2-3)
calculated as shown in the equation below.
P
n (2.120)
AASHTO LRFD 12
Qr
(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-4)
Where,
P : total nominal shear force

(2) Factored shear resistance of a single shear connector


The resistance of the shear connector is calculated as shown in the equation below.

Qr  scQn (2.121)

Where, Calculate P
AASHTO LRFD 12
Qn : nominal shear resistance of a single shear connector determined as in Article 6.10.10.4.3 (Eq.6.10.10.4.2-5)
ϕsc: resistance factor for shear connectors inputted by the user in Composite Steel Design Parameter
(Fig.2.17)

(3) Total Nominal Shear Force, P PT


AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-6)
1) Calculate the Total Nominal Shear Force, P, for the verification of the shear connectors
under positive moment.
P Pp  Fp
2 2
(2.122)

Where,
Pp : total longitudinal force in the concrete deck
Pp  Max( P1 p , P2 p ) P1n , P2n
(2.123) AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-7)
(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-8)
in which :
P1 p  0.85 f s ' bs t s (2.124)

P2 p  Fyw Dtw  Fyt b ft t ft  Fyc b fc t fc

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 129
Fp : total radial force in the concrete deck
I t1  I t 2 (2.125) FT
AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-9)
in which :
Lp : arc length between an end of the girder and an adjacent point of maximum positive live load plus
impact moment

For straight bridges, the value of Fp is calculated as 0.

2) Calculate P when the shear connector experiences a negative moment.


P PT  FT
2 2
(2.126)

Where,
Pt : total longitudinal force in the concrete deck between the point of maximum positive live load plus
Qn
impact moment and the centerline of an adjacent interior support AASHTO LRFD 12
PT  Pp  Pn (2.127)
(Eq.6.10.10.4.3-1)

in which :
Pn : total longitudinal force in the concrete deck over an interior support taken as:
Pn  Min( P1n , P2n ) (2.128)

in which :
P1n  Fyw Dtw  Fyt b ft t ft  Fyc b fc t fc (2.129)

P2n  0.45 fc ' bsts

Ft : total radial force in the concrete deck between the point of maximum positive live load plus impact
moment and the centerline of an adjacent interior support taken as:

Ln
FT  PT (2.130)
R

in which :
Ln : arc length between the point of maximum positive live load plus impact moment and the centerline
of an adjacent interior support inputted by the user in shear connector dialog box (Fig.2.19)

For straight bridges, the value of Fp is calculated as 0.

(4) Nominal shear resistance, Qn

[Table 2.45] Calculation of Nominal Shear Resistance, Qn

Shear Connector Type Qn


Qn  0.5 Asc fc ' Ec  Asc Fu Projecting width
AASHTO LRFD 12
Where, (Eq.6.10.11.1.2-2)
Stud Asc : cross-sectional area of a stud shear connector AASHTO LRFD 12
Ec : modulus of elasticity of the deck concrete (Eq.6.10.11.1.2-1)
Fu : specified minimum tensile strength of a stud shear connector

130 Design Guide for midas Civil


4. Stiffener
The Stiffener calculates the transverse/longitudinal stiffener attached to the web and the
longitudinal stiffener attached to the compression flange.

Stiffeners
6.10.11

Check Transverse Stiffeners

Check Longitudinal Stiffeners

Check Longitudinal Compression Flange Stiffeners Only Box Section

[Fig.2.65] Flow Chart of Stiffener

4.1 Web Transverse Stiffener


(1) Projecting Width
Projecting width of transverse stiffener attached to web panel shall satisfy following two
conditions:

[Table 2.46] Projecting Width Conditions of Web Transverse Stiffener


Check List I Section Tub Section Closed-Box Section
Condition 1 16t p  bt  b f / 4 16t p  bt AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.11.1.3-1)
D
Condition 2 bt  2.0  (Eq.6.10.11.1.302)
30

Where,
tp : thickness of the projecting stiffener element
bf :for I-sections, full width of the widest compression flange. for tub section, full width of the widest top
flange. For closed box section, the limit of bf/4 does not apply. AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.11.1.3-3)
(Eq.6.10.11.1.3-4)
[Table 2.47] Define bf according to Section Type
(Eq.6.10.11.1.3-5)
Section Type bf

Full width of the widest compression flange with in the field section under
I
consideration

Tub Full width of the widest top flange within the field section under consideration
AASHTO LRFD 12
(6.10.11.1.3)

(2) Moment of Inertia Check


AASHTO LRFD 12
This part is applied differently in the AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12. For the 07 conditions, follow the (Eq.6.10.11.1.3-6)
section 5.3 of this chapter. The program will perform the calculation of the vertical stiffeners
attached to the web.

1) Vu>Vn
I t  Min ( I t1 , I t 2 ) (2.131)
Where,

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 131
It : moment of inertia of transverse stiffener

[Table 2.48] Calculation of Moment of Inertia of the transverse stiffener for I girder section, It

Case It
b 3t
Single-sided vertical stiffeners It  t p AASHTO LRFD 12
3 (Eq.6.10.11.1.3-9)

 b 3t 2
Double-sided vertical stiffeners I t  2 t p  bt t p 0.5bt  0.5tw   AASHTO LRFD 12
 12  (Eq.6.10.11.1.3-10)

It1  btw J
3

1.5
D 4 t  Fyw 
1.3
It 2    (2.132)
40  E 
2.5 AASHTO LRFD 12
J  2.0  0.5 (Eq.6.10.11.1.3-11)
( d o / D) 2

Where,
J : stiffener bending rigidity parameter
t  Max( Fyw / Fcrs ,1.0) (2.133)

Fcrs : local buckling stress for the stiffener


0.31E
Fcrs  2
 Fys (2.134)
 bt 
 
 tP  longitudinal stiffener
AASHTO LRFD 12
Fys : specified minimum yield strength of the stiffener (Eq.6.10.11.3.1-1)
do : the smaller of the adjacent web panel widths
b : the smaller of do and D
C : ratio of the shear-buckling resistance

2) Vu≤Vn
[Table 2.49] Check for Transverse Stiffener when Vu≤Vn

Case Verifications projecting width


AASHTO LRFD 12
 V  vVvr 
Vn  Vcr I t  I t1  ( I t 2  I t1 ) u  (Eq.6.10.11.3.2-1)

I t1  I t 2  vVn  vVcr 
Otherwise It  It 2
Otherwise It  It 2
3) The following is calculated when the transverse and longitudinal stiffeners attach to the
web at the same time.

 b  D 
I t   t   I l (2.135)
 bl  3.0d o  AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.11.3.3-1)
Where, (Eq.6.10.11.3.3-2)
bt : projecting width of the transverse stiffener
bl : projecting width of the longitudinal stiffener

132 Design Guide for midas Civil


Il : moment of inertia of the longitudinal stiffener

4.2 Web Longitudinal Stiffener


(1) Strength limit state
The longitudinal stiffener attached to the web is calculated as shown in the falling equation.

f s   f Rh Fys (2.136)
Where,
fs : the flexural stress in the longitudinal stiffener
Fys : specified minimum yield strength of the stiffener

β
(2) Projecting width AASHTO LRFD 12
The projecting width of the Longitudinal stiffener is limited as per the following equation. As (Eq.6.10.11.3.3-3)
per Article C6.11.11.2, for the structural tees, b l should be taken as one half the width of the
flange. AASHTO LRFD 12
(Eq.6.10.11.3.3-4)
E
bl  0.48ts (2.137)
Fys
Z
Where, AASHTO LRFD 12
ts: thickness of the stiffener (Eq.6.10.11.3.3-5)

(3) Moment of inertia and radius gyration


Moment of inertia and radius of gyration are calculated using the dimensions inputted in the
Section Stiffener dialog box (Fig.2.8). The moment of inertia and the radius of gyration of the
longitudinal stiffener shall satisfy:
Fys
  do 2  0.16d o
I l  Dtw 2.4   0.13 
3 E projecting width
and r (2.138) AASHTO LRFD 12
  D   Fyc (Eq.6.10.11.2-1)
1  0.6
Rh Fys
Where,
do : transverse stiffener spacing
R : minimum girder radius in the panel
r : radius of gyration of the longitudinal stiffener including an effective width of the web equal to 18*tw
taken about the neutral axis of the combined section Moment of inertia
Il : moment of inertia of the longitudinal stiffener including an effective width of the web equal to 18*tw AASHTO LRFD 07&12
(Eq.6.10.11.2-2)
taken about the neutral axis of the combined section
β :curvature correction factor for longitudinal stiffener rigidity

[Table 2.50] Calculation of β

Case 

For cases where the longitudinal stiffener is on the side of the Z


 1
web away from the center of curvature 6
For cases where the longitudinal stiffener is on the side of the Z
 1
web toward the center of curvature 12
Where,
Z : curvature parameter

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 133
2
0.95d o
Z  10 (2.139)
Rt w

4.3 Longitudinal Compression Flange Stiffener (for box compression flange)


(1) The strength of the stiffeners must be greater than the yield strength of the compression
flanges.

(2) Projecting Width


The Projecting Width (bl) of the Longitudinal Compression Flange Stiffener is calculated as
shown in the following equation.
E
bl  0.48t s (2.140)
Fyc
Where,
ts: thickness of the projecting longitudinal stiffener element

(3) Moment of inertia


Each Moment of inertia of the Longitudinal Compression Flange Stiffener Is calculated as
shown in the following equation.
I l  wt fc
3
(2.141)
Where,
w : larger of the width of the flange between longitudinal flange stiffeners or the distance from a web to
the nearest longitudinal flange stiffener

[Table 2.51] Calculation of ψ

Number of the longitudinal stiffener attached to 


compression flange(n)

n 1 0.125k 3

n2 1.120k 3

n3 Equally applicable as n=2


Where,
k : plate-buckling coefficient for uniform normal stress

134 Design Guide for midas Civil


5. Difference Between AASHTO-LRFD 4th(2007) and AASHTO-
LRFD 6th(2012)
th
This section explains how the functions of midas Civil are applied differently in AASHTO-LRFD 4
th
Edition (2007) and AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012).

5.1 Fatigue Limit State


In both standards, the fatigue resistance is calculated differently.
th th
AASHTO-LRFD 4 Edition (2007) AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012)

The calculation only considers the Fatigue 2 Based on the conditions, the calculation
Load Combination out of the user load considers the Fatigue 1 or 2 Load Combination.
combinations.
AASHTO LRFD07&12
(6.6.1.2.3)
Fatigue Resistance (ΔF)n Calculation Fatigue Resistance (ΔF)n Calculation (6.6.1.2.5)
Fatigue 1 Load Case Combination Is not used in When using the Fatigue 1 Load Case
the calculation. Combination, the value of ΔF)n Is calculated
as such:

(F ) n  (F )TH

When using the Fatigue 2 Load Case


When using the Fatigue 2 Load Case Combination, the value of ΔF)n Is calculated
Combination, the value of ΔF)n Is calculated as such:
as such:
1
1  A 3
 A 1 3 (F )n   
(F ) n     (F )TH N
N 2 in which: N  (365)(75)n( ADTT ) SL
in which: N  (365)(75)n( ADTT ) SL

5.2 Fatigue Limit State for Shear Connector


In both standards, Fatigue resistance for Shear Connector (Zr) is calculated differently.
th th
AASHTO-LRFD 4 Edition (2007) AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012)

The Fatigue resistance(Zr) of the stud type for The Fatigue resistance(Zr) of the stud type for
the Shear Connector is calculated as such: the Shear Connector is calculated as such: AASHTO LRFD07&12
38.0d 2 (6.10.10.2)
Z r  d 2  (in SI Unit) Z r  d 2 (in US Unit)
2
  238  29.5 log N ( in SI Unit)   34.5  4.28 log N ( in US Unit)

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 135
5.3 Transverse Stiffener
In both standards, Transverse Stiffener is calculated differently

th th
AASHTO-LRFD 4 Edition (2007) AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012)

Calculation of the Stiffener bending rigidity Calculation of the Stiffener bending rigidity
parameter(J) parameter(J)
2
 D  2.5
J  2.5   2.0  0.5 J  2.0  0.5
 do / D  ( d o / D) 2
AASHTO LRFD07&12
(6.10.11.1.3)
When the Web post buckling or tension-field When the Web post buckling or tension-field
resistance is considered, the following is resistance is considered, the following is
calculated. calculated.
It  It 2 (1) I t1  I t 2
1) Vn  Vcr
 V  vVvr 
I t  I t1  ( I t 2  I t1 ) u 
 vVn  vVcr 
2) Other conditions
It  It 2

(2) I t1  I t 2

It  It 2

136 Design Guide for midas Civil


5.4 Flexure Resistance of Box Flange in compression under Unstiffened
condition
In both standards, the Flexure Resistance of Box Flange in compression under Unstiffened
condition is calculated differently.

th th
AASHTO-LRFD 4 Edition (2007) AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012)
(1) Fnc (1) Fnc
kE 2
1)  f  R1  f 
Fyc Fnc   f Fcb 1   v 
Fnc  Rb Rh Fyc 
 v Fcv 
AASHTO LRFD07&12
1) Fcb
(6.11.8.2.2)
①  f  p
kE kE
2) R1   f  R2 Fcb  Rb Rh Fyc 
Fyc Fyc
②  p   f  r
Fcb  Rb Rh Fyc 
    0.2   f   p 
       Fcb  Rb Rh Fyc 1  1   
 
b
  R2  fc
F fc
     Rh  r   p 
      
1  sin   
Fyr t fc kE
         ③ r   f
  R h F yc   
2 R 2  R1   
       0.9 ERb k
      Fcb 
f 2

3)  f  R2
kE
2) Fcv
Fyc
①  f  1.12
Ek s
2
0.9 ERb k Rb f v k
2
 b fc  Fyc
Fnc    
 b fc 
2 2 t  Fcv  0.85Fyc
 
0.9 Ek s  fc 
t  ② 1.12 Ek s    1.40 Ek s
 fc  f
Fyc Fyc

0.65 Fyc Ek s
Fcv 
Where, f
R1 : constant which when multiplied by ③ 1.40 Ek s  
f
Fyc
kE / F yields the slenderness ratio equal to
yc
0.9 Ek
0.6 times the slenderness ration for which Fnc Fcv 
from Eq.3 is equal to Rb Rh Fyc  f 2
0.57
R1 
Where,
  f v   k  
2 2
1
    4
2   
2 F  k  
 yc   s  Ek
   p  0.57
Fyc 
R2 : constant which when multiplied by Ek
yields the slenderness ratio for
r  0.595
kE / F yc Fyr
which Fnc from Eq.3 is equal to Rb Fyc
1.23
R2 
  Fyr 
2
 f v   k  
2 2
1  Fyr
    4   
1.2  Fyc F  F  k  
  yc   yc   s  
Fyr  (  0.3) Fyc  Fyw
Fyr  (  0.4) Fyc  Fyw

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 137
Chapter 2. Steel Composite Design : AASHTO-LRFD 4thand6th (2007/2012)

Steel Composite Design


Result
1. Strength Limit State Result
1.1 Flexure
(1) by Result Table
As shown in the table below, the results can be checked in the result table.
▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Strength Limit State (flexure)…

[Fig.2.66] Result Table for Strength Limit State of Flexure


Where,
My : yield moment
Mp : plastic moment
Mu : moment due to the factored loads
phiMn : nominal flexural resistance of a section multiplied by resistance factor, phi, for flexure
fbu : largest value of the compressive stress throughout the unbraced length in the flange under
condition, calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending
phiFn : nominal flexure resistance of a flange
Dp :distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite section at the plastic
moment
Dt : total depth of the composite section

Based on the different search conditions, the result values which appear will vary, as shown
in the table below.
[Table 2.52] Result Case Table for Strength Limit State of Flexure

Condition Output Items

fle
Applied
xu Section Clause
My Mp Mu phiMn fbu phiFn Dp Dt
re
compact 6.10 & 6.11 O O O O - - O O
(+)
non-
6.10 & 6.11 - - - - O O O O
compact
- 6.10 & 6.11 - - - - O O - -
(-)
- Appendix A6 O O O O - - - -

138 Design Guide for midas Civil


(2) by Excel Report
The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

1) Positive Flexure

[Fig.2.67] Excel Report for Strength Limit State of Positive Moment

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 139
2) Negative Flexure

[Fig.2.68] Excel Report for Strength Limit State of Negative Moment

1.2 Shear
(1) Result Table
As shown in the table below, the results can be checked in the result table.
▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Strength Limit State (shear)…

[Fig.2.69] Result Table for Strength Limit State of Shear

Where,
Vu : shear due to the factored load
phiVn : nominal shear resistance multiplied by resistance factor, phi, for shear
bt_lim1 : projecting width limit for transverse stiffener, 2.0+(D/30), as per Eq. 6.10.11.1.2-1
bt_lim2 : projecting width limit for transverse stiffener, 16tp, as per Eq. 6.10.11.1.2-2
bt_lim3 : projecting width limit for transverse stiffener, bf/4, as per Eq. 6.10.11.1.2-2
bt : projected width of transverse stiffener as per Article 6.10.11.1.2
lt_lim : limiting moment of inertia of transverse stiffener as per Eq. 6.10.11.1.3-3&4
lt : Moment of Inertia of transverse stiffener as per Article 6.10.11.1.3

140 Design Guide for midas Civil


(2) by Excel Report
The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

[Fig.2.70] Excel Report for Strength Limit State of Shear

2. Service Limit State Result


(1) by Result Table
The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Service Limit State…

[Fig.2.71] Result Table for Service Limit State


Where,
fc : compression-flange stress
fcrw: nominal bending buckling resistance for webs as per Eq. 6.10.11.9.1-1
fcf : compression-flange stress
fcf_lim : limit of compression-flange stress
ftf : tension-flange stress
ftf_lim : limit of tension-flange stress

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 141
(2) by Excel Report
The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

[Fig.2.72] Excel Report or Strength Limit State of Shear

3. Constructibility Result
3.1 Flexure
(1) by Result Table
The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Constructibility (flexure)...

[Fig.2.73] Result Table for Constructibility Limit State of flexure

Where,
fbuw : flange stress calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending
phifcrw : nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs
fbuc : compression-flange stress with consideration of flange lateral stress
phifc : limit of compression-flange stress
fbut : tension-flange stress with consideration of flange lateral stress
phift : limit of tension -flange stress
fdeck : longitudinal tensile stress in a composite section deck
phifr : limit of concrete deck tensile stress. fr shall be taken as the modulus of rupture as per the Article
6.10.1.7

142 Design Guide for midas Civil


(2) by Excel Report
The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

[Fig.2.74] Excel Report for Constructibility of Positive Moment

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 143
2) Negative Flexure

[Fig.2.75] Excel Report for Constructibility of Negative Moment

3.2 Shear
(1) by Result Table
The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Constructibility (shear)...

[Fig.2.76] Result Table for Constructibility of Shear


Where,
Vu : shear in the web due to the factored load
phiVcr : shear-buckling resistance multiplied by resistance factor, phi, for shear

144 Design Guide for midas Civil


(2) by Excel Report
The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

[Fig.2.77] Excel Report for Constructibility of Shear

4. Fatigue Limit State Result


(1) by Result Table
The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Fatigue Limit State...

[Fig.2.78] Result Table for Fatigue Limit State


Where,
γ(Δf) : Range of Fatigue Limit State
(ΔF)n : Nominal Fatigue Resistance
Lcom : Load combinations used in the calculation
Vu : shear in the web due to the unfactored permanent load plus the factored fatigue load
Vcr : shear buckling resistance as per Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 145
(2) by Excel Report
The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

[Fig.2.79] Excel Report for Fatigue Limit State

5. Shear Connector Result


(1) by Result Table
The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.
▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Shear Connector...

[Fig.2.80] Result Table for Shear Connector


Where,
H/D : height to diameter ratio
(H/D)lim : limit value of height to diameter ratio (=4.0)
p : pitch of shear connectors specified by the user
p_lim1: pitch limit value, nZI/(Vsr), as per Eq. 6.10.10.1.2-1
p_lim2: pitch limit value, 6d
s : transverse spacing of shear connectors spacing (Transverse Cross Section)
edge : distance of the top compression flange edge_lim (=1.0 in)
Cover : clear depth of concrete cover over the tops of the shear connectors (> 2.0 in)
Penetration : depth of penetration of the shear connector(>2.0in)
n : number of shear connectors entered in transverse direction
n_Req : required number of shear connectors

146 Design Guide for midas Civil


(2) by Excel Report
The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

[Fig.2.81] Excel Report for Shear Connector

6. Stiffener Result
(1) by Result Table
The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Longitudinal Stiffener...

[Fig.2.82] Result Table for Stiffener


Where,
bl : projecting width
bl_lim : limit of projecting width as per Eq. 6.10.11.3.2-1
I : Moment of inertia of cross-section
I_lim : limit of moment of inertia of cross-section as per Eq. 6.10.11.3.3-1
r : radius of gyration
r_lim : limit of radius of gyration as per Eq. 6.10.11.3.3-2
fs : flexure stress of longitudinal stiffener
phiRhFys : limit of flexure stress as per Eq. 6.10.11.3.1-1

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 147
(2) by Excel Report
The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

[Fig.2.83] Excel Report for Stiffener

7. Span Checking
(1) by Result Table
▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Table...

Most critical member results in each span can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

[Fig.2.84] Result Table for Span Group

148 Design Guide for midas Civil


(2) by Span Result Graph
▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Diagram...

The results of the span group defined by the span information can be checked here. The flexure
and shear results based on distance or node can be checked here. The current applied member
force or elasticity is marked in red while the strength or elasticity is marked in green.

[Fig.2.85] Span Result Graph

8. Total Checking
(1) by Result Table
▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Table...

Summary results for each member can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

[Fig.2.86] Result Table for Toal Checking

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 149
Chapter 3.

Steel Composite
Bridge Load Rating
AASHTO LRFD 2nd (2011)
Chapter 3.
Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating (AASHTO LRFR 11)
Steel composite bridge load rating needs to satisfy the following limit states.

Load Rating of
Steel Composite Bridge

Strength Limit State

Service Limit State

Fatigue Limit State


Chapter 3. Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating : AASHTO-LRFR 2nd (2011)

Introduction
1. AASHTO LRFR 2011 Bridge Load Rating
1.1 Definition of Load Rating
The NBIS (National Bridge Inspections Standards Regulation) regulations define load rating as
“The determination of the live load carrying capacity of a bridge using as-built bridge plans and
supplemented by information gathered from the latest field inspection.”

Load ratings are expressed as a rating factor (RF) or as a tonnage for a particular vehicle.
Emphasis in load rating is on the live-load capacity and dictates the approach of determining
rating factors instead of the design approach of satisfying limit states.

1.2 Purpose of bridge rating


Bridge load rating provides a measure of a bridge's ability to carry a given live load in terms of a
simple factor, referred to rating factor. These bridge rating factors can be used to aid in
decisions about the need for (1) load posting, (2) bridge strengthening, (3) overweight load
allowances, (4) and bridge closers.

[Table3.1] Purpose of bridge rating


Load Posting Bridge Strengthening Bridge Closers

1.3 Difference between Bridge Design and Load Rating


Bridge design and rating, though similar in overall approach, differ in important aspect.

(1) Philosophy of Bridge Design


Bridge Design may adopt a conservative reliability index and impose checks to ensure
serviceability and durability without incurring a major cost impact.

(2) Philosophy of Bridge Load Rating


Bridge ratings generally require the Engineer to consider a wider range of variables than is
typical in bridge design. In rating, the added cost of overly conservative evaluation standards

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 153
can be prohibitive as load restrictions, rehabilitation, and replacement become increasingly
necessary. The rating procedures presented LRFR recognize a balance between safety and
economics.

In most cases, a lower target reliability than design has been chosen for load rating at the
strength limit states to rating is done on a more selective basis than is prescribed for design
in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

1.4 Application of Load Rating


(1) New Construction
When designing a new structure, it is required that RF≥1 for the HL-93 vehicle at the
Inventory Level; therefore, a Legal Load Rating will never be required on a newly designed
structure.

(2) Changes in the below category in the existing building:


▪ Live loads
▪ Dead loads
▪ Physical condition
▪ Specifications, Laws

[Table3.2] Different Cases for The Load Rating


Change in the
New Bridges Change in the live loads
Physical condition

154 Design Guide for Midas Civil


2. Load Rating Levels
The LRFR methodology consists of three distinct levels of evaluation:
(1) Design load rating
(2) Legal load rating
(3) Permit load rating

The result of each evaluation serve specific purpose and also inform the need for further
evaluations. The important factors of each load rating level are summarized as shown below.

[Fig.3.1] Load Rating Levels


Each of these three levels of rating are discussed in detail in immediately following sections.

2.1 Design Load Rating


Design load rating is a first level assessment of bridges. It is a measure of the performance of
existing bridge to current LRFD bridge design standards.

(1) Live Load


At Design load rating level, the HL-93 live-load model of the LRFD is applied, using
dimensions and properties of the bridge in its present as inspected condition.

(2) Limit States


Under this check, bridges are screened for the strength limit state at the LRFD design level
of reliability. Evaluation at a second lower evaluation level of reliability is also an option.
The rating also considers all applicable LRFD serviceability limit states

(3) purpose
Design load rating can serve as a screening process to identify bridges that should be load
rated for legal loads.
Bridges the pass the design load check (RF≥1) at the Inventory level will have satisfactory
load rating for all legal loads that fall within the LRFD exclusion limits.

(4) Level of Design Load Rating


There are two levels of the Design Load Rating:

1) Inventory Rating level


The Inventory rating level generally corresponds to the rating at the design level of
reliability for new bridges in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, but reflects
the existing bridge and material conditions with regard to deterioration and loss of
section.
Load ratings based on the Inventory level allow compressions with the capacity for new
structures and, therefore, result in a live load, which can safely utilize an existing

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 155
structure for an indefinite period of time.

2) Operation Rating level


Load rating based of the Operation rating level generally describe the maximum
permissible live load to which the structure may be subjected. Generally corresponds to
the rating at the Operating level may shorten the life of the bridge.

2.2 Legal Load Rating


This second level rating provides a single safe load capacity (for a given truck configuration)
applicable to AASHTO and State legal loads.
The Previous distinction of Operating and Inventory level ratings is no longer maintained when
load rating for legal loads. Legal load rating provides a level of reliability, corresponding to the
operating level reliability for redundant bridges in good condition.

(1) Live Load


Live load is categorized into the two types according to AASHTO LRFR 2011 as:
1) AASHTO Legal loads, as specified in Article 6A.4.4.2.1a
2) The Notional Rating Load as specified in Article 6A.4.4.2.1b or State legal loads.

(2) Limit States


Strength is the primary limit state for load rating; service limit states are selectively applied.

(3) purpose
Bridges that do not have sufficient capacity under the design-load rating shall be load rated
for legal loads to establish the need for load posting or strengthening.

2.3 Permit Load Rating


This third level of rating should only be applied to bridges having sufficient capacity for legal
loads. In other words, Permit load rating should be used only if the bridge has a rating factor
greater than 1.0 when evaluated for AASHTO legal loads.

(1) Live Load


The actual permit vehicle’s gross vehicle weight and axle configuration will be the live load
used in the permit-load evaluation. The MBE(Manual for Bridge Evaluation) categorizes
permit loads into two classes:
1) Routine/annual permits, and
2) Special permits.

(2) Limit States


Permits are checked using the Strength II limit-state load combination with the Service II
limit-state load combination optional for steel bridges to limit potential permanent
deformations.

(3) purpose
Permit load rating checks the safety and serviceability of bridges in the review of permit
application for the passage of vehicles above the legally established weight limitations.

156 Design Guide for Midas Civil


3. Process of Load Rating

Flow Chart
AASHTO LRFR 11
( APPENDIX A6A)

[Fig.3.2] Flow Chart of Load Rating

The process starts with a bridge first being rated at the Design Inventory level under HL- 93
load model. If the bridge is found to be satisfactory at this level of rating, it’s considered not to
require posting for “AASHTO legal loads and state legal loads within the LRFD exclusion limits”,
and hence the bridge can be evaluated directly for permit load vehicles.
However if the rating factor at the Design Inventory level is found to be less than 1.0, the
bridge must be evaluated under either the Design Operating level or the Legal load level.
At these levels of rating if the bridge is found to be satisfactory it is considered not to require
posting for “AASHTO legal loads and state legal loads having only minor variations form the
AASHTO legal loads”, and the bridge can be evaluated for permit load vehicles.
If, however, the bridge is found to be not satisfactory, load posting will be required for legal
loads and no permit analysis is allowed.
There is however the option for higher forms of evaluation, such as load testing of the bridge
or the use of finite element modeling, for when a bridge is found to be unsatisfactory at the
Legal load level and the engineer feels the bridge may not require posting.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 157
Chapter 3. Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating : AASHTO-LRFR 2nd (2011)

Modeling and Design


Variables
1. Modeling Design Variables
In this chapter, the design variables, the meaning behind the design requirements, and the design process for Steel
Composite Load Rating in midas Civil are explained.

1.1 Design Parameters for Steel Composite Load Rating


In this section, the application of load rating and input method and meaning of the related variables are explained.

Contents Explanation
1.1.1 Rating Design Code 1.1.1 Rating Design Code
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Rating The program performs the load rating based on the
code selected in this dialog box.
Design Code ...

[Fig.3.3] Rating Design code

1.1.2 Steel Bridge Load Rating Parameters 1.1.2 Steel Bridge Load Rating Parameters
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Rating (1) The system factor is inputted according to the
Parameters ... System Factor, 𝜑𝑠 , provided in AASHTO LRFR
2011 (Table 3.6).
The system factor is multiplied to the flexural
strength (Mn) and shear strength (Vn) and,
therefore, applied to all elements.

(2) Strength Resistance Factor


Strength Resistance Factor is defined.
The resistance factors are automatically set to the
default values defined in AASHTO LRFR 12. The
values also may be modified or entered manually.

(3) Girder Type for Box/Tub Section


If the Single Box Section option is selected, the

158 Design Guide for Midas Civil


sections are considered as noncompact section; if
the Multiple Box Section option is selected, the
sections are considered as compact sections.
□ Consider St.Venant Torsion and Distortion Stress
If the Multiple Box Section option is selected,
lateral bending stress is considered in
accordance with St. Venant Torsion and
Distortion Stress. If the Single Box Section
option is selected, the lateral bending stress is
not considered.

(4) Options For Strength Limit State


□ Appendix A6 for Negative Flexure Resistance in
Web Compact/Noncompact Sections
If this option is checked, Appendix A6 is applied
for the flexural strength of straight composite I-
sections in negative flexure with
compact/noncompact webs.

□ Mn≤1.3RhMy in Positive Flexure and Compact


Sections(6.10.7.1.2-3)
If this option is checked, Mn value is restricted to
1.3RhMy under positive flexure.

□ Post-buckling Tension-field Action for Shear


Resistance (6.10.9.3.2)
If this option is checked, post buckling resistance
due to tension field action is considered in the
nominal shear resistance of an interior stiffened
web panel according to AASHTO LRFD 12. If not,
Vn is taken as CVp.

(5) Service Limit State


□ Service Limit State
If this option is checked, the service limit is
verified according to AASHTO LRFR 2011 6A.6.4.

If Auto-Calculation is selected, the RF is calculated


automatically according to LRFR standards. For
more details, please refer to "Application of
[Fig.3.4] Load Rating Parameters Dialog Box
AASHTO LRFD 12 in Midas Civil" Section 3.3.

If User Input is selected, the capacities,


parameters calculated for the verification of the
RF, can be manually inputted. The allowed
compressive stress and tensile stress of the
concrete need to be inputted.

The compressive and tensile stresses inputted for


Design Load and Legal Load are applied for the
verification of the Design Load Rating and Legal
Load Rating, respectively.

(6) Fatigue Limit State


□ Fatigue Limit State

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 159
If this option is checked, the program checks the
Fatigue Limit State according to AASHTO LRFR 11
6A.6.4.

Also, the Load Test Measurement for the


Application of Diagnostic Test Result can be
selected between Strain and Displacement.

1.1.3 Unbraced Length


1.1.3 Unbraced Length The Unbraced Length for steel composite section is
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Unbraced considered. The value input here has higher priority
than the value calculated from Span Group.
Length ...
(1) Lb
The Lateral Unbraced Length is used to calculate
the lateral torsional buckling resistance for the
compression flange of I-Girders.
If the Lateral Unbraced Length is not applied, the
span information, if defined, is used for the
calculation. If the span information is not defined,
element lengths are applied as the lateral
unbraced length.

[Fig.3.5] Unbraced Length Dialog Box

1.1.4 Shear Connectors


1.1.4 Shear Connectors Studs are used as shear connectors and the
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Shear following parameters are used for the calculation:
Connectors ... (1) Category
Category defined by 75yr-(ADTT)SL equivalent to
Infinite Life.

(2) Fu
Shear Resistance of Shear Connector

(3) Shear Connector Pane meters

160 Design Guide for Midas Civil


[Fig.3.7] Shear Connector Parameters

(4) Length between Max.Moment and Zero


Moment
The length of the sections where shear
connectors need to be considered is inputted for
the calculation of the pitch at the strength limit
state.

(5) Nominal Shear Force Calculation


The type of nominal shear force calculation is
[Fig.3.6] Shear Connector Dialog Box determined for the calculation of the Nominal
Shear Force, P, which his used to calculate the
minimum number of shear connector, n, at the
strength limit state. Based on the calculation type
selected, the equations used to calculate P are
differed.

1.1.5 Fatigue Parameter


1.1.5 Fatigue Parameter (1) Category
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Fatigue Category defined by 75yr-(ADTT)SL equivalent to
Parameter ... infinite life (Table 6.6.1.2.3-2).

(2) (ADTT)SL
Number of trucks per day in a single-lane
averaged over the design life (3.6.1.4.2)
Value can be manually calculated as per 3.6.1.4.2-
1.

(3) n
Number of cycles per truck passage
Value can be taken from Table 6.6.1.2.5-2.

(4) Longitudinal Warping Stress Range


For the verification of fatigue, flexure stress is
calculated as the summation of Longitudinal

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 161
Bending Stress Range and Longitudinal Warping
Stress Range.

By choosing the Auto-Calculation option, fatigue


vertical bending moment is simply increased by
10% for the longitudinal warping stress.

If the User Input option is selected, longitudinal


bending stress range is summated with the
inputted value of the Longitudinal Warping Stress
Range for top or bottom flange depending upon
the flexure condition at the section.

[Fig.3.8] Fatigue Parameters Dialog Box

1.1.6 Curved Bridge Information


1.1.6 Curved Bridge Information
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Curved
Once the girder radius value of the element units in
Bridge Info ...
the steel composite section is entered, the
corresponding elements are categorized as curved
bridges. The inputted girder radius is used for the
following equations.

(1) Radius is used for the review of flange lateral


bending moment caused due to the curvature. (N
is taken as 10.)
Ml 2
M lat  (LRFD 2012 c4.6.1.2.4b-1)
NRD
where,
Mlat : flange lateral bending moment
M : major-axis bending moment
l : unbraced length
R : girder radius
D : web depth
N : a constant taken as 10 or 12 in past practice
[Fig.3.9] Curved Bridge Information Dialog Box

162 Design Guide for Midas Civil


(2) Radius is used for the review of shear
[Table3.3] Convex and Concave connector's pitch and the moment of inertia of
Convex Concave area for the longitudinal stiffener attached to
web.

(3) Curve Type - Convex, Concave


If Convex is selected, Left Stiffener is on the side
of the web away from the center of curvature and
Right Stiffener is on the side of the web toward
the center of curvature.
If Concave is selected, the opposite case of the
convex is applied. The Left and Right are
determined based on the progressing direction of
the cross section.

Please refer to the table below for the equations


applied to each case.

[Table3.4]Curvature Correction Factor for Longitudinal


Stiffener
Case Equation
Left Z
 1 (6.10.11.3.3-3)
Stiffener 6
Convex
Right Z
  1 (6.10.11.3.3-4)
Stiffener 12
Left Z
  1 (6.10.11.3.3-4)
Stiffener 12
Concave
Right Z
  1 (6.10.11.3.3-3)
Stiffener 6

Where,
𝛽 : Curvature correction factor for longitudinal
stiffener
𝑍 : Curvature Parameter

1.1.7 Diagnostic Test Result


▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Diagnostic 1.1.7 Diagnostic Test Result
Variables that are used to verify the load carrying
Test Result...
capacity for the diagnostic test result are inputted
in this dialog box.

(1) Auto calculation


Deflection and impact factor are inputted for the
diagnostic test.

(2) User Input


The Adjustment Factor, K, is inputted by users. K is
used to calculate the load-rating factor for the
live-load capacity based on the load test result,
RFT.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 163
K  1  K a K b (8.8.2.3.1-1)
where,
Ka : accounts for both the benefit derived from the load
test, if any, and consideration of the section factor (area,
section modulus, ect.) resisting the applied test load
Kb: accounts for the understanding of the load test
results when with those predicted by theory

[Fig.3.10] Diagnostic Test Result Dialog Box

1.2 Design Material Data


In this section, the material property information input method for the Steel Composite Load Rating is explained.

Contents Explanation
1.2.1 Rating material 1.2.1 Rating material
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> In this dialog box, the Material Properties can be
modified for the calculation of the structure
Rating material...
capacity.

(1) Rating material


The material utilized for composite sections are
provided in the SRC material properties. The
material should be defined as SRC Type.

(1) Modify Composite Material


This dialog box is used to input material
characteristics for the steel composite section
design. The material property values entered will
have a priority over the values entered in Material
Data dialog box.

1) Steel of the Steel Girder Section


□ Hybrid Factor
Hybrid Factor is considered in the case where
flanges and web have different material
properties.

164 Design Guide for Midas Civil


2) Concrete of the Concrete slab

3) Steel Rebar of the Concrete slab

[Fig.3.11] Rating Material Dialog Box

(2) Hybrid Factor (2) Hybrid Factor(Rh)


When the check box for Hybrid Factor is selected,
icon on the right is activated. The different
materials for the top and bottom flanges and web of
the steel girder can be defined. Hybrid Factor (Rh) is
determined based on these material information.

[Fig.3.12] Hybrid Factor Dialog box

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 165
1.3 Settings for Load Rating
In this section, how to define which part of the structure the load rating is performed and factors and rating levels for
each part are explained.

Contents Explanation
1.3.1 Rating Group Setting 1.3.1 Rating Group Setting
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Rating The Bridge Rating Group Setting Dialog allows users
to apply Condition Factors per different groups
Group Setting...
defined already and i- and j-end check positions.

(1) Inputting different Condition Factors and other


design features are faster with the elements defined
in Groups.
Selected Groups are targeted for the design of the
Rating Factor.

Structure Group is defined in Define Structure Group


at:
▶ Tree Menu > Group> Structure Group>New...

[Fig.3.13] Rating Group Setting Dialog Box [Fig.3.14] Structure Group Dialog Box

(2) Different values of Condition Factor, 𝝋𝒄 , can be


applied to different Structure Groups of elements. In
the program, the Condition Factor is internally
multiplied to Nominal Flexural Strength, Nominal
Flexural Resistance, Nominal Shear Strength and
Nominal Fatigue Resistance to calculate the Road
Factor. For more details, please refer to [Table 3.7]
and [Table 3.8].

(3) The Check Position, i- and/or j- end, is considered


and selected for the Groups selected for the design.

166 Design Guide for Midas Civil


1.3.2 Define Rating Case
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Define 1.3.2 Define Rating Case
In Define Rating Case Dialog, Load Factor is
Rating Case...
defined for each of the Service Limit State,
Strength Limit State and Fatigue Limit State.

(1) For the Fatigue Limit State calculation,


Unfactored dead load should be selected.

(2) Default Load Factors are automatically


inputted for each Load Type (DC, DW, ...) as per
LRFR 2012 and can be manually modified by users.

Maximum and Minimum Load Factors are


inputted for DC(Before), DC(After), and DW. The
default maximum and minimum values are
provided according to LRFR 2011 Table 6A.4.2.2-1
and LRFD 2012 Table 3.4.102.
Only one load factor is inputted for the
Temperature Load, but the load factor is used as
positive and negative (+, -) for the calculation.

DC(Before) is for the state before the concrete


deck is activated.
DC(After) is for the state after the concrete deck is
activated. DC(After) considers the Erection load
case, if defined by user, and the stress caused by
the time dependent material property, Creep &
Shrinkage.

Per different Load Type, Load Cases can be


additionally inputted per different Load Type and
reflected in the Load Rating Factor calculation.

(3) For different Load Types, different Load Cases


are selected.
Member forces before the composite state are
[Fig.3.15] Define Rating Case Dialog Box applied to Dead Load (CS) and member forces
after the composite state are applied to Erection
Load.

Static Load case is defined at: ▶ Load > Load


Type > Create Load Cases > Static Load Cases

Information inputted in the Load case internally


generates the 12 Types results (Fx-max, ... My-
min) per nodes in the calculation.
For each node, Max/Min forces are calculated per
total 6 degree of freedom (DOF) for each node.

(4) Live Load and Load Factor are inputted

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 167
separately for the Primary Vehicle and Adjacent
Vehicle.
When is clicked, the
load combinations and corresponding Load
Factors are generated. When the load
combination is clicked, the load combination and
load factors are inputted in the Rating Case Dialog
Box.

Each Live Load should be inputted prior in Moving


Load Cases at: ▶Load > Load Type > Moving
Load > Moving Load Analysis Data > Moving
Load Cases)

(5) Evaluation Live Load Model


Load Rating flow as per LRFR standard is explained
in [Fig.3.2]. The program does not automatically
follow the flow of [Fig.3.2]. In this Live Load
Factors for Rating Dialog, rating level needs to be
defined as well as the load cases.
[Fig.3.16] Live Load Factor for Rating Dialog Box
In the "Introduction" Chapter, Section 2.2 and
Section 2.3, different purposes and applications of
performing Legal Load Rating level and Permit
Load Rating level are explained. However, in this
dialog box, the Legal Level and Permit Level both
needs to be selected because the same LRFD Load
Factors are used in the two level checks.

1.3.3 Position for Rating Output


1.3.3 Position for Rating Output
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design >
In this Dialog, the Position for Rating Output is
Position for Rating Output... inputted.

(1) Users can select Groups in the Filters for Load


Rating Summary and define the Position for Rating
Output.

(2) When Apply is clicked in this dialog box, the


elements to be printed in the output is defined
and saved.

[Fig.3.17] Position for Rating output Dialog Box

168 Design Guide for Midas Civil


1.3.4 Rating Design Force/Moment Tables 1.3.4 Rating Design Tables
For the selected load combinations, design member
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating
force (longitudinal-direction moment (My),
Design Tables > Design Force/Moment transverse-direction moment (Mz), shear (Vu)) are
calculated at different part(s) of the elements per
construction stages.

[fig.3.18] Rating Design Force/Moment Tables Dialog Box

1.4 Composite Section Data


Steel composite section is composed of steel girder and concrete slab. Additional stiffeners may be arranged in the steel
girder; longitudinal and sub reinforcement rebars may be arranged in the concrete slab. In this section, Steel Composite
Load Rating features and functions and related section input method and design variables are explained.

Contents Explanation

1.4.1 Longitudinal Reinforcement 1.4.1 Longitudinal Reinforcement


▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> In a steel composite section, the longitudinal
reinforcements are arranged within the concrete
Longitudinal Reinforcement
deck. The strength is calculated as shown in the below
table.

[Table3.5] Material Application for Strength Calculation


Positive Negative
Case
Flexure Flexure

Figure

Concrete
Apply None
Slab
[Fig.3.19] Longitudinal Reinforcement Dialog
Reinforce
None Applied
-ment

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 169
Contents Explanation

1.4.2 Transverse Stiffener 1.4.2 Transverse Stiffener


Figure 3.20 shows the dialog box in which users can
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> arrange transverse stiffeners in steel composite section.
Transverse Stiffener... When the transverse stiffeners are installed, the
existence and spacing between stiffeners determine
whether the web is stiffened or unstiffened under
strength limit state.

[Fig.3.20] Transverse Stiffener Dialog

[Fig.3.21] Transverse Stiffener Parameters

(1) Stiffener Type


1) One / Two Stiffener Option Button
Choose between one or two stiffeners. The two
stiffener option is available for I/Box/Tub sections.

2) Pitch (do)
Pitch refers to the Transverse Stiffener spacing. At
the strength limit state, this can be used to
distinguish between stiffened and unstiffened webs
or calculate shear strength of the web.

[Fig.3.22] Stiffener Type Dialog

170 Design Guide for Midas Civil


Chapter 3. Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating : AASHTO-LRFR 2nd (2011)

Application of AASHTO
LRFR 11 in midas Civil
1. Rating Factor Calculation
The Bridge Load Rating function of midas Civil calculates the Rating Factor (RF) at i/j nodes of
elements for the Rating Cases according to AASHTO LRFR 2011 standard and finds the minimum RF.

Rating load carrying papa city needs to be done at three different levels - Design Load Rating, Legal
Load Rating, and Permit Load Rating - according to the AASHTO LRFR 2011. Midas Civil Bridge Load
Rating calculates RF by using the equations (3.3) for Design Load Rating and Legal Load Rating for
the load cases defined in Define Load Case [fig.3.15].

The RF calculated in Midas Civil determines whether it is safe to carry the Primary Vehicle. If RF>1 it
is safe and the larger RF, the greater the load carrying capacity of the bridge.

1.1 RF Calculation as per AASHTO LRFR


The RF value shall be taken as below according to the LRFR standard:
RF
C  ( DC )( DC)  ( DW )( DW )  ( P )( P) AASHTO LRFR 11
RF  (3.1)
(Eq. 6A.4.2.1-1)
( L )( LL  IM )

(1.1
Where,
RF : Rating factor
C : Capacity
Capacity, C, is calculated as shown in [Table 3.6] for the corresponding Limit State.

[Table3.6] C (Capacity) in AASHTO LRFR 2011 C


Case C AASHTO LRFR 11
(Eq. 6A.4.2.1-2)
Strength Limit States C  cs Rn ( cs  0.85 ) (Eq. 6A.4.2.1-3)
(Eq. 6A.4.2.1-4)
Service Limit States C  fR
𝑓𝑅 : Allowable Stress specified in the LRFD code
DC : Dead-load effect due to structural components and attachments
DW : Dead-load effect due to wearing surfaces and utilities
P : Permanent loads other than dead loads
LL : Live load effect

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 171
IM : Dynamic load allowance
𝛾𝐷𝐶 : LRFD load factor for structural components and attachments
𝛾𝐷𝑊 : LRFD load factor for wearing surfaces and utilities
𝛾𝑃 : LRFD load factor for permanent loads other than dead loads
𝛾𝐿𝐿 : Evaluation live load factor
𝜑𝑐 : Condition factor
𝜑𝑠 : System factor
𝜑 : LRFD resistance factor
Rn : Nominal member resistance

1.2 Load Rating in Midas Civil


1.2.1 Review Items
In Midas Civil, load rating is reviewed based on the three different limit states for steel
composite bridges. For more information about how to define load cases for each limit state,
please refer to "Modeling and Design Variables" Section 1.3.2 and this chapter ("Application of
AASHTO LRFR 11 in midas Civil") Section 1.2.3.

Load Rating of Steel Composite Bridge

Strength Limit State

Service Limit State

Fatigue Limit State

[Fig.3.23] Flow Chart of Load Rating of Steel Composite Bridge in midas Civil

1.2.2 Calculation of RF
Midas Civil's PSC Bridge Load Rating function uses the below equation [3.2] upon the
request of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans).

C  ( DC )( DC )  ( DW )( DW )  ( T )(T )  ( SEC )(SEC )  ( P )( P)  ( USER )(USER)  ( AV )( AV )


RF 
( PV )( PV ) (3.2)

For the Steel Composite Load Rating, the equation [3.2] is modified to reflect the steel
composite bridge characteristics. The equation [3.3] reflects the member force for before
and after the concrete deck is activated and is used to calculate the RF value.

RF 
 
C  ( DCB )( DCB )   DC A DCA    DW DW    T T    SEC SEC    P P    USER USER    AV ( AV )
(3.3)
 PV PV 

Where,
RF : Rating factor calculated by Midas Civil
C : Capacity

172 Design Guide for Midas Civil


[Table3.7] C (Capacity) Calculated by Midas Civil
Case C
Strength Limit States C  cs Rn ( cs  0.85 )
Auto-Calculation C  fR
Service Limit States
User Input User-defined allowable stress in [Fig.3.4]
Fatigue Limit State C  cs Rn ( cs  0.85 )

If user-defined 𝜑𝑐 and 𝜑𝑆 result 𝜑𝑐 𝜑𝑆 < 0.85, the program adjusts 𝜑𝑐 𝜑𝑆 to be equal to


0.85 and calculate C. For calculating C, midas Civil uses different 𝜑𝑅𝑛 depending on the type
of limit state.

[Table3.8] φR n Calculated by Midas Civil


Load Rating State 𝜑𝑅𝑛 Calculated by Midas Civil

Flexural Strength Mn or Fn according to AASHTO LRFD 12


Strength Limit State
Shear Strength Vn according to AASHTO LRFD 12

Fatigue Limit State (ΔF)TH calculated according to AASHTO LRFD 2012

DC : Dead load effect due to structural components and attachments


DCB :Dead load effect due to structural components and attachments before the concrete deck is
activated
DCA :Dead load effect due to structural components and attachments due to the erection load case,
defined by users, and time dependent material property of concrete (Creep and Shrinkage)
DW : Dead-load effect due to wearing surfaces and utilities
T : Temperature and Temperature Gradient
SEC : In Define Rating Case Dialog Box, Creep Secondary, Shrinkage Secondary and Tendon Secondary
can be selected
P : Permanent loads other than dead loads
USER : User-defined load
AV : Adjacent Vehicle load
PV: Primary vehicle load
𝛾𝐷𝐶 : LRFD load factor for Dead load effect due to structural components and attachments
𝛾𝐷𝐶𝐵 : LRFD load factor before the concrete deck is activated
𝛾𝐷𝐶𝐴 : LRFD load factor after the Erection load case defined by user and time dependent material
property of concrete are activated
𝛾𝐷𝑊 : LRFD load factor for wearing surfaces and utilities
𝛾𝑇 : LRFD load factor for temperature
𝛾𝑆𝐸𝐶 : LRFD load factor for secondary
𝛾𝑈𝑆𝐸𝑅 : LRFD load factor for user-defined load
𝛾𝑃 : LRFD load factor for permanent loads other than dead loads
𝛾𝐴𝑉 : LRFD load factor for adjacent vehicle load
𝛾𝑃𝑉 : LRFD load factor for primary vehicle load

The above factors may be explained in terms of the Define Rating Case dialog box as follows.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 173
The values input in the red-colored box are applied as the factors directed with the arrow.

[Fig.3.24] Define Rating Case dialog box where factors are inputted

1.2.3 Load Rating Flow in Midas Civil


(1) Load Rating Flow
The flow of load rating according to LRFR standard is explained in [Fig. 3.2]. In this section,
how load rating is performed in midas Civil is explained. In midas Civil, load rating is
performed for the load cases defined in Define Rating Case dialog box [Fig. 3.15].

(2) Setting and Input Methods


The two pictures in the below table are parts of Define Rating Case dialog box.
Limit State Rating Level

[Fig.3.25] Limit State in Define Rating Case dialog box [Fig.3.26] Rating Level in Define Rating Case dialog box

The Load Rating is performed for the Limit State selected by user in the right picture above
and the Rating Level selected in the left picture. Therefore, user can create and check load
cases for maximum six different cases (3 Limit States x 2 Rating Levels = total 6 Cases).

The below figure presents which choices need to be selected in Define Rating Case dialog box
and their order in accordance with LRFR Load Rating flow chart.

174 Design Guide for Midas Civil


[Fig.3.27] Flow Chart of LRFR 11 and Define Rating Case dialog box

(3) Load Applied


The vehicle load applied according to the rating level prescribed in the LRFR 2011 is explained
in "Introduction" Section 2. To increase the flexibility of the users, vehicle load needs to be
manually defined by users.

▶Vehicle loads can be defined at: Load > Load Type > Moving Load > Moving Load Analysis
Data > Vehicles. If AASHTO LRFD Load is selected for the Standard Name, the vehicle loads are
automatically inputted in accordance with LRFD.
The below figure shows the Define Standard Vehicular Load dialog box and the list of the
vehicular load type supported in midas Civil when AASHTO LRFD Load is selected as the
Standard.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 175
[Fig.3.28] Define Standard vehicular load dialog box

1.2.4 Condition Factor, 𝝋𝒄


The Condition Factor provides a reduction to account for the increased uncertainty in the Condition Factor
resistance of deteriorated members and the likely increased future deterioration of these AASHTO LRFR 11
( 6A.4.2.3)
members during the period between inspection cycles.
The condition factor needs to be inputted in the Rating Group Setting Dialog Box [Fig.3.13] in
midas Civil.

[Table3.9] Condition Factor


Structural Condition of Member c
Good or Satisfactory 1.00 Condition Factor
AASHTO LRFR 11
Fair 0.95 (Table. 6A.4.2.3-1)

Poor 0.85

1.2.5 System Factor, 𝝋𝒔


System factor reflects the level of redundancy of the complete superstructure system. System
factors that correspond to the load factor modification in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design System Factor
Specifications should be used. The system factors in [Table3.10] are more conservative than AASHTO LRFR 11
(6A.4.2.4)
the LRFD.
If the simplified system factors presented in [Table3.10] are used, they should be applied only

176 Design Guide for Midas Civil


when checking flexural and axial effect at the strength limit state of typical spans and
geometries.
The system factor needs to be inputted in the Steel Bridge Load Rating Parameters dialog box
[Fig.3.4] in midas Civil.

[Table3.10] System Factor


Structural Type s
System Factor
Welded Members in Two-Girder/Truss/Arch Bridges 0.85 AASHTO LRFR 11
(Table. 6A.4.2.4-1)
Riveted Members in Two-Girder/Truss/Arch Bridges 0.90
Multiple Eyebar Members in Truss Bridges 0.90
Three-Girder Bridges with Girder Spacing 6ft 0.85
Four-Girder Bridges with Girder Spacing ≤ 4ft 0.95
All Other Girder Bridges and Slab Bridges 1.00
Floorbeams with Spacing >12 ft and Noncontinuous Stringers 0.85
Redundant Stringer Subsystems between Floorbeams 1.00

A Constant value of ϕs =1.0 is to be applied when checking shear at the strength limit state.

1.3 Load Combination


AASHTO LRFR clarifies the Load Factors for different Limit States and loads as shown in [Table
3.11]. The Load Factors are inputted in the Define Rating Case Dialog (Chapter "Modeling and
Design Variables" Article 1.3.2) Load Combination
AASHTO LRFR 11
(Table. 6A.4.2.2-1)
[Table3.11] Limit States and Load Factors for Load Rating

▪ Shaded cells of the table indicate optional checks.


▪ Service I is used to check the 0.9 Fy stress Limit in reinforcing steel.
▪ Load factor for DW at the strength limit stress may be taken as 1.23 where thickness has
been field measured.
▪ Fatigue limit state is checked using the LRFE fatigue truck. (see LRFR Article 6A.6.4.1)

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 177
1.4 I and Box Section
In Load Rating, certain items need to be checked in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Design
Article; while some do not. Please refer to the below table for the applicability of each case.

[Table3.12] LRFD Design Articles applied per section type and review criteria
I Section Box Section
I and Box Section
Case
AASHTO LRFR 11
Straight Bridge Curved bridge Straight Bridge Curved bridge ( 6A.6.9.1~6A.6.9.5)
Flexural
6.10.6.2 6.11.6.2 and 6.11.1.1
resistance
Shear
6.10.9 6.10.9 and 6.11.9
resistance
Not considered
fl 6.10.1.6 - -
in midas Civil
constructability No need to be considered fl
AASHTO LRFR 11
Fatigue
( 6A.6.4.2.2))
requirements No need to be considered
for webs

Composite sections are considered as unshored construction for the load rating in midas Civil
according to LRFR 2011 6A.6.9.2.
AASHTO LRFR 11 provides standards for box sections only but not tub sections. Therefore, the
load rating for tub sections is done in accordance with the box section standards.

2. Strength Limit State


The minimum RF is calculated for the Rating Cases inputted for the Strength Limit State. Please
refer to [Table 3.12] for the LRFD Articles applied for different section types.

2.1 General
Strength Limit State is reviewed for flexural strength and shear strength.
Strength Limit States
LRFR 11 6A.6.4.1 and 6A.4.2.1.

Rating Factor for Flexural Strength

Rating Factor for Shear Strength

[Fig.3.29] Flow chart of Strength Limit State

178 Design Guide for Midas Civil


2.2 Load Combination
Different load combinations are applied per load rating levels for the strength limit state check.

[Table3.13] Load Combination


Load Rating Level Load Combination
Design load level Strength Ⅰ load combination
Legal load level Strength Ⅰ load combination Load Combination
Permit load level Strength Ⅱ load combination AASHTO LRFR 11
(6A.6.4.1)
(6A.6.4.2.1)
2.3 Rating Factor(RF) Calculation
2.3.1 Rating Factor for Flexural Strength
The RF is calculated for each Rating Case according to the equation (3.4). The minimum RF is
calculated at the i- and j- ends for the positive and negative moments.

RF 
 
C  ( DCB )( DCB )   DC A DCA    DW DW    T T    SEC SEC    P P    USER USER    AV ( AV )
(3.4)
 PV PV 

Where,
C :capacity,

[Table3.14] C (Capacity) and 𝜑𝑅𝑛


C 𝜑𝑅𝑛
Mn or Fn
𝜑𝑐 𝜑𝑠 𝜑𝑅𝑛
calculated according to AASHTO LRFD 2012

[Table3.15] Cases Mn and Fn are calculated


Mn Fn
▪ Compact Section ▪ Positive flexural moment in noncompact section
in Positive flexural moment ▪Negative flexural moment and one of the following
cases:
▪ Flexural resistance - Curved bridge
of Negative Flexure Moment
- Straight Bridge but slender section
by using Appendix A6
-Straight Bridge and compact or noncompact, but
Appendix A6 is not applied

 
( DCB )( DCB )   DC A DC A    DW DW    T T    SEC SEC    P P    USER USER   AV ( AV ) :
My from Load Case
( PV )PV  : My from Primary Vehicle(P.V)

2.3.2 Rating Factor for Shear Strength


The RF is calculated at i/j nodes for the rating cases inputted for the strength limit state
according to the equation (3.5) and the minimum RF is found.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 179
RF 
 
C  ( DCB )( DCB )   DC A DCA    DW DW    T T    SEC SEC    P P    USER USER    AV ( AV )
(3.5)
 PV PV 

Where,
C : V calculated by MIDAS-CIVIL depending on Code of AASHTO LRFD 2012
n
 
( DCB )( DCB )   DC A DC A    DW DW    T T    SEC SEC    P P    USER USER   AV ( AV )
: Vz from Load Case
( PV )PV  : Vz from Primary Vehicle(P.V)

3. Service Limit State


The minimum RF is calculated according to the equation (3.5) for the Rating Cases inputted for
the Service Limit State. Then, the minimum RF is determined.

3.1 General
The below LRFD Design Article is applied for the Service Limit State check in Load Rating.

[Table3.16] LRFD Articles applied for different section type


Case LRFD Design Article
I Section 6.10.4.2 Service Limit State
Box Section 6.11.4 AASHTO LRFR 11
(6A.6.4.2.2)

3.2 Load Combination


For the Service Limit State check, Service II load combination is applied for all Load Rating level.

[Table3.17] Load Combination


Load Rating Level Load Combination
Design load level
Load Combination
Legal load level Service Ⅱ load combination AASHTO LRFR 11
(6A.6.4.1)
Permit load level (6A.6.4.2.2)

3.3 Rating Factor(RF) Calculation


The RF is calculated for the compressive and tensile stresses at i/j nodes.

RF 
 
C  ( DCB )( DCB )   DC A DCA    DW DW    T T    SEC SEC    P P    USER USER    AV ( AV )
(3.6)
 PV PV 

Where,
C : Stress
 
( DCB )( DCB )   DC A DC A    DW DW    T T    SEC SEC    P P    USER USER   AV ( AV )
: Stress from Load Cases
( PV )PV  : Stress from Primary Vehicle(P.V)

180 Design Guide for Midas Civil


The capacity, C, changes depending on whether the value is auto-calculated or user-defined in
the Load Rating Parameters dialog box shown in [Fig.3.4]. Please refer to the below table.

[Table3. 18] C (Capacity) in Service Limit State


Case c
Composite Section C  f R  0.95Fyf Capacity
Auto-Calculation AASHTO LRFR 11
Noncomposite Section C  f R  0.8Rh Fyf (6A.6.4.2.2)

User Input Allowable Stress inputted in [Fig.3.4]

In Which,
Fyf : Yield Stress

4. Fatigue Limit State


The RF is calculated using the equation (3.6) for the rating cases inputted for the Fatigue Limit
State and the minimum RF is determined. Fatigue Limit State
AASHTO LRFR 11
(Section 7)
4.1 General
The fatigue requirements for webs specified in LRFD Design Article 6.10.5.3 does not need to be
considered for the Fatigue Limit State verification of the i- and box- type sections. AASHTO LRFR
2011 does not specify the standards for the tub sections; however, the tub sections are verified Fatigue Requirements
according to the box section verification in midas Civil. AASHTO LRFR 11
(6A.6.9.1)

4.2 Load Combination


(1) The Fatigue load combination is applied for the Fatigue Limit State verification as shown in
[Table 3.11].

(2) The Fatigue Limit state is only verified for the Design Load Rating level. Legal Load Rating and
Permit Load Rating levels are not verified for the Fatigue Limit State.

4.3 Rating Factor(RF) Calculation

RF 
 
C  ( DCB )( DCB )   DC A DCA    DW DW    T T    SEC SEC    P P    USER USER    AV ( AV )
(3.7)
 PV PV 

Where,
C: capacity

[Table3.19] C (Capacity) and 𝜑𝑅𝑛


C 𝜑𝑅𝑛
𝜑𝑐 𝜑𝑠 𝜑𝑅𝑛 (ΔF)TH calculated by MIDAS-Civil depending on Code of AASHTO LRFD 2012

 
( DCB )( DCB )   DC A DC A    DW DW    T T    SEC SEC    P P    USER USER   AV ( AV )
: Stress from Load Case

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 181
( PV )( PV )
:Stress from Primary Vehicle(P.V)
(∆𝐹) 𝑇𝐻 is constant-amplitude fatigue threshold.

4.3 Levels of Fatigue Limit State


4.3.1 Category
Levels
(1 )The two types of Fatigue damage are: AASHTO LRFR 11
▪ Load-induced fatigue damage (7.1)
(7.2.1)
▪ Distortion-induced Fatigue damage

The Load-induced fatigue damage is verified in midas Civil.

(2) The two levels of load-induced fatigue damage are:


▪ The infinite-life calculation
▪ The finite-life calculation

Please refer to [Table 3.20] for the LRFR Design Articles applied in each case.

[Table3.20] LRFR Article applied for Fatigue cases


Levels of Fatigue Evaluation LRFR Design Article
Infinite - life 7.2 and 7.2.4
Load-induced Fatigue
Finite - life 7.2 and 7.2.5
Application of LRFR
Distortion-induced Fatigue 7.3 AASHTO LRFR 11
(7.2.1)

4.3.2 Flow of Fatigue Limit State


The infinite-life calculation and finite-life calculation are distinguished according to the flow
chart shown in [Fig.3.30]. Only bridge details that fail the infinite-life check are subject to
the more complex finite-life evaluation.

Fatigue Evaluation of Load-induced Fatigue damage


7.2.4 and 7.2.5

Yes f max  FTH No

Finite Fatigue Life


Infinite Fatigue Life Flow
AASHTO LRFR 11
Y 
RR A
Y 
7.2.4

365 n ( ADTT ) SL   f eff 
3
(7.2.4)
(Eq.7.2.4-1)
(7.2.5)
7.2.5

End
Infinite Fatigue Life
AASHTO LRFR 11

182 Design Guide for Midas Civil


[Fig.3.30] Flow Chart of Fatigue Evaluation of Load-induced Fatigue damage (Eq.7.2.4-2)

Finite Fatigue Life


Where, AASHTO LRFR 11
Y : total fatigue life of a fatigue-prone detail in years (Eq.7.2.5.1-1)
(∆𝑓)𝑚𝑎𝑥 : maximum stress range expected at the fatigue-prone detail
(∆𝑓)𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2.0 (∆𝑓)𝑒𝑓𝑓
(𝐴𝐷𝑇𝑇)𝑆𝐿 : Average member of trucks per day in a single lane averaged over the fatigue life
𝑅𝑅 is resistance factor specified for evaluation, minimum, or mean fatigue life.
A is Detail Category Constant.
n is the number of stress-range cycles per truck passage estimated according to 𝑅𝑅
(in order of increasing apparent accuracy and complexity)

In midas Civil, different (∆F)TH , R R and A values are applied per the Fatigue category
such as A, B, B', C, C', D, E, and E' inputted in the Fatigue parameters dialog [Fig.3.8].
(∆F)TH is taken as 24.0 ksi (165.0 MPa) except the other cases defined in [Table 3.21].
For n, the n value user defined in the Fatigue Parameters dialog box shown in [Fig.3.8] is
used for the calculation.

[Table3.21] Constant-Amplitude Fatigue Thresholds, (ΔF)TH


Detail Threshold
Category US Unit (ksi) LL, IM, CE, SI Unit (MPa)
BR,PL, LS
A 24.0 165.0 Fatigue Threshols
B 16.0 110.0 AASHTO LRFD 12
(Table 6.6.1.2.5-3)
B' 12.0 82.7
C 10.0 69.0
C' 12.0 82.7
D 7.0 48.3
E 4.5 31.0
E' 2.6 17.9

[Table3.22] Resistance factor specified for evaluation, minimum, or mean fatigue life, R R
Detail RR
Category Evaluation Life Minimum Life Mean Life
A 1.7 1.0 2.8 Resistnace Factor
B 1.4 1.0 2.0 AASHTO LRFR 11
(Table 7.2.5.2-1)
B' 1.5 1.0 2.4
C 1.2 1.0 1.3
C' 1.2 1.0 1.3
D 1.3 1.0 1.6
E 1.3 1.0 1.6
E' 1.6 1.0 2.5

[Table3.23] Detail Category Constant, A


Detail Constant, A
Category 8 3
US Unit (x 10 (ksi )) ! 11
SI Unit (x10 (MPa ))
3
LL, IM, CE,
A 250.0 82.0
BR,PL, LS A
AASHTO LRFD 12

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 183
B 120.0 39.3 (Table 6.6.1.2.5-1)

B' 61.0 20.0


C 44.0 14.4
C' 44.0 14.4
D 22.0 7.21
E 11.0 3.61
E' 3.9 1.28

4.3.3 Effective Stress Ranges


(1) Calculation of Effective Stress Range
The Effective Stress Range, (∆feff ), is taken differently for the two cases: 1) Calculating
Estimated Stress Range and 2) Measuring Estimated Stress Range. Please refer to [Table Effective Stress Range
3.24] for the different calculations. AASHTO LRFR 11
(Eq.7.2.2-1)
(Eq.7.2.2.2-1)
[Table3.24] Effective Stress Range
Case Effective Stress Range
Calculating Estimated Stress Range (f ) eff  Rs f
Measuring Estimated Stress Range 
(f ) eff  Rs   i f i 
3 1/ 3

In midas Civil, the Fatigue Limit State is verified with the Calculating Estimated Stress Range
method.

Where
𝑅𝑠 : The stress-range estimate partial load factor. Unless otherwise specified,
𝑅𝑠 = 𝑅𝑠𝑎 𝑅𝑠𝑡
𝑅𝑠𝑎 : analysis partial load factor
𝑅𝑠𝑡 : truck-weight partail load factor Rs
∆𝑓 : Measured effective stress range; or 75% of the calculated stress range due to the passage of the AASHTO LRFR 11
fatigue truck as specified in LRFD Design Article 3.6.1.4, or a fatigue truck determined by a truck (Eq.7.2.2.1.1-1)
survey or weigh-in-motion study.
𝛾𝑖 : Percaentage of cycles at a particular stress range
∆𝑓𝑖 : The particular stress range

(2) stress-range estimate partial load factor


For calculating Rs , the R sa and R st values are applied according to [Table 3.25].
Therefore, there is no uncertainty in the verification.

[Table3.25] Partial Load Factor, R sa , R st and R s


Case R sa R st Rs
For Evaluation or Minimum Fatigue Life
Stress range by simplified analysis, Partial Load Factors
1.0 1.0 1.0
and truck weight per LRFD 3.6.1.4 AASHTO LRFR 11
Stress range by simplified analysis, 1.0 0.95 0.95 (Table 7.2.2.1-1)

184 Design Guide for Midas Civil


and truck weight estimated
through weigh-in-motion study
Stress range by refined analysis,
0.95 1.0 0.95
and truck weight per LRFD 3.6.1.4
Stress range by refined analysis,
and truck weight estimated 0.95 0.95 0.90
through weigh-in-motion study
Stress range by field-measured strains N/A N/A 0.85
For Mean Fatigue Life
All method N/A N/A 1.00

4.4 Determining Fatigue-Prone Details


Bridge details are only considered prone to load-induced fatigue damage if they experience a net
tensile stress. Therefore, if the below requirement is satisfied, the Fatigue Limit State needs to be
verified.
Fatigue-Prone Details
AASHTO LRFR 11
2Rs (f ) tension  f deadloadcompression (3.8) (7.2.3)
(Eq. 7.2.3-1)

Where
(∆𝑓)𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 : Factored tensile portion of the stress range due to the passage of a fatigue truck
𝑓𝑑𝑒𝑎𝑑−𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 : Unfactored compressive stress at the detail due to dead load.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 185
Chapter 3. Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating : AASHTO-LRFR 2nd (2011)

Bridge Load Rating


Result
1. Result Tables
For the element of the worst case, capacity, demand and basis of demand can be reviewed per
different rating cases.

1.1 Service Limit State Summary


(1) by Result Table
The results may be reviewed with the Result Table as shown below.
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Service Limit
State Summary…

[Fig.3.31] Result Table for Service Limit State Summary

Where,
Rating Case: Rating Case combination with the minimum RF
Component : Indicates the member type: compression/tension
Minimum Rating Factor: The minimum RF
Location: The Element number and its i/j nodes where the RF is calculated
Relative Location: The relative location from the starting point of the bridge (Refer to Span Information
dialog box)
Allowable Stress: C or allowable stress inputted by the user
Demand: Stress demand
Point : Design point at i/j nodes (e.g., Right Top, Right Bottom, Left Top, Left Bottom)
DC(Before) – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-DC(Before)
DC(Before) – Stress from DC(Before)
DC(After) – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-DC(After)
DC(After) – Stress from DC(After)
DW – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-DW
DW – Stress : Stress from DW
Temperature – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-Temperature
Temperature – Stress : Stress from Temperature
Permanent – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case- Permanent
Permanent – Stress :Stress from Permanent
Secondary – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-Secondary
Secondary – Stress :Stress from Secondary
User Defined – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-User Defined
User Defined – Stress : Stress from User Defined

186 Design Guide for Midas Civil


Pri. LL – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-Primary live load
Pri. LL – Stress : Stress from Primary live load
Adj. LL – Factor : Load Factor from Load Case-Adjacent live load
Adj. LL – Stress : Stress from Adjacent live load

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in the form of MS Excel Report as shown in [Fig.3.32].

[Fig.3.32] Excel Report for Service Limit State Summary

1.2. Strength Limit State Summary


(1) by Result Table
The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Strength Limit
State Summary…

[Fig.3.33] Result Table for Strength Limit State Summary

Where,
Positive/Negative: Positive/Negative moment
LRFD Resistance Factor: Resistance Factor according to the standard selected for the Rating Design
Code
Demand, Mu: moment due to the factored loads
Capacity, phiMn: nominal flexural resistance of a section multiplied by phi of flexure
Demand, fbu: largest value of the compressive stress throughout the unbraced length in the flange under
condition, calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending
Capacity, phiFn: nominal flexure resistance of a flange
DC(Before) – Force : My from DC(Before)
DC(After) – Force: My from DC(After)
DW – Force: My from DW
Temperature – Force: My from Temperature
T.Gradient – Force: My from T.Gradient
Permanent – Force: My from Permanent
Secondary – Force: My from Secondary
User Defined – Force: My from User Defined
Pri. LL – Force: Pri. My from LL
Adj. LL – Force: My from Adj.

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in MS Excel report form as shown in [Fig.3.34].

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 187
[Fig.3.34] Excel Report for Strength Limit State Summary

1.3. Flexure Strength Rating Factor


The Rating Factor can be reviewed per rating cases.

(1) by Result Table


The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Flexure
Strength Rating Factor…

[Fig.3.35] Result Table for Flexure Strength Rating Factor

Where,
Group : Name of Element Group defined by user
Elem. : Number of Element for which the Rating Factor is calculated
Part : i/j nodes and number of the elements used for design
System Factor:  s used to calculate RF of the element
Condition Factor:  c used to calculate RF of the element
Rating Factor : Rating Factor calculated according to equation (2.1)
Check : Whether the result is OK or NG (OK if RF>1)

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.36]

[Fig.3.36] Excel Report for Flexure Strength Rating Factor

188 Design Guide for Midas Civil


1.4. Shear Strength Rating Factor
The Rating Factor can be reviewed per rating cases and elements.

(1) by Result Table


The results may be reviewed in the Results Table as shown below.
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Shear Strength
Rating Factor…

[Fig.3.37] Result Table for Shear Strength Rating Factor

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.38].

[Fig.3.38] Excel Report for Flexure Strength Rating Factor

1.5. Steel Stress Rating Factor


The Service Limit State verification result can be viewed for the compressive and tensile stress
per elements and rating cases.

(1) by Result Table


The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.39].
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Steel Stress
Rating Factor…

[Fig.3.39] Result Table for Steel Stress Rating Factor

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.40].

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 189
[Fig.3.40] Excel Report for Steel Stress Rating Factor

1.6. Fatigue Rating Factor


(1) by Result Table
The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Fatigue Rating
Factor…

[Fig.3.41] Result Table for Fatigue Rating Factor

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.42].

[Fig.3.42] Excel Report for Fatigue Rating Factor

190 Design Guide for Midas Civil


2. Rating Detail Table
The Rating Detail Table presents the rating factor, capacity, basis of demand calculation, and the
amount of steel per load cases, elements and rating cases.

2.1 Flexure Strength Rating Detail


The Flexure Strength Rating Detail may be viewed with the program Result Table or MS Excel
Report document.
(1) by Result Table
The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.43].
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Flexure
Strength Rating Detail …

[Fig.3.43] Result Table > Flexure Strength Rating Detail

Where,
phiMn: nominal flexural resistance of a section multiplied by phi of flexure
phiFn: nominal flexure resistance of a flange
Areas–Rebar : Rebar Area
Areas–min :Minimum Rebar Area
Reinforcement Requirement–max: Maximum reinforcement requirement
DC(Before) – Force : My from DC(Before)
DC(After) – Force: My from DC(After)
DW – Force: My from DW
Temperature – Force: My from Temperature
T.Gradient – Force: My from T.Gradient
Permanent – Force: My from Permanent
Secondary – Force: My from Secondary
User Defined – Force: My from User Defined
Pri. LL – Force: My from Pri. LL
Adj. LL – Force: My from Adj. LL

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.44].

[Fig.3.44] Excel Report for Flexure Strength Rating Detail

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 191
2.2 Shear Strength Rating Detail
(1) by Result Table
The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Shear Strength
Rating Detail …

[Fig.3.45] Result Table > Shear Strength Rating Detail

Where,
(delta F)n : Nominal Fatigue Limit State
DC(Before) – Force : Vz due to DC(Before)
DC(After) – Force: Vz due to DC(After)
DW – Force: DW에 대한 Vz
Temperature – Force: Vz due to Temperature
T.Gradient – Force: Vz due to T.Gradient
Permanent – Force: Vz due to Permanent
Secondary – Force: Vz due to Secondary
User Defined – Force: Vz due to User Defined
Pri. LL – Force: Vz due to Pri. LL
Adj. LL – Force: Vz due to Adj. LL

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.46].

[Fig.3.46] Excel Report for Flexure Strength Rating Detail


2.3 Steel Stress Rating Detail
The Steel Stress can be reviewed for all load cases and stress types.
(1) by Result Table
The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Steel Stress
Rating Detail …

[Fig.3.47] Result Table for steel stress Rating Detail

192 Design Guide for Midas Civil


Where,
fc : bending stress on web plate
fcrw: bending stress limit on web plate
Rating Factor – Comp.: RF for the allowable compressive stress
Rating Factor – Tens: RF for the allowable tensile stress
Allowable Stress– Comp.: Allowable compressive stress user-defined
Allowable Stress– Tens.: Allowable tensile stress user-defined
DC(Before) -Left Top Stress : Stress at the Left Top due to the DC(Before) Load Cases
DC(Before) -Right Top Stress : Stress at the Right Top due to the DC(Before) Load Cases
DC(Before) -Right Bottom Stress: Stress at the Right Bottom due to the DC(Before)Load Case
DC(Before) -Left Bottom Stress: Stress at the Left Bottom due to the DC(Before) Load Case
※ DW, Temperature, Permanent, Secondary,…Adj. LL can be explained the same way as the above DC-
XXXXXX bolded.

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown below.

[Fig.3.48] Excel Report for Steel Stress Rating Detail

2.4 Fatigue Rating Detail


The Fatigue Rating may be reviewed for all load cases and stress types.
(1) by Result Table
The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.
▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Fatigue
Rating Detail …

[Fig.3.49] Result Table for Fatigue Rating Detail

(delta F)n : Nominal Fatigue Limit State


DC(Before) –Stress :Stress due to DC(Before)
DC(After) – Stress : Stress due to DC(After)
DW – Stress :Stress due to DW
Temperature – Stress: Stress due to Temperature
T.Gradient – Stress: Stress due to T.Gradient
Permanent – Stress: Stress due to Permanent
Secondary – Stress: Stress due to Secondary
User Defined – Stress: Stress due to User Defined

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 193
Pri. LL – Stress: Stress due to Pri. LL
Adj. LL – Stress: Stress due to Adj. LL

(2) by Excel Report


The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown below..

[Fig.3.50] Excel Report for Fatigue Rating Detail

3. Load Rating Report


2.1 Load Rating Summary Result Table
The below table presents the moment and shear at the Strength Limit State and stress at the
Service Limit State.
The table indicates the worst cases load combination based on the 1) moment at the Strength
Limit State, 2) Stress at the Service Limit State, and 3) Shear at the Strength Limit State.

[Fig.3.51] Excel Report for Load Rating Summary Result Table

194 Design Guide for Midas Civil


DESIGN GUIDE
for midas Civil
AASHTO LRFD