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AASHTO LRFD

Prestressed Concrete Girder Design

Steel Composite Girder Design

Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating

The objective of this design guide is to outline the design

algorithms which are applied in midas Civil ﬁnite element

analysis and design system. The guide aims to provide

suﬃcient information for the user to understand the

scope, limitations and formulas applied in the design

features and to provide relevant references to the clauses

in the Design standards.

design, steel composite girder design and steel composite

girder bridge rating as per AASHTO LRFD.

corresponding tutorials, which are found on our web site,

http://www.MidasUser.com, before designing. Additional

information can be found in the online help available in

the program’s main menu.

DISCLAIMER

Developers and distributors assume no responsibility for

the use of MIDAS Family Program (midas Civil, midas FEA,

midas FX+, midas Gen, midas Drawing, midas SDS, midas

GTS, SoilWorks, midas NFX ; hereinafter referred to as

“MIDAS package”) or for the accuracy or validity of any

results obtained from the MIDAS package.

proﬁt, loss of business, or ﬁnancial loss which may be

caused directly or indirectly by the MIDAS package, when

used for any purpose or use, due to any defect or

deﬁciency therein. Accordingly, the user is encouraged to

fully understand the bases of the program and become

familiar with the users manuals. The user shall also inde-

pendently verify the results produced by the program.

Foreword

The objective of this design guide is to outline the design algorithms

which are applied in midas Civil ﬁnite element analysis and design

system. The guide aims to provide suﬃcient information for the user to

understand the scope, limitations and formulas applied in the design

features and to provide relevant references to the clauses in the Design

standards.

composite girder design and steel composite girder bridge rating as per

AASHTO LRFD.

tutorials, which are found on our web site, http://www.MidasUser.com,

before designing. Additional information can be found in the online

help available in the program’s main menu.

Organization

This guide is designed to help you quickly become productive with

the design options of AASHTO LRFD.

ULS/SLS checks, design outputs used for prestressed concrete

girder design to AASHTO LRFD.

ULS/SLS checks, design outputs used for steel composite girder

design to AASHTO LRFD.

ULS/SLS checks, design outputs used for steel composite bridge

load rating to AASHTO LRFR.

Contents

Chapter 1.

Prestressed Concrete Girder Design (AASHTO LRFD) 01

Strength Limit States

1. Flexural resistance 03

2. Shear resistance 16

3. Torsion resistance 28

1. Stress for cross section at a construction stage 34

2. Stress for cross section at service loads 40

3. Tensile stress for Prestressing tendons 44

4. Principal stress at a construction stage 47

5. Principal stress at service loads 49

6. Principal stress at service loads 51

7. Check crack 52

Chapter 2.

Steel Composite Girder Design (AASHTO LRFD) 55

Introduction

1. AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 Steel Composite 57

2. Considerations Steel Composite Design 59

3. Calculation of Plastic Moment and Yield Moment 59

1. Modeling Design Variables 67

1. I Girder Section 87

2. Box / Tub Girder Section 111

3. Shear Connector 127

4. Stiﬀener 131

5. Diﬀerence Between AASHTO-LRFD 4th(2007) and 6th(2012) 135

Steel Composite Design Result

1. Strength Limit State Result 138

2. Service Limit State Result 141

3. Constructibility Result 142

4. Fatigue Limit State Result 145

5. Shear Connector Result 146

6. Stiﬀener Result 147

7. Span Checking 148

8. Total Checking 149

Chapter 3.

Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating (AASHTO LRFD) 151

Introduction

1. AASHTO LRFR 2011 Bridge Load Rating 153

2. Load Rating Levels 155

3. Process of Load Rating 157

1. Modeling Design Variables 158

1. Rating Factor Calculation 171

2. Strength Limit State 178

3. Service Limit State 180

4. Fatigue Limit State 181

1. Result Tables 186

2. Rating Detail Table 191

3. Load Rating Report 194

Chapter 1.

Prestressed Concrete

Girder Design

Chapter 1.

Prestressed Concrete Girder Design (AASHTO LRFD 14)

Prestressed concrete box girders and composite girders need to be designed to

satisfy the following limit states.

Flexural Resistance

Shear Resistance

Torsion Resistance

Stress for cross section at a construction stage

Check crack

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design: AASHTO-LRFD 7th (2014)

1. Flexural resistance

The factored flexural resistance shall satisfy the following condition, Mu ≤ΦMn.

Where, Mu : Factored moment at the section due to strength load combination

ΦMn : Factored flexural resistance

AASHTO LRFD14

Resistance factor Φ shall be taken as follow. (5.5.4.2.1)

0.75 if t 0.002

dt

0.583 0.25 if 0.002 t 0.005 (1.1)

c

1.0 if t 0.005

Where,

dt : Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the extreme tension steel element

c : Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis

εt : Net tensile Strain

In midas Civil, εt is applied as strain of a reinforcement which is entered at the extreme tensile

fiber.

Input reinforcements to be used in the calculation of resistance in the dialog box below.

▶ Model>Properties>Section Manager>Reinforcements

Rebar coordinate

at the section

Once reinforcement is entered at the PSC section, the rebar which is placed at the closest

position to the extreme compression fiber will be used to calculate the strain. In short, the rebar

at the bottom most is used under the sagging moment. And the rebar at the top most is used

under the hogging moment.

Input tendon profile to be used in PSC design in the dialog box below.

▶ Load>Temp./Prestress>Section Manager >Tendon Profile

position to the extreme tensile fiber will be used

to calculate the strain.

1.2 Calculate neutral axis depth

Neutral axis is determined by the iteration approach as shown in the figure below.

Initial c = H/2

Assume neutral axis depth, c

(H=Section Height)

(4)

NO

Cc+Cs-(Ts+Tps)=0?

YES

In midas Civil, the natural relationship between concrete stress and strain is considered as

the equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block.(Compressive strain limit of

concrete, εcu = 0.003)

Where,

f 'c : Specified compressive strength of concrete for design

Compressive strength to be used in PSC design is defined in PSC Design Material dialog box.

0.85 if f 'c 4.0ksi

0.85 0.05( f 'c 4.0) 0.65 if f 'c 4.0ksi

Ac : Concrete area of compressive zone (1c) width

▶ PSC>PSC Design Data> PSC Design Material…

Concrete

Enter the concrete and reinforcement grade to be used in PSC design. The strength can be

checked for the selected material grade according to the selected material code. When

“None” is selected in Code field, the strength of concrete and reinforcement can be directly

entered.

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.7.2.2)

For the composite type PSC sections, the Design Material window changes to allow users to

define the material properties of the slab. The concrete and rebar material properties

entered for slab are used for every calculation such as the neutral axis calculation.

(2) Calculate force of reinforcement, Ts, Cs.

Tensile resistance due to longitudinal reinforcement (Ts)and compression resistance due to

concrete (Cs) is calculated as shown in the following equation.

Where,

As, As’ : the cross sectional area of tensile and compressive reinforcement

It is entered in Section Manager>Reinforcements as shown in the Fig1. 2.

fs , fs’: the stress of tensile and compressive reinforcement

In order to calculate the tensile stress of reinforcement, midas Civil calculate the

corresponding strains as per the strain compatibility condition. And then the related tensile

stresses are calculated by the stress-strain relationship. The equation is shown as follows.

▪ Strain

dt c c dc

s cu , s ' cu (1.4)

c c

Where,

εs : the strain of tensile reinforcement.

εs’ : the strain of compressive reinforcement.

εcu : the ultimate compressive strain in the concrete. (εcu = 0.003)

c : the neutral axis depth.

dt : Distance from the compression fiber of concrete to the extreme tensile fiber of reinforcement

dc : Distance from the compression fiber of concrete to the extreme compressive fiber of reinforcement

▪ Stress

If the tensile stress of reinforcement reaches its yield stress limit, tensile stress will be

applied as yield stress. If not, the tensile stress will be calculated as “εs x Es”.

s Es ( fs f y ) s ' Es ( fs ' f y )

fs , fs ' (1.5)

fy ( fs f y ) fy ( fs ' f y )

Where,

Es : Modulus of elasticity in reinforcement

Fy : Yield tensile stress in reinforcement

Tensile resistance of prestressing steel, Tps, is calculated as shown in the following equation.

Tps Ap f ps (1.6)

Where,

Ap : the cross sectional area of tendon.

fps : the stress of tendon.

▶ PSC> Design Parameter> Parameters…

Tensile stress of prestressing steel fps can be calculated by code or strain compatibility as

specified in PSC design Parameter dialog box. When code is selected in flexural strength option,

the tensile stress fps is calculated by the equation as per AASHTO-LRFD for bonded and

unbounded tendon respectively. When strain compatibility is used, the tensile stress fps is

calculated by the stress-strain relationship.

Tendon Type

Total Tendon Area

fpu

fpy

Bond Type

▪ Tendon Type

Internal(Pre-Tension)

Internal(Post-Tension)

External

▪ Bond Type

Bonded: Section properties reflect the duct area after grouting.

When tendon type is specified as Internal (Pre-Tension), bond type will be taken as Bonded

Type.

Unbonded: Section properties exclude the duct area.

When tendon type is specified as external, bond type will be taken as Unbonded Type.

Tendon Type Bond Type

Internal (Pre-tension) Bonded

Bonded

Internal (Post-tension)

Unbonded

External Unbonded

Enter the tendon area (Ap). Click to select the number of strands and diameter in order

to calculate the tendon area automatically.

▪ fpu, fpy

Enter the ultimate strength fpu and yield strength fpy of prestressing steel.

Tensile stress of prestressing steel fps will be calculated as shown in the following table.

Flexure Strength option Bond Type Tensile Stress

Bonded fps for Bonded Type

Code

Unbonded fps for Unbonded Type

Bonded Strain compatibility

Strain compatibility

Unbonded* fps for Unbonded Type

* When flexure strength option is entered as strain compatibility and bond type is entered as

unbonded type, tensile stress will be calculated using the code equation of unbonded tendon

instead of strain compatibility method. It is because strain compatibility method is valid for fully

bonded tendons.

Tensile stress of prestressing steel fps is calculated as follows.

(5.7.3.1.1)

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

c

f ps f pu 1 k (1.7)

d p

f py AASHTO LRFD14

k 2 1.04 (1.8)

f pu

(5.7.3.1.1)

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

Where,

fpy: Yield strength of prestressing steel

fpu: Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel

dp: Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons

c: Distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.7.3.1.2)

dp c (Eq. 5.7.3.1.2-1)

f ps f pe 900 f py (1.9)

le

2li

le (1.10) AASHTO LRFD14

2 Ns (5.7.3.1.2)

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.2-2)

Where,

li : length of tendon between anchorages

Ni : number of support hinges crossed by the tendon between anchorages or discretely bonded point. It

is always applied as “0” in midas Civil.

When flexure resistance is calculated by strain compatibility method, tensile stress of

prestressing tendon is calculated by the stress-strain relationship.

In order to find the neutral axis, the iteration analysis will be performed until compressive

strength (C=Cc+Cs) becomes equal to the tensile strength (T=Ts+Tps).

• Convergence condition:

C

1.0 0.001 (Tolerance) (1.11)

T

Once the neutral axis is determined, flexural resistance is calculated by multiplying the

distance from the neutral axis.

where,

ac, as, as’, api : the distance from neutral axis depth, c to concrete, reinforcement rebar, tendon.

0.85f’c

Cs

As’

a

Cc

as'

ac

ap

as

Ap Tps

As

Ts

[Fig.1. 10] Forces and distances from neutral axis depth for Mn

If a tendon in tension is located at the upper part from the neutral axis under the sagging

moment, the flexural resistance will have (-) sign and it will reduce the total moment

resistance.

M n Cc ac Cs as ' Ts as Tps a pi Tps' a 'pi (1.13)

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.7.3.2.1)

Mr Mn (1.14) (Eq. 5.7.3.2.1-1)

where,

Mn : nominal resistance

Φ : resistance factor

The moment resistance with considering entered reinforcements or tendons shall satisfy the

following condition. AASHTO LRFD14

(5.7.3.3.2)

M r max(1.33M u , M cr ) (1.15)

For composite sections, the equation 1.16 is used to calculate the cracked moment (Mcr).

S AASHTO LRFD14

M cr 3 ( 1 f r 2 f cpe ) Sc M dnc c 1 (1.16) (5.7.3.3.2)

Snc (Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

The Mdnc is taken from the Muy caused by the dead load of girder section during the

construction stage analysis.

The Snc value is obtained from the section modulus of the pre-composite section under the

tensile stress. The Sc value is taken from the section modulus of the post-composite section

under the tensile stress.

In midas Civil, cracked moment shall be calculated as per the following equation.

(For the composite type sections, the equation 1.16 is used; for the non-composite type

sections, the equation 1.17 is used.

Where,

γ1 : flexural cracking variability factor

1.2 for precast segmental structures

1.6 for all other concrete structures

1.1 for bonded tendons

1.0 for unbounded tendons

If both bonded and unbonded type tendons are assigned in a section, 2 will be applied as 1.0

which is more conservative value.

γ3 : ratio of specified minimum yield strength to ultimate tensile strength of the reinforcement

0.67 for A615 ,Grade 60 reinforcement

0.75 for A706, Grade 60 reinforcement

1.00 for prestressed concrete structures

In midas Civil, fr will be always applied as 0.37 f 'c . AASHTO LRFD14

(5.4.2.6)

(C5.4.2.6)

Sc : section modulus for the extreme fiber of the composite section where tensile stress is caused by

3

externally applied loads (in )

In midas Civil, section modulus under tension is applied.

fcpe : compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after allowance for all

prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied

loads (ksi)

It is obtained in elastic state (uncracked section) and the following equation has been

applied in midas Civil.

f cpe

A f

ps e

A fe

ps e p

(1.18)

Ag S

Where,

f e : Effective prestress forces of prestressing tendons

e p : Distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the prestressing tendons

Aps : Area of prestressing tendon

Ag : Gross area of cross-section

S : Sectional modulus in compression

In midas Civil, construction type of PSC section is determined in PSC design parameter dialog

box.

▶ PSC> Design Parameter> Parameters…

The selected construction type will affect the calculation of cracked moment, shear and

torsional resistance, and tensile stress limit of concrete.

In midas Civil, factored moment is obtained from load combinations specified in Load

Combinations dialog box. In AASHTO LRFD specification, load combinations need to be

generated as shown in the fig 1.12.

AASHTO LRFD14

(3.4.1)

[Fig.1. 5] Load Combinations and Load factors for strength limit state

▶Results>Load combinations>Concrete Design tab

Active:

Strength/Stress

Active:

Serviceability

Generation…] button. The load combinations need to be generated in concrete design tab.

The most critical load combination among Strength/Stress type load combinations will be

used to obtain factored moment, factored shear force, and factored torsional moment. The

Service type load combinations will be used to verify the serviceability limit state.

The verification of flexural moment obtained from Strength/Stress type load combination

can be divided into two following cases.

1) No need to satisfy minimum reinforcement

M r Mu (1.19)

M r M u and M r M cr (1.20)

The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

Elem : Element number

Part : Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element.

Positive/Negative : Positive moment, negative moment.

LCom Name : Load combination name.

Type : Displays the set of member forces corresponding to moving load case or settlement load case for

which the maximum stresses are produced.

CHK : Flexural strength check for element

Muy : Design moment

Mcr : Crack Moment

Mny : Nominal moment resistance.

PhiMny : Design moment resistance.

Ratio : Muy/ PhiMny : Flexural resistance ratio, The verification is satisfied when it is less than 1.0.

PhiMny /min(1.33Muy, Mcr) : Verification of minimum reinforcement. The verification is satisfied when

it is less than 1.0. If the verification of minimum reinforcement is not required, it will be displayed as

1.0.

Detail verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

2. Shear resistance

Shear resistance without consideration of effects of torsion shall be verified to satisfy the

following condition.

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.5.4.2.1)

M u Vn (1.21)

Refer to the clause 2.3 Torsion Resistance for the verification of shear resistance where the

effects of torsion are required to be considered. In AASHTO-LRFD (2012), the design for

shear and torsion will be performed for segmental and non-segmental box girders.

The program will consider a section is segmental box girder when the following 2 conditions

are satisfied.

1. In PSC Design Parameter dialog box, Construction Type is specified as Segment.

2. When a section is defined with PSC box section (ex. PSC-1CELL, 2CELL, 3CELL, nCELL,

cCELL2, PLAT, and Value type)

2.2.1 Effective web width (bv)

bv : effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth dv as determined in Article

5.8.2.9 (in.)

Effective web width (bv) is taken as web thickness. For PSC multi-cell girder, web thickness AASHTO LRFD14

can be automatically taken as a summation of thickness for all webs. Also this value can be (5.8.3.3.3)

entered by the user directly as shown in the figure below.

▶ Property > Section Property > Section >PSC

Apply the minimum value among the entered web thickness values.

2) When “Auto” option is selected

Apply the minimum web thickness among t1, t2, and t3. These values are automatically

taken as a summation of thickness for both webs at the stress point, Z1, Z2, and Z3.

▪ Non-Segmental Box Girder

dv : effective shear depth takem as the distance , measured perpendicular to the neutral axis,

between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure; it need not be

taken less than the greater of 0.9de or 0.72h(in.)

In midas Civil, the value of effective shear depth, dv, is calculated as shown in the equation AASHTO LRFD14

below. (5.8.2.9)

Mn

dv min , 0.9de , 0.72h (1.22)

As f s Aps f ps

Aps f ps d p As f s d s

de (1.23)

Aps f ps As f s

Where,

dp : Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons

ds : Distance from extreme fiber to the centroid of nonprestressed tensile reinforcement

[Fig.1.18] Effective shear depth

dv : 0.8h or the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing

reinforcement , whichever is greater (in.)

AASHTO LRFD14

In midas Civil, the value of effective shear depth, dv, is calculated as shown in the equation (5.8.6.5)

below.

Where,

h = Total height of a section

dt = Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons

s is the net longitudinal tensile strain in the section at the centroid of the tension

reinforcement

AASHTO LRFD14

Mu (5.8.6.5)

0.5 Nu Vu V p Aps f po (Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

d

s v (1.25)

Es As E p Aps

Where,

0 s 0.006

f po 0.7 f pu

M u Vu Vp dv

As and Ap are taken as area of nonprestressing and prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the

member respectively.

dv : 0.8h or the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing

reinforcement , whichever is greater (in.)

In midas Civil, the value of effective shear depth, dv, is calculated as shown in the equation

below.

Where,

h : Total height of a section

dt : Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons

2.3.1 Vn (Non-Segmental Box Girder)

For non-segmental box girders, the nominal shear resistance, Vn, shall be determined as the

lesser of:

Vn Vc Vs Vp (1.27)

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.8.3.3)

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-1)

Vn 0.25 fc'bv dv Vp (1.28) (Eq. 5.8.3.3-2)

Where,

Vc : shear resistance component that relies on tensile stresses in the concrete

Vs : shear resistance component that relies on tensile stresses in the transverse reinforcement

Vp : shear resistance component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force.

In midas Civil, shear resistance due to prestressing force, Vp, includes primary prestress force. The

secondary effects from prestressing shall be included in the design shear force obtained from the load

combinations.

bv: Effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth, dv (refer to the clause

1.2.2.1 Effective web width)

dv: Effective shear depth (Refer to the clause 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth)

For segmental box girders, the nominal shear resistance, Vn, shall be determined as the lesser

of:

(5.8.6.5)

Vn 0.379 f c' bv dv Vp (1.30) (Eq. 5.8.6.5-1)

(Eq. 5.8.6.5-2)

Where,

Vc : shear resistance component that relies on tensile stresses in the concrete

Vs : shear resistance component that relies on tensile stresses in the transverse reinforcement

Vp : shear resistance component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force.

In midas Civil, shear resistance due to prestressing force, Vp, includes primary prestress force. The

secondary effects from prestressing shall be included in the design shear force obtained from the

load combinations.

bv: Effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth, dv (refer to the clause

1.2.2.1 Effective web width)

dv: Effective shear depth (Refer to the clause 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth)

AASHTO LRFD14

Design for shear may utilize any of the two methods (simplified and general procedure) for (5.8.3.4)

prestressed sections identified in AASHTO-LRFD12. In midas Civil, sections can be designed

as per the general procedure.

(5.8.3.3)

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Vc 0.0316 f c ' bv dv (1.31)

Where,

bv: Effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth, dv (refer to the clause

1.2.2.1 Effective web width)

dv: Effective shear depth (Refer to the clause 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth)

β : Factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension and shear as

specified in Article 5.8.3.4

AASHTO LRFD14

For the sections containing at least the minimum amount of transverse reinforcement : (5.8.3.4.2)

4.8

(1 750 s ) (1.32)

When sections do not contain at least the minimum amount of shear reinforcement:

4.8 51

(1 750 s ) (39 S xe )

1.38

S xe S x 12.0(in.) S x 80.0(in.)

ag 0.63 (1.33)

,

Where,

Sx: The lesser of either dv or the maximum distance between layers of longitudinal

crack control reinforcement, where the area of the reinforcement in each layer is

not less than 0.003bvsx, as shown in Figure 5.8.3.4.2-3(in.) . In midas Civil, it is applied as dv.

ag : maximum aggregate size(in.)In midas Civil, it is applied as “1in.”.

εs: net longitudinal tensile strain in the section at the centroid of the tension reinforcement.Refer to the

clause 1.2.2.3 Net longitudinal tensile strain.

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.8.3.4.2)

(Eq. 5.8.6.5-3)

Vc 0.0632K f c ' bv dv (1.34)

Where,

bv: Effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth, dv (refer to the clause

1.2.2.1 Effective web width)

dv: Effective shear depth (Refer to the clause 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth)

K: Stress variable K shall not be taken greater tham 1.0 for any section where the stress in the

extreme tension fiber, calculated on the basis of gross section properties, due to factored load

and effective prestress force after losses exceeds 0.19√f’c in tension

f pc AASHTO LRFD14

K 1 (1.35) (5.8.6.3)

0.0632 f c ' (Eq. 5.8.6.3-3)

1) Calculate the tensile stress of tendon, ft, after losses Tendon based on the

uncracked section.

(5.8.6.3)

If ft 0.19 f c ' , K = min(K, 2.0)

Where,

fpc : Unfactored compressive stress in concrete after prestress losses have occured either at the

centroid of the cross-section resisting transient loads or at the junction of the web and flange

where the centroid lies in the flange (ksi)

In midas Civil, fpc is calculated as follows.

When the centroid lies in the flange, verify the stress at a junction of the web and

flange.

f pc

A ps fe

A ps feep

y jo int

Nu

(1.36)

Ag Ig Ag

Where, yjoint is a distance from the centroid to the junction of the web and flange

When the centroid lies in the web, verify the stress at the centroid of the cross-section.

f pc

A ps fe

Nu

(1.37)

Ag Ag

The nominal shear resistance by shear reinforcement, Vs, is calculated as follows:

Vs (1.38) (5.8.3.3.3)

s (Eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

Where,

dv:Refer to 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Non-Segmental Box Girders)

θ: angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as determined in Article 5.8.3.4 (degrees)

; if the procedures of Article 5.8.3.4.3 are used, cotθ is defined therein.

[Fig.1.20] angle of inclination of transverse Compressive stress

29 3500 s (1.39)

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.8.3.4.2)

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3)

α: Angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement to longitudinal axis (degrees)

Enter the Pitch of transverse reinforcement as shown in Fig1.22.

▶Model>Properties>Section Manager>Reinforcements

Transverse

Reinforcement

- Pitch: Enter the spacing of transverse reinforcement

- Angle: Enter the angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement

- Aw: Enter the total area of all transverse reinforcements in the web

midas Civil applies the following equation where the angle of inclination (α) of transverse

reinforcement is taken into account:

AASHTO LRFD14

Av f y dv (sin cot ) (5.8.3.3.3)

Vs (1.40) ((Eq. 5.8.6.5-4)

s

Where,

dv: refer to 1.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Segmental Box Girders)

α: angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement to longitudinal axis (degrees)

AASHTO LRFD14

The maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement can be checked by the following steps: (5.8.2.7)

Vu V p AASHTO LRFD14

vu (1.41) (5.8.2.7)

bv dv (Eq. 5.8.2.9-1)

Where,

Φ = Use the shear strength reduction factor of 0.9.

bv: refer to 1.1.2.1 Effective web width

dv: refer to 1.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Non-Segmental Box Girders)

2) Calculate smax differently, depending on whether the section is Segmental Box Girder or

not and on the range of vu.

3) Compare the entered spacing of transverse reinforcement with smax.

If vu < 0.125f’c

AASHTO LRFD14

smax = 0.8dv ≤ 24.0 in.

(5.8.2.7)

If vu ≥ 0.125f’c

smax = 0.4dv ≤ 12.0 in.

Where,

dv: refer to 2.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Non-Segmental Box Girders)

If vu < 0.19√f’c

AASHTO LRFD14

smax = 0.8dv ≤ 36.0 in. (5.8.6.6)

If vu ≥ 0.19√f’c

AASHTO LRFD14

smax = 0.4dv ≤ 18.0 in. (5.8.2.7)

Where,

dv: refer to 1.2.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Segmental Box Girders)

midas Civil calculates vu using Eq. 5.8.2.9-1 for the shear check and using Eq. 5.8.6.5-5

for the torsion check.

2.7 Minimum required transverse reinforcement (Av,min)

The minimum required transverse reinforcement can be checked according to the following

steps:

whether the section is Segmental Box Girder or not.

bv s

Av ,min 0.0316 fc' (1.42) AASHTO LRFD14

fy (5.8.2.4)

(Eq. 5.8.2.5-1)

bw s

Av ,min 0.05 (1.43) (Eq. 5.8.2.5-2)

fy

2) Calculate the shear strength of the section, and then verify the transverse

reinforcement using the following equations:

Skip the transverse reinforcement checks.

▪ For Vu ≥ 0.5Φ(Vc+Vp)

Av ,req1

Vu 0.5 (Vc Vp ) s

f y dv (sin cot )

(1.44)

Av,req 2 Av ,min

Av,req min( Av,req1 , Av,req 2 )

If the area of transverse reinforcement (Av) is greater than or equal to Av,req , it says OK.

The area of transverse reinforcement (Av) is Aw which is entered from Fig.1.22.

2.8 Interface Shear

For the composite sections, the Shear Friction caused during construction sequences needs

to be considered. Therefore, the Interface Shear check function is activated for the pre-

composite section design check.

The Vni value is calculated based on the above calculation. The A cv is the Interfacial Shear

section area. The Acf value is the cross section of the shear reinforcement of the Interfacial

Shear section. The following equation (5.8.4.4-1) needs to be satisfied about the minimum

shear reinforcement rea.

The Pc value is the compressive force acting on the interface. In the program, the Pc value is

calculated based on the selfweight of slab.

The program suggests the factors used in design. In midas Civil, they are applied as shown

below:

Table. The design factors used in midas Civil

AASHTO-LRFD12 Standard

In Acv = bci x Lvi, bci value is taken from the Bvi input by the user and the Lvi value is taken

from the girder length of the program model.

The Avf is the cross section of the reinforcement rebars in the interfacial shear plane (Acv).

The calculator is activated when the button is clicked. So that the cross section is

calculated based on the rebar diameter, number and gap inputted by the user.

The Vri value is calculated based on the above equation (5.8.4.1-1). Also, the Vri value

should be equal to or greater than Vui.

For PSC design check, the Φ is taken as 1.0.

The Interface Shear check result can be also checked in the Shear Resistance Results table.

midas Civil checks the shear strength limit state for the Vmax and Vmin cases among the Active:

Strength/Stress load combinations, which are defined in Fig.1.12 Load Combinations dialog.

2.10.1 by Result Tables

The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check Shear Strength…

Part : Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element

Max./Min. : Maximum shear, minimum shear

LCom. Name : Load combination name.

Type : Displays the set of member forces corresponding to moving load case

or settlement load case for which the maximum stresses are produced.

CHK : Shear strength check for element

Vu : Maximum shear force among Strength/Stress load combinations

Mu : Bending moment for the LCom which has Vu

Vn : Nominal Shear resistance.

Phi : Resistance factor for shear

Vc : Shear resistance of concrete.

Vs : Shear resistance of shear reinforcement.

Vp : Shear force of the effective prestressing force.

PhiVn : Design Shear resistance.

de : Effective web width

dv : Effective depth for shear

ex : Longitudinal Strain

theta : Angle of inclination of transverse compressive stresses

beta : Factor indicating ability of transversely cracked concrete to transmit tension

and shear

Avs : Area of shear reinforcement

Ast : Area of longitudinal reinforcement

Al : Area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement

bv : Effective width

Avs_min : Minimum required transverse reinforcement

Avs_req : Required transverse reinforcement

Al_min : Minimum longitudinal torsional reinforcement

bv_min : Minimum effective web width

Vui : factored interface shear force due to total load based on the applicable strength and extreme

event load combinations.

The detailed results, which contain the calculations, are produced in the Excel Report.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

3. Torsion resistance

Check the combined shear and torsional resistance.

The dimensions of section that are required for checking torsion are as follows:

Ao : Area enclosed by the shear flow path, including any area of holes therein (in2)

midas Civil uses the area of the closed section enclosed by the torsion reinforcement, instead of the

shear flow path.

Ph : Perimeter of the centerline of the closed transverse torsion reinforcement (in)

Acp : Total area enclosed by outside Perimeter of the concrete section (in2)

P : The length of the outside perimeter of concrete section (in)

Ao(ph

Acp(pc

)

**Additional information for the torsional area Ac and circumference Ph calculation of the composite

section.

In midas Civil, when Ao section is applied for the composite section, the girder and slab sections

(section areas with the Torsion Thk Offset applied in the Section Manager) are calculated separately

and then added. The Ph circumference is calculated based on the same approach but the value of

bw*2 is substracted in order to consider the contact area between the girder and slab.

ex)

Torsional resistance can be checked according to the following steps:

1) Calculate the torsional cracking moment (Tcr) differently, depending on whether the

section is Segmental Box Girder or not.

2) Compare the factored torsional moment (Tu) with the limit, which differs depending on

the type of girder (segmental box girder or non-segmental box girder), in order to decide

whether the effect of torsion should be considered or not.

3) In case where the torsional effect should be considered, calculate the design torsional

strength and compare it with Tu.

3.2.1 Torsional cracking moment (Tcr)

▪ For Non-Segmental Box Girders

Tcr 0.125 f c' 1 (1.45) (5.8.2.1)

pc 0.125 f c' (Eq. 5.8.2.1-4)

Where,

fpc: compressive stress in concrete after prestress losses have occurred at either the centroid of

the cross-section resisting transient loads or at the junction of the web and flange where the centroid

lies in the flange (ksi)

If the centroid lies in the flange: calculate at the junction of the web and flange.

f pc

A ps fe

A ps fee p

y jo int (1.46)

Ag Ig

Where, yjoint is the distance from the centroid to the junction of the web and flange.

If the centroid lies in the web: calculate at the centroid of the corss-section.

f pc

A ps fe

(1.47)

Ag

Acp2

pc shall be less than or equal to 2Aobv for a box section.

(5.8.6.3)

(Eq. 5.8.6.3-2)

Where,

be : effective width of shear flow path, but not exceeding the minimum thickness of the webs

or flanges comprising the closed box section (in.). be shall be adjusted to account for

presence of ducts as specified in Article 5.8.6.1. midas Civil uses bv.

▪ For Non-Segmental Box Girders

AASHTO LRFD14

Tu 0.25Tcr (1.49) (5.8.2.1)

(Eq. 5.8.2.1-3)

(5.8.6.3)

(Eq. 5.8.6.3-1)

Where,

Φ = resistance factor for torsion(=0.9)

3.2.3 Torsional resistance

AASHTO LRFD14

In accordance with AASHTO-LRFD12, the torsional resistance should meet the condition (5.5.4.2.1)

Tu≤ΦTn for the cases of segmental box girders and non-segmental box girders.

Tn (1.51) (5.8.3.6.2)

s (Eq. 5.8.3.6.2-1)

Where,

At: area of one leg of closed transverse torsion reinforcement in solid menbers, or total area of

2

transverse torsion reinforcement in the exterior web of cellular members (in. ). Awt of Torsional

Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used.

s :Pitch of Torsional Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used.

Θ: angle of crack as determined in accordance with provisions of Article 5.8.3.4 with the

modifications to the expressions for v and Vu herein (degrees). The same equation, which was used for

the shear check, will be used:

(5.8.3.4.2)

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3)

s : Refer to 1.2.2.3 Net longitudinal tensile strain.

2 Ao At f y AASHTO LRFD14

Tn (1.53) (5.8.6.4)

s (Eq. 5.8.6.4-2)

Where,

At : Awt of Torsional Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used.

s : Pitch of Torsional Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used.

The reinforcement data used for the torsion check are as follows:

▶ Model>Properties>Section Manager>Reinforcements

Torsional

Reinforcement

- Awt : area of transverse torsional reinforcement

(the area of a single stirrup among the outer closed stirrups)

- Alt : area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement

(the area of all reinforcing steels which are close against the outer closed stirrups)

Check the longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion. Check it for box sections and for

solid sections, respectively.

Aps is the area of tensile tendon and As is the area of tensile reinforcement.

2 2

Mu 0.5 Nu V 0.45 phTu AASHTO LRFD14

Aps f ps As f y cot u Vp 0.5Vs (5.8.3.6.3)

dv 2 Ao (Eq. 5.8.3.6.3-1)

(1.54)

Where,

dv: refer to 2.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Non-Segmental Box Girders)

The Code suggests that the reinforcement for resisting torsion is limited to the

following equation for box sections:

Tn ph AASHTO LRFD14

Al (1.55) (5.8.3.6.3)

2 Ao f y (Eq. 5.8.3.6.3-2)

midas Civil incorporates the above equation to check the longitudinal torsional

reinforcement. The Alt of Torsional Reinforcement entered in Fig.1. 26 will be used. Alt is

only for resisting warping torsion and is used only for box sections.

(Tu / ) ph

Alt (1.56) AASHTO LRFD14

2 Ao f y (5.8.6.4)

(Eq. 5.8.6.4-3)

For Segmental Box Girders, check the combined shear and torsional stress.

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.8.6.5)

Vu Tu (Eq. 5.8.6.5-5)

0.474 f c

'

(1.57)

bv dv 2 Aobe

Where,

bv: refer to 1.1.2.1 Effective web width

dv: refer to 1.1.2.2 Effective shear depth (for Segmental Box Girders)

be : effective thickness of the shear flow path of the elements making up the space truss model

resisting torsion calculated in accordance with Article 5.8.6.3 (in). midas Civil uses bv.

midas Civil calculates the maximum combined stress using the equation below.

Vu Tu

0.474 f c' (1.58)

bv dv 2 Aobe

3.5 Check torsional moment resistance

midas Civil checks the combined shear and torsional strength limit state for the Vmax, Vmin and

Tmax cases among the Active: Strength/Stress load combinations, which are defined in Fig.1.12

Load Combinations dialog.

3.6.1 by Result Tables

The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check Combined Shear and Torsion

Strength…

Elem : Element number

Part : Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element

Max./Min.: Maximum torsion/shear, minimum torsion/shear

LCom Name: Load combination name.

Type: Displays the set of member forces corresponding to moving load case or settlement load case for

which the maximum stresses are produced.

CHK: Shear and torsion strength check for element

Vu : shear force for the corresponding LCom

Mu : bending moment for the corresponding LCom

Tu : torsional moment for the corresponding LCom

Vn : Nominal Shear resistance.

Tn : Nominal Torsional resistance.

Phi : strength reduction factor for shear

Phi_t : strength reduction factor for torsion

Vc : Shear resistance of concrete.

Vs : Shear resistance of shear reinforcement.

Vp : Shear force of the effective prestressing force.

PhiVn : Design Shear resistance.

Phi_tTn : Design Torsional resistance.

de : Effective web width

dv : Effective depth for shear

ex : Longitudinal Strain

theta : Angle of inclination of transverse compressive stresses

beta : Factor indicating ability of transversely cracked concrete to transmit tension and shear

Avs : Area of shear reinforcement

Ast : Area of longitudinal reinforcement

Al : Area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement

bv : Effective width

Avs_min : Minimum required transverse reinforcement

Avs_req : Required transverse reinforcement

Al_min : Minimum longitudinal torsional reinforcement

bv_min : Minimum effective web width

At : Area of transverse torsional reinforcement

At_req : Required transverse torsional reinforcement

3.6.2 by Excel Report

Detail verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

Chapter 1. Prestressed Concrete Girder Design: AASHTO-LRFD 7th (2014)

1. Stress for cross section at a construction stage

The allowable stress at a construction stage differs depending on the generated stress

because the precompressed tensile zone is defined differently depending on the generated

stress. Therefore, the generated stress at every stage and step is compared to the

corresponding allowable stress, and the most unfavorable ratio of the generated stress to

the allowable stress is searched and checked against the criteria.

That is to say, calculate the ratio of generated stress to allowable stress for every stage and

see if the highest ratio meets the criteria.

(1) Allowable compressive stress of concrete AASHTO LRFD14

(5.9.4.1.1)

σca = 0.60 f’ci (1.59)

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.9.4.1.2)

Midas Civil calculates the allowable tensile stress of concrete using Table 5.9.4.1.2-1, as

stated in the table below:

Construction Case Allowable stress(ksi)

Type

Without bonded reinforcement and bonded σta = 0.0

Precompressed tendon

If reinforcement stress ≤ min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.24*SQRT(f'ci )

Tensile Zone With bonded reinforcement or bonded

tendon If reinforcement stress > min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.0

Non-Segment

Without bonded reinforcement and bonded σta = 0.0948f'ci ≤ 0.2

Other Than tendon

Precompressed If reinforcement stress ≤ min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.24*SQRT(f'ci)

Tensile Zone With bonded reinforcement or bonded

tendon If reinforcement stress > min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.0

Precompressed tensile Zone reinforcement or bonded

Joint Reinforcement stress > 0.5fy σta = 0.0

tendon

Other cases σta = 0.0

Segment

If reinforcement stress ≤ min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.19*SQRT(f'ci )

With bonded reinforcement or bonded

Non Joint tendon If reinforcement stress > min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σta = 0.0

Other cases σta = 0.0

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.2)

Precompressed Tensile Zone: According to the Code, Precompressed Tensile Zone is defined

as Any region of a prestressed component in which prestressing causes compressive stresses

and service load effects cause tensile stresses.

midas Civil calculates the concrete stress in cross-section using the following methods

and defines the Precompressed Tensile zone at Before Loss (construction stage).

If it is compressive stress for TendonPrimary(CS)+Tendon Secondary(CS), and

if it is tensile stress for Summation(CS)-(Tendon primary+Tendon secondary).

AASHTO LRFD14

▶PSC> PSC Segment Assignment (5.5.4.2.1)

As shown in Fig.2.2, if elements 1, 2 and 3 are assigned as one segment, i-end of element 1

and j-end of element 3 become the joints and the rest become the non-joints. AASHTO LRFD14

(C 5.9.1.4)

Bonded reinforcement

It is assumed that the tensile reinforcement or the tendon defined as Bond Type in Fig.1. 7

are bonded reinforcement.

Based on the aforementioned, if tensile reinforcement or bonded tendon is present in the

tension zone, it is assumed that bonded reinforcement exists.

Check the stress in reinforcement

The Code states that the bonded reinforcement, which retains a specific stress value (0.5fy

or 30ksi), shall resist the tensile force on the tension zone. midas Civil applies the above

regulation as follows:

Compute the concrete triangular stress block on the tension zone, using the extreme fiber

tension stress and the extreme fiber compression stress of concrete.

Compute the tension force of concrete by multiplying the compression stress by the area

of the concrete triangular stress block.

Compute the tension force of reinforcement by multiplying the area of reinforcement and

tendon, which are included in the triangular stress block, by the specific stress (0.5fy or

30ksi).

If the tension force of reinforcement is larger than that of concrete, it is concluded that the

tensile stress of reinforcement satisfies the regulation.

The Code defines f’ci as:

f’ci is specified compressive strength of concrete at time of initial loading or AASHTO LRFD14

precompressing; nominal concrete strength at time of application of tendon (5.3)

midas Civil computes the compressive strength of concrete (f’ci) during the construction

stages according to the construction days defined in Fig.2.4 and the function of

concrete strength defined in Fig.2.5.

The days for each construction stage can be defined in Fig2.4.

Stage Additional

Steps

Activation

Stage>Duration:

Enter the duration of the construction stage.

It is the basic unit where elements become active or inactive, boundary conditions become

active or inactive and loads are applied or removed.

Additional Step>age:

Define the specific days for the analysis steps within the construction stage.

Within a construction stage where the model and boundary conditions remain unchanged,

changes in load application timing or additional loads may be incorporated through

additional steps.

Activation>Group List>age:

Select relevant element groups, which are applicable to the current stage, in the Group List

and activate the selected groups by moving them to Activation Group List. Specify the Age of

the selected element groups.

The age entered here will be used to reflect the effects of creep and shrinkage that took

place prior to the current construction stage. The age of the element, which is casted at the

start of the current construction stage, is zero. The age typically represents the time span

from the time of concrete casting to the time of removal of formwork during which the

concrete is considered as a structural element, that is to say the curing period of concrete.

Based on the inputs shown in Fig.2.4, midas Civil takes the following days for the

construction stage analysis:

The duration of the construction stage CS1 is 30 days, the duration of the additional step

within CS1 is 15 days, and the Activation age is 5 days.

The actual duration of CS1 is 35 days (Stage Duration + Activation age).

The compressive strength of concrete is computed at 5 days, 20 days and 35 days for CS1.

If the next stage CS2 is defined with the duration of 20 days, CS2 starts at 35 days and ends AASHTO LRFD14

at 55 days. (5.7.2.2)

The development of concrete compressive strength with days is defined in the dialog

below.

Development of Strength:

Define the function to compute the compressive strength of concrete during the

construction stages. Define a function by selecting ACI, CEB-FIP or Structural Concrete

Design Code, or directly define the values.

The compressive strength of concrete is computed by reflecting the variation of the modulus

of elasticity with concrete ages.

For CS1 the compressive strengths of concrete are computed at 5 days, 20 days and 35 days,

and they are compared to the corresponding stresses.

1.3 Check stress for cross section at a construction stage

c ca , t ta (1.60)

1.4 Check the stress results for cross section at a construction stage

1.4.1 by Result Tables

The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶ Design>PSC Design >PSC Design Result Tables>Check stress for cross section

at a construction stage…

Part : Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element

Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress

Stage : Construction stage at which stresses are maximum at the corresponding section.

CHK : Combined stress check for construction stages

FT : Combined Stress due to My and axial force at Top fiber

FB : Combined Stress due to My and axial force at Bottom fiber

FTL : Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Top Left fiber

FBL : Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Bottom Left fiber

FTR : Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Top Right fiber

FBR : Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Bottom Right fiber

FMAX : Maximum combined stress out of the above six components.

ALW : Allowable stress of cross section at construction stage.

Girder/Slab : The girder of the composite section is indicated as Girder(composite); the slab of the

composite section is indicated as Slab(composite); the non-composite PSC section is indicated as

Girder(PSC).

The results can be filtered and selected for the Girder and Slab. The results can be output separately for

the Girder(Composite) and Slab(Composite). For the non-composite PSC sections, the results are ouput

for the Girder(PSC). For the non-composite PSC sections, even if the Slab part is selected, the results are

not output for the Slab(Composite).

1.4.2 by Excel Report

Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

▶ Design>PSC Design >PSC Design Calculation…

**The stress result is output for the girder and slab separately with the addition of the composite section

design check.

2. Stress for cross section at service loads

The element stress at service loads after losses should meet the following conditions:

The maximum compressive stress at service loads after losses ≤ allowable compressive

stress of concrete: σc ≤ σca

The maximum tensile stress at service loads after losses ≤ allowable tensile stress of

concrete: σt ≤ σta

The Code suggests that the stresses in PSC structures after losses shall be checked for the AASHTO LRFD14

(5.9.4.2.1)

followings:

(5.9.4.2.2)

Check compressive stress: for the load combinations of Service Limit state 1

Check tensile stress: for the load combinations of Service Limit state 3

In midas Civil, the Load Cases to check compressive stress and tensile stress after losses can

be selected via the dialog box shown in Fig.2.9.

The Load Cases in Service Limit1 will be used to check compressive stress, and the Load

Cases in Service Limit3 will be used to check tensile stress.

2.1 Allowable stress of concrete

(1) Allowable compressive stress of concrete AASHTO LRFD14

(5.9.4.2.1)

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.9.4.2.2)

midas Civil calculates the allowable tensile stress of concrete using Fig.2.11, as stated in the

table below:

[Table1.4] Allowable tensile stress of concrete

Construction Case Allowable stress(ksi)

Type

With bonded reinforcement or bonded corrosion condition - not Worse σ ta = 0.19*sqrt(fck)

Precompressed tendon

corrosion condition -severe σ ta = 0.0948*sqrt(fck)

Non-Segment Tensile Zone

Without bonded reinforcement and bonded σ ta = 0.0

tendon

Other Than Precompressed Tensile Zone σ ta = 0.0

Joint (With bonded reinforcement or bonded ) If reinforcement stress > 0.5fy, σ ta = 0.0

tendon

Other cases σ ta = 0.0

Segment

With bonded reinforcement or bonded If reinforcement stress ≤ min(0.5fy, 30ksi) , σ ta = 0.19*SQRT(f'c)

tendon

Non Joint If reinforcement stress > min(0.5fy, 30ksi) σ ta = 0.0

Precompressed Tensile Zone

According to the Code, Precompressed Tensile Zone is defined as

AASHTO LRFD14

Any region of a prestressed component in which prestressing causes compressive stresses (5.2)

and service load effects cause tensile stresses.

midas Civil calculates the concrete stress in cross-section using the following methods

and defines the Precompressed Tensile zone at After Loss (construction stage).

-If it is compressive stress for TendonPrimary(CS)+Tendon Secondary(CS), and

-if it is tensile stress for Service Limit State load combination(SLS)-(Tendon

primary+Tendon secondary).

Corrosion Condition

The data for Corrosion Condition can be entered in the dialog box below:

The input parameters and the corresponding terms defined in the Code are listed in the

table below:

[Table1.5] corrosion condition

Input parameter Term of the Code

Severe Severe

Moderate/Mild Not worse

1)

Joint/non-Joint : refer to 2.1.1

Bonded reinforcement : refer to 2.1.1

Check the stress in reinforcement : refer to 2.1.1

c ca , t ta (1.62)

2.3 Check the stress results for cross section at service loads

2.3.1 by Result Tables

The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check stress for cross section at service

loads…

Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element

Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress

LCom Name: Load Combination Name

Type: Displays the set of member forces corresponding to moving load case or settlement load case for

which the maximum stresses are produced

CHK: Combined stress check for Service loads

FT: Combined Stress due to My and axial force at Top fiber

FB: Combined Stress due to My and axial force at Bottom fiber

FTL: Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Top Left fiber

FBL: Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Bottom Left fiber

FTR: Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Top Right fiber

FBR: Combined Stress due to My, Mz and axial force at Bottom Right fiber

FMAX: Maximum combined stress out of the above six components.

ALW: Allowable stress in concrete at service limit state.

Girder/Slab : The output is presented separately for the Composite Section as the Girder(composite)

and Slab(Composite).

2.3.2 by Excel Report

Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

▶Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

**The stress result is output separately for the Girder/Slab with the addition of the Composite Section

Design.

Compare the stress in tendon with the allowable stress for each tendon group.

After immediate losses at anchorages, the maximum stress in tendon ≤ allowable stress.

Elsewhere away from anchorages, the maximum stress in tendon ≤ allowable stress.

After all losses, the maximum stress in tendon ≤ allowable stress.

The Code presents the following stress limits for tendons depending on the tendon types:

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.9.3)

Tendon Type can be specified from the Design parameters dialog.

▶ PSC> Design Parameter> Parameters…

The input parameters of the dialog and the corresponding terms defined in the Code

are listed in the table below:

Input parameter Term of the Code

Low Relaxation Tendons Low Relaxation Strand

Stress Relieved Tendons Stress Relieved Strands

and Plane High-strength Bar

Prestressing Bar Deformed Hige-strength Bar

Midas Civil applies the stress limits for tendons differently, depending on the Tendon Type

and whether it is Pre/Post tensioning.

Allowable stress in tendon immediately after anchor set at anchorages(AFDL1)

The maximum allowable stress in tendon at anchorages after immediate losses. The values

for “At anchorages and couplers immediately after anchor set” of Table 5.9.3-1 are set as

the limits.

The maximum allowable stress in tendon elsewhere along length of member away from

anchorages. The values for “Elsewhere along length of member away from anchorages…” of

Table 5.9.3-1 are set as the limits. This is not applicable to Pretension.

The maximum allowable stress in tendon at service limit state after all losses. The values for

“At service limit stage after losses” of Table 5.9.3-1 are set as the limits.

3.2.1 by Result Tables

The stress results of tendon can be checked as shown in the table below.

tendons …

[Fig.1.44] Result table for tensile stress for prestressing tendon

Tendon: Tendon profile name.

For Post-tensioned:

FDL1: Stress in tendon at anchorages.

The maximum stress in tendon at anchorages after immediate losses

FDL2: Maximum stress in tendon along the length of the member away from anchorages,

immediately after anchor set.

The maximum stress in tendon elsewhere along length of member away from anchorages

immediately after anchor set

FLL1: Maximum stress in tendon after all losses at the last stage.

The maximum stress in tendon at service limit state after all losses

AFDL1: Allowable stress in tendon immediately after anchor set at

anchorages. The allowable stress for FDL1

AFDL2: Allowable stress in tendon immediately after anchor set elsewhere.

The allowable stress for FDL2

AFLL1: Allowable stress in tendon at service limit state after losses.

The allowable stress for FLL1

For Pre-tensioned:

FDL1: Stress in tendon.

FDL2: -

FLL1: Maximum stress in tendon after all losses at the last stage.

AFDL1: Allowable stress in tendon prior to transfer.

AFDL2: -

AFLL1: Allowable stress in tendon at service limit state after losses.

The stress in each tendon for each construction stage can be checked from the dialog below:

▶ Result > Bridge> Tendon Loss Graph…

In the graph above the stress at the beginning represents the stress in tendon at anchorage

after immediate losses (FDL1), and the largest stress in the graph represents the maximum

stress in tendon elsewhere along length of member away from anchorages immediately

after anchor set (FDL2).

Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

▶Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

[Fig.1.46] Excel Report for tensile stress for prestressing tendons

Find the maximum principal tensile stress among the stress check points 1~10 of the cross-

section at a construction stage and compare it to the allowable stress. In other words,

maximum principal tensile stress ≤ allowable stress.

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.9.4.1.2)

The Code presents the following equation of allowable tensile stress for Segmentally

Constructed Bridges:

midas Civil applies the above equation for both Segment and Non-segment.

The maximum principal tensile stress for each point at a constructions stage is computed as

follows:

ps

1

x z x z 2 4 s t p 2 (1.64)

2

where,

σx : Sum of axial stresses in ECS x-direction

σz : Sum of axial stresses in ECS z-direction

τs : Shear stress due to shear.

τt : Shear stress due to torsion.

τp : Shear stress due to shear reinforcement.

4.2.1 Beam stresses of PSC

The stress components to compute the maximum principal tensile stress can be checked

from the Result Table below:

▶ Results>Result Tables>Beam>Stress(PSC)…

Sig-xx (Axial): Axial stress due to the axial force (Fx) in the ECS x-direction

Sig-xx (Moment-y): Stress due to My (moment about the ECS y-axis) in ECS x-direction

Sig-xx (Moment-z): Stress due to Mz (moment about the ECS z-axis) in ECS x-direction

Sig-xx (Bar): Axial stress due to shear steel bars in the ECS x-direction

Sig-xx (Summation): Sum of the axial stress in the ECS x-direction and the axial stress

due to shear steel bars in the ECS x-direction

Sig-zz: Stress in the ECS z-direction

Sig-xz (shear): Sum of shear stresses due to shear force and shear steel bars

Sig-xz (torsion): Shear stress due to torsion

Sig-xz (bar): Shear stress due to shear steel bars

Sig-Is (shear): Transverse stress due to shear force

Sig-Is (shear+torsion): Transverse stress due to torsion and shear force

Sig-Ps1: Maximum principal stress

Sig-Ps2: Minimum principal stress

ps ta

(1.65)

4.4.1 by Result Tables

The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element.

Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress.

Stage: Construction stage.

CHK: Principal stress check for construction stages.

Sig_P1: Principal Stress at the left top of top flange.

Sig_P2: Principal Stress at the right top of top flange.

Sig_P3: Principal Stress at the right bottom of bottom flange.

Sig_P4: Principal Stress at the left bottom of bottom flange.

Sig_P5: Principal Stress at the top of left web.(at Z1 Level)

Sig_P6: Principal Stress at the top of right web.(at Z1 Level)

Sig_P7: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in left web.(at Z2 Level)

Sig_P8: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in right web.(at Z2 Level)

Sig_P9: Principal Stress at the bottom of left web.(at Z3 Level)

Sig_P10: Principal Stress at the bottom of right web.(at Z3 Level)

Sig_MAX: The maximum Principal stress among P1-P10.

Sig_AP: Allowable principal stress at neutral axis in the web.

Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Calculation…

stress)

Find the maximum principal tensile stress among the stress check points 1~10 of the cross-

section at service loads and compare it to the allowable stress. In other words, maximum

principal tensile stress ≤ allowable stress. Here the shear effect due to torsion is excluded.

2.5.1 Allowable tensile stress

The Code (Table .9.4.2.2-1) presents the following equation of allowable tensile stress

for Segmentally Constructed Bridges:

(5.9.4.2.2)

midas Civil applies the above equation for both Segment and Non-segment.

The maximum principal tensile stress for each point at a construction stage is computed as

follows:

ps

1

x z x z 2 4 s t p 2 (1.67)

2

where,

σx : Sum of axial stresses in ECS x-direction

σz : Sum of axial stresses in ECS z-direction

τs : Shear stress due to shear.

τt : Shear stress due to torsion.

τp : Shear stress due to shear reinforcement.

The stress components to compute the maximum principal tensile stress can be checked

from the Result Table below:

Refer to 3.4.2.1 Beam stresses of PSC.

ps ta

(1.68)

5.4.1 by Result Tables

The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables > Result table for principal stress at service

loads(excluding torsional shear stress)…

[Fig.1.50] Result table for principal stress at service loads (excluding torsional shear stress)

Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element.

Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress.

Stage: Construction stage.

CHK: Principal stress check for construction stages.

Sig_P1: Principal Stress at the left top of top flange.

Sig_P2: Principal Stress at the right top of top flange.

Sig_P3: Principal Stress at the right bottom of bottom flange.

Sig_P4: Principal Stress at the left bottom of bottom flange.

Sig_P5: Principal Stress at the top of left web.(at Z1 Level)

Sig_P6: Principal Stress at the top of right web.(at Z1 Level)

Sig_P7: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in left web.(at Z2 Level)

Sig_P8: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in right web.(at Z2 Level)

Sig_P9: Principal Stress at the bottom of left web.(at Z3 Level)

Sig_P10: Principal Stress at the bottom of right web.(at Z3 Level)

Sig_MAX: The maximum Principal stress among P1-P10.

Sig_AP: Allowable principal stress at neutral axis in the web.

Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

[Fig.1.51] Excel report for principal stress at service loads (excluding torsional shear stress)

6. Principal stress at service loads

Find the maximum principal tensile stress among the stress check points 1~10 of the cross-

section at service loads and compare it to the allowable stress. Here both shear and torsion

will be reflected in the stress calculation. In other words, maximum principal tensile stress ≤

allowable stress.

The Code (Table .9.4.2.2-1) presents the following equation of allowable tensile stress

for Segmentally Constructed Bridges:

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.9.4.2.2)

midas Civil applies the above equation for both Segment and Non-segment.

The maximum principal tensile stress for each point at a construction stage is computed as

follows:

ps

1

x z x z 2 4 s t p 2

2 (1.70)

where,

σx : Sum of axial stresses in ECS x-direction

σz : Sum of axial stresses in ECS z-direction

τs : Shear stress due to shear.

τt : Shear stress due to torsion.

τp : Shear stress due to shear reinforcement.

The stress components to compute the maximum principal tensile stress can be checked

from the Result Table below:

Refer to 3.4.2.1 Beam stresses of PSC.

ps ta

(1.71)

6.4.1 by Result Tables

The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

Elem: Element number.

Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element.

Comp./Tens.: Compression or Tension Stress.

Stage: Construction stage.

CHK: Principal stress check for construction stages.

Sig_P1: Principal Stress at the left top of top flange.

Sig_P2: Principal Stress at the right top of top flange.

Sig_P3: Principal Stress at the right bottom of bottom flange.

Sig_P4: Principal Stress at the left bottom of bottom flange.

Sig_P5: Principal Stress at the top of left web.(at Z1 Level)

Sig_P6: Principal Stress at the top of right web.(at Z1 Level)

Sig_P7: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in left web.(at Z2 Level)

Sig_P8: Principal Stress at the neutral axis in right web.(at Z2 Level)

Sig_P9: Principal Stress at the bottom of left web.(at Z3 Level)

Sig_P10: Principal Stress at the bottom of right web.(at Z3 Level)

Sig_MAX: The maximum Principal stress among P1-P10.

Sig_AP: Allowable principal stress at neutral axis in the web.

Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

7. Check crack

The limit state for crack can be checked by comparing the applied spacing of tensile

reinforcement with the maximum spacing of reinforcement.

In accordance with AASHTO-LRFD, the crack limit shall be checked for the “mild steel

reinforcement”. The applied spacing of tensile reinforcement shall be compared to the

computed maximum spacing of reinforcement.

In other words, applied spacing of reinforcement ≤ maximum spacing of reinforcement

The maximum spacing of reinforcement is computed as follows:

AASHTO LRFD14

(5.7.3.4)

700 e (Eq. 5.7.3.4-1)

smax 2d c (1.72)

s f ss

dc

s 1 (1.73)

0.7(h dc )

dc: thickness of concrete cover measured from extreme tension fiber to center of the flexural

reinforcement located closest thereto (in.)

fss: tensile stress in steel reinforcement at service limit state (ksi)

fss is computed according to the following steps:

1) Compute the concrete stress (fcs) at the location of tensile reinforcement using

the extreme fiber tension stress and the extreme fiber compression stress.

2) Compute the strain of concrete (εcs=fcs/Ec) with regard to fcs.

3) Compute fss (fss = Es εcs).

γe :exposure factor

1.00 for Class 1 exposure condition

0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition

Exposure condition can be entered in the PSC Design parameters dialog.

The spacing of Longitudinal reinforcement entered from Section Manager>Reinforcements

shall be used as the applied spacing of tensile reinforcement.

▶ Model>Properties>Section Manager>Reinforcements

Spacing of

reinforcements

reinforcement data

When the positive moment is checked, the spacing of bottom reinforcements will be used.

When the negative moment is checked, the spacing of top reinforcements will be used.

7.3 Check the crack width at service loads

The results can be checked as shown in the table below.

▶ Design>PSC Design>PSC Design Result Tables>Check crack width at service loads…

Elem: Element number

Part: Check location (I-End, J-End) of each element

Top/Bottom: At top of element, at bottom of element

LCom. Name: Load combination name.

Type: produce maximum and minimum member force components for the load combinations including

moving load cases or settlement load cases.

Check : OK/NG

FT : Stress at the top (+ compression, - tension)

FB : Stress at the bottom (+ compression, - tension)

s_use : The spacing of tensile reinforcement in use.

s_max : The calculated maximum spacing of reinforcement.

If the compressive stress is applied at the design check location, the crack check is omitted.

For the Composite Section, the deck crack is ignored. Therefore, the crack check at the slab

top of the composite section is not provided in midas Civil.

**Degree of Continuity at Various Limit States(5.14.1.4.5)

Verification results can be checked in MS Excel report as shown in the figure below.

Chapter 2.

Steel Composite

Girder Design

AASHTO LRFD 6th (2012)

Chapter 2.

Steel Composite Girder Design (AASHTO LRFD 12)

Steel composite girders need to be designed to satisfy the following limit states.

Check Strength Limit State

Check Constructability

Chapter 2. Steel Composite Girder Design : AASHTO-LRFD 4thand6th (2007 & 2012)

Introduction

1. AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 Steel Composite

1.1 Check List of AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12Steel Composite

For AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 Steel Composite Design, Limit State Design is applied. The criteria

that Steel Composite Section must follow for Limit State Design is as follows.

Review on section properties, e.g. width-thickness ratio

Review on flexure strength, shear strength and torsional strength

Review on permanent deformation

(4) Constructibility

Review on shear and flexure occurring from load combinations during construction stages

Review on fatigue in steel and concrete materials in Steel Composite girder

Steel Composite section can be categorized by the following classification groups.

There are three main section shape types in midas Civil; I, Box and Tub shapes. In the case of

box and tub sections, there are two more cases, single or multiple box section.

I Box Tub

For continuous beams, negative moments may occur around interior supports. Design code

may apply different formulas for these cases.

(3) Bridge Type : Straight / Curved

Based on the horizontal alignment of a bridge, it can be classified as either straight or

curved. The program recognizes curved bridges based on the input of the girder radius

for each component.

Compact Type

(4) Compact Type : Compact / Noncompact / Slender

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.2)

Type Description

A composite section in positive flexure, which satisfies specific steel

grade, web slenderness, and ductility requirements, is capable of

Compact

developing a nominal resistance exceeding the moment at first yield,

but not to exceed the plastic moment.

A composite section in positive flexure for which the nominal

Noncompact

resistance is not permitted to exceed the moment at first yield.

Cross-Section of a Compression member composed of plate

Slender components of sufficient slenderness such that local buckling in the

elastic range will occur.

The program considers transverse and longitudinal stiffeners.

Type Description

tension field action. These work as anchors for the tension so that post

Transverse buckling shear resistance can be developed.

Stiffeners

It should be noted that elastic web shear buckling cannot be prevented

by transverse stiffeners.

Longitudinal stiffeners may be provided to increase flexural resistance

by preventing local buckling. These work as restraining boundaries for

compression elements so that inelastic flexural buckling stress can be

Longitudinal

developed in a web.

Stiffeners

It consists of either a plate welded longitudinally to one side of the web,

or a bolted angle.

2. Considerations Steel Composite Design

2.1 Construction Stage for steel composite

During the construction of a steel composite bridge, the steel girder is constructed before the

construction of the concrete deck of the upper part of the structure. The steel composite section

is divided into three major steps.

Construction stage

Description

for steel composite section

(non-composite) constructed.

concrete deck constructed, it has not hardened yet.

as load Therefore, the weight of the wet

(non-composite) concrete is applied as a load condition.

Steel girder and

strength and stiffness are formed.

concrete deck

Hereafter, the steel girder and

as member

concrete deck work as a complete

(composite)

composite section.

In order to find and portray the Steel Composite Section Design Process within the program,

utilize the Construction Stage function.

▪ Steel composite section is composed of steel and concrete. Concrete is a time dependent

material and transforms due to creep and shrinkage. Also, the restraints imposed by the shear

connectors cause additional stresses within the composite section. Therefore, time dependent

characteristics (creep and shrinkage) must be taken into consideration.

▪ Modular ratio is the ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to that of concrete. The short-term

modular ratio "n" is used for transient loads in the program. Long-term modular ratio "3n" is used

for permanent loads acting after composite action. For normal-weight concrete, AASHTO-LRFD 07

and 12 recommend the values of the short-term modular ratio.

▪ The plastic moment Mp for a composite section is defined as the moment that causes yielding in

steel section and reinforcement and uniform stress distribution of 0.85 in compression concrete

slab. In positive flexure regions, the contribution of reinforcement in concrete slab is small and

can be neglected.

▪ The yield moment, My, for a composite section is defined as the moment that causes the first

yielding in one of the steel flanges or the moment at which an outer fiber first attans the yield

stress. My is the sum of the moments applied to the pre-composite steel section, the short-term

composite concrete and steel section, and the long-term composite concrete and steel section.

3.1 Plastic Moment(Mp), Yield Moment( My) in Positive Flexure

I section and Box/Tub steel composite sections must satisfy the following criteria regarding

cross section proportions. If the conditions have not been met after the design has been

completed, it will be indicated as an “NG” on the design report generated.

1) Web Proportions

[Table 2.5] Web Proportions

Case Condition

WEB

D

Web with longitudinal stiffener 150 For I section

AASHTO LRFD 12

tw (6.10.2.1.1-1)

(6.10.2.1.2-1)

D

Web without longitudinal stiffener 300

tw For Box/Tub Section

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.11.2.1.2-1)

(6.11.2.1.3-1)

2) Flange Proportions

[Table 2.6] Flange Proportions

Section Type

For I section

bf

12.0 AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.2.2-1)

2t f bf

12.0 (6.10.2.2-2)

(6.10.2.2-3)

D 2t f

bf (6.10.2.2-4)

6 D

bf

t f 1.1tw 6

For Box/Tub Section

AASHTO LRFD 12

I yc t f 1.1tw (6.11.2.2-1)

0.1 10 (6.11.2.2-2)

(6.11.2.2-3)

I yt

Where,

Iyc : moment of inertia of the compression flange of the steel section about the vertical axis in the

plane of the web

Iyt : moment of inertia of the tension flange of the steel section about the vertical axis in the plane

of the web

3 3

t fc b fc t ft b ft

I yc , I yt (2.1)

12 12

(2) Section Classification

Section Classification

Section Classification of Positive Flexure Moment AASHTO LRFD 12

6.10.6.2 (6.10.6.2)

min( F yc , F yt ) 70 . 0 ksi No

d / t w 150 :Curved Bridge

D cp Es

2 3 . 76 No

tw F yc

Yes

End

[Fig.2.2] Section Classification of Negative Positive Moment

Where,

𝐷𝑐𝑝 : depth of the web in compression at the plastic moment determined as per Article D6.3.2

▪ In a positive moment, the following ductility conditions must be met at all times. If not, the

program will show NG.

Dp 0.42Dt

Ductility

(2.2) AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.7.3)

Where,

𝐷𝑝 : Distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite section at the

plastic moment

𝐷𝑡 : Total depth of the composite section

If the positive moment is applied on a compact section, MP should be calculated as shown in AASHTO LRFD 12

(D6.1)

Table 2.7.

̅ and Mp for section in Positive Flexure

[Table 2.7] Calculation of 𝐘 Mp for section

in Positive

Case PNA Condition ̅ and

Y Mp Flexure

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Table D6.1-1)

D P Pc Ps Prt Prb

Y [ t 1]

Pt Pw 2 Pw

Ⅰ In Web Pc Ps Prb Prt

P 2

M w [Y (t Y ) 2 ] +

2D

[ Ps d s Prt d rt Prb d rb Pw d w Pt d t ]

t c Pw + Pt − Ps − Prt − Prb

̅

Y = ( )[ + 1]

2 Pc

In Top Pt Pw Pc

Ⅱ P 2

flange Ps Prb Prt

M c [Y (t Y ) 2 ]

2t c

[ Ps d s Prt d rt Prb d rb Pw d w Pt d t ]

Pc + Pw + Pt − Prt − Prb

Pt Pw Pc ̅

Y = (t s ) [ ]

Ps

Concrete c

Ⅲ Deck, rb Ps Prb Prt Y 2P

Below Prb ts M s

2t s

[ Prt d rt Prb d rb Pc d c Pw d w Pt d t ]

Y C rb

Pt Pw Pc Prb

Concrete

Ⅳ Deck, c

at Prb

rb Ps Prt Y 2P

ts M s [ Prt d rt Pc d c Pw d w Pt d t ]

2t s

P Pw Pt Prt Prb

Y (t s ) c

Concrete Pt Pw Pc Prb Ps

Ⅴ

Deck, c Y 2P

Above Prb rt Ps Prt

t M s

Below Prt s 2t s

[ Prt d rt Prb d rb Pc d c Pw d w Pt d t ]

Y C rt

Pt Pw Pc Prb Prt

Concrete

Ⅵ Deck, c

at Prt

rt Ps Y 2P

ts M s [ Prb d rb Pc d c Pw d w Pt dt ]

2t s

P P P P P

Y (t s ) rb c w t rt

Pt Pw Pc Prb Prt Ps

Concrete

Ⅶ Deck, c Y 2P

rt Ps

Above Prt M s

ts 2t s

[ Prt drt Prbdrb Pc dc Pwd w Pt dt ]

Where,

𝑑𝑟𝑡 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to the centerline of the top layer of longitudinal concrete

deck.

𝑑𝑟𝑏 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to the centerline of the bottom layer of longitudinal

concrete deck.

𝑑𝑡 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to the midthickness of the tension flange.

𝑑𝑤 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to middepth of the web.

𝑑𝑐 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to midthickness of the compression flange.

𝑑𝑠 : Distance from the plastic neutral axis to midthickness of the concrete deck.

𝑃𝑟𝑏 = 𝐹𝑦𝑟 𝐴𝑟𝑏 (by reinforcement)

𝑃𝑡 = 𝑏𝑓𝑡 𝑡𝑓𝑡 𝐹𝑦𝑡 (by steel girder)

𝑃𝑤 = 𝐷 𝑡𝑤 𝐹𝑦𝑤 (by steel girder)

𝑃𝑐 = 𝑏𝑓𝑐 𝑡𝑓𝑐 𝐹𝑦𝑐 (by steel girder)

𝑃𝑠 = 0,85 𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑠 𝑡𝑠 (by concrete slab)

When a positive moment is applied on a compact section, My is calculated as shown in

Equation 2.3.

AASHTO LRFD 12

(D6.2.2)

Where,

MyTop : Yield Moment of Top Flange

MyBot : Yield Moment of Bottom Flange

M D1 M D2 M AD

Fy

STop STop(3n ) STop( n )

(2.4) Fy

(Eq. D6.2.2-1)

M D1 M D 2 M M_ytop

Fy AD (2.5) AASHTO LRFD 12

S Bot S Bot (3n ) S Bot ( n ) (Eq. D6.2.2-2)

M yBot M D1 M D 2 M AD

Where,

S: Non-composite section modulus

S3n : Long-term composite section modulus

Sn : Short-term composite section modulus

MD1 : Moment of non-composite section

MD2 : Moment of long-term composite section

MAD : Additional yield moment of short-term composite section

For I sections in negative flexure, Mp and My are calculated.

For negative flexure, cross section proportions must meet the following requirements. If the

program does not meet the requirements, NG will be reported after the design.

1) Web Proportions

[Table 2.8] Web Proportions

Case Condition

D

Web with longitudinal stiffeners 150

tw

D

Web without longitudinal stiffeners 300

tw

2) Flange proportions

[Table 2.9] Flange Proportions

Section Type : I / Box / Tub

bf

12.0

2t f

D

bf

6

t f 1.1t w

I yc

0.1 10

I yt

Section Classification

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.6.2.3)

Where,

𝐷𝑐 : Depth of the web in compression in the elastic range.

Iyc : moment of inertia of the compression flange of the steel section about the vertical axis in the plane

of the web

Iyt : moment of inertia of the tension flange of the steel section about the vertical axis in the plane of the

web

▪ Minimum Negative Flexure Concrete Deck Reinforcement

Under negative moment, concrete deck has to meet the minimum rebar ratio requirement.

Once the requirements of Equation 2.6 are satisfied, the next design step can be taken.

Ars 0.01Adeck (2.6)

AASHTO LRFD 12

Under negative moment, Mp is only calculated when Appendix A6 is used. Mp is calculated by (D6.1)

either of the two following methods. Please refer to Table 2.10 for the equations.

[Table 2.10] Calculation of 𝐘 Mp for section in

Negative Flexure

Case PNA Condition ̅

Y and Mp AASHTO LRFD 12

(Table D6.1-2)

D Pc − Pt − Prt − Prb

̅

Y = ( )[ + 1]

2 Pw

In

Ⅰ Pc Pw Pt Prb Prt

Web Pw 2

Mp = ̅ + (D − ̅

[Y Y)2 ]

2D

+[Prt drt + Prb drb + Pt dt + Pc dc ]

t t Pw + Pc − Prt − Prb

̅

Y = ( )[ + 1]

2 Pt

In Top

Ⅱ Pc Pw Pt Prb Prt

flange Pt 2

Mp = ̅ + (t t − Y

[Y ̅)2 ]

2t

+[Prt drt + Prb drb + Pw dw + Pc dc ]

Where,

𝑃𝑟𝑡 = 𝐹𝑦𝑟𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑡 (by reinforcement)

𝑃𝑟𝑏 = 𝐹𝑦𝑟𝑏 𝐴𝑟𝑏 (by reinforcement)

𝑃𝑐 = 𝐹𝑦𝑐 𝑏𝑐 𝑡𝑐 (by steel girder)

𝑃𝑤 = 𝐹𝑦𝑤 𝐷𝑡𝑤 (by steel girder)

𝑃𝑡 = 𝐹𝑦𝑡 𝑏𝑡 𝑡𝑡 (by steel girder)

My in Negative

(4) Yield Moment in Negative Moment (My) Moment

AASHTO LRFD 12

When Appendix A6 is used for negative flexure, My is calculated and utilized. My is calculated (D6.2.3)

as shown below in Equation 2.7.

M y Min(M yTop , M yBot ) (2.7)

Where,

MyTop : Yield Moment of Top Flange

MyBot : Yield Moment of Bottom Flange

M D1 M D 2 M

Fy AD (2.8)

STop STop( R ) STop( R )

M yTop M D1 M D 2 M AD (2.9)

M D1 M D 2 M

Fy AD

S Bot S Bot ( R ) S Bot ( R )

(2.10)

M yBot M D1 M D 2 M AD (2.11)

Where,

SR : Long-term composite section modulus with longitudinal reinforcements

Chapter 2. Steel Composite Girder Design : AASHTO-LRFD 4thand6th (2007/2012)

Variables

1. Modeling Design Variables

In this chapter, the design variable values, the meaning behind the design requirements, and the design process for

Steel Composite Design in midas Civil are explained.

The steel composite section is mainly composed of steel girder and concrete slab. Stiffeners can be added to steel

girder section while longitudinal reinforcement can be added to reinforce concrete slab. In this section, the input

methods for these sections and the meaning and application of design variables are explained.

Contents Explanation

(1) Composite Section Data (1) Composite Section Data

▶ Properties > Section > Section Properties> Add > 1) Girder Num

When the Girder Num is inputted as more than

Composite Tab

1, the moment of inertia of area in transverse

direction (Izz) is increased assuming that slab

behaves in consistence with each girder in

analysis. When the number of girder is inputted

as more than 1, it is excluded from the

consideration of design.

In such case, cross beams should be modelled

to consider the transverse stiffness instead of

increasing the girder number.

effective width of the concrete deck.

To design the steel composite section, the

modulus of elasticity for short-term and long-

term effect in creep and shrinkage can be input.

The modulus of elasticity input here is applied

for construction stage analysis of Steel

Composite section as shown in [Fig.2.7].

[Fig.2.6] Section Data Dialog Box

Contents Explanation

1) Types of longitudinal stiffeners that are

▶ Properties > Section > Section Properties> Add useable are Flat, Tee, and U-Rib.

> Composite Tab > Stiffeners Button...

2) For I sections, stiffeners can be added on

either side of the web. For Box/Tub sections,

upper and lower flanges can be installed as well

as the web panel.

3) When the check box under c column is

checked on, the stiffness value of the stiffener

is considered in analysis. Otherwise, the value

is not considered for analysis. Regardless of

whether or not the check box is checked on or

off, longitudinal stiffeners are considered in

design.

Based on the assignment of longitudinal

stiffener, Rb, web load shedding factor varies

for stiffened web/unstiffened web. It is also

required for classifying the interior panels in

shear check as stiffener/unstiffened.

1.1.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement

In a steel composite section, the longitudinal

▶Design > Composite Design > Longitudinal reinforcements are arranged within the concrete

Reinforcement ... deck. The strength is calculated as shown in Table

2.11.

of strength

Positive Negative

Case

Flexure Flexure

Figure

Applied None

Slab

Reinforce

None Applied

-ment

Contents Explanation

(1) Transverse Stiffener Figure 2.10 shows the window in which users can

arrange transverse stiffeners in steel composite

▶ Design > Composite Design > Transverse Stiffener ...

section. When the transverse stiffeners are

installed, the existence and spacing between

stiffeners determine whether the web is stiffened

or unstiffened under strength limit state. Tension

field action in Shear check for Strength Limit State

is considered only for stiffened interior panels.

1) One / Two Stiffener Option Button

Choose between one or two stiffeners. The two

stiffener option is available for I/Box/Tub

sections.

2) Pitch (do)

Pitch refers to transverse stiffener spacing. At

[Fig.2.12] Stiffener Type Dialog Box the strength limit state, this can be used to

distinguish between stiffened and unstiffened

webs or calculate shear strength of the web.

1.2. Design Material Data

For the design of steel composite section, construction stage and time dependent material properties of concrete must

be defined. In this section, the input method for concrete's time dependent properties and steel composite section

material information is defined.

Contents Explanation

(1) Creep/Shrinkage (1) Creep/Shrinkage

▶ Properties > Time Dependent Material > The time dependent properties of concrete,

such as creep and shrinkage, are defined. During

Creep/Shrinkage ...

construction stage analysis of bridges, these

properties are utilized for concrete material.

During analysis, they are reflected in the

calculation of member forces but not reflected

in the design of the steel composite section.

(Creep/Shrinkage)

▶ Properties > Time Dependent Material > Comp. In order to reflect the change in the modulus of

elasticity of the time dependent property of

Strength ...

concrete, the change in compressive strength or

modulus of elasticity is defined.

stage since concrete is poured at different

locations. The varying aging effects are reflected

in the calculation of the member force but not

in the design of the composite sections.

(Compression Strength)

1.2.2 Modify Composite Material The material utilized for steel composite

(1) Modify Composite Material sections are provided in the SRC material

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Material ... properties. The materials should be defined as

SRC Type.

Figure 2.15 shows the dialog box where users

Contents Explanation

composite section design. The material property

values entered will have a priority over the

values entered in Material Data dialog box.

□ Hybrid Factor

Hybrid factor is considered in the case where

flanges and web have different material

properties.

(2) Hybrid Factor

When the check box for Hybrid Factor is

selected, icon on the right is activated. The

different materials for the top and bottom

flanges and web of the steel girder can be

defined. Hybrid Factor (Rh) is determined based

on these material information.

1.3. Design Parameters for Composite Section

Contents Explanation

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Parameters ...

(1) Strength Resistance Factor

Strength Resistance Factor is defined.

By clicking , the resistance factors

are automatically set to the default values defined

in AASHTO LRFD 12. The values also may be

modified or entered manually.

If the Multiple Box Sections option is selected,

lateral bending stress is considered in accordance

with St.Venant Torsion and Distortion Stress. If the

Single Box Sections option is selected, the lateral

bending stress is always considered.

□ Appendix A6 for Negative Flexure Resistance in

Web Compact/Noncompact Sections

If this option is checked, Appendix A6 is applied

for the flexure strength of straight composite I-

[Fig.2.17] Composite Steel Girder Design Parameter Dialog Box

sections in negative flexure with compact/

noncompact webs. Use of Appendix A6 is optional

in accordance with the code as shown below.

Compact/Noncompact Sections

Sections(6.10.7.1.2-3)

not, following conditions need to be manually

verified:

Contents Explanation

adjacent interior pier sections satisfy the

requirements of Article B6.2,

- The appropriate value of θRL from Article

B6.6.2 exceeds 0.009 radians at all adjacent

interior-pier sections

- In which case the nominal flexural resistance

of the section is not subject to the limitation

of Eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3.

the compact sections under positive flexure in a

continuous span, the Mn value is restricted to

1.3RhMy.

Resistance (6.10.9.3.2)

If this option is checked, post buckling resistance

due to tension field action is considered in the

nominal shear resistance of an interior stiffened

web panel. If not, Vn is taken as, CVP.

where,

C = ratio of shear-buckling resistance to the shear

yield strength

Vp = plastic shear force.

Design and result outputs are generated for the

limit states checked in the Design Parameters.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Unbraced Length ... Unbraced length factor for steel composite section is

considered. The value input here has higher priority

than the value calculated from Span Group.

(1) Lb

Lateral Unbraced Length is used to calculate

lateral torsional buckling resistance in

compression flange of I Girder or top flange of Tub

Girder. If the lateral unbraced length is not added,

the program will use span lengths. If span lengths

are not defined either, the lateral unbraced length

is applied for the corresponding member length.

Contents Explanation

▶ Design > Composite Design > Shear Connectors ... In this program, studs are used for shear connectors.

The parameters used for calculation are shown

below.

(1) Category

Category defined by 75yr-(ADTT)SL equivalent to

Infinite Life (Table 6.6.1.2.3-2)

(2) Fu

Shear Resistance of Shear Connector

Moment

[Fig.2.20] Shear Connector Dialog Box

The Length between Maximum Moment and Zero

Moment needs to be inputted by users to verify

pitch as per strength limit state.

One of the two conditions needs to be selected

for the calculation of the nominal shear force, P

which is applied for the verification of pitch at the

strength limit state.

1.3.4 Fatigue Parameter

(1) Category

▶ Design > Composite Design > Fatigue Parameter ... Category defined by 75ye-(ADTT)SL equivalent to

infinite life (Table 6.6.1.2.3-2)

(2) (ADTT)SL

Number of trucks per day in a single-lane

averaged over the design life (3.6.1.4.2)

(ADTT)SL can be manually calculated as per

3.6.1.4.2-1.

(3) N

Number of stress range cycles per truck passage

Value can be taken from Table 6.6.1.2.5-2.

Contents Explanation

calculated as the summation of Longitudinal

Bending Stress Range and Longitudinal Warping

Stress Range.

vertical bending moment is simply increased by

10% for the longitudinal warping stress.

manually calculated as per BEF (Beam on Elastic

Foundation) analogy presented by Wright and

Abdel-Samad. The designer guide to Box Girder by

Bethlehem Steel Corporation also presents this

method. Detailed calculations can be seen in

Design Example 5: Three Span Continuous Curved

Composite Tub-Girder Bridge (page 85-94).

Transverse Bending Stress due to Distorsion.

Therefore, transverse bending stress range at the

[Fig.2.22] Fatigue Parameters Dialog Box top or bottom corners of the tub section need to

be manually checked with the nominal fatigue

resistance.

bending stress range is summated with the

inputted value of the Longitudinal Warping Stress

Range for top or bottom flange depending upon

the flexure condition at the section.

the sections having box flange as those are the

section in which the torsion is considered.

▶ Structure > Wizard > Composite Bridge > Span The elements of composite sections are defined as

Information ... one Span Group. The Span Group will serve the

following functions.

unit and providing the corresponding results in

the Span Checking table. Refer to Chapter 7 of

"Steel Composite Design Result" for more

information.

When assigning a span group, support properties

are considered for calculating the unbraced

length.

The unbraced length can also be manually

inputted once the corresponding support

conditions under the support column are

selected. Using the span parameters inputted, the

unbraced length can be calculated automatically.

However, if the unbraced length is inputted in

Contents Explanation

unbraced length first.

For each element, location of support, if any, can

be identified as i or j. The stiffened webs with

supports are identified as end panels.

Also, the elements that are assigned with i or j for

the support are considered as end panels. Tension

field action is not considered for the end panel in

Shear Check.

1.3.6 Curved Bridge Information

1.3.6 Curved Bridge Information Once the girder radius value of the element units in

the steel composite section is entered, the

▶ Design > Composite Design > Curved Bridge Info ...

corresponding elements are categorized as curved

bridges.

connectors' pitch and the moment of inertia of

area for the longitudinal stiffener attached to

web.

or concave so the program determines whether

the longitudinal stiffener is on the side of the web

away or toward from the center of the curvature.

obtained from the analysis results and not using

V-Load equation.

[Fig.2.24] Curved Bridge Information Dialog Box

(2) If convex, left stiffener is on the side of the

web away from the center of curvature and right

stiffener is on the side of the web toward the

center of curvature. If concave, the opposite case

of the convex is applied.

applied to each case.

Contents Explanation

[Table 2.12] Curvature Correction Factor for Longitudinal

Stiffener

Case

Z

1

Left Stiffener 6

(6.10.11.3.3-3)

Convex Z

1

Right Stiffener 12

(6.10.11.3.3-4)

Z

1

Left Stiffener 12

(6.10.11.3.3-4)

Concave Z

1

Right Stiffener 6

(6.10.11.3.3-3)

where,

β : Curvature correction factor for longitudinal stiffener

rigidity

Z : Curvature Parameter

1.3.7 Deck Overhang Loads Design parameters for the Deck Overhang load can

be entered. The fl value obtained from F(Distributed

force) and P(Concentrated force) is not applied to

Box section, but only for I-section and top stiffener

of Tub section. The fl value for deck overhang is

considered only for the constructibility limit state.

Distributed Force, F

(1) Distributed Force, F

Distributed force values are inputted

Fl = F tan α

Concentrated force values are inputted

Pl = P tan α

Eccentricity of overhang loads are inputted

-1

α = tan (e/D)

[Fig.2.25] Deck Overhang Loads Dialog Box The fl value is generated by combining the values

produced from the analysis and the value inputted

in this dialog box. If this feature is not used, fl value

only from the analysis results will be used. Lateral

bending moment due to uniformly distributed

lateral bracket force (Fl) is estimated as:

2

FL

Ml l b (c6.10.3.4-2)

12

where,

Ml : flange lateral bending moment due to the eccentric

loadings from the forming brackets

[Fig.2.26] Deck Overhand Bracket

Fl : uniformly distributed lateral force

Lb : unbraced length

Contents Explanation

bracket force (Fl) assumed to be placed at the

middle of the unbraced length is estimated as:

Pl Lb

Ml (c6.10.3.4-3)

8

where,

Ml : flange lateral bending moment due to the eccentric

loadings from the forming brackets

Pl : concentrated lateral force

Lb : unbraced length

such as Deck Overhang Weight, Screed rail load,

Railing load, Walkway load, Machine Load, etc.

considered for the constructability check only.

Case is applied to calculate the load in this case.

This feature displays design member forces (strong

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Tables > Design

axis moment, My), weak-axis moment (Mz) and

Force/Moment... shear stress (VU) for the local axis of elements under

selected load combination of steel composite

section for each construction stage. For explanation

regarding design member forces under construction

stages, please refer to Section 1.5 in this chapter.

1.4 Load Combination for steel composite section

1.4.1 Application of load combination in midas Civil for AASHTO LRFD 12

(1) Application of load combinations and factors in midas Civil for AASHTO LRFD 12

The load combinations used for the review of each limit state as per Table 3.4.1-1, are shown below.

Using the Auto Generation feature of the program, the load combinations regulated by the design code can be

automatically generated. Load factors are considered for each load combinations in this program. Load factors are

considered only within the program, and γp value can be designated by Auto Generation feature.

Contents Explanation

(1) Auto Generation of Load Combinations (1) Auto Generation of Load Combinations

▶ Result > Combination > Load Combination > This feature automatically generates load

combinations under provision of AASHTO LRFD 12.

Composite Steel Girder Design > Auto Generation ...

1) Design Code

When load combinations are generated, they

strictly follow the design code selected by the

user.

Load modifier is a factor relating to ductility,

redundancy, and operational classification. It is

defined by the following equations.

appropriate:

ηi = ηD ηR ηI ≥ 0.95

appropriate:

ηi = 1/(ηD ηR ηI ) ≤ 1.0

Where,

ηD: a factor relating to ductility as per 1.3.3

ηR: a factor relating to redundancy as per 1.3.4

ηI: a factor relating to operational classification as per

1.3.5

Load Factors for Permanent Loads are as per

Table 3.4.1-2. Each option button for γp value is

activated when the corresponding static load case

is defined.

Dialog Box

If a user wishes to review limit states based on the load combinations defined manually, it can be done by

selecting the load combination of interest in Load Combination Type as in Section 1.4.2.

1.4.2 Used load combination for steel composite design

Load combinations used in the steel composite section design are defined under Load Combination Type.

Contents Explanation

1) Strength Limit State

▶ Design > Composite Design > Load Combination Type...

Choose load combinations for use under

review of strength limit state.

Choose load combinations for review of

usability limit state.

Choose load combinations for review in

fatigue limit state (Fatigue Ⅰ Load

Combination is for infinite life design;

(ADTT)SL inputted in the software > (ADTT)SL,

equivalent to infinite life as per Table

6.6.1.2.3-2).

Similarly, choose load combinations for

review in fatigue limit state (Conversely to

Fatigue I, Fatigue Ⅱ Load Combination is for

finite life design).

In this section, methods of construction stage modeling, implementation of concrete's time-dependent material

properties in steel composite section and 3 types of design member forces applied to steel composite section design

are explained. Construction stages of steel composite section can be implemented differently for case 1 to 3 as in table

2.13.

[Table 2.13] Modeling Construction Stage Cases for Steel Composite Design

Case Construction Stage Time Dependent Material(Creep / Shrinkage)

Case 1 Defined

Defined

Case 2 Not Defined (Apply modular ratio of 3n)

1.5.1 Member forces and stresses used in steel composite section design

(1) Member forces

For design of steel composite section, member forces per construction stage of steel composite section must be

calculated. The program considers two main factors for design and review of construction stage of steel

composite section.

▪Construction stages of steel composite section

▪Time dependent material properties of Concrete (Creep, Shrinkage and Compression Strength)

Design member forces used for design of steel composite section are divided into three main categories.

Member forces before the concrete deck is activated. Only steel section properties

Dead (Before)

are used.

Member forces occurring due to erection load cases defined by user with the time

Dead (After) dependent material properties (Creep & Shrinkage) of concrete Long term section

properties are used.

Member forces from the post-construction state and load cases not included in

Short Term

the above categories. Short term section properties are used.

(2) Stress

Bending stress (fbu) used for design of steel composite section is calculated as in equation 2.12.

M D1 M D 2 M AD

f bu (2.12)

S NC S LT S ST

Where,

Md1 : moment of non-composite section

Md2 : moment of long-term composite section

MAD : additional yield moment of short-term composite section

SNC : non-composite section modulus

SLT : long-term section modulus

SST : short-term section modulus

fbu : largest value of the flexural stress in the flanges at the section under consideration

On the other hand, lateral bending stress (fl) is calculated as in equation 2.13.

M uz M lat

fl 0.6 Fyf (2.13)

Sl

Where,

fl : flange lateral bending stress

Sl: lateral section modulus of the flanges about z-axis

Muz : flexural moment about z-axis

Mlat : lateral bending moment in the flange calculated from the overhang loads

Fyf : specified minimum yield strength of a flange

1.5.2 Case 1

In Case 1, construction stages and time dependent material properties of concrete (Creep/Shrinkage) are defined.

Composite sections for Construction Stages function must be defined as well; otherwise, the sections shall be

excluded from design. If time dependent material property information is inputted as well as long-term modulus of

elasticity, long-term modulus of elasticity has higher priority in consideration of calculation.

▣ Define Composite Section for Construction Stage

Contents Explanation

Composite Section for Construction Stage Composite Section for Construction Stage

▶ Load >Load Type> Construction Stage > Composite For definition of construction stage, information

in this window must be defined.

Section for C.S...

(1) Active Stage

Construction stage where steel composite

section should be activated is inserted.

1) "Material Type" column

□ By choosing Element, material property of

the element is used.

chosen under "Material" Column is applied

with higher priority.

[Fig.2.32] Add/Modify Composite Section for Construction stages where steel girder and

concrete slab should be activated are chosen.

Construction Stage Dialog

3) Age column

Age information when each part is activated is

input. Information in this column has higher

priority over the age input during definition of

construction stage.

Member forces before activation of Concrete Deck are applied. (Refer to Table 2.4 in "Introduction") For design

purposes, Dead (Before) member forces are applied after multiplying the load factors applied in Dead Load (CS) in

Load Combination dialog box.

For the member forces under Dead (After), in post-composite stages, the long-term modulus of elasticity is

determined by the time dependent material properties defined by users. Member forces under Dead (After)

consist of static load cases and construction stage load cases. If Dead Load of Component and Attachments (DC2),

Dead Load of Wearing Surfaces and Utilities (DW), Creep (CH), and Shrinkage (SH) are defined as erection loads,

they are accounted for the Dead (After).

▣Define Erection Load

Contents Explanation

▶Analysis > Analysis Control > Construction Stage > Load Cases Erection Load is defined.

to be Distinguished from Dead Load for C.S Output >Add

(Modify/delete)... 1) Load Type for C.S

Determine the Load Type for the

construction stages of the composite

section. Load types are considered by

the software for auto generation of load

combinations.

Define Erection Load by selecting and

moving the Load Cases desired from the

List of Load Case panel to the Selected

Load Case panel.

Short-term modulus of elasticity of the composite section is calculated based on the DB value inputted. All load

cases are considered as the short-term loads except the ones defined as Dead (Before) and Dead (After).

1.5.3 Case 2

In Case 2, construction stages are defined without the time dependent material property (Creep/Shrinkage)

information. Long term effects are considered using the long term modular ratio entered in the Section Data dialog

box. Sections for different construction stages must be defined and differentiated using the Composite Section for

Construction Stage definition. Otherwise, they will not be considered for the design check.

Dead (Before) is applied before the concrete deck is activated. (Refer to Table 2.4 in the "Introduction") For the

design, the Dead (CS) multiplied by the load factor is applied as the member force under Dead (Before).

The effects of Creep/Shrinkage are reflected by applying the ratio of elastic modulus that is inputted in the

Section Data (Refer to Section 1.1.1 (1)) for the long-term stage. In other words, the Creep/Shrinkage effects are

reflected by using the section information with the ratio of elastic modulus that considers the time dependent

material property for the analysis and design. These long term modular ratios defined for considering creep and

shrinkage, auto generate Section Stiffness Scale Factors for the sections in which these are inputted. Section

Stiffness Scale Factors need to be activated in the construction stages in accordance with the Composite Section

for Construction Stage definition, i.e. the section stiffness scale factors are activated when the corresponding

section becomes composite as per the definition of composite section for CS. If users compose construction

stages and define Dead Load of Component and Attachments (DC2), Dead Load of Wearing Surfaces and Utilities

(DW), Creep (CH), and Shrinkage (SH) as Erection Load, the load cases will be included in the Dead (After).

The ratio of elastic modulus of the composite section is calculated using the DB value inputted. All the load cases

which are not activated in the Construction Stage are considered as the short-term loads.

1.5.4 Case 3

In case the construction stages are not defined, users can model and define steel composite sections by using the

Load Case for Pre-Composite Section function at

▶ Load > Load Type > Settlement/Misc. > Misc. > Pre-composite Section.

For this case, short- and long-term ratios of elastic modulus defined in the section data (Refer to Section 1.1.1 (1))

are used. In this case, instead of member forces per construction stages, member forces under Dead (Before) is used

to check the constructibility of the model.

In the Load Cases for Pre-Composite Section dialog box, users can define which load cases to account for the

member forces and apply as Dead (Before) in design. Since this is for pre-composite state, the steel only section

properties are used (Refer to Section 1.1.1 (1)).

Member forces under Dead (After) use the long term section properties. These loads should be separated from

the short term member forces by the use of Analysis > Analysis Control > Boundary Change Assignment.

1) Data Selection

Check the box corresponding to Section Stiffness Scale Factor. As explained earlier, Section Stiffness Scale

Factors are used for considering the long term section properties.

Create a boundary group combination considering the appropriate boundary groups from the boundary

group list. The created boundary group combinations need to be selected for the post composite long term

load cases. For the static load cases assigned with the section stiffness scale factor boundary groups, long

term section property will be used.

Dead Load (After)

The ratio of elastic modulus from the database is used for the short-term loads of the composite section. All load

cases are considered for the short-term loads except the ones considered for the Dead (Before) and Dead (After).

Chapter 2. Steel Composite Girder Design : AASHTO-LRFD 4thand6th (2007/2012)

Application of AASHTO

LRFD 12

1. I Girder Section

1.1. Introduction

The program designs I-girder sections according to the orders in the flow chart below. This

chapter demonstrates how the AASHTO LRFD 12 is applied in the program.

1.2 Strength Limit State

The program checks the strength limit states for the flexure, shear, and ductility of the composite

sections.

Strength Limit States

6.10.6

Check Ductility

6.10.7.3

6.10.7 & 6.10.8

6.10.9

1.2.1 Ductility

Ductility shall be checked to prevent premature crushing of concrete. For the verification of a

web section that is under positive flexure, the ductility shall be verified as:

D p 0.42 Dt (2.14)

Ductility

Where, AASHTO LRFD 12

Dp :distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite section at the plastic (Eq.6.10.7.3-1)

moment

Dt : total depth of the composite section

There are four cases for checking flexural resistance of I Sections as shown below.

Check flexural resistance

6.10.7 & 6.10.8

ks Bridge?

D p M0c,.Ed42( zcd,bart / I y ,c,bar ) No

6.10.7.3 :Curved Yes

Bridge

Straight

Bridge?

Yes No No

:Curved :Compact or

Bridge Noncompact

Compact

No Use Optional

Section? No

APPENDIX A6?

Yes Yes

Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of

Positive Flexure Moment in Positive Flexure Moment in Negative Flexure Moment Negative Flexure Moment by

Compact Section Noncompact Section using APPENDIX A6

6.10.7.1 6.10.7.2 6.10.8 APPENDIX A6

End

The flexural resistance shall be checked according to the flow chart below if the section is Case 1

under positive flexural moment, satisfies the ductility requirement and is a compact web. If AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.7.1)

the ductility requirement is not satisfied, the program will display NG in the design result

page.

[Fig.2.40] Case 1 : Flow chart of flexural resistance of Positive Flexure Moment in Compact Section AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.7.1)

If a section is compact and under positive flexural moment, flexural resistance shall be

checked according to the following equation:

1

Mu f l S xt f M n (2.15) Flexural Resistance

3 AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq. 6.10.7.1.1-1)

Where,

fl : Flange lateral bending stress

Mn : Nominal flexural resistance of the section.

Mu : Bending moment about the major-axis of the cross-section.

ϕf : Resistance factor for flexure.

[Table 2.15]Calculation of Nominal Flexural Resistance(Mn)

Case Mn

Mn

Dp 0.1Dt Mn M p AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq. 6.10.7.1.2-1)

D

Otherwise M n M p 1.07 0.7 p AASHTO LRFD 12

Dt (Eq. 6.10.7.1.2-2)

Where,

Mp : Plastic moment of the composite section determined as per Article D6.1.

Dp : distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite section at the

plastic moment

Dt : total depth of the composite section

2) Strength Resistance Factor for flexure (ϕf )

The design code defines the flexural reduction factor as 1.00. However, the program

primarily considers the factor that is inputted by users in the design parameters.

3) Especially, the following requirement regarding the nominal flexural resistance must be

satisfied when " M n 1.3Rh M y in Positive Flexure and Compact Sections" is checked at

▶ Composite Steel Girder Design Parameters>Options for Strength Limit State. (Fig.2.41)

Nominal flexural

resistance

M n 1.3Rh M y (2.16) AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3)

The flexural resistance shall be checked according to the below flow chart if a section is Case 2

under positive flexural moment, satisfies the ductility requirement and is noncompact. AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.7.2)

Curved bridges are considered as noncompact sections.

Positive Flexure Moment in Noncompact Section

6.10.7.2

f bu f F nc

F nc R b R h F yc

6.10.7.2.1-1, 6.10.7.2.2-1

1

f bu f l f F nt

3

F nt R h F yt

6.10.7.2.1-2, 6.10.7.2.2-2

End

[Fig.2.42] Case 2 : Flow chart of flexural resistance of Positive Flexure Moment in Noncompact Section

1) Compression flange

At the strength limit state, the compression flange shall satisfy the below criteria

regarding the flexure:

f bu f Fnc (2.17) Compression flange

AASHTO LRFD 12

Fnc Rb Rh Fyc (2.18) (Eq.6.10.7.2.1-1)

(Eq.6.10.7.2.2-1)

Where,

fbu : Flange stress calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending.

Fnc : Nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange.

2) Tension flange

The tension flange shall satisfy the below criteria regarding the flexure:

1

f bu f l f Fnt (2.19) Tension flange

3 AASHTO LRFD 12

Fnt Rh Fyt (2.20)

(Eq.6.10.7.2.1-2)

(Eq.6.10.7.2.2-2)

Where,

fl: Flange lateral bending stress, 𝑓𝑙 ≤ 0.6 𝐹𝑤

Fnt : Nominal flexural resistance of the tension flange.

Rb : Web load-shedding factor.

(3) Case 3: Negative flexural moment in composite section and noncomposite section

The flexural resistance shall be checked according to the below flow chart if a section is

under negative flexural moment and is one of the following cases:

▪ Curved bridge

▪ Straight Bridge but slender section

▪ Straight Bridge and compact or noncompact, but Appendix A6 is not applied

Compression Flange

For a compression flange, the following requirement shall be satisfied at the strength AASHTO LRFD 12

limit state: (6.10.8)

1

f bu f l f Fnc (2.21) (Eq.6.10.8.1.1-1)

3

Where,

Fnc Min( Fnc( FLB ) , Fnc( LTB) ) (2.22)

Where,

Fnc(FLB) : Local Buckling Resistance based on Discretely Braced Compression Flange

Fnc(LTB) : Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance based on Discretely Braced Compression Flange

[Table 2.16] Calculation of Fnc(FLB)

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.8.2.2-1)

F pf

f pf Fnc( FLB ) 1 1 yr f RRF

R F b h yc

h yc rf

pf AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.8.2.2-2)

in which:

𝜆𝑓 : Slenderness ratio for the compression flange

𝜆𝑟𝑓 : Limiting slenderness ratio for a noncompact flange

Rb : web load-shedding factor determined as specified in Article 6.10.1.10.2

Rh : hybrid factor determined as specified in Article 6.10.1.10.1

b fc

f (2.23)

2t fc

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.8.2.2-3)

E

pf 0.38 (2.24)

Fyc

AASHTO LRFD 12

E (Eq.6.10.8.2.2-4)

rf 0.56 (2.25)

Fyr

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.8.2.2-5)

Fyr : compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding within the cross-section, including

residual stress effects, but not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the

smaller of 0.7Fyc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5Fyc .

Fnc(FLB)

Case Fnc( LTB )

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.8.2.2)

Lb Lp

AASHTO LRFD 12

Fyr Lb L p

Lp Lb Lr Fnc( LTB ) Cb 1 1 R R F Rb Rh Fyc (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-1)

L L b h yc

Rh Fyc r p

AASHTO LRFD 12

AASHTO LRFD 12

Where, (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-3)

Cb: Moment gradient modified

Case Cb

1.0 Calculation of Cb

where fmid/f2 >1 or f2=0

2 AASHTO LRFD 12

f f (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-6)

For all other cases 1.75 1.05 1 0.3 1 2.3

f2 f2

AASHTO LRFD 12

Where, (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-7)

Lb : Unbraced length.

Lp : Limiting unbraced length to achieve the nominal flexural resistance of R bRhFyc under uniform

bending.

E

L p 1.0rt (2.26)

Fyc AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.8.2.3-4)

E

Lr rt (2.27)

Fyr AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.8.2.3-5)

Cb Rb E 2

(2.28)

Fcr

( Lb / rt ) 2

AASHTO LRFD 12

1 Dc t w (Eq.6.10.8.2.3-8)

rt b fc / 12(1 ) (2.29)

3 b fc t fc AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.8.2.3-9)

Lr : Limiting unbraced length to achieve the onset of nominal yielding in either flange under uniform

bending with consideration of compression flange residual stress effect (in).

Fcr : Elastic lateral torsional buckling stress.

rt : effective radius of gyration for lateral torsional buckling

Fyr : compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding within the cross-section, including

Dc : depth of the web in compression in the elastic range determined as per D6.3.1

fmid : Stress without consideration of lateral bending at the middle of the unbraced length of the

flange under consideration, calculated from the moment envelope value that produces the largest

compression at this point, or the smallest tension if this point is never in compression

At the strength limit state, the following requirement shall be satisfied for the

continuously braced tension flange:

fbu f Rh Fyt (2.30)

Tension Flange

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.8.1.3)

(Eq.6.10.8.1.3-1)

The optional provisions of Appendix A6 shall apply to the sections in negative flexural and

straight bridges and compact and noncompact web I-sections according to the flow chart

below.

Check flexure resistance of

Negative Flexure Moment by using Appendix A6

APPENDIX A6

Calculate

Yes 2 D cp No

pw ( D cp ) Web plastification Factor

: Compact web tw : Noncompact web

Mp R h M yc w pw ( Dc ) M p Mp

R pc R pc 1 1

M yc M p rw pw ( Dc ) M yc M yc

Mp R h M yt w pw ( Dc ) M p Mp

R pt R pt 1 1

M yt

M p rw pw ( Dc ) M yt M yc

Discretely Braced

Compression Flange?

No

Yes :continuously

braced

Local Buckling Resistance

f Rf No

: Noncompact flange

Mu f RpcM yc

No Built-up

:Rolled section Section?

Yes Mu f RptM yt

Yes kc 4 / D / tw

: Compact flange kc 0.76

0.35 kc 0.76

Fyr S xc f pf

M nc( FLB) Rpc M yc M nc( FLB) 1 1 RpcM yc

RpcM yc rf pf

Yes Lb L p No L p Lb L r No

Yes

Mnc( FLB) Cb 1 1 yr xc b p RpcM yc RpcM yc

Lateral Torsional

RpcM yc Lr Lp

Buckling Resistance

1

Mu fl Sxc f M nc

3

f l 0 . 6 F yc

End

by using Appendix A6.

If Appendix A6 is applied at the strength limit state, the following four requirements

regarding flexure shall be satisfied. The design verification is done for the compression

and tension flanges.

[Table 2.19] Limit State defined by Appendix A6

1 Limit State by A6

Compression Mu f l S xc f M nc AASHTO LRFD 12

Discretely-Braced 3 (A6.1.1-1)

Flange Section 1

Tension M u f l S xt f M nt AASHTO LRFD 12

3 (A6.1.2-1)

Continuously-Braced (A6.1.3-1)

Flange Section

Tension M u f R pt M yt AASHTO LRFD 12

(A6.1.4-1)

Where,

ϕf : Resistance factor for flexure.

fl : Flange lateral bending stress, 𝑓𝑙 ≤ 0.6 𝐹𝑦𝑐

Mnc : Nominal flexural resistance based on the compression flange.

Mu : Bending moment about the major-axis of the cross-section.

Myc : Yield moment with respect to the compression flange.

Mnt : Nominal flexural resistance based on the tension flange.

Myt : Yield moment with respect to the tension flange.

Sxc : Elastic section modulus about the major axis of the section to the compression flange taken as

Myc/Fyc

Rpc : Web plastification factor for the compression flange.

Rpt : Web plastification factor for the tension flange.

Mp Rpc and Rpt

2 Dcp R pc

pw ( Dcp ) Compact M yc AASHTO LRFD 12

tw (A6.2.1-4)

web Mp

R pt

M yt AASHTO LRFD 12

(A6.2.1-5)

2 Dcp R M pw( Dc ) M p M

pw ( Dcp ) R pc 1 1 h yc w p

M p rw pw( Dc ) M yc M yc

AASHTO LRFD 12

tw Noncompact (A6.2.2-4)

web Rh M yt w pw( Dc ) M p M p

& R pt 1 1

M p rw pw( Dc ) M yt M yt AASHTO LRFD 12

w < rw

(A6.2.2-5)

in which:

Mp: Plastic moment

Dc : Depth of the web in compression in the elastic range determined as per D6.3.1.

Dcp : Depth of the web in compression in the plastic moment.

My : Yield moment taken as the smaller of Myc and Myt.

𝛌𝐫𝐰

E AASHTO LRFD 12

rw 5.7 (2.31) (A6.2.2-3)

Fyc

λw : Slenderness ratio for the web based on the elastic moment.

2 Dc

w (2.32)

tw AASHTO LRFD 12

(A6.2.2-2)

𝜆𝑝𝑤(𝐷𝑐 ) : Limiting slenderness ratio for a compact web corresponding to 2D cp/tw

E 𝛌𝐩𝐰 (𝐃𝐜𝐩 )

Fyc Dcp (2.33) AASHTO LRFD 12

pw( D ) 2

rw (A6.2.1-2)

Dc

cp

Mp

0.54 0.09

Rh M y

For the discretely braced compression flanges, the minimum of the local buckling

resistance and lateral torsional buckling resistance is used to perform the design check

as:

M nc Min[ M nc( FLB ) , M nc( LTB) ]

(2.34)

Compression Flange

① Local buckling Resistance (Mnc(FLB)) AASHTO LRFD 12

(A6.3.2)

The local buckling resistance shall be calculated as shown in the following table:

AASHTO LRFD 12

f pf (A6.3.2-1)

- M nc( FLB ) R pc M yc

(Compact flange)

f pf AASHTO LRFD 12

D Fyr S xc f pf

(Noncompact kc 4 / 1 1 R M (A6.3.2-2)

flange) Built-up tw

R pc M yc pc yc

rf pf

0.35 k c 0.76

Where,

𝜆𝑓 : Slenderness ratio for the compression flange. 𝝀𝒇

AASHTO LRFD 12

b fc

f (2.35)

(A6.3.2-3)

2t fc

𝜆𝑝𝑓 : Limiting slenderness ratio for a compact flange. 𝝀𝒑𝒇

AASHTO LRFD 12

E (A6.3.2-4)

pf 0.38 (2.36)

Fyc

𝛌𝐫𝐟

𝜆𝑟𝑓 : Limiting slenderness ratio for a noncompact flange.

AASHTO LRFD 12

Ek c (A6.3.2-5)

rf 0.95 (2.37)

Fyr

𝑘𝑐 : Flange local buckling coefficient determined as per A6.3.2-6 for built-up sections and

0.76 for rolled shapes.

Fyr : compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding within the cross-section,

including residual stress effects, but not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as

the smaller of 0.7Fyc, RhFyt Sxt/Sxc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5Fyc

Sxc : Elastic section modulus about the major axis of the section to the compression flange

taken as Myc/Fyc

Sxt : Elastic section modulus about the major axis of the section to the tension flange taken as

Myt/Fyt

Mnc(LTB)

② Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance (Mnc(LTB)) AASHTO LRFD 12

(A6.3.3)

The lateral torsional buckling resistance is calculated as shown in the following table:

[Table 2.22] Calculation of Mnc(LTB)

AASHTO LRFD 12

Lb L p M nc( LTB) R pc M yc (A6.3.3-1)

AASHTO LRFD 12

Fyr S xc Lb L p (A6.3.3-2)

L p Lb Lr M nc( LTB) C b 1 1 R pc M yc R pc M yc

R pc M yc Lr L p AASHTO LRFD 12

(A6.3.3-3)

Lb Lr M nc( LTB) Fcr S sc R pc M yc

Where,

Lp : Limiting unbraced length to achieve the nominal flexure resistance R pcMyc under uniform

bending

Lp

L p 1.0rt

E (2.38) AASHTO LRFD 12

Fyc (A6.3.3-4)

Lr : Limiting unbraced length to achieve the nominal onset of yielding in either flange under

uniform bending with consideration of compression flange residual stress effects

E J Fyr S xc h

2 Lr

Lr 1.95rt 1 1 6.76 (2.39) AASHTO LRFD 12

Fyr S xc h E J (A6.3.3-5)

▪ Cb: moment gradient modifier, is divided into two cases and calculated according to

either A6.3.3-6 or A6.3.3.3-7 of AASHTO LRFD 12. For the detailed calculations, please

refer to the section "3.2 Strength Limit State > (1) Flexural Resistance > Case 3".

2

Cb 2 E J Lb (2.40) Fcr

Fcr 1 0.078

Lb

2

S xc h rt

AASHTO LRFD 12

(A6.3.3-8)

rt

3 3 3

Dtw b fc t fc t fc b ft t ft t ft (2.41)

J (1 0.63 ) (1 0.63 ) J

3 3 b fc 3 b ft AASHTO LRFD 12

(A6.3.3-9)

1 Dctw (2.42) rt

rt b fc / 121 AASHTO LRFD 12

3b t

fc fc

(A6.3.3-10)

Where,

𝐹𝑦𝑟 : compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding within the cross-section, including

residual stress effects, but not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the smaller

of 0.7𝐹𝑦𝑐 , 𝑅ℎ 𝐹 𝑦𝑡 , 𝑆𝑥𝑡 /𝑆𝑥𝑐 and 𝐹𝑦𝑤 , but not less than 0.5 𝐹𝑦𝑐 .

h : Depth between the centerline of the flanges.

𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑑 : Major-axis bending moment at the middle of the unbraced length, calculated from the

moment envelop value that produces the largest compression at this point in the flange under

consideration, or the smallest tension if this point is never in compression. 𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑑 shall be due to

the factored loads and shall be taken as positive when it causes compression and negative when it

causes tension in the flange under consideration.

𝑀0 : moment at the brace point opposite to the one corresponding to 𝑀2 , calculated from the

moment envelope value that produces the largest compression at this point in the flange under

consideration, or the smallest tension if this point is never in compression(kip-in). M0 shall be

due to the factored loads and shall be taken as positive when it causes compression and negative

when it cause tension in the flange under consideration.

𝑀1 : moment at the brace point opposite to the one corresponding to 𝑀2 , calculated as the

intercept of the most critical assumed linear moment variation passing through 𝑀2 and either

𝑀𝑚𝑖𝑑 or 𝑀0 , whichever produces the smaller value of 𝐶𝑏 . 𝑀1 may be calculated as follows

- When the variation in the moment along the entire length between the brace points is

concave in shape

AASHTO LRFD 12

M1 M 0 (2.43) (A6.3.3-11)

- Otherwise

AASHTO LRFD 12

M 1 2M mid M 2 M 0 (2.44) (A6.3.3-12)

𝑀2 : Except as noted below, largest major-axis bending moment st either end of the unbraced

length causing comrpession int the flange under consideration, calculated from the ciritical

moment envelop value. 𝑀2 shall be taken as positive. If the moment is zero or cause tension in

the flange under consideration at both ends if the unbraced length, 𝑀2 shall be taken as zero.

𝑀𝑦𝑐 : Yield moment with respect to the compression flange.

𝑀𝑦𝑡 : Yield moment with respect to the tension flange.

Shear resistance of an I-web Steel Composite Section is checked as shown in the flow chart

below.

Shear resistance

Check shear resistance

6.10.9

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.9)

Stiffened

No Yes

web?

6.10.9.2 6.10.9.3

Interior

Web Panel? Yes

No :Stiffened

:Stiffened Interior

End panel

Web Panels

Calculate V n Calculate V n

2Dtw

V n V cr CV p V n V cr CV p b t bfttft

fc fc

2.5

V p 0 . 58 F yw Dt w V p 0 . 58 F yw Dt w No Yes

6.10.9.2-1 6.10.9.3.3-1

6.10.9.2-2 6.10.9.3.3-2

Calculate V n Calculate V n

0 . 87 (1 C ) 0 . 87 (1 C )

Vn V p C V n V p C

2

2

d0 d0 d

1

D 1 0

D D

6.10.9.3.2-8 6.10.9.3.2-2

Check V n

Vu V V n

6.10.9.1-1

End

The program distinguishes Unstiffened and Stiffened webs according to the following

criteria:

[Table 2.23] Classification of Unstiffened web and Stiffened Web

Case Classification

spacing not exceeding 3D

Stiffened web

With one or more longitudinal stiffeners and with a transverse

stiffener spacing not exceeding 1.5D

However, even stiffened webs are classified as unstiffened web if the check box is not

checked at ▶Composite Steel Girder Design Parameters >Options for Strength Limit

State>Post-buckling Tension-field Action for Shear Resistance. (Fig.2.41)

Shear resistance shall be checked as:

Vu vVn

(2.45) Shear resistance

Where, AASHTO LRFD 12

𝜙𝑣 : Resistance factor for shear. (Eq. 6.10.9.1-1)

Vu : Shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the factored loads

1) Unstiffened Webs

The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs shall be taken as:

Unstiffened Webs

(2.46) AASHTO LRFD 12

Vn Vcr CV p

(6.10.9.2)

V p 0.58Fyw Dtw (2.47)

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq. 6.10.9.2-1)

Where, (Eq. 6.10.9.2-2)

Vcr : Shear -buckling resistance

Vp : plastic shear force

C : Ratio of shear-buckling resistance to shear yield strength

Case C

D Ek

1.12 C 1.0

tw Fyw C

AASHTO LRFD 12

1.12 Ek

Ek D Ek C (Eq. 6.10.9.3.2-4)

1.12 1.40 D Fyw

Fyw t w Fyw

tw

1.57 Ek AASHTO LRFD 12

Ek D C 2

(Eq. 6.10.9.3.2-5)

1.40 D Fyw

Fyw t w

tw AASHTO LRFD 12

Where, (Eq. 6.10.9.3.2-6)

k : Shear-buckling coefficient

5 (2.48)

k 5 2

do

AASHTO LRFD 12

D (Eq. 6.10.9.3.2-7)

2) Stiffened Webs

The nominal shear resistance is calculated differently for the two types of stiffened webs:

interior web panels and end web panels. All webs with a support assigned on its i or j

node in the Span Information (Fig.2.22) are considered as end panels and the others are Stiffened Webs

AASHTO LRFD 12

considered as interior web panels. (6.10.9.3)

① End panels

The nominal shear resistance, Vn, of a web end panel shall be taken as:

Vn Vcr CV p (2.49)

End panels

V p 0.58Fyw Dtw AASHTO LRFD 12

(2.50) (6.10.9.3.3)

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1)

(Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-2)

There are two cases of an interior web panel as shown in the following table:

Interior web panel

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.9.3.2)

[Table 2.25] Calculation of Vn and Vp of Interior web panel

Case Vn , V p

0.87(1 C )

Vn V p C

2 Dtw 2

2.5 do

1

(b fct fc b ft t ft ) D AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-2)

V p 0.58Fyw Dtw

0.87(1 C )

Vn V p C

2

d d

Otherwise 1 o o

D

D AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-8)

V p 0.58Fyw Dtw

Where,

𝑑0 : Transverse stiffener spacing

𝑉𝑛 : Nominal shear resistance of the panel

③ User's option

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 101

Users need to specify that the web is stiffened by checking the check box at:

User's option

▶Composite Steel Girder Design Parameters >Options for Strength Limit State AASHTO LRFD 12

>'Post-buckling Tension - Field Action for Shear Resistance (6.10.9.3.2)'. Depending (Eq.6.10.9.3.2-2)

on the user's verification, the calculation will differ as shown in the following table:

[Table 2.26] User's option: Post-buckling Tension-field Action for Shear Resistance

Check Vn , V p

AASHTO LRFD 12

0.87(1 C ) (Eq.6.10.9.3.2-8)

Vn V p C 6.10.9.3.2-2

2 Dtw 2

2.5 d

1 o

(b fct fc b ft t ft ) D

On

0.87(1 C )

Vn V p C 6.10.9.3.2-8

2

Otherwise do

1

D

Vn Vcr CV p

Off V p 0.58Fyw Dtw

Flange stress for permanent deformation and web bend-buckling are verified at the service limit

state. Service Limit State

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.4.2)

The program does not check elastic deformation. Elastic deformation can be reviewed manually

after moving load analysis at: ▶ Results > Deformation

At the completion stage of the construction, the program applies Service II load combination,

specified in AASHTO LRFD 12 Article 6.10.4.2, and reviews the permanent deformation.

Therefore, the permanent deformation is reviewed only for the composite section since the

section cannot be non-composite in the completed state. But, the software can assume the

concrete deck in the composite section to be ineffective as per 6.10.4.2.1, which states that the

concrete deck may be assumed to be ineffective for both positive and negative flexure, provided

that the maximum tensile stresses in concrete deck at the section under consideration caused by

Service II loads are greater than 2fr. Software performs this check and determines whether to

consider the concrete deck to be effective or not.

The service limit state is reviewed as shown in the flow chart follows:

Service Limit State

6.10.4

6.10.4.2

f f 0 .95 R h F yf

6.10.4.2.2-1

fl

f f 0 . 95 R h F yf

2

6.10.4.2.2-2

6.10.4.2

D

Positive Flexure and 150 ?

tw

No

f c Fcrw

Yes

6.10.4.2.2-4

End

1.3.1 Flexure

Flange shall satisfy the following requirements at the service limit state for the top and

bottom flanges of the composite sections:

The top steel flange of composite section shall satisfy the following requirement.

f f 0.95Rh Fyf (2.51)

Top Flange

AASHTO LRFD 12

(2) Bottom Flange (Eq.6.10.4.2.2-1)

The bottom steel flange of composite section shall satisfy the following requirement.

fl

ff 0.95Rh Fyf (2.52)

2 Bottom Flange

Where, AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.4.2.2-2)

𝑓𝑓 : Flange stress at the section under consideration due to the Service II loads calculated without

consideration of flange lateral bending

𝑓𝑙 : Flange lateral bending stress at the section under consideration due to the Service II loads

determined, 𝑓𝑙 ≤ 0.6 𝐹𝑤

𝑓𝑦𝑓 :specified minimum yield strength of a flange

If composite section is in positive flexure and the web section property satisfies D/tw≤ 150,

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 103

use the service limit state shall be verified according to:

f c Fcrw (2.53)

Nominal Bend-

Where, buckling Resistance

𝑓𝑐 : Compression-flange stress at the section under consideration due to the Service II loads calculated AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.4.2.2-4)

without consideration of flange lateral bending

Fcrw : Nominal bending-buckling resistance for webs with or without longitudinal stiffeners

0.9 Ek (2.54)

Fcrw 2

Min ( Rh Fyc , Fyw / 0.7)

D

tw Fcrw

Where, AASHTO LRFD 12

k : bend- buckling coefficient (Eq.6.10.1.9.1-1)

9

k (2.55)

( Dc / D) 2

k

AASHTO LRFD 12

1.3.3 Concrete Deck (Eq.6.10.1.9.1-2)

The program verifies the stress of the concrete deck for shored construction cases in positive

flexure as per Article 6.10.1.7.

f deck f r (2.56)

Where,

fdeck : longitudinal flexure stresses in the concrete deck with short-term modular ratio,n

Φfr : Φ shall be taken as 0.9 and fr shall be taken as the modulus of rupture of the concrete, 0.24 √f’c as

per Article 6.10.1.7

Constructibility shall be verified for the three categories as shown in the following chart:

Check Contructibility

6.10.3

6.10.3.2.1 , 6.10.3.2.2

6.10.3.2.4

6.10.3.4

The constructibility is checked based on the design member forces under Dead (Before).

1.4.1 Flexure

The program shall verify lateral bending stress in discretely braced compression and tension

flanges during the construction stages, for when slabs are not deflected yet. Therefore, the

program considers all flanges as discretely braced flanges for the design check. Constructibility

is verified in terms of flexural resistance according to the following flow chart:

[Fig.2.49] Flow chart of flexural resistance in Constructibility Limit State

[Table 2.27] Section classification

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.6.2.3-1)

2 Dc E

5.7 Compact or non-compact Web

tw Fyc

2 Dc E

5.7 Slender Web

tw Fyc

in compression

Discretely braced flanges in compression are verified according to the following three AASHTO LRFD 12

equations. (6.10.3.2.1)

For the critical stages of construction, the following equation shall be satisfied. However,

the requirement does not need to be checked if a section has slender web and its f l is

equal to 0.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 105

nominal yielding

f f f l f Rh Fyc (2.57) AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.3.2.1-1)

2)Check local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as per Article 6.10.8.2.2 and Article

6.10.8.2.3 respectively

1 flexural resistance

f f f l f Fnc (2.58) AASHTO LRFD 12

3 (Eq.6.10.3.2.1-2)

Only for the sections with slender webs, the following equation shall be checked.

web bend buckling

f bu f Fcrw (2.59) AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.3.2.1-3)

Where,

ϕf: resistance factor for flexure specified in 6.5.4.2

fbu : flange stress calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending.

𝑓𝑙 : flange lateral bending stress, 𝑓𝑙 ≤ 0.6 𝐹𝑤

𝑓𝑐𝑟𝑤 : nominal bending-buckling resistance for webs.

𝐹𝑛𝑐 : nominal flexure resistance of the flange.

The following equation shall be checked for discretely braced tension flanges. AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.3.2.2)

f f f l f Rh Fyt (2.60) AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.3.2.2-1)

Concrete Deck

If the longitudinal tensile stress in concrete deck determined as per Article 6.10.1.1.1d, AASHTO LRFD 12

exceeds Φffr then the minimum one percent longitudinal reinforcement determined as per (6.10.3.2.4)

Article 6.10.1.7 is required at the section. Code recommends that the minimum reinforcement

should be No. 6 bars or smaller spaced at not more than 12 inches.

The total tensile force in the concrete deck is transmitted from the deck through the shear

connectors to the top flange. Software assumes the shear connectors to be sufficiently

present at this location to resist the force and prevent potential crushing of concrete.

Software doesn’t calculate the length over which this force must be transmitted. Shear

connector pitch calculations are as per Fatigue and Strength Limit State only.

Fdeck f r (2.61)

Where,

f r 0.24 f 'c modulus of rupture of the normal-weight concrete

ϕ : 0.9

Fdeck: Longitudinal tensile stress in the concrete deck

My

Fdeck (2.62) AASHTO LRFD 12

In (Eq. 6.10.1.1.1d)

Where,

𝑛 = Es /Ec

1.4.3 Shear

The program shall use the load combinations defined in the Load Combination Type (Refer to

Section 1.4.2 in this chapter) for the verification of the shear strength. Webs shall satisfy the

following requirement during critical stages of construction.

Vu vVcr (2.63) AASHTO LRFD 12

Where, (Eq. 6.10.3.3-1)

𝑉𝑢 : shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the factored loads

ϕv: resistance factor for shear, ∅𝒗 = 𝟏. 𝟎 (Fig.2.41)

𝑽𝒄𝒓 : shear buckling resistance determined from Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1

The program checks the nominal resistance for unstiffened webs and stiffened webs with the

same formula as the tension field action is not considered for Constructibility check.

(1) Unstiffened/Stiffened web

1) The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened/stiffened webs shall be taken as: Unstiffened/

Vn Vcr CV p (2.64) Stiffened web

AASHTO LRFD 12

Vp 0.58Fyw Dtw (2.65) (Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1)

(Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-2)

Please refer to Section 1.2.2 in this chapter for the calculation of C.

For horizontally curved I-girder bridges, the range of fatigue stress due to major-axis bending AASHTO LRFD 12

plus lateral bending shall be investigated. Article 6.10.5 also mentions the requirements for (6.10.5)

Fracture. But Fracture Limit State is not considered in midas Civil. Code specifies the fatigue live

load in Article 3.6.1.4 for the Fatigue check. But in the software, fatigue check is performed only

for the moving load defined for the analysis.

For considering the fatigue live load as specified in code, user will have to define a user defined

vehicle and then manually edit the auto generated load combinations, so that the fatigue moving

vehicle is the only vehicle considered for fatigue check and is only included in fatigue

combination.

For fatigue limit state, software assumes the shear connector to be provided along the entire

length of the girder, ensuring composite action. Therefore, the concrete deck is assumed to be

effective in computing all stresses and stress ranges applied to the composite section in the

subsequent fatigue calculations.

For this part of design check, AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 are applied differently in the program.

Please refer to Section 5.1 in this chapter for more information. Fatigue limit shall be verified

according to the two paths. Fatigue limit shall be verified according to Section 1.5.3(1) for the

load combinations that are inputted as Fatigue 1 Limit State Load Combination Type (Section

1.4.2 in Chapter "Modeling and Design Variables"). For the load combinations that are

inputted as Fatigue 2 Limit State, Section 1.5.3(2) shall be followed.

The program verifies the load combinations defined in the Load Combination Type. If users

define '(ADTT)SL ≤ 75 year (ADDTT)SL' Equivalent to Infinite Life, the verification shall

consider the Fatigue II Load Combination. Otherwise, this combination of fatigue limit state

shall be skipped and Fatigue I Load Combination shall be considered for verification.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 107

[Fig.2.50] Flow chart of Fatigue Limit Stage

For the compression flange, compressive stress due to unfactored dead load is compared

with the tensile stress due to factored live load before performing the fatigue check. If two

times the tensile stress due to factored live load is greater than the compressive stress due

to unfactored dead load, then only the fatigue check is performed.

(1) The fatigue limit state shall be verified according to the following.

Fatigue Limit State

(f ) (F )n (2.68) AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.6.1.2.2-1)

Where,

𝜸 : Load factor for the fatigue load combination.

(𝚫𝐟) : Force effect, live load stress range due to the passage of the fatigue load.

(𝚫𝐅)𝐧 : Nominal fatigue resistance.

(2) The load factor, 𝛄, specified in the table below, shall be applied for the fatigue load

combination. These factors are automatically considered by the software, while auto

generating the load combinations.

Load Factor

Load Combination DC, DD, DW, EH, EV, LL, IM, CE, AASHTO LRFD 12

WA WS WL

Limit State ES, EL, PS, CR, SH BR,PL, LS (Table. 3.4.1-1)

Fatigue I -

- 1.50 - - -

LL, IM &CE only

Fatigue II -

- 0.75 - - -

LL, IM &CE only

The nominal fatigue resistance is calculated differently for the load combinations in the

Service 1 Limit State and the Service 2 Limit State.

(1) Nominal Fatigue Resistance Due to the Load Combinations for Fatigue I Limit State

The program shall calculate the nominal fatigue resistance according to the input categories

made in the fatigue dialog box (Fig.2.22).

Nominal fatigue

(F ) n (F )TH (2.69)

resistance

AASHTO LRFD 12

The program shall apply the nominal fatigue resistance according to Categories A, B, B', C, (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-1)

C', D, E, and E', specified in the table below. For all other cases, the nominal fatigue

resistance shall be considered as 24.0 ksi (165.0 MPa).

Detail Threshold

Fatigue Thresholds

Category US Unit(ksi) LL, IM, CE, SI Unit(MPa) For US Unit,

BR,PL, LS AASHTO LRFD 12

A 24.0 165.0 (Table. 6.6.1.2.5-3)

B 16.0 110.0

For SI Unit

B' 12.0 82.7 AASHTO LRFD 07

C 10.0 69.0 (Table. 6.6.1.2.5-3)

D 7.0 48.3

E 4.5 31.0

E' 2.6 17.9

(2) Nominal Fatigue Resistance due to the Load Combinations for Fatigue II Limit State

If Fatigue Resistance is verified for Fatigue Load Combination 2, the below equation shall be

used. For the verification, the program uses the design parameter values inputted by users

in the Fatigue dialog box (Fig.2.22).

1

A 3 Fatigue Ⅱ

(F )n (2.70) AASHTO LRFD 12

N (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-2)

N (365)(75)n( ADTT ) SL AASHTO LRFD 12

(2.71) (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-3)

Where,

A : Constant taken from Table 2.30

n : Number of stress range cycles per truck passage taken from Table 2.31

Constant, A For US Unit,

Detail AASHTO LRFD 12

Category 8

US Unit (x 10 (ksi ))

3 ! 11

SI Unit (x10 (MPa ))

3

(Table. 6.6.1.2.5-1)

LL, IM, CE,

A 250.0 82.0 For SI Unit

BR,PL, LS

B 120.0 39.3 AASHTO LRFD 07

(Table. 6.6.1.2.5-1)

B' 61.0 20.0

C 44.0 14.4

C' 44.0 14.4

D 22.0 7.21

E 11.0 3.61

E' 3.9 1.28

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 109

[Table 2.31] Cycles per Truck Passage, n Cycles per

Truck Passage

Span Length AASHTO LRFD 12

Longitudinal Members (Table. 6.6.1.2.5-2)

>40.0 ft ≤40.0 ft

Simple span Girders 1.0 2.0

Continuous Near interior support 1.5 2.0

Girders Elsewhere 1.0 2.0

Cantilever Girders 5.0

Orthotropic Deck plate Connections

5.0

Subjected to Wheel Load Cycling

Trusses 1.0

Spacing

Transverse Members > 20.0 ft ≤20.0 ft

1.0 2.0

The n value inputted in the Fatigue Parameter dialog box (Fig.2.22) according to Table 2.31 is

used for the calculation.

Where,

(ADTT)SL : ADTT for single lane

for Webs

1.5.4 Special Fatigue Requirement for Webs AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.5.3)

The fatigue limit state shall be verified in terms of shear buckling resistance as:

AASHTO LRFD 12

Vu Vcr (2.72) (Eq.6.10.5.3-1)

Where,

Vu : shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the unfactored permanent loads plus the

factored fatigue load

AASHTO LRFD 12

Vcr CV p (2.73) (Eq.6.10.9.3.3-1)

AASHTO LRFD 12

V p 0.58Fyw Dtw (2.74)

(Eq.6.10.9.3.3-2)

2. Box / Tub Girder Section Box/tub

2.1 Introduction

Design of Box/Tub steel composite sections follow the same procedure as for I-Girders.

The program checks the strength limit states for the flexure, shear and ductility of the composite

sections.

6.11.6

Check Ductility

6.10.7.3

6.11.7 & 6.11.8

6.10.9 & 6.11.9

2.2.1 Ductility

Ductility shall be checked to prevent premature crushing of concrete. If a section is under

positive flexure, ductility shall be verified as:

Ductility

DP 0.42 Dt (2.75) AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.7.3-1)

2.2.2 Flexure

(1) Classification of Composite Section for Flexure

There are four cases for checking flexural resistance of Box/Tub composite sections as

shown below.

6.11.7 & 6.11.8

Straight Compression

Bridge? flange?

Yes No

:Curved

Bridge

Yes No

Compact :Tension

No flange

Section?

Yes

Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of Check flexural resistance of

Positive Flexure Moment in Positive Flexure Moment in Negative Flexure Moment Negative Flexure Moment

Compact Section Noncompact Section & Compression flange & Tension flange

6.11.7.1 6.11.7.2 6.11.8.2 6.11.8.3

End

The webs that are under positive flexure and satisfy the following requirements shall be

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 111

considered as compact sections. Otherwise, they shall be considered as non-compact sections

for the positive flexure design check. Sections of a curved bridge are considered to be non-

compact.

▪ Flange and web yield strength do not exceed 70 ksi (485 MPa) AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.11.6.2.2)

▪Web satisfies the requirements in Article 6.11.2.1 as shown below.

Webs without longitudinal stiffeners: D/tw ≤ 150

Webs with longitudinal stiffeners: D/tw ≤ 300

▪ Web slenderness limit satisfies the requirements in Article 6.11.6.2.2-1

2Dcp/tw ≤ 3.76√(E/Fyc)

The classification of the section under negative flexure, as compact /noncompact /slender is not

required for the design checks.

Positive Flexure Moment in Compact Section

6.11.7.1

Yes Dp 0.1Dt No

Calculate Mn Calculate Mn

D

M n M p 1.07 0.7 p Mn M p

Dt Case 1

6.10.7.1.2-2 6.10.7.1.2-1 AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.11.7.1)

Check Flexural Resistance

Mu f M n

6.10.7.1.1-1

End

[Fig.2.53] Case 1 : Flow Chart of Flexural resistance for Compact Section in Positive Flexure Moment

For compact sections, flexure at the strength limit state shall be verified as:

(Eq.6.11.7.1.1-1)

Where,

1) Bending moment about the major-axis( Mu)

Mu is the bending moment about the major axis due to the factored loads. The maximum

bending moment from the load combinations, applied to Strength Limit State in the Load

Combination Type (Refer to Chapter "Modeling Design Variable" Section 1.4.2) is applied

as Mu.

[Table 2.32] Calculation of Mn of Compact Section in Positive Flexure

Mn

Case Mn AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.7.1.2-1)

D p 0.1Dt Mn M p

AASHTO LRFD 12

Dp (Eq.6.11.7.1.2-2)

Otherwise M n M p 1.07 0.7

Dt

If a section is under positive flexure, plastic moment is calculated for the location of the

plastic neutral axis. For more information, please refer to Chapter "Introduction" Section

3.2.

Flexural resistance

3) f factor

AASHTO LRFD 12

Flexural resistance factor are taken as 1.00 in AASHTO LRFD 12. However, if the factor is (6.5.4.2)

defined by users in the design parameter dialog box, the user defined value is utilized as a

priority.

Case 2

AASHTO LRFD 12

(3) Case 2 : Non-compact Section in Positive Moment (6.11.7.2)

For non-compact sections, flexural strength limit state is verified as shown in the flow chart

follows. Webs of a curved bridge is considered to be non-compact sections.

Positive Flexure Moment in Noncompact Section

6.11.7.2

Compression

Yes

flange? No

:Tension flange

Tub Section? No

Yes

:Box Section

Fnc Fb Rh Fyc Fnc Fb Rh Fyc Fnt Rh Fyt

6.11.7.2.2-1 6.11.7.2.2-2 6.11.7.2.1-5

f bu f Fnc f bu f Fnt

6.11.7.2.1-1 6.11.7.2.1-2

End

[Fig.2.54] Case 2 : Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Non-compact Section in Positive Flexure

Moment

1) Compression Flange

At the strength limit state, compression flanges shall satisfy the following in terms of Compression Flange

flexure. AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.7.2.1-1)

f bu f Fnc (2.77)

The nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange, Fnc, is taken differently for box

and tub sections as:

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 113

[Table 2.33] Calculation of Fnc Fnc

AASHTO LRFD 12

Section Type Fnc (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-2)

(Eq.6.11.7.2.2-1)

Tub Fnc Fb Rh Fyc

∆ and fv

AASHTO LRFD 12

Where, (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-3)

2 (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-4)

f T (2.78)

1 3 v fv

F in which : 2 Aot fc

yc

Δ : a factor dependent on St. Venant torsional shear stress in the bottom flange od the tub section.

Rb : Web load shedding factor

Case Rb

Rb

AASHTO LRFD 12

Composite web under positive flexure (Eq.6.10.1.10.2)

satisfies Article 6.10.2.1.1&6.11.2.1.2

D Ek

0.95

tw Fyc

2 Dc

rw

tw AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.1.10.2-3)

awc 2 DC

Otherwise, Rb 1 rw 1.0

1200 300awc tw

Rh : Hybrid Factor

Hybrid Factor, Rh

[Table 2.35] Calculation of Rh AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.1.10.1)

Case Rh

12 (3 3 ) 2D t

Hybrid Section Rh nw

12 2 in which: Afn

Non-Hybrid or

1.0

Web strength > flange strength

2) Tension Flange

At the strength limit state, tension flanges shall satisfy: Tension Flange

fbu f Fnt (2.79) AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.7.2.1-2)

For both box and tub type composite sections, the nominal flexure resistance of tension

flange, Fnt shall be calculated as:

Fnt Rh Fyt (2.80) AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.7.2.1-5)

Where,

2 AASHTO LRFD 12

f T (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-6)

1 3 v fv (2.81)

F 2 Ao t ft (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-7)

yt in which :

2

𝑓𝑣

If 1 − 3 ( ) < 0, consider ∆= 0 so that 𝐹𝑛𝑡 = 0

𝐹𝑦𝑡

Flexural resistance of negative flexure moment shall be verified as shown in the flow chart AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.11.7.2)

below. (6.11.8.2)

(6.11.8.3)

6.11.7.2 & 6.11.8.2 & 6.11.8.3

Compression No

Yes

flange? :Tension flange

No No

Yes Stiffened web? Tub Section? :Closed-Box

:Unstiffened Web Yes Section

Check flexural resistance Check flexural resistance Check flexural resistance Check flexural resistance

Of Longitudinal of Unsiffened Flange of Tension Flange of Tension Flange

Stiffened Flange of Tub Section Closed-box

End

[Fig.2.55] Case 3 & Case 4 : Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Negative Flexural Moment

For this part of design check, AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 are applied differently in the program.

Please refer to Section 5.4 in this chapter for more information.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 115

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.8.1.1-1)

[Fig.2.56] Case 3 : Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Compression Flange in Negative Flexure

The program shall distinguish unstiffened and longitudinally stiffened elements depending

on whether the longitudinal stiffener is applied on the compression flanges in the section

property dialog box. At the strength limit state, the following requirement shall be satisfied

in terms of flexure: Unstiffened Flange

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-1)

1) Unstiffened Flange

For unstiffened flanges, the following requirement shall be satisfied:

2

f Fcb

Fnc Fcb 1 v (2.83)

v Fcv

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-2)

[Table 2.36] Calculation of Fcb

Case Fcb

f p Fcb Rb Rh Fyc

0.3 f p

p f r Fcb Rb Rh Fyc

Rh r p

AASHTO LRFD 12

0.9 ERb k (Eq.6.11.8.2.2-3)

r f Fcb

f 2

AASHTO LRFD 12

Where, (Eq.6.11.8.2.2-4)

λf : slenderness ration for the compression flange

b fc Ek Ek

f , p 0.57 and r 0.95 (2.84) AASHTO LRFD 12

t fc Fyc Fyr (Eq.6.11.8.2.2-8)

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-9)

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-10)

For unstiffened flanges, 𝑘 = 4.0 and 𝑘𝑠 = 5.34.

2

f T

1 3 v fv

F 2 Ao t fc

yc in which : AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-11)

(2.85)

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-12)

Fyr : smaller of the compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding, with consideration of

residual stress effects, or the specified minimum yield strength of the web

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-13)

[Table 2.37] Calculation of Fcv

Case Fcv

Ek s Fcv

f 1.12 Fcv 0.85Fyc

Fyc AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-5)

Ek s Ek s 0.65 Fyc Ek s

1.12 f 1.40 Fcv

Fyc Fyc f AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-6)

0.9 Ek s

1.40

Ek s

f Fcv

Fyc f 2 AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-7)

Also for longitudinally stiffened flanges, the following requirement shall be satisfied as for

unstiffened flanges. However, the plate-buckling coefficients, 𝑘 and 𝑘𝑠 , shall no longer be

constant but calculated to account for Fnc.

2

f Fnc

Fnc Fcb 1 v (2.87) AASHTO LRFD 12

v Fcv (Eq.6.11.8.2.2-1)

For longitudinally stiffened compression flanges, 𝑘 and 𝑘𝑠 are determined depending on

the number and location of stiffeners applied to the flanges.

①Plate-Buckling Coefficient for Uniform Normal Stress(k)

Depending on the number of uniformly spaced stiffeners, 𝑘 shall be taken as:

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 117

[Table 2.38] Calculation of k

Case n 1 n2

1 1 K

8I 3 0.894 I s 3 AASHTO LRFD 12

k k 3s k 3

(Eq.6.11.8.2.3-1)

wt fc wt fc (Eq.6.11.8.2.3-2)

1.0 k 4.0

1

I 3

5.34 2.84 s 3 ks

wt AASHTO LRFD 12

k s fc 5.34 (2.88) (Eq.6.11.8.2.3-3)

n 12

Where,

Is : moment of inertia of a single longitudinal flange stiffener about an axis parallel to the flange and

taken at the base of the stiffener

n : number of equally spaced longitudinal flange stiffeners

w : larger of the width of the flange between longitudinal flange stiffeners or the distance from a web

to the nearest longitudinal flange stiffener

[Fig.2.57] Definition of w

For tension flanges, flexural resistance limit state shall be verified as shown in the flow

chart:

The flexural resistance of negative flexure moment and tension flange will be checked by

the process indicated in the flow chart below.

Negative Flexure Moment & Tension flange

6.11.8.3

Tub Section ?

6.11.8.3-1 6.11.7.2.2-5

f bu f Fnt

6.11.8.1.1-1

End

[Fig.2.58] Case 4 : Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Tension Flange in Negative Moment

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.8.1.2-1)

fbu f Fnt (2.89)

Fnt shall be taken as:

AASHTO LRFD 12

Section Type Fnt (Eq.6.11.8.3-1

(Eq.6.11.7.2.2-5)

Fnt Rh Fyt (Eq.6.11.7.2.2-6)

2

(Eq.6.11.8.2.2-7)

Closed-Box f T

1 3 v

F in which : f v 2 A t

yt o ft

2.2.3 Shear

Box and tube type steel composite sections shall be verified for its shear strength as shown in

the flow chart:

6.11.9

Yes No :Unstiffened Web

:End panel

Check Shear resistance of Check Shear resistance of Check Shear resistance of

Stiffened & Interior Web Panel Stiffened & End Web Panel Unstiffened Web

6.10.9.3.2 6.10.9.3.3 6.10.9.2

End

The program classifies stiffened and unstiffened webs as shown in the table below:

Case Classification

spacing not exceeding 3D

Stiffened web

With one or more longitudinal stiffeners and with a transverse

stiffener spacing not exceeding 1.5D

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 119

(1) Shear Strength Verification

Shear strength shall be verified as shown in the flow chart:

6.10.9

Stiffened

No Yes

web?

6.10.9.2 6.10.9.3

Interior

Web Panel? Yes

No :Stiffened

:Stiffened Interior

End panel

Web Panels

Calculate V n Calculate V n

2Dtw

V n V cr CV p V n V cr CV p b t bfttft

fc fc

2.5

V p 0 . 58 F yw Dt w V p 0 . 58 F yw Dt w No Yes

6.10.9.2-1 6.10.9.3.3-1

6.10.9.2-2 6.10.9.3.3-2

Calculate V n Calculate V n

0 . 87 (1 C ) 0 . 87 (1 C )

Vn V p C V n V p C

2

d d0 d

2

1 0 1 0

D D

D

6.10.9.3.2-8 6.10.9.3.2-2

Check V n

Vu V V n

6.10.9.1-1

End

Shear strength

Shear strength shall be verified as: AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.9.1-1)

Vu vVn (2.90)

Where,

ϕv: resistance factor for shear

Vu : shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the factored loads

1) Unstiffened web

For unstiffened webs, the nominal shear resistance (Vn) shall be taken as: Unstiffened web

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.9.2-1)

Vn Vcr CVp (2.91)

in which: AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.9.2-2)

Where,

C : ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength

Vp : plastic shear force

2) Stiffened Web Shear Strength

Program shall determine whether a stiffened web belongs to an end panel or interior

panel depending on whether its nodes are supported or not in the span information. The

web shall be first identified as an end panel or an interior panel and, then, its shear

strength shall be verified. If a web is supported at its nodes, the web belongs to an end

panel; if not supported, it belongs to an interior panel.

For end panel webs, the nominal shear resistance shall be taken as: AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.9.3.3-1)

AASHTO LRFD 12

in which: (Eq.6.10.9.3.3-2)

② Interior panels

For interior panels, the nominal shear resistance shall be taken as:

Case Nominal shear resistance (Vn)

Interior panels

AASHTO LRFD 12

2 Dtw 0.87(1 C )

2.5 Vn V p C

2

(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-2)

(b fct fc b ft t ft ) d

1 o

D

AASHTO LRFD 12

0.87(1 C )

Otherwise, Vn V p C

(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-8)

2

d d

1 o o

D

D

Where,

[Table 2.42] Calculation of Ratio of the shear buckling resistance to the shear yield strength, C

C

Case C AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-4)

D Ek

1.12 C 1.0

tw Fyw

AASHTO LRFD 12

1.12 Ek (Eq.6.10.9.3.2-5)

Ek D Ek C

1.12 1.40 D Fyw

Fyw t w Fyw

tw

AASHTO LRFD 12

1.57 Ek

(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-6)

Ek D C 2

1.40 D Fyw

Fyw t w

tw

Where, k

AASHTO LRFD 12

k: shear-buckling coefficient

(Eq.6.10.9.3.2-7)

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 121

(2.95)

5

k 5 2

do

D

For box and tube composite sections, inclination of webs AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.9-1)

shall be considered. Shear force on each section shall be

evenly applied to its two webs after the consideration of

the incline angle as:

Vu

Vui (2.96)

cos

Where,

Vui : shear on each web due to the factored loads

Vu : vertical shear due to the factored loads on one inclined web

θ: the angle of inclination of the web plate to the vertical(degrees)

For box and tub composite sections, flexure and web bend-buckling at the service limit state are

verified as shown in the flow chart below. The program shall verify service limit state for the

composite sections at the completion stage of construction. Load combinations defined in the

Load Combination Type (Please Refer to Chapter "Modeling Design Variable" Section 1.4.2) shall

be used for the verification of the service limit state.

Service Limit State

6.11.4

6.10.4.2

f f 0 .95 R h F yf

Top steel flange

6.10.1.2.2-1

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.4.2.2-1)

Check Bottom flange of Composite Section

fl

f f 0 . 95 R h F yf

2

6.10.4.2.2-2

6.10.4.2

Calculate Fcrw and k AASHTO LRFD 12

0.9 Ek (Eq.6.10.4.2.2-2)

Fcrw 2

Min ( Rh Fyc , Fyw / 0.7) k

9

D (Dc / D) 2

tw

6.10.1.9.1-1 6.10.1.9.1-2

f c Fcrw

6.10.4.2.2-4

Bend-buckling

AASHTO LRFD 12

End (Eq.6.10.4.2.2-4)

Fcrw

AASHTO LRFD 12

2.3.1. Flexure (Eq.6.10.1.9.1-1)

Flexure shall be verified at top and bottom flanges. As per Article C6.11.4, Eq. 6.10.4.2.2-1 and

6.10.4.2.2-2 are checked only for compact sections in positive flexure. Thus in midas Civil,

these equations are not checked for negative flexure and noncompact sections in positive

flexure. k

AASHTO LRFD 12

(1) Verification of Top steel flange of composite sections for flexure (Eq.6.10.1.9.1-2)

Serviceability of top steel flanges shall be verified by comparing the stress as:

Serviceability of bottom steel flanges shall be verified by examining flexure as shown in the

equation below. If a web is under positive flexure and satisfies the requirements in AASHTO

LRFD 12 Article 6.11.2.1.2, its strength shall be determined to be satisfactory and

verification shall be skipped. For box and tub composite sections, flange lateral bending

stress shall be assumed as 0 for the design check.

fl

ff 0.95Rh Fyf (where, f l = 0) (2.98)

2

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 123

2.3.2. Web Bend Buckling

Except for sections in positive flexure in which the web satisfies the requirement of Article

6.11.2.1.2, all sections shall satisfy Eq.6.10.4.2.2-4 shown below.

f c Fcrw (2.99)

Where,

fc : compression-flange stress

Fcrw : nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs

0.9 Ek (2.100)

Fcrw 2

Min ( Rh Fyc , Fyw / 0.7)

D

tw

in which:

k : bend-buckling coefficient

9

k (2.101)

( Dc / D) 2

Where,

Dc : Depth of the web in compression in the elastic range

For box and tub composite sections, constructibility shall be verified in terms of flexure and

shear. Member force under Dead (Before) shall be used as the design member force for the Tub Section

verification of constructibility limit strength. AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.3.2.1-1)

(Eq.6.10.3.2.1-2)

The program shall verify flexural strength by assuming that concrete hardening has not (Eq.6.10.3.2.1-3)

occurred yet and all section are discretely braced. The flexural verification shall be done in

three cases as shown in the figure follows.

Tub Section

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.3.2.2-1)

Check Constructibility

6.11.3

Compression No

Yes

flange? :Tension flange

No

Tub Section? :Closed-Box

Yes

Section

Check Flange stress Check Flange stress Check Flange stress Comp. Box Flange

of Tub Section in Compression of Closed-Box in Compression of Closed-Box in Tension AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.3.2-1)

6.10.3.2.1 6.11.3.2-1~2 6.11.3.2-3~5

(Eq.6.11.3.2-2)

End

[Fig.2.63] Flow Chart of Flexural Resistance for Constructibility Limit State Tension Box Flange

AASHTO LRFD 12

(1) Open Flange (top flange of tub section) in Compression and Tension (Eq.6.11.3.2-3)

(Eq.6.11.3.2-4)

For tub composite sections, compression top flanges shall be verified for yielding, flexure (Eq.6.11.3.2-5)

and bend buckling of webs, as shown in the equation below. If 𝑓𝑙 = 0 for slender webs,

AASHTO LRFD 12 Eq.6.10.3.2.1-1 shall not be verified.

1

f bu f l f Rh Fyc and f bu f l f Fnc (2.102)

3

For slender webs, bend-buckling shall be verified as:

f bu f Fcrw (2.103) Shear

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.3.3-1)

2) Open flange in tension

AASHTO LRFD 12

For tub composite sections, tension top flanges shall satisfy the requirement of Eq. (Eq.6.10.9.3.3-1)

6.10.3.2.2-1 which is same as that for I girder. (Eq.6.10.9.3.3-2)

(2) Noncomposite box flange (top flange of box section and bottom flange of tub or box

section) in Compression and Tension ( for constructability check, the top flange of box

section is designed as a noncomposite box flange)

compressive stress due to flexure and bend buckling on webs. For sections with compact

or noncompact webs, Eq. 6.11.3.2-2 shall not be checked as per Article 6.11.3.2.

▪Verification of compression stress due to flexure : f bu f Fnc (2.104)

▪ Verification of bend buckling on webs : f bu f Fcrw (2.105)

2) Noncomposite box flange in tension and continuously braced box flange in tension or

compression shall satisfy the following requirement:

f bu f Rh Fyf (2.106)

Where,

2

f T

1 3 v fv

F 2 Ao t f

yf in which :

(2.107)

2.4.2 Shear

For the verification of constructibility, shear shall be verified to prevent shear buckling at webs

according to the following requirement. The program shall distinguish end panel and interior

panel for the verification of shear-buckling resistance.

Vu vVcr (2.108)

Where,

Vcr CVp in which: Vp 0.58Fyw Dtw (2.109)

Constructibility of concrete deck shall not be verified for the box and tub steel composite

sections.

2.5.1 Load combinations of Fatigue Limit State

In this section, AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12 are applied differently. For more information about

the 07 edition, please refer to Section 5.1 in this chapter. For more information on basic

considerations and assumptions for Fatigue Limit State, please refer to Section 1.5 in this

chapter. Fatigue limit state shall be verified as shown in the flow chart:

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 125

Fatigue Limit State

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.6.1.2.2-1)

The verification of fatigue resistance shall follow Section 2.5.3(1) for the load combinations of

Fatigue 1 Limit State in Load Combination Type (Chapter "Modeling Design Variables" Section

1.4.2) and Section 2.5.3(2) for the load combinations of Fatigue 2 Limit State. However, if

'(ADTT)SL≤ 75year (ADTT)SL' is inputted, Fatigue II Load Combination is verified. Otherwise, the

verification needs not to be done.

AASHTO LRFD 12

As per Article 6.11.5, one additional requirement specified particularly for tub girders sections (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-1)

is in regard to longitudinal warping and transverse bending stresses. When tub girders are AASHTO LRFD 12

subjected to torsion, their cross-sections become distorted, resulting in secondary bending (Table. 6.6.1.2.5-3)

stresses.

Therefore, longitudinal warping stresses and transverse bending stresses due to cross-section

distortion shall be considered for:

Single tub girder in straight or horizontally curved bridges

Multiple tub girders in straight bridges that do not satisfy requirements of Article

6.11.2.3 Fatigue Ⅱ

AASHTO LRFD 12

Multiple tub girders in horizontally curved bridges (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-2)

Any single or multiple tub girder with a tub flange that is not fully effective according (Eq.6.6.1.2.5-3)

to the provisions of Article 6.11.1.1.

For consideration of these distorsion stresses in the software, Longitudinal Warping Stress

Range input is required in the fatigue parameters dialog box. (Fig.2.21)

(Table. 6.6.1.2.5-1)

(Table. 6.6.1.2.5-2)

Where,

γ : load factor for fatigue load combination

(∆f) : force effect, live load stress range due to the passage of the fatigue load

(∆F)n : nominal fatigue resistance Special Fatigue

Requirement

2.5.3 Nominal Fatigue Resistance AASHTO LRFD 12

The program’s calculation of Nominal Fatigue Resistance will be different based on whether the (Eq.6.10.5.3-1)

load combinations are entered into Fatigue 1 Limit State or Fatigue 2 Limit State. Between the

two values, the lower value will be applied and reviewed. ASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.5.3.3-1)

(1) The Nominal Fatigue Resistance of Fatigue I Limit State due to load combinations (Eq.6.10.5.3.3-2)

The program will calculate the Nominal Fatigue Resistance based on the category selected

in the Fatigue dialog window.

Within the program, categories of Nominal Fatigue Resistance, such as A, B, B', C, C', D, E,

and E' are applied as shown in [Table2.29].

(2) The Nominal Fatigue Resistance of Fatigue II Limit State due to load combinations

If fatigue review is performed with consideration to fatigue load combination 2, the

following equation is used to calculate the resistance value of fatigue.

1

A 3

(F ) n in which: N (365)(75)n( ADTT ) SL (2.112)

Section Proportion

N AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.10.1.1)

Where,

A : Constant taken from Table 6.6.1.2.5-1

n : Number of stress range cycles per truck passage taken from Table 6.6.1.2.5-2 Pitch

(ADTT)SL : ADTT for single lane AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.10.1.2-1)

The value of the Detail Category Constant (A) and 75-yr (ADTT)SL Equivalent to Infinite Life

(n, truck per day) are each respectively applied in [Table2.30] and [Table2.31]. If, the n value

is entered into the Fatigue Parameter, this value will be applied first.

Center-to-Center

2.5.4 Special Fatigue Requirement for Webs Pitch

The program will perform the review of the fatigue due to the shear buckling of the web. AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.10.1.2)

Where, AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.10.1.2-2)

Vcr : shear in the web at the section under consideration due to the unfactored permanent loads plus the

factored fatigue load

Vcr CVp in which: V p 0.58Fyw Dtw (2.114) Vfat

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.10.1.2-3)

Ffar

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.10.1.2-4)

3. Shear Connector (Eq.6.10.10.1.2-5)

When the shear connector is defined in the steel composite sections, the review of the shear

connectors is performed. The shear connector performs review of Pitch, Transverse spacing, Cover

and Penetration, Fatigue, Special Requirement for point, and strength limit state.

For the ratio of height to diameter of the stud type shear connector, following equation is used.

h

4.0 (2.115)

d

3.2 Pitch

The pitch is reviewed using the below equation.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 127

nZ r

p (2.116)

Vsr

Where,

Zr : shear fatigue resistance of an individual shear connector determined as per Article 6.10.10.2

n : number of shear connector in a cross section

Vsr : horizontal fatigue shear range per unit length

Also, the program checks if 𝑝 ≥ 6 × 𝑆𝑡𝑢𝑑 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 and 𝑝 ≤ 24 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠 are satisfied as well k

as Equation 2.116. AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.11.8.2.3-1)

(Eq.6.11.8.2.3-2)

Vsr V F

fat

2

fat

2

(2.117)

in which :

Vfat: longitudinal fatigue shear range per unit length

Vf Q

V fat (2.118)

I

Ffat : radial fatigue shear range per unit length taken as the largest of either

Abot f lg l Frc

F fat1 or F fat 2

wR w

(2.119)

in which :

σflg: range of longitudinal fatigue stress in the bottom flange without consideration of flange lateral bending

Abot: area of the bottom flange

Frc : net range of cross-frame of diaphragm force at the top flange

l : distance between brace point

R : minimum girder radius within the panel

w : effective length of deck (in.) taken as 48.0 in., except at end supports where w may be taken as 24.0 in.

effective length of deck distance

▪ If it is a Box/Tub section, regardless of whether it is straight or curved, the value of Ffat1 is 0.

Zr

▪ The program will consider the value of Ffat2 as 0. AASHTO LRFD 12

▪ The center-to-center distance of the shear connectors cannot exceed 24inches and 6 times the (Eq.6.10.10.2-2)

diameter of the stud.

α

AASHTO LRFD 12

3.3 Transverse spacing (Eq.6.10.10.2-3)

(1) The transverse spacing of the shear connector must be more than 4 times the diameter of

the stud.

(2)The shear connectors must be located 1 inch inwards from the edge. Zr

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.10.2-1)

[Table 2.43] Calculation of plate-buckling coefficient for uniform normal stress, k

Case n=1 n=2

1 1

8I 3 0.894 I s 3

K k 3s k 3

minimum number of

wt fc wt fc shear connector

AASHTO LRFD 12

1.0 k 4.0 (Eq.6.10.10.4.1-2)

The following conditions must be met for the cover and penetration of the shear connector.

(1)The clear depth of concrete cover over the tops of the shear connector must not be at least

2.0 inches. Qr

(2) The shear connector must penetrate at least 2.0 inches into the concrete slab. AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.10.4.1-1)

3.5 Fatigue Shear Resistance, Zr

This part is applied differently in the AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12. For the 07 conditions, follow

Section 5.2 of this chapter. The fatigue shear resistance of the shear connector is calculated as

shown in the following table.

Shear

Connector Case Fatigue shear resistance ( Z r )

Type

Z r d 2

Calculate P

Where, AASHTO LRFD 12

75 year ( ADTT ) SL 960 Case (Eq.6.10.10.4.2-1)

Stud N 0 34.5

N 0 34.5 4.28 log N

P1p , P2p

AASHTO LRFD 12

3.6 Strength Limit State (Eq.6.10.10.4.2-2)

(1) Strength Limit State

After the strength limit state is calculated, the minimum number of shear connector (n) Is (Eq.6.10.10.4.2-3)

calculated as shown in the equation below.

P

n (2.120)

AASHTO LRFD 12

Qr

(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-4)

Where,

P : total nominal shear force

The resistance of the shear connector is calculated as shown in the equation below.

Qr scQn (2.121)

Where, Calculate P

AASHTO LRFD 12

Qn : nominal shear resistance of a single shear connector determined as in Article 6.10.10.4.3 (Eq.6.10.10.4.2-5)

ϕsc: resistance factor for shear connectors inputted by the user in Composite Steel Design Parameter

(Fig.2.17)

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-6)

1) Calculate the Total Nominal Shear Force, P, for the verification of the shear connectors

under positive moment.

P Pp Fp

2 2

(2.122)

Where,

Pp : total longitudinal force in the concrete deck

Pp Max( P1 p , P2 p ) P1n , P2n

(2.123) AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-7)

(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-8)

in which :

P1 p 0.85 f s ' bs t s (2.124)

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 129

Fp : total radial force in the concrete deck

I t1 I t 2 (2.125) FT

AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.10.4.2-9)

in which :

Lp : arc length between an end of the girder and an adjacent point of maximum positive live load plus

impact moment

P PT FT

2 2

(2.126)

Where,

Pt : total longitudinal force in the concrete deck between the point of maximum positive live load plus

Qn

impact moment and the centerline of an adjacent interior support AASHTO LRFD 12

PT Pp Pn (2.127)

(Eq.6.10.10.4.3-1)

in which :

Pn : total longitudinal force in the concrete deck over an interior support taken as:

Pn Min( P1n , P2n ) (2.128)

in which :

P1n Fyw Dtw Fyt b ft t ft Fyc b fc t fc (2.129)

Ft : total radial force in the concrete deck between the point of maximum positive live load plus impact

moment and the centerline of an adjacent interior support taken as:

Ln

FT PT (2.130)

R

in which :

Ln : arc length between the point of maximum positive live load plus impact moment and the centerline

of an adjacent interior support inputted by the user in shear connector dialog box (Fig.2.19)

Qn 0.5 Asc fc ' Ec Asc Fu Projecting width

AASHTO LRFD 12

Where, (Eq.6.10.11.1.2-2)

Stud Asc : cross-sectional area of a stud shear connector AASHTO LRFD 12

Ec : modulus of elasticity of the deck concrete (Eq.6.10.11.1.2-1)

Fu : specified minimum tensile strength of a stud shear connector

4. Stiffener

The Stiffener calculates the transverse/longitudinal stiffener attached to the web and the

longitudinal stiffener attached to the compression flange.

Stiffeners

6.10.11

(1) Projecting Width

Projecting width of transverse stiffener attached to web panel shall satisfy following two

conditions:

Check List I Section Tub Section Closed-Box Section

Condition 1 16t p bt b f / 4 16t p bt AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.11.1.3-1)

D

Condition 2 bt 2.0 (Eq.6.10.11.1.302)

30

Where,

tp : thickness of the projecting stiffener element

bf :for I-sections, full width of the widest compression flange. for tub section, full width of the widest top

flange. For closed box section, the limit of bf/4 does not apply. AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.11.1.3-3)

(Eq.6.10.11.1.3-4)

[Table 2.47] Define bf according to Section Type

(Eq.6.10.11.1.3-5)

Section Type bf

Full width of the widest compression flange with in the field section under

I

consideration

Tub Full width of the widest top flange within the field section under consideration

AASHTO LRFD 12

(6.10.11.1.3)

AASHTO LRFD 12

This part is applied differently in the AASHTO LRFD 07 and 12. For the 07 conditions, follow the (Eq.6.10.11.1.3-6)

section 5.3 of this chapter. The program will perform the calculation of the vertical stiffeners

attached to the web.

1) Vu>Vn

I t Min ( I t1 , I t 2 ) (2.131)

Where,

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 131

It : moment of inertia of transverse stiffener

[Table 2.48] Calculation of Moment of Inertia of the transverse stiffener for I girder section, It

Case It

b 3t

Single-sided vertical stiffeners It t p AASHTO LRFD 12

3 (Eq.6.10.11.1.3-9)

b 3t 2

Double-sided vertical stiffeners I t 2 t p bt t p 0.5bt 0.5tw AASHTO LRFD 12

12 (Eq.6.10.11.1.3-10)

It1 btw J

3

1.5

D 4 t Fyw

1.3

It 2 (2.132)

40 E

2.5 AASHTO LRFD 12

J 2.0 0.5 (Eq.6.10.11.1.3-11)

( d o / D) 2

Where,

J : stiffener bending rigidity parameter

t Max( Fyw / Fcrs ,1.0) (2.133)

0.31E

Fcrs 2

Fys (2.134)

bt

tP longitudinal stiffener

AASHTO LRFD 12

Fys : specified minimum yield strength of the stiffener (Eq.6.10.11.3.1-1)

do : the smaller of the adjacent web panel widths

b : the smaller of do and D

C : ratio of the shear-buckling resistance

2) Vu≤Vn

[Table 2.49] Check for Transverse Stiffener when Vu≤Vn

AASHTO LRFD 12

V vVvr

Vn Vcr I t I t1 ( I t 2 I t1 ) u (Eq.6.10.11.3.2-1)

I t1 I t 2 vVn vVcr

Otherwise It It 2

Otherwise It It 2

3) The following is calculated when the transverse and longitudinal stiffeners attach to the

web at the same time.

b D

I t t I l (2.135)

bl 3.0d o AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.11.3.3-1)

Where, (Eq.6.10.11.3.3-2)

bt : projecting width of the transverse stiffener

bl : projecting width of the longitudinal stiffener

Il : moment of inertia of the longitudinal stiffener

(1) Strength limit state

The longitudinal stiffener attached to the web is calculated as shown in the falling equation.

f s f Rh Fys (2.136)

Where,

fs : the flexural stress in the longitudinal stiffener

Fys : specified minimum yield strength of the stiffener

β

(2) Projecting width AASHTO LRFD 12

The projecting width of the Longitudinal stiffener is limited as per the following equation. As (Eq.6.10.11.3.3-3)

per Article C6.11.11.2, for the structural tees, b l should be taken as one half the width of the

flange. AASHTO LRFD 12

(Eq.6.10.11.3.3-4)

E

bl 0.48ts (2.137)

Fys

Z

Where, AASHTO LRFD 12

ts: thickness of the stiffener (Eq.6.10.11.3.3-5)

Moment of inertia and radius of gyration are calculated using the dimensions inputted in the

Section Stiffener dialog box (Fig.2.8). The moment of inertia and the radius of gyration of the

longitudinal stiffener shall satisfy:

Fys

do 2 0.16d o

I l Dtw 2.4 0.13

3 E projecting width

and r (2.138) AASHTO LRFD 12

D Fyc (Eq.6.10.11.2-1)

1 0.6

Rh Fys

Where,

do : transverse stiffener spacing

R : minimum girder radius in the panel

r : radius of gyration of the longitudinal stiffener including an effective width of the web equal to 18*tw

taken about the neutral axis of the combined section Moment of inertia

Il : moment of inertia of the longitudinal stiffener including an effective width of the web equal to 18*tw AASHTO LRFD 07&12

(Eq.6.10.11.2-2)

taken about the neutral axis of the combined section

β :curvature correction factor for longitudinal stiffener rigidity

Case

1

web away from the center of curvature 6

For cases where the longitudinal stiffener is on the side of the Z

1

web toward the center of curvature 12

Where,

Z : curvature parameter

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 133

2

0.95d o

Z 10 (2.139)

Rt w

(1) The strength of the stiffeners must be greater than the yield strength of the compression

flanges.

The Projecting Width (bl) of the Longitudinal Compression Flange Stiffener is calculated as

shown in the following equation.

E

bl 0.48t s (2.140)

Fyc

Where,

ts: thickness of the projecting longitudinal stiffener element

Each Moment of inertia of the Longitudinal Compression Flange Stiffener Is calculated as

shown in the following equation.

I l wt fc

3

(2.141)

Where,

w : larger of the width of the flange between longitudinal flange stiffeners or the distance from a web to

the nearest longitudinal flange stiffener

compression flange(n)

n 1 0.125k 3

n2 1.120k 3

Where,

k : plate-buckling coefficient for uniform normal stress

5. Difference Between AASHTO-LRFD 4th(2007) and AASHTO-

LRFD 6th(2012)

th

This section explains how the functions of midas Civil are applied differently in AASHTO-LRFD 4

th

Edition (2007) and AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012).

In both standards, the fatigue resistance is calculated differently.

th th

AASHTO-LRFD 4 Edition (2007) AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012)

The calculation only considers the Fatigue 2 Based on the conditions, the calculation

Load Combination out of the user load considers the Fatigue 1 or 2 Load Combination.

combinations.

AASHTO LRFD07&12

(6.6.1.2.3)

Fatigue Resistance (ΔF)n Calculation Fatigue Resistance (ΔF)n Calculation (6.6.1.2.5)

Fatigue 1 Load Case Combination Is not used in When using the Fatigue 1 Load Case

the calculation. Combination, the value of ΔF)n Is calculated

as such:

When using the Fatigue 2 Load Case Combination, the value of ΔF)n Is calculated

Combination, the value of ΔF)n Is calculated as such:

as such:

1

1 A 3

A 1 3 (F )n

(F ) n (F )TH N

N 2 in which: N (365)(75)n( ADTT ) SL

in which: N (365)(75)n( ADTT ) SL

In both standards, Fatigue resistance for Shear Connector (Zr) is calculated differently.

th th

AASHTO-LRFD 4 Edition (2007) AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012)

The Fatigue resistance(Zr) of the stud type for The Fatigue resistance(Zr) of the stud type for

the Shear Connector is calculated as such: the Shear Connector is calculated as such: AASHTO LRFD07&12

38.0d 2 (6.10.10.2)

Z r d 2 (in SI Unit) Z r d 2 (in US Unit)

2

238 29.5 log N ( in SI Unit) 34.5 4.28 log N ( in US Unit)

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 135

5.3 Transverse Stiffener

In both standards, Transverse Stiffener is calculated differently

th th

AASHTO-LRFD 4 Edition (2007) AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012)

Calculation of the Stiffener bending rigidity Calculation of the Stiffener bending rigidity

parameter(J) parameter(J)

2

D 2.5

J 2.5 2.0 0.5 J 2.0 0.5

do / D ( d o / D) 2

AASHTO LRFD07&12

(6.10.11.1.3)

When the Web post buckling or tension-field When the Web post buckling or tension-field

resistance is considered, the following is resistance is considered, the following is

calculated. calculated.

It It 2 (1) I t1 I t 2

1) Vn Vcr

V vVvr

I t I t1 ( I t 2 I t1 ) u

vVn vVcr

2) Other conditions

It It 2

(2) I t1 I t 2

It It 2

5.4 Flexure Resistance of Box Flange in compression under Unstiffened

condition

In both standards, the Flexure Resistance of Box Flange in compression under Unstiffened

condition is calculated differently.

th th

AASHTO-LRFD 4 Edition (2007) AASHTO-LRFD 6 Edition (2012)

(1) Fnc (1) Fnc

kE 2

1) f R1 f

Fyc Fnc f Fcb 1 v

Fnc Rb Rh Fyc

v Fcv

AASHTO LRFD07&12

1) Fcb

(6.11.8.2.2)

① f p

kE kE

2) R1 f R2 Fcb Rb Rh Fyc

Fyc Fyc

② p f r

Fcb Rb Rh Fyc

0.2 f p

Fcb Rb Rh Fyc 1 1

b

R2 fc

F fc

Rh r p

1 sin

Fyr t fc kE

③ r f

R h F yc

2 R 2 R1

0.9 ERb k

Fcb

f 2

3) f R2

kE

2) Fcv

Fyc

① f 1.12

Ek s

2

0.9 ERb k Rb f v k

2

b fc Fyc

Fnc

b fc

2 2 t Fcv 0.85Fyc

0.9 Ek s fc

t ② 1.12 Ek s 1.40 Ek s

fc f

Fyc Fyc

0.65 Fyc Ek s

Fcv

Where, f

R1 : constant which when multiplied by ③ 1.40 Ek s

f

Fyc

kE / F yields the slenderness ratio equal to

yc

0.9 Ek

0.6 times the slenderness ration for which Fnc Fcv

from Eq.3 is equal to Rb Rh Fyc f 2

0.57

R1

Where,

f v k

2 2

1

4

2

2 F k

yc s Ek

p 0.57

Fyc

R2 : constant which when multiplied by Ek

yields the slenderness ratio for

r 0.595

kE / F yc Fyr

which Fnc from Eq.3 is equal to Rb Fyc

1.23

R2

Fyr

2

f v k

2 2

1 Fyr

4

1.2 Fyc F F k

yc yc s

Fyr ( 0.3) Fyc Fyw

Fyr ( 0.4) Fyc Fyw

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 137

Chapter 2. Steel Composite Design : AASHTO-LRFD 4thand6th (2007/2012)

Result

1. Strength Limit State Result

1.1 Flexure

(1) by Result Table

As shown in the table below, the results can be checked in the result table.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Strength Limit State (flexure)…

Where,

My : yield moment

Mp : plastic moment

Mu : moment due to the factored loads

phiMn : nominal flexural resistance of a section multiplied by resistance factor, phi, for flexure

fbu : largest value of the compressive stress throughout the unbraced length in the flange under

condition, calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending

phiFn : nominal flexure resistance of a flange

Dp :distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the composite section at the plastic

moment

Dt : total depth of the composite section

Based on the different search conditions, the result values which appear will vary, as shown

in the table below.

[Table 2.52] Result Case Table for Strength Limit State of Flexure

fle

Applied

xu Section Clause

My Mp Mu phiMn fbu phiFn Dp Dt

re

compact 6.10 & 6.11 O O O O - - O O

(+)

non-

6.10 & 6.11 - - - - O O O O

compact

- 6.10 & 6.11 - - - - O O - -

(-)

- Appendix A6 O O O O - - - -

(2) by Excel Report

The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

1) Positive Flexure

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 139

2) Negative Flexure

1.2 Shear

(1) Result Table

As shown in the table below, the results can be checked in the result table.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Strength Limit State (shear)…

Where,

Vu : shear due to the factored load

phiVn : nominal shear resistance multiplied by resistance factor, phi, for shear

bt_lim1 : projecting width limit for transverse stiffener, 2.0+(D/30), as per Eq. 6.10.11.1.2-1

bt_lim2 : projecting width limit for transverse stiffener, 16tp, as per Eq. 6.10.11.1.2-2

bt_lim3 : projecting width limit for transverse stiffener, bf/4, as per Eq. 6.10.11.1.2-2

bt : projected width of transverse stiffener as per Article 6.10.11.1.2

lt_lim : limiting moment of inertia of transverse stiffener as per Eq. 6.10.11.1.3-3&4

lt : Moment of Inertia of transverse stiffener as per Article 6.10.11.1.3

(2) by Excel Report

The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

(1) by Result Table

The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Service Limit State…

Where,

fc : compression-flange stress

fcrw: nominal bending buckling resistance for webs as per Eq. 6.10.11.9.1-1

fcf : compression-flange stress

fcf_lim : limit of compression-flange stress

ftf : tension-flange stress

ftf_lim : limit of tension-flange stress

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 141

(2) by Excel Report

The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

3. Constructibility Result

3.1 Flexure

(1) by Result Table

The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Constructibility (flexure)...

Where,

fbuw : flange stress calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending

phifcrw : nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs

fbuc : compression-flange stress with consideration of flange lateral stress

phifc : limit of compression-flange stress

fbut : tension-flange stress with consideration of flange lateral stress

phift : limit of tension -flange stress

fdeck : longitudinal tensile stress in a composite section deck

phifr : limit of concrete deck tensile stress. fr shall be taken as the modulus of rupture as per the Article

6.10.1.7

(2) by Excel Report

The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 143

2) Negative Flexure

3.2 Shear

(1) by Result Table

The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Constructibility (shear)...

Where,

Vu : shear in the web due to the factored load

phiVcr : shear-buckling resistance multiplied by resistance factor, phi, for shear

(2) by Excel Report

The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

(1) by Result Table

The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Fatigue Limit State...

Where,

γ(Δf) : Range of Fatigue Limit State

(ΔF)n : Nominal Fatigue Resistance

Lcom : Load combinations used in the calculation

Vu : shear in the web due to the unfactored permanent load plus the factored fatigue load

Vcr : shear buckling resistance as per Eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 145

(2) by Excel Report

The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

(1) by Result Table

The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Shear Connector...

Where,

H/D : height to diameter ratio

(H/D)lim : limit value of height to diameter ratio (=4.0)

p : pitch of shear connectors specified by the user

p_lim1: pitch limit value, nZI/(Vsr), as per Eq. 6.10.10.1.2-1

p_lim2: pitch limit value, 6d

s : transverse spacing of shear connectors spacing (Transverse Cross Section)

edge : distance of the top compression flange edge_lim (=1.0 in)

Cover : clear depth of concrete cover over the tops of the shear connectors (> 2.0 in)

Penetration : depth of penetration of the shear connector(>2.0in)

n : number of shear connectors entered in transverse direction

n_Req : required number of shear connectors

(2) by Excel Report

The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

6. Stiffener Result

(1) by Result Table

The results can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Tables > Longitudinal Stiffener...

Where,

bl : projecting width

bl_lim : limit of projecting width as per Eq. 6.10.11.3.2-1

I : Moment of inertia of cross-section

I_lim : limit of moment of inertia of cross-section as per Eq. 6.10.11.3.3-1

r : radius of gyration

r_lim : limit of radius of gyration as per Eq. 6.10.11.3.3-2

fs : flexure stress of longitudinal stiffener

phiRhFys : limit of flexure stress as per Eq. 6.10.11.3.1-1

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 147

(2) by Excel Report

The results can be viewed in an Excel Report as shown below.

7. Span Checking

(1) by Result Table

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Table...

Most critical member results in each span can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

(2) by Span Result Graph

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Diagram...

The results of the span group defined by the span information can be checked here. The flexure

and shear results based on distance or node can be checked here. The current applied member

force or elasticity is marked in red while the strength or elasticity is marked in green.

8. Total Checking

(1) by Result Table

▶ Design > Composite Design > Design Result Table...

Summary results for each member can be viewed in a result table as shown below.

Chapter 2.Steel Composite Girder Design - AASHTO LRFD4th and6th (2007/2012) 149

Chapter 3.

Steel Composite

Bridge Load Rating

AASHTO LRFD 2nd (2011)

Chapter 3.

Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating (AASHTO LRFR 11)

Steel composite bridge load rating needs to satisfy the following limit states.

Load Rating of

Steel Composite Bridge

Chapter 3. Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating : AASHTO-LRFR 2nd (2011)

Introduction

1. AASHTO LRFR 2011 Bridge Load Rating

1.1 Definition of Load Rating

The NBIS (National Bridge Inspections Standards Regulation) regulations define load rating as

“The determination of the live load carrying capacity of a bridge using as-built bridge plans and

supplemented by information gathered from the latest field inspection.”

Load ratings are expressed as a rating factor (RF) or as a tonnage for a particular vehicle.

Emphasis in load rating is on the live-load capacity and dictates the approach of determining

rating factors instead of the design approach of satisfying limit states.

Bridge load rating provides a measure of a bridge's ability to carry a given live load in terms of a

simple factor, referred to rating factor. These bridge rating factors can be used to aid in

decisions about the need for (1) load posting, (2) bridge strengthening, (3) overweight load

allowances, (4) and bridge closers.

Load Posting Bridge Strengthening Bridge Closers

Bridge design and rating, though similar in overall approach, differ in important aspect.

Bridge Design may adopt a conservative reliability index and impose checks to ensure

serviceability and durability without incurring a major cost impact.

Bridge ratings generally require the Engineer to consider a wider range of variables than is

typical in bridge design. In rating, the added cost of overly conservative evaluation standards

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 153

can be prohibitive as load restrictions, rehabilitation, and replacement become increasingly

necessary. The rating procedures presented LRFR recognize a balance between safety and

economics.

In most cases, a lower target reliability than design has been chosen for load rating at the

strength limit states to rating is done on a more selective basis than is prescribed for design

in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

(1) New Construction

When designing a new structure, it is required that RF≥1 for the HL-93 vehicle at the

Inventory Level; therefore, a Legal Load Rating will never be required on a newly designed

structure.

▪ Live loads

▪ Dead loads

▪ Physical condition

▪ Specifications, Laws

Change in the

New Bridges Change in the live loads

Physical condition

2. Load Rating Levels

The LRFR methodology consists of three distinct levels of evaluation:

(1) Design load rating

(2) Legal load rating

(3) Permit load rating

The result of each evaluation serve specific purpose and also inform the need for further

evaluations. The important factors of each load rating level are summarized as shown below.

Each of these three levels of rating are discussed in detail in immediately following sections.

Design load rating is a first level assessment of bridges. It is a measure of the performance of

existing bridge to current LRFD bridge design standards.

At Design load rating level, the HL-93 live-load model of the LRFD is applied, using

dimensions and properties of the bridge in its present as inspected condition.

Under this check, bridges are screened for the strength limit state at the LRFD design level

of reliability. Evaluation at a second lower evaluation level of reliability is also an option.

The rating also considers all applicable LRFD serviceability limit states

(3) purpose

Design load rating can serve as a screening process to identify bridges that should be load

rated for legal loads.

Bridges the pass the design load check (RF≥1) at the Inventory level will have satisfactory

load rating for all legal loads that fall within the LRFD exclusion limits.

There are two levels of the Design Load Rating:

The Inventory rating level generally corresponds to the rating at the design level of

reliability for new bridges in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, but reflects

the existing bridge and material conditions with regard to deterioration and loss of

section.

Load ratings based on the Inventory level allow compressions with the capacity for new

structures and, therefore, result in a live load, which can safely utilize an existing

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 155

structure for an indefinite period of time.

Load rating based of the Operation rating level generally describe the maximum

permissible live load to which the structure may be subjected. Generally corresponds to

the rating at the Operating level may shorten the life of the bridge.

This second level rating provides a single safe load capacity (for a given truck configuration)

applicable to AASHTO and State legal loads.

The Previous distinction of Operating and Inventory level ratings is no longer maintained when

load rating for legal loads. Legal load rating provides a level of reliability, corresponding to the

operating level reliability for redundant bridges in good condition.

Live load is categorized into the two types according to AASHTO LRFR 2011 as:

1) AASHTO Legal loads, as specified in Article 6A.4.4.2.1a

2) The Notional Rating Load as specified in Article 6A.4.4.2.1b or State legal loads.

Strength is the primary limit state for load rating; service limit states are selectively applied.

(3) purpose

Bridges that do not have sufficient capacity under the design-load rating shall be load rated

for legal loads to establish the need for load posting or strengthening.

This third level of rating should only be applied to bridges having sufficient capacity for legal

loads. In other words, Permit load rating should be used only if the bridge has a rating factor

greater than 1.0 when evaluated for AASHTO legal loads.

The actual permit vehicle’s gross vehicle weight and axle configuration will be the live load

used in the permit-load evaluation. The MBE(Manual for Bridge Evaluation) categorizes

permit loads into two classes:

1) Routine/annual permits, and

2) Special permits.

Permits are checked using the Strength II limit-state load combination with the Service II

limit-state load combination optional for steel bridges to limit potential permanent

deformations.

(3) purpose

Permit load rating checks the safety and serviceability of bridges in the review of permit

application for the passage of vehicles above the legally established weight limitations.

3. Process of Load Rating

Flow Chart

AASHTO LRFR 11

( APPENDIX A6A)

The process starts with a bridge first being rated at the Design Inventory level under HL- 93

load model. If the bridge is found to be satisfactory at this level of rating, it’s considered not to

require posting for “AASHTO legal loads and state legal loads within the LRFD exclusion limits”,

and hence the bridge can be evaluated directly for permit load vehicles.

However if the rating factor at the Design Inventory level is found to be less than 1.0, the

bridge must be evaluated under either the Design Operating level or the Legal load level.

At these levels of rating if the bridge is found to be satisfactory it is considered not to require

posting for “AASHTO legal loads and state legal loads having only minor variations form the

AASHTO legal loads”, and the bridge can be evaluated for permit load vehicles.

If, however, the bridge is found to be not satisfactory, load posting will be required for legal

loads and no permit analysis is allowed.

There is however the option for higher forms of evaluation, such as load testing of the bridge

or the use of finite element modeling, for when a bridge is found to be unsatisfactory at the

Legal load level and the engineer feels the bridge may not require posting.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 157

Chapter 3. Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating : AASHTO-LRFR 2nd (2011)

Variables

1. Modeling Design Variables

In this chapter, the design variables, the meaning behind the design requirements, and the design process for Steel

Composite Load Rating in midas Civil are explained.

In this section, the application of load rating and input method and meaning of the related variables are explained.

Contents Explanation

1.1.1 Rating Design Code 1.1.1 Rating Design Code

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Rating The program performs the load rating based on the

code selected in this dialog box.

Design Code ...

1.1.2 Steel Bridge Load Rating Parameters 1.1.2 Steel Bridge Load Rating Parameters

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Rating (1) The system factor is inputted according to the

Parameters ... System Factor, 𝜑𝑠 , provided in AASHTO LRFR

2011 (Table 3.6).

The system factor is multiplied to the flexural

strength (Mn) and shear strength (Vn) and,

therefore, applied to all elements.

Strength Resistance Factor is defined.

The resistance factors are automatically set to the

default values defined in AASHTO LRFR 12. The

values also may be modified or entered manually.

If the Single Box Section option is selected, the

sections are considered as noncompact section; if

the Multiple Box Section option is selected, the

sections are considered as compact sections.

□ Consider St.Venant Torsion and Distortion Stress

If the Multiple Box Section option is selected,

lateral bending stress is considered in

accordance with St. Venant Torsion and

Distortion Stress. If the Single Box Section

option is selected, the lateral bending stress is

not considered.

□ Appendix A6 for Negative Flexure Resistance in

Web Compact/Noncompact Sections

If this option is checked, Appendix A6 is applied

for the flexural strength of straight composite I-

sections in negative flexure with

compact/noncompact webs.

Sections(6.10.7.1.2-3)

If this option is checked, Mn value is restricted to

1.3RhMy under positive flexure.

Resistance (6.10.9.3.2)

If this option is checked, post buckling resistance

due to tension field action is considered in the

nominal shear resistance of an interior stiffened

web panel according to AASHTO LRFD 12. If not,

Vn is taken as CVp.

□ Service Limit State

If this option is checked, the service limit is

verified according to AASHTO LRFR 2011 6A.6.4.

automatically according to LRFR standards. For

more details, please refer to "Application of

[Fig.3.4] Load Rating Parameters Dialog Box

AASHTO LRFD 12 in Midas Civil" Section 3.3.

parameters calculated for the verification of the

RF, can be manually inputted. The allowed

compressive stress and tensile stress of the

concrete need to be inputted.

Design Load and Legal Load are applied for the

verification of the Design Load Rating and Legal

Load Rating, respectively.

□ Fatigue Limit State

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 159

If this option is checked, the program checks the

Fatigue Limit State according to AASHTO LRFR 11

6A.6.4.

Application of Diagnostic Test Result can be

selected between Strain and Displacement.

1.1.3 Unbraced Length The Unbraced Length for steel composite section is

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Unbraced considered. The value input here has higher priority

than the value calculated from Span Group.

Length ...

(1) Lb

The Lateral Unbraced Length is used to calculate

the lateral torsional buckling resistance for the

compression flange of I-Girders.

If the Lateral Unbraced Length is not applied, the

span information, if defined, is used for the

calculation. If the span information is not defined,

element lengths are applied as the lateral

unbraced length.

1.1.4 Shear Connectors Studs are used as shear connectors and the

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Shear following parameters are used for the calculation:

Connectors ... (1) Category

Category defined by 75yr-(ADTT)SL equivalent to

Infinite Life.

(2) Fu

Shear Resistance of Shear Connector

[Fig.3.7] Shear Connector Parameters

Moment

The length of the sections where shear

connectors need to be considered is inputted for

the calculation of the pitch at the strength limit

state.

The type of nominal shear force calculation is

[Fig.3.6] Shear Connector Dialog Box determined for the calculation of the Nominal

Shear Force, P, which his used to calculate the

minimum number of shear connector, n, at the

strength limit state. Based on the calculation type

selected, the equations used to calculate P are

differed.

1.1.5 Fatigue Parameter (1) Category

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Fatigue Category defined by 75yr-(ADTT)SL equivalent to

Parameter ... infinite life (Table 6.6.1.2.3-2).

(2) (ADTT)SL

Number of trucks per day in a single-lane

averaged over the design life (3.6.1.4.2)

Value can be manually calculated as per 3.6.1.4.2-

1.

(3) n

Number of cycles per truck passage

Value can be taken from Table 6.6.1.2.5-2.

For the verification of fatigue, flexure stress is

calculated as the summation of Longitudinal

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 161

Bending Stress Range and Longitudinal Warping

Stress Range.

vertical bending moment is simply increased by

10% for the longitudinal warping stress.

bending stress range is summated with the

inputted value of the Longitudinal Warping Stress

Range for top or bottom flange depending upon

the flexure condition at the section.

1.1.6 Curved Bridge Information

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Curved

Once the girder radius value of the element units in

Bridge Info ...

the steel composite section is entered, the

corresponding elements are categorized as curved

bridges. The inputted girder radius is used for the

following equations.

bending moment caused due to the curvature. (N

is taken as 10.)

Ml 2

M lat (LRFD 2012 c4.6.1.2.4b-1)

NRD

where,

Mlat : flange lateral bending moment

M : major-axis bending moment

l : unbraced length

R : girder radius

D : web depth

N : a constant taken as 10 or 12 in past practice

[Fig.3.9] Curved Bridge Information Dialog Box

(2) Radius is used for the review of shear

[Table3.3] Convex and Concave connector's pitch and the moment of inertia of

Convex Concave area for the longitudinal stiffener attached to

web.

If Convex is selected, Left Stiffener is on the side

of the web away from the center of curvature and

Right Stiffener is on the side of the web toward

the center of curvature.

If Concave is selected, the opposite case of the

convex is applied. The Left and Right are

determined based on the progressing direction of

the cross section.

applied to each case.

Stiffener

Case Equation

Left Z

1 (6.10.11.3.3-3)

Stiffener 6

Convex

Right Z

1 (6.10.11.3.3-4)

Stiffener 12

Left Z

1 (6.10.11.3.3-4)

Stiffener 12

Concave

Right Z

1 (6.10.11.3.3-3)

Stiffener 6

Where,

𝛽 : Curvature correction factor for longitudinal

stiffener

𝑍 : Curvature Parameter

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Diagnostic 1.1.7 Diagnostic Test Result

Variables that are used to verify the load carrying

Test Result...

capacity for the diagnostic test result are inputted

in this dialog box.

Deflection and impact factor are inputted for the

diagnostic test.

The Adjustment Factor, K, is inputted by users. K is

used to calculate the load-rating factor for the

live-load capacity based on the load test result,

RFT.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 163

K 1 K a K b (8.8.2.3.1-1)

where,

Ka : accounts for both the benefit derived from the load

test, if any, and consideration of the section factor (area,

section modulus, ect.) resisting the applied test load

Kb: accounts for the understanding of the load test

results when with those predicted by theory

In this section, the material property information input method for the Steel Composite Load Rating is explained.

Contents Explanation

1.2.1 Rating material 1.2.1 Rating material

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> In this dialog box, the Material Properties can be

modified for the calculation of the structure

Rating material...

capacity.

The material utilized for composite sections are

provided in the SRC material properties. The

material should be defined as SRC Type.

This dialog box is used to input material

characteristics for the steel composite section

design. The material property values entered will

have a priority over the values entered in Material

Data dialog box.

□ Hybrid Factor

Hybrid Factor is considered in the case where

flanges and web have different material

properties.

2) Concrete of the Concrete slab

When the check box for Hybrid Factor is selected,

icon on the right is activated. The different

materials for the top and bottom flanges and web of

the steel girder can be defined. Hybrid Factor (Rh) is

determined based on these material information.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 165

1.3 Settings for Load Rating

In this section, how to define which part of the structure the load rating is performed and factors and rating levels for

each part are explained.

Contents Explanation

1.3.1 Rating Group Setting 1.3.1 Rating Group Setting

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Rating The Bridge Rating Group Setting Dialog allows users

to apply Condition Factors per different groups

Group Setting...

defined already and i- and j-end check positions.

design features are faster with the elements defined

in Groups.

Selected Groups are targeted for the design of the

Rating Factor.

at:

▶ Tree Menu > Group> Structure Group>New...

[Fig.3.13] Rating Group Setting Dialog Box [Fig.3.14] Structure Group Dialog Box

applied to different Structure Groups of elements. In

the program, the Condition Factor is internally

multiplied to Nominal Flexural Strength, Nominal

Flexural Resistance, Nominal Shear Strength and

Nominal Fatigue Resistance to calculate the Road

Factor. For more details, please refer to [Table 3.7]

and [Table 3.8].

and selected for the Groups selected for the design.

1.3.2 Define Rating Case

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> Define 1.3.2 Define Rating Case

In Define Rating Case Dialog, Load Factor is

Rating Case...

defined for each of the Service Limit State,

Strength Limit State and Fatigue Limit State.

Unfactored dead load should be selected.

inputted for each Load Type (DC, DW, ...) as per

LRFR 2012 and can be manually modified by users.

inputted for DC(Before), DC(After), and DW. The

default maximum and minimum values are

provided according to LRFR 2011 Table 6A.4.2.2-1

and LRFD 2012 Table 3.4.102.

Only one load factor is inputted for the

Temperature Load, but the load factor is used as

positive and negative (+, -) for the calculation.

deck is activated.

DC(After) is for the state after the concrete deck is

activated. DC(After) considers the Erection load

case, if defined by user, and the stress caused by

the time dependent material property, Creep &

Shrinkage.

additionally inputted per different Load Type and

reflected in the Load Rating Factor calculation.

are selected.

Member forces before the composite state are

[Fig.3.15] Define Rating Case Dialog Box applied to Dead Load (CS) and member forces

after the composite state are applied to Erection

Load.

Type > Create Load Cases > Static Load Cases

generates the 12 Types results (Fx-max, ... My-

min) per nodes in the calculation.

For each node, Max/Min forces are calculated per

total 6 degree of freedom (DOF) for each node.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 167

separately for the Primary Vehicle and Adjacent

Vehicle.

When is clicked, the

load combinations and corresponding Load

Factors are generated. When the load

combination is clicked, the load combination and

load factors are inputted in the Rating Case Dialog

Box.

Load Cases at: ▶Load > Load Type > Moving

Load > Moving Load Analysis Data > Moving

Load Cases)

Load Rating flow as per LRFR standard is explained

in [Fig.3.2]. The program does not automatically

follow the flow of [Fig.3.2]. In this Live Load

Factors for Rating Dialog, rating level needs to be

defined as well as the load cases.

[Fig.3.16] Live Load Factor for Rating Dialog Box

In the "Introduction" Chapter, Section 2.2 and

Section 2.3, different purposes and applications of

performing Legal Load Rating level and Permit

Load Rating level are explained. However, in this

dialog box, the Legal Level and Permit Level both

needs to be selected because the same LRFD Load

Factors are used in the two level checks.

1.3.3 Position for Rating Output

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design >

In this Dialog, the Position for Rating Output is

Position for Rating Output... inputted.

Rating Summary and define the Position for Rating

Output.

elements to be printed in the output is defined

and saved.

1.3.4 Rating Design Force/Moment Tables 1.3.4 Rating Design Tables

For the selected load combinations, design member

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating

force (longitudinal-direction moment (My),

Design Tables > Design Force/Moment transverse-direction moment (Mz), shear (Vu)) are

calculated at different part(s) of the elements per

construction stages.

Steel composite section is composed of steel girder and concrete slab. Additional stiffeners may be arranged in the steel

girder; longitudinal and sub reinforcement rebars may be arranged in the concrete slab. In this section, Steel Composite

Load Rating features and functions and related section input method and design variables are explained.

Contents Explanation

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> In a steel composite section, the longitudinal

reinforcements are arranged within the concrete

Longitudinal Reinforcement

deck. The strength is calculated as shown in the below

table.

Positive Negative

Case

Flexure Flexure

Figure

Concrete

Apply None

Slab

[Fig.3.19] Longitudinal Reinforcement Dialog

Reinforce

None Applied

-ment

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 169

Contents Explanation

Figure 3.20 shows the dialog box in which users can

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design> arrange transverse stiffeners in steel composite section.

Transverse Stiffener... When the transverse stiffeners are installed, the

existence and spacing between stiffeners determine

whether the web is stiffened or unstiffened under

strength limit state.

1) One / Two Stiffener Option Button

Choose between one or two stiffeners. The two

stiffener option is available for I/Box/Tub sections.

2) Pitch (do)

Pitch refers to the Transverse Stiffener spacing. At

the strength limit state, this can be used to

distinguish between stiffened and unstiffened webs

or calculate shear strength of the web.

Chapter 3. Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating : AASHTO-LRFR 2nd (2011)

Application of AASHTO

LRFR 11 in midas Civil

1. Rating Factor Calculation

The Bridge Load Rating function of midas Civil calculates the Rating Factor (RF) at i/j nodes of

elements for the Rating Cases according to AASHTO LRFR 2011 standard and finds the minimum RF.

Rating load carrying papa city needs to be done at three different levels - Design Load Rating, Legal

Load Rating, and Permit Load Rating - according to the AASHTO LRFR 2011. Midas Civil Bridge Load

Rating calculates RF by using the equations (3.3) for Design Load Rating and Legal Load Rating for

the load cases defined in Define Load Case [fig.3.15].

The RF calculated in Midas Civil determines whether it is safe to carry the Primary Vehicle. If RF>1 it

is safe and the larger RF, the greater the load carrying capacity of the bridge.

The RF value shall be taken as below according to the LRFR standard:

RF

C ( DC )( DC) ( DW )( DW ) ( P )( P) AASHTO LRFR 11

RF (3.1)

(Eq. 6A.4.2.1-1)

( L )( LL IM )

(1.1

Where,

RF : Rating factor

C : Capacity

Capacity, C, is calculated as shown in [Table 3.6] for the corresponding Limit State.

Case C AASHTO LRFR 11

(Eq. 6A.4.2.1-2)

Strength Limit States C cs Rn ( cs 0.85 ) (Eq. 6A.4.2.1-3)

(Eq. 6A.4.2.1-4)

Service Limit States C fR

𝑓𝑅 : Allowable Stress specified in the LRFD code

DC : Dead-load effect due to structural components and attachments

DW : Dead-load effect due to wearing surfaces and utilities

P : Permanent loads other than dead loads

LL : Live load effect

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 171

IM : Dynamic load allowance

𝛾𝐷𝐶 : LRFD load factor for structural components and attachments

𝛾𝐷𝑊 : LRFD load factor for wearing surfaces and utilities

𝛾𝑃 : LRFD load factor for permanent loads other than dead loads

𝛾𝐿𝐿 : Evaluation live load factor

𝜑𝑐 : Condition factor

𝜑𝑠 : System factor

𝜑 : LRFD resistance factor

Rn : Nominal member resistance

1.2.1 Review Items

In Midas Civil, load rating is reviewed based on the three different limit states for steel

composite bridges. For more information about how to define load cases for each limit state,

please refer to "Modeling and Design Variables" Section 1.3.2 and this chapter ("Application of

AASHTO LRFR 11 in midas Civil") Section 1.2.3.

[Fig.3.23] Flow Chart of Load Rating of Steel Composite Bridge in midas Civil

1.2.2 Calculation of RF

Midas Civil's PSC Bridge Load Rating function uses the below equation [3.2] upon the

request of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans).

RF

( PV )( PV ) (3.2)

For the Steel Composite Load Rating, the equation [3.2] is modified to reflect the steel

composite bridge characteristics. The equation [3.3] reflects the member force for before

and after the concrete deck is activated and is used to calculate the RF value.

RF

C ( DCB )( DCB ) DC A DCA DW DW T T SEC SEC P P USER USER AV ( AV )

(3.3)

PV PV

Where,

RF : Rating factor calculated by Midas Civil

C : Capacity

[Table3.7] C (Capacity) Calculated by Midas Civil

Case C

Strength Limit States C cs Rn ( cs 0.85 )

Auto-Calculation C fR

Service Limit States

User Input User-defined allowable stress in [Fig.3.4]

Fatigue Limit State C cs Rn ( cs 0.85 )

0.85 and calculate C. For calculating C, midas Civil uses different 𝜑𝑅𝑛 depending on the type

of limit state.

Load Rating State 𝜑𝑅𝑛 Calculated by Midas Civil

Strength Limit State

Shear Strength Vn according to AASHTO LRFD 12

DCB :Dead load effect due to structural components and attachments before the concrete deck is

activated

DCA :Dead load effect due to structural components and attachments due to the erection load case,

defined by users, and time dependent material property of concrete (Creep and Shrinkage)

DW : Dead-load effect due to wearing surfaces and utilities

T : Temperature and Temperature Gradient

SEC : In Define Rating Case Dialog Box, Creep Secondary, Shrinkage Secondary and Tendon Secondary

can be selected

P : Permanent loads other than dead loads

USER : User-defined load

AV : Adjacent Vehicle load

PV: Primary vehicle load

𝛾𝐷𝐶 : LRFD load factor for Dead load effect due to structural components and attachments

𝛾𝐷𝐶𝐵 : LRFD load factor before the concrete deck is activated

𝛾𝐷𝐶𝐴 : LRFD load factor after the Erection load case defined by user and time dependent material

property of concrete are activated

𝛾𝐷𝑊 : LRFD load factor for wearing surfaces and utilities

𝛾𝑇 : LRFD load factor for temperature

𝛾𝑆𝐸𝐶 : LRFD load factor for secondary

𝛾𝑈𝑆𝐸𝑅 : LRFD load factor for user-defined load

𝛾𝑃 : LRFD load factor for permanent loads other than dead loads

𝛾𝐴𝑉 : LRFD load factor for adjacent vehicle load

𝛾𝑃𝑉 : LRFD load factor for primary vehicle load

The above factors may be explained in terms of the Define Rating Case dialog box as follows.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 173

The values input in the red-colored box are applied as the factors directed with the arrow.

[Fig.3.24] Define Rating Case dialog box where factors are inputted

(1) Load Rating Flow

The flow of load rating according to LRFR standard is explained in [Fig. 3.2]. In this section,

how load rating is performed in midas Civil is explained. In midas Civil, load rating is

performed for the load cases defined in Define Rating Case dialog box [Fig. 3.15].

The two pictures in the below table are parts of Define Rating Case dialog box.

Limit State Rating Level

[Fig.3.25] Limit State in Define Rating Case dialog box [Fig.3.26] Rating Level in Define Rating Case dialog box

The Load Rating is performed for the Limit State selected by user in the right picture above

and the Rating Level selected in the left picture. Therefore, user can create and check load

cases for maximum six different cases (3 Limit States x 2 Rating Levels = total 6 Cases).

The below figure presents which choices need to be selected in Define Rating Case dialog box

and their order in accordance with LRFR Load Rating flow chart.

[Fig.3.27] Flow Chart of LRFR 11 and Define Rating Case dialog box

The vehicle load applied according to the rating level prescribed in the LRFR 2011 is explained

in "Introduction" Section 2. To increase the flexibility of the users, vehicle load needs to be

manually defined by users.

▶Vehicle loads can be defined at: Load > Load Type > Moving Load > Moving Load Analysis

Data > Vehicles. If AASHTO LRFD Load is selected for the Standard Name, the vehicle loads are

automatically inputted in accordance with LRFD.

The below figure shows the Define Standard Vehicular Load dialog box and the list of the

vehicular load type supported in midas Civil when AASHTO LRFD Load is selected as the

Standard.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 175

[Fig.3.28] Define Standard vehicular load dialog box

The Condition Factor provides a reduction to account for the increased uncertainty in the Condition Factor

resistance of deteriorated members and the likely increased future deterioration of these AASHTO LRFR 11

( 6A.4.2.3)

members during the period between inspection cycles.

The condition factor needs to be inputted in the Rating Group Setting Dialog Box [Fig.3.13] in

midas Civil.

Structural Condition of Member c

Good or Satisfactory 1.00 Condition Factor

AASHTO LRFR 11

Fair 0.95 (Table. 6A.4.2.3-1)

Poor 0.85

System factor reflects the level of redundancy of the complete superstructure system. System

factors that correspond to the load factor modification in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design System Factor

Specifications should be used. The system factors in [Table3.10] are more conservative than AASHTO LRFR 11

(6A.4.2.4)

the LRFD.

If the simplified system factors presented in [Table3.10] are used, they should be applied only

when checking flexural and axial effect at the strength limit state of typical spans and

geometries.

The system factor needs to be inputted in the Steel Bridge Load Rating Parameters dialog box

[Fig.3.4] in midas Civil.

Structural Type s

System Factor

Welded Members in Two-Girder/Truss/Arch Bridges 0.85 AASHTO LRFR 11

(Table. 6A.4.2.4-1)

Riveted Members in Two-Girder/Truss/Arch Bridges 0.90

Multiple Eyebar Members in Truss Bridges 0.90

Three-Girder Bridges with Girder Spacing 6ft 0.85

Four-Girder Bridges with Girder Spacing ≤ 4ft 0.95

All Other Girder Bridges and Slab Bridges 1.00

Floorbeams with Spacing >12 ft and Noncontinuous Stringers 0.85

Redundant Stringer Subsystems between Floorbeams 1.00

A Constant value of ϕs =1.0 is to be applied when checking shear at the strength limit state.

AASHTO LRFR clarifies the Load Factors for different Limit States and loads as shown in [Table

3.11]. The Load Factors are inputted in the Define Rating Case Dialog (Chapter "Modeling and

Design Variables" Article 1.3.2) Load Combination

AASHTO LRFR 11

(Table. 6A.4.2.2-1)

[Table3.11] Limit States and Load Factors for Load Rating

▪ Service I is used to check the 0.9 Fy stress Limit in reinforcing steel.

▪ Load factor for DW at the strength limit stress may be taken as 1.23 where thickness has

been field measured.

▪ Fatigue limit state is checked using the LRFE fatigue truck. (see LRFR Article 6A.6.4.1)

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 177

1.4 I and Box Section

In Load Rating, certain items need to be checked in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Design

Article; while some do not. Please refer to the below table for the applicability of each case.

[Table3.12] LRFD Design Articles applied per section type and review criteria

I Section Box Section

I and Box Section

Case

AASHTO LRFR 11

Straight Bridge Curved bridge Straight Bridge Curved bridge ( 6A.6.9.1~6A.6.9.5)

Flexural

6.10.6.2 6.11.6.2 and 6.11.1.1

resistance

Shear

6.10.9 6.10.9 and 6.11.9

resistance

Not considered

fl 6.10.1.6 - -

in midas Civil

constructability No need to be considered fl

AASHTO LRFR 11

Fatigue

( 6A.6.4.2.2))

requirements No need to be considered

for webs

Composite sections are considered as unshored construction for the load rating in midas Civil

according to LRFR 2011 6A.6.9.2.

AASHTO LRFR 11 provides standards for box sections only but not tub sections. Therefore, the

load rating for tub sections is done in accordance with the box section standards.

The minimum RF is calculated for the Rating Cases inputted for the Strength Limit State. Please

refer to [Table 3.12] for the LRFD Articles applied for different section types.

2.1 General

Strength Limit State is reviewed for flexural strength and shear strength.

Strength Limit States

LRFR 11 6A.6.4.1 and 6A.4.2.1.

2.2 Load Combination

Different load combinations are applied per load rating levels for the strength limit state check.

Load Rating Level Load Combination

Design load level Strength Ⅰ load combination

Legal load level Strength Ⅰ load combination Load Combination

Permit load level Strength Ⅱ load combination AASHTO LRFR 11

(6A.6.4.1)

(6A.6.4.2.1)

2.3 Rating Factor(RF) Calculation

2.3.1 Rating Factor for Flexural Strength

The RF is calculated for each Rating Case according to the equation (3.4). The minimum RF is

calculated at the i- and j- ends for the positive and negative moments.

RF

C ( DCB )( DCB ) DC A DCA DW DW T T SEC SEC P P USER USER AV ( AV )

(3.4)

PV PV

Where,

C :capacity,

C 𝜑𝑅𝑛

Mn or Fn

𝜑𝑐 𝜑𝑠 𝜑𝑅𝑛

calculated according to AASHTO LRFD 2012

Mn Fn

▪ Compact Section ▪ Positive flexural moment in noncompact section

in Positive flexural moment ▪Negative flexural moment and one of the following

cases:

▪ Flexural resistance - Curved bridge

of Negative Flexure Moment

- Straight Bridge but slender section

by using Appendix A6

-Straight Bridge and compact or noncompact, but

Appendix A6 is not applied

( DCB )( DCB ) DC A DC A DW DW T T SEC SEC P P USER USER AV ( AV ) :

My from Load Case

( PV )PV : My from Primary Vehicle(P.V)

The RF is calculated at i/j nodes for the rating cases inputted for the strength limit state

according to the equation (3.5) and the minimum RF is found.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 179

RF

C ( DCB )( DCB ) DC A DCA DW DW T T SEC SEC P P USER USER AV ( AV )

(3.5)

PV PV

Where,

C : V calculated by MIDAS-CIVIL depending on Code of AASHTO LRFD 2012

n

( DCB )( DCB ) DC A DC A DW DW T T SEC SEC P P USER USER AV ( AV )

: Vz from Load Case

( PV )PV : Vz from Primary Vehicle(P.V)

The minimum RF is calculated according to the equation (3.5) for the Rating Cases inputted for

the Service Limit State. Then, the minimum RF is determined.

3.1 General

The below LRFD Design Article is applied for the Service Limit State check in Load Rating.

Case LRFD Design Article

I Section 6.10.4.2 Service Limit State

Box Section 6.11.4 AASHTO LRFR 11

(6A.6.4.2.2)

For the Service Limit State check, Service II load combination is applied for all Load Rating level.

Load Rating Level Load Combination

Design load level

Load Combination

Legal load level Service Ⅱ load combination AASHTO LRFR 11

(6A.6.4.1)

Permit load level (6A.6.4.2.2)

The RF is calculated for the compressive and tensile stresses at i/j nodes.

RF

C ( DCB )( DCB ) DC A DCA DW DW T T SEC SEC P P USER USER AV ( AV )

(3.6)

PV PV

Where,

C : Stress

( DCB )( DCB ) DC A DC A DW DW T T SEC SEC P P USER USER AV ( AV )

: Stress from Load Cases

( PV )PV : Stress from Primary Vehicle(P.V)

The capacity, C, changes depending on whether the value is auto-calculated or user-defined in

the Load Rating Parameters dialog box shown in [Fig.3.4]. Please refer to the below table.

Case c

Composite Section C f R 0.95Fyf Capacity

Auto-Calculation AASHTO LRFR 11

Noncomposite Section C f R 0.8Rh Fyf (6A.6.4.2.2)

In Which,

Fyf : Yield Stress

The RF is calculated using the equation (3.6) for the rating cases inputted for the Fatigue Limit

State and the minimum RF is determined. Fatigue Limit State

AASHTO LRFR 11

(Section 7)

4.1 General

The fatigue requirements for webs specified in LRFD Design Article 6.10.5.3 does not need to be

considered for the Fatigue Limit State verification of the i- and box- type sections. AASHTO LRFR

2011 does not specify the standards for the tub sections; however, the tub sections are verified Fatigue Requirements

according to the box section verification in midas Civil. AASHTO LRFR 11

(6A.6.9.1)

(1) The Fatigue load combination is applied for the Fatigue Limit State verification as shown in

[Table 3.11].

(2) The Fatigue Limit state is only verified for the Design Load Rating level. Legal Load Rating and

Permit Load Rating levels are not verified for the Fatigue Limit State.

RF

C ( DCB )( DCB ) DC A DCA DW DW T T SEC SEC P P USER USER AV ( AV )

(3.7)

PV PV

Where,

C: capacity

C 𝜑𝑅𝑛

𝜑𝑐 𝜑𝑠 𝜑𝑅𝑛 (ΔF)TH calculated by MIDAS-Civil depending on Code of AASHTO LRFD 2012

( DCB )( DCB ) DC A DC A DW DW T T SEC SEC P P USER USER AV ( AV )

: Stress from Load Case

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 181

( PV )( PV )

:Stress from Primary Vehicle(P.V)

(∆𝐹) 𝑇𝐻 is constant-amplitude fatigue threshold.

4.3.1 Category

Levels

(1 )The two types of Fatigue damage are: AASHTO LRFR 11

▪ Load-induced fatigue damage (7.1)

(7.2.1)

▪ Distortion-induced Fatigue damage

▪ The infinite-life calculation

▪ The finite-life calculation

Please refer to [Table 3.20] for the LRFR Design Articles applied in each case.

Levels of Fatigue Evaluation LRFR Design Article

Infinite - life 7.2 and 7.2.4

Load-induced Fatigue

Finite - life 7.2 and 7.2.5

Application of LRFR

Distortion-induced Fatigue 7.3 AASHTO LRFR 11

(7.2.1)

The infinite-life calculation and finite-life calculation are distinguished according to the flow

chart shown in [Fig.3.30]. Only bridge details that fail the infinite-life check are subject to

the more complex finite-life evaluation.

7.2.4 and 7.2.5

Infinite Fatigue Life Flow

AASHTO LRFR 11

Y

RR A

Y

7.2.4

365 n ( ADTT ) SL f eff

3

(7.2.4)

(Eq.7.2.4-1)

(7.2.5)

7.2.5

End

Infinite Fatigue Life

AASHTO LRFR 11

[Fig.3.30] Flow Chart of Fatigue Evaluation of Load-induced Fatigue damage (Eq.7.2.4-2)

Where, AASHTO LRFR 11

Y : total fatigue life of a fatigue-prone detail in years (Eq.7.2.5.1-1)

(∆𝑓)𝑚𝑎𝑥 : maximum stress range expected at the fatigue-prone detail

(∆𝑓)𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2.0 (∆𝑓)𝑒𝑓𝑓

(𝐴𝐷𝑇𝑇)𝑆𝐿 : Average member of trucks per day in a single lane averaged over the fatigue life

𝑅𝑅 is resistance factor specified for evaluation, minimum, or mean fatigue life.

A is Detail Category Constant.

n is the number of stress-range cycles per truck passage estimated according to 𝑅𝑅

(in order of increasing apparent accuracy and complexity)

In midas Civil, different (∆F)TH , R R and A values are applied per the Fatigue category

such as A, B, B', C, C', D, E, and E' inputted in the Fatigue parameters dialog [Fig.3.8].

(∆F)TH is taken as 24.0 ksi (165.0 MPa) except the other cases defined in [Table 3.21].

For n, the n value user defined in the Fatigue Parameters dialog box shown in [Fig.3.8] is

used for the calculation.

Detail Threshold

Category US Unit (ksi) LL, IM, CE, SI Unit (MPa)

BR,PL, LS

A 24.0 165.0 Fatigue Threshols

B 16.0 110.0 AASHTO LRFD 12

(Table 6.6.1.2.5-3)

B' 12.0 82.7

C 10.0 69.0

C' 12.0 82.7

D 7.0 48.3

E 4.5 31.0

E' 2.6 17.9

[Table3.22] Resistance factor specified for evaluation, minimum, or mean fatigue life, R R

Detail RR

Category Evaluation Life Minimum Life Mean Life

A 1.7 1.0 2.8 Resistnace Factor

B 1.4 1.0 2.0 AASHTO LRFR 11

(Table 7.2.5.2-1)

B' 1.5 1.0 2.4

C 1.2 1.0 1.3

C' 1.2 1.0 1.3

D 1.3 1.0 1.6

E 1.3 1.0 1.6

E' 1.6 1.0 2.5

Detail Constant, A

Category 8 3

US Unit (x 10 (ksi )) ! 11

SI Unit (x10 (MPa ))

3

LL, IM, CE,

A 250.0 82.0

BR,PL, LS A

AASHTO LRFD 12

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 183

B 120.0 39.3 (Table 6.6.1.2.5-1)

C 44.0 14.4

C' 44.0 14.4

D 22.0 7.21

E 11.0 3.61

E' 3.9 1.28

(1) Calculation of Effective Stress Range

The Effective Stress Range, (∆feff ), is taken differently for the two cases: 1) Calculating

Estimated Stress Range and 2) Measuring Estimated Stress Range. Please refer to [Table Effective Stress Range

3.24] for the different calculations. AASHTO LRFR 11

(Eq.7.2.2-1)

(Eq.7.2.2.2-1)

[Table3.24] Effective Stress Range

Case Effective Stress Range

Calculating Estimated Stress Range (f ) eff Rs f

Measuring Estimated Stress Range

(f ) eff Rs i f i

3 1/ 3

In midas Civil, the Fatigue Limit State is verified with the Calculating Estimated Stress Range

method.

Where

𝑅𝑠 : The stress-range estimate partial load factor. Unless otherwise specified,

𝑅𝑠 = 𝑅𝑠𝑎 𝑅𝑠𝑡

𝑅𝑠𝑎 : analysis partial load factor

𝑅𝑠𝑡 : truck-weight partail load factor Rs

∆𝑓 : Measured effective stress range; or 75% of the calculated stress range due to the passage of the AASHTO LRFR 11

fatigue truck as specified in LRFD Design Article 3.6.1.4, or a fatigue truck determined by a truck (Eq.7.2.2.1.1-1)

survey or weigh-in-motion study.

𝛾𝑖 : Percaentage of cycles at a particular stress range

∆𝑓𝑖 : The particular stress range

For calculating Rs , the R sa and R st values are applied according to [Table 3.25].

Therefore, there is no uncertainty in the verification.

Case R sa R st Rs

For Evaluation or Minimum Fatigue Life

Stress range by simplified analysis, Partial Load Factors

1.0 1.0 1.0

and truck weight per LRFD 3.6.1.4 AASHTO LRFR 11

Stress range by simplified analysis, 1.0 0.95 0.95 (Table 7.2.2.1-1)

and truck weight estimated

through weigh-in-motion study

Stress range by refined analysis,

0.95 1.0 0.95

and truck weight per LRFD 3.6.1.4

Stress range by refined analysis,

and truck weight estimated 0.95 0.95 0.90

through weigh-in-motion study

Stress range by field-measured strains N/A N/A 0.85

For Mean Fatigue Life

All method N/A N/A 1.00

Bridge details are only considered prone to load-induced fatigue damage if they experience a net

tensile stress. Therefore, if the below requirement is satisfied, the Fatigue Limit State needs to be

verified.

Fatigue-Prone Details

AASHTO LRFR 11

2Rs (f ) tension f deadloadcompression (3.8) (7.2.3)

(Eq. 7.2.3-1)

Where

(∆𝑓)𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 : Factored tensile portion of the stress range due to the passage of a fatigue truck

𝑓𝑑𝑒𝑎𝑑−𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 : Unfactored compressive stress at the detail due to dead load.

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 185

Chapter 3. Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating : AASHTO-LRFR 2nd (2011)

Result

1. Result Tables

For the element of the worst case, capacity, demand and basis of demand can be reviewed per

different rating cases.

(1) by Result Table

The results may be reviewed with the Result Table as shown below.

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Service Limit

State Summary…

Where,

Rating Case: Rating Case combination with the minimum RF

Component : Indicates the member type: compression/tension

Minimum Rating Factor: The minimum RF

Location: The Element number and its i/j nodes where the RF is calculated

Relative Location: The relative location from the starting point of the bridge (Refer to Span Information

dialog box)

Allowable Stress: C or allowable stress inputted by the user

Demand: Stress demand

Point : Design point at i/j nodes (e.g., Right Top, Right Bottom, Left Top, Left Bottom)

DC(Before) – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-DC(Before)

DC(Before) – Stress from DC(Before)

DC(After) – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-DC(After)

DC(After) – Stress from DC(After)

DW – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-DW

DW – Stress : Stress from DW

Temperature – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-Temperature

Temperature – Stress : Stress from Temperature

Permanent – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case- Permanent

Permanent – Stress :Stress from Permanent

Secondary – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-Secondary

Secondary – Stress :Stress from Secondary

User Defined – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-User Defined

User Defined – Stress : Stress from User Defined

Pri. LL – Factor : Load Factor for Load Case-Primary live load

Pri. LL – Stress : Stress from Primary live load

Adj. LL – Factor : Load Factor from Load Case-Adjacent live load

Adj. LL – Stress : Stress from Adjacent live load

The results may be reviewed in the form of MS Excel Report as shown in [Fig.3.32].

(1) by Result Table

The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Strength Limit

State Summary…

Where,

Positive/Negative: Positive/Negative moment

LRFD Resistance Factor: Resistance Factor according to the standard selected for the Rating Design

Code

Demand, Mu: moment due to the factored loads

Capacity, phiMn: nominal flexural resistance of a section multiplied by phi of flexure

Demand, fbu: largest value of the compressive stress throughout the unbraced length in the flange under

condition, calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending

Capacity, phiFn: nominal flexure resistance of a flange

DC(Before) – Force : My from DC(Before)

DC(After) – Force: My from DC(After)

DW – Force: My from DW

Temperature – Force: My from Temperature

T.Gradient – Force: My from T.Gradient

Permanent – Force: My from Permanent

Secondary – Force: My from Secondary

User Defined – Force: My from User Defined

Pri. LL – Force: Pri. My from LL

Adj. LL – Force: My from Adj.

The results may be reviewed in MS Excel report form as shown in [Fig.3.34].

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 187

[Fig.3.34] Excel Report for Strength Limit State Summary

The Rating Factor can be reviewed per rating cases.

The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Flexure

Strength Rating Factor…

Where,

Group : Name of Element Group defined by user

Elem. : Number of Element for which the Rating Factor is calculated

Part : i/j nodes and number of the elements used for design

System Factor: s used to calculate RF of the element

Condition Factor: c used to calculate RF of the element

Rating Factor : Rating Factor calculated according to equation (2.1)

Check : Whether the result is OK or NG (OK if RF>1)

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.36]

1.4. Shear Strength Rating Factor

The Rating Factor can be reviewed per rating cases and elements.

The results may be reviewed in the Results Table as shown below.

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Shear Strength

Rating Factor…

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.38].

The Service Limit State verification result can be viewed for the compressive and tensile stress

per elements and rating cases.

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.39].

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Steel Stress

Rating Factor…

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.40].

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 189

[Fig.3.40] Excel Report for Steel Stress Rating Factor

(1) by Result Table

The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Fatigue Rating

Factor…

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.42].

2. Rating Detail Table

The Rating Detail Table presents the rating factor, capacity, basis of demand calculation, and the

amount of steel per load cases, elements and rating cases.

The Flexure Strength Rating Detail may be viewed with the program Result Table or MS Excel

Report document.

(1) by Result Table

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.43].

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Flexure

Strength Rating Detail …

Where,

phiMn: nominal flexural resistance of a section multiplied by phi of flexure

phiFn: nominal flexure resistance of a flange

Areas–Rebar : Rebar Area

Areas–min :Minimum Rebar Area

Reinforcement Requirement–max: Maximum reinforcement requirement

DC(Before) – Force : My from DC(Before)

DC(After) – Force: My from DC(After)

DW – Force: My from DW

Temperature – Force: My from Temperature

T.Gradient – Force: My from T.Gradient

Permanent – Force: My from Permanent

Secondary – Force: My from Secondary

User Defined – Force: My from User Defined

Pri. LL – Force: My from Pri. LL

Adj. LL – Force: My from Adj. LL

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.44].

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 191

2.2 Shear Strength Rating Detail

(1) by Result Table

The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Shear Strength

Rating Detail …

Where,

(delta F)n : Nominal Fatigue Limit State

DC(Before) – Force : Vz due to DC(Before)

DC(After) – Force: Vz due to DC(After)

DW – Force: DW에 대한 Vz

Temperature – Force: Vz due to Temperature

T.Gradient – Force: Vz due to T.Gradient

Permanent – Force: Vz due to Permanent

Secondary – Force: Vz due to Secondary

User Defined – Force: Vz due to User Defined

Pri. LL – Force: Vz due to Pri. LL

Adj. LL – Force: Vz due to Adj. LL

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown in [Fig.3.46].

2.3 Steel Stress Rating Detail

The Steel Stress can be reviewed for all load cases and stress types.

(1) by Result Table

The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Steel Stress

Rating Detail …

Where,

fc : bending stress on web plate

fcrw: bending stress limit on web plate

Rating Factor – Comp.: RF for the allowable compressive stress

Rating Factor – Tens: RF for the allowable tensile stress

Allowable Stress– Comp.: Allowable compressive stress user-defined

Allowable Stress– Tens.: Allowable tensile stress user-defined

DC(Before) -Left Top Stress : Stress at the Left Top due to the DC(Before) Load Cases

DC(Before) -Right Top Stress : Stress at the Right Top due to the DC(Before) Load Cases

DC(Before) -Right Bottom Stress: Stress at the Right Bottom due to the DC(Before)Load Case

DC(Before) -Left Bottom Stress: Stress at the Left Bottom due to the DC(Before) Load Case

※ DW, Temperature, Permanent, Secondary,…Adj. LL can be explained the same way as the above DC-

XXXXXX bolded.

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown below.

The Fatigue Rating may be reviewed for all load cases and stress types.

(1) by Result Table

The results may be reviewed in the Result Table as shown below.

▶ Rating > Bridge Rating Design > Steel Design > Rating Design Result Tables > Fatigue

Rating Detail …

DC(Before) –Stress :Stress due to DC(Before)

DC(After) – Stress : Stress due to DC(After)

DW – Stress :Stress due to DW

Temperature – Stress: Stress due to Temperature

T.Gradient – Stress: Stress due to T.Gradient

Permanent – Stress: Stress due to Permanent

Secondary – Stress: Stress due to Secondary

User Defined – Stress: Stress due to User Defined

Chapter 3.Steel Composite Bridge Load Rating - AASHTO LRFR 2011 193

Pri. LL – Stress: Stress due to Pri. LL

Adj. LL – Stress: Stress due to Adj. LL

The results may be reviewed in the MS Excel Report form as shown below..

2.1 Load Rating Summary Result Table

The below table presents the moment and shear at the Strength Limit State and stress at the

Service Limit State.

The table indicates the worst cases load combination based on the 1) moment at the Strength

Limit State, 2) Stress at the Service Limit State, and 3) Shear at the Strength Limit State.

DESIGN GUIDE

for midas Civil

AASHTO LRFD

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