You are on page 1of 8

International Journal of Trend in Scientific

Research and Development (IJTSRD)


International Open Access Journal
ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volume - 2 | Issue – 2

Human Aspects in Implementation of


Total Productive Maintenance

S R Chandra Shashidhar K Dr. Devendra S Verma


Research Scholar, Department Of Research Supervisor,
Superviso Senior Lecturer,
Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Department off Mechanical Engineering,
Engineering & Management
agement (Part Time), Industrial Engineering & Management
Institute off Engineering & Technology (Part Time),, Institute of
o Engineering &
(Iet Davv), Indore, Madhya Pradesh Technology (Iet Davv), Indore,
Madhya Pradesh

ABSTRACT
The manufacturing industry has gone through Keywords: 5S, Continuous Improvement(Kaizen),
significant changes in the last decade. Competition Manufacturing Excellence, Lead Time Reduction /
has increased dramatically. Customers focus on Throughput time Reduction, Productivity, Total
product quality, product delivery time, safety and cost Productive Maintenance (TPM) ,Human factors,
of product. Because of these, company should Resistance to change.
introduce a system to improve and increase
quality, productivity and safety continuously. The Introduction
aim of this paper is to study the Human Aspects in
Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance. In TPM is an innovative Japanese concept. Total
this
his paper, we have taken the case study to Productive Maintenance (TPM) is most important
demonstrate the Total Productive Maintenance concept for industrial application. The TPM literature
lit
implementation methodology and to highlight the offers a number of definitions for Total Productive
benefits achieved during Total Productive Maintenance viz. TPM is the general movement on
Maintenance in an engineering industry XYZ Pvt. the part of businesses to try to do more With less.
Ltd. (name changed) situated in Indore, Madhya (Lawrence 1999 p. 63). TPM is an integrated life- life
Pradesh. TPM proved that its implementation cycle approach to factory maintenance and Support.
Sup
helped the company significantly to achieve higher (Blanchard 1997 p. 72) TPM is a program that
Productivity, Quality, Cost, Delivery, Safety, “addresses equipment maintenance through a
Morale, customer satisfaction and profits or the Comprehensive productive--maintenance delivery
improvements in key performance indicators system covering the Entire life of the equipment and
(PQCDSM). Based on the analysis for achieving involving all employees from production and
operational excellence 5S, LeadTime Reduction / maintenance personnel el to top management. (Mc-(Mc
Throughput time Reduction, Kaizen and Kone, Schroeder etal. 1999 p. 123) TPM is a way of
preventive maintenance are important.
portant. Whereas working together to improve equipment
Poka-Yoke
Yoke and visual control are necessary effectiveness.(Society of Manufacturing Engineers
activities for implementation of Total Productive 1995 p. vii)TPM is a methodology and philosophy of
Maintenance. strategic equipment .Management focused on the goal
of building product quality by Maximizing equipment

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 2 | Jan-Feb


Feb 2018 Page: 326
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
effectiveness. It embraces the concept of Continuous management of plant Assets.” (Robinson and Ginder
improvement and total participation by all employees 1995 p. 5).
and by all departments. (Society of Manufacturing
Engineers 1995 p. ix)TPM is a production-driven Tpm consists of different methodologies &
improvement methodology that is designed to pillars.Tpm consists of 5s foundation & 8 pillars
optimize equipment reliability and ensure efficient namely.

In this paper we will consider implementing the 5S to


show the human aspects in implementation of TPM. 30). All these benefits result in greater productivity,
better quality, less cost, workplace safety, and high
Implementation Steps morale. 5Ss lays the foundation for the
company’s overall lean production system, and
Deleting non-value added activities through 5S lack of a robust 5S system will make other lean
tools ineffective (Chapman, 2005). Implementing 5Ss
5S practice is a well-recognized key to quality and
alone may not bring the desired results, unless itis
productivity and for improving the work environment,
followed by educating the target work group on
so it becomes the starting point of TPM programmed.
the corporate objective and soliciting its support
An activity whose removal will not affect a process as
and participation. The failure of most 5S
it usually generates a zero or negative return of
programs can beattributed to lack of participation
investment on resources is called non-value added
by management in the follow up process (Lewis,
activity. The 5S system is a lean system used for
2002). It is essential to have commitment from both
organizing and managing manufacturing operations
top management and others in the organization and
so that they require less human effort, space,
to have a 5S champion to lead the
capital, and time to make products with fewer
implementation process (Ho, 1995). The
defects. When 5Ss are properly functioning, they
implementation plan is a five step process: first,
create a visual factory that allows for quick
top management commitment is required; second,
determination of workplace status (Chapman,
a promotional campaign must be run in the
2005). “Implementation of 5Ss leads to benefits
organization; third, records should be maintained;
such as less searching, decreased walking and
fourth, 5S training should be carried out; and
motion, reduced downtime, fewer safety hazards and
finally evaluation must be completed.
accidents, improved flow, fewer mistakes, and
better utilization of space” (Chapman, 2005, p.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 2 | Jan-Feb 2018 Page: 327
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

Methodology everything in its place”. During the straighten step,


look for ways to reduce or eliminate waste. One form
Sort of waste in a process is unnecessary operator motion
or movement. Therefore, frequently used tools and
The first step in 5S is sorting. During sorting the team
supplies should be stored in the immediate work area
should go through all items in the work area including
close to the operator. One effective method commonly
any tools, supplies, bulk storage parts, etc. The 5S
used to avoid wasted time searching for the correct
team leader should review and evaluate every item
tool is constructing shadow boards for all essential
with the group. This will help to identify which items
tools. Items that are not used as often should be stored
are essential for getting the job done effectively and
based on their frequency of use. All parts bins should
efficiently. If the item is essential for everyday
be properly labeled. The label should include part
operations it should be tagged and cataloged. If the
number, part description, storage location and the
item is not essential, determine how often it is used in
recommended min / max quantities. A properly
the performance of work in that area. If it is a bulk
straightened work area allows the operator to quickly
item, decide the proper amount to be kept in the area
review and verify that they have everything they need
and move the remaining quantity to storage. Excess
to successfully perform their task at hand.
inventory is one form of waste and should be
eliminated during the 5S activities. Shine
Straighten The next step is to clean everything in the area and
remove any trash. To be effective we must keep the
Designate a place for all items that remain in the work area and any related equipment clean. Dirty process
area. Put all items in their designated location. An equipment can actually increase the potential for
often referenced quote is “A place for everything and process variability and lead to equipment failure. Lost

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 2 | Jan-Feb 2018 Page: 328
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
time due to equipment failure is considered waste and system is usually developed and implemented. The
non-value-added time. A dirty area can also goal of the sustain step is to ingrain the 5S process
contribute to safety issues that have the potential to into the company culture. The company must strive to
cause a worker to be injured. Operators should clean make 5S a way of life so the benefits gained through
their areas at the end of each shift. By doing this they the exercise can be maintained. 5S is not a one-time
will likely notice anything out of the ordinary such as exercise. Following the 5S Process must become a
oil or lubricant leaks, worn lift cables, burnt out bulbs, habit.
dirty sensors, etc. The purpose is to reduce waste and
improve operator safety and efficiency. Action plan

Standardize Take a picture of the current status of your workplace.


Sort to separate anything that is needed and necessary
The fourth step has been called the most important from what is not needed. Organize the things you
step in the 5S Process. In this step we must develop need so that there is a place for everything and
the standards for the 5S system. They will be the everything has a place. You should be able to find
standards by which the previous 5S steps are anything in just a few seconds. Clean the workplace
measured and maintained. In this step, work and get rid of things that make it difficult to maintain
instructions, checklists, standard work and other cleanliness, such as boxes on the floor that prevent
documentation are developed. Without work you from being able to clean the entire surface —
instructions or standard work, operators tend to label them store them in labeled drawers, instead.
gradually just do things their own way instead of what Prepare an action plan for the items you aren’t able to
was determined by the team. The use of visual deal with that day, but will be able to in the near
management is very valuable in this phase. Color future. This could include selling items you no longer
coding and standard colors for the surroundings are use, donating them, recycling, or throwing them
sometimes used. Photos of the area in the standard 5S away. Take a second picture after the entire day’s
configuration are often posted for easier identification work, for review.
of non-conformance’s. The operators are trained to
detect non-conforming conditions and correct them Prepare Zone Map. Make Zone Plan and
immediately. Schedules should also be developed for Subzones. Identify team for each Zone. Arrange
regular maintenance activities in each area. awareness training for 5s . Kick-off. Implement 5s.
Evaluation of 5s implementation in all zones.
Sustain Documents and display 5s results.
This step in the 5S Process can sometimes become the
most challenging of all the five steps. Sustaining is the
continuation of the Sort, Straighten, Shine and
Standardize steps. It is the most important step in that
it addresses the need to perform 5S on a consistent
and systematic basis. During this step a standard audit

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 2 | Jan-Feb 2018 Page: 329
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Implementation example

Implementation Summary the habit. The results in one area targets


were encouraging and gave a good starting point to
The goal of this work was to get rid of non-value start expanding the operation model to the rest of the
adding operations. Time-wasting and useless enterprises premises. The project itself kept mostly to
movements had been a problem for the company and the schedule so that duties progressed as planned.
the 5S-program was an efficient method to break Major problems appeared only right at the

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 2 | Jan-Feb 2018 Page: 330
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
startingphase of the implementation. It was not so Typically people show strong resistance to
clear where to start, because the model was totally change.Many people treat it just another “Program of
new. When things go started the implementing the month ” without paying any focus and also doubt
continued quite smoothly. about the effectiveness. Not sufficient resources
(people, money, time, etc.) and assistance provided
Problem Statement Insufficient understanding of the methodology and
philosophy by middle management TPM is not a
One of the difficulties in implementing TPM as a
“quick fix ” approach, it involve cultural change to the
methodology is that it takes a considerable number of
ways we do things Departmental barrier existing
years. The time taken depends on the size of the
within Business Unit Many people considered TPM
organization. There is no quick way for implementing
activities as additional work/threat.So by using
TPM. This is contradictory to the traditional
fishbone (Ishikawa) Figure-Fishbone diagram
management improvement strategies. Following are
following reasons were found.
the other difficulties faced in TPM implementation.

Figure-Fishbone diagram

Results & discussion is always a positive one, employees not always see it
that way. For that reason, during the first training
Tpm is a top-down approach and never a down-up sessions we will find resistance, especially from the
approach. Tpm requires an office and not a facilitator. least educated people. In order to overcome these
Tpm is a long term approach not short term. Tpm is attitudes, we must create an environment of trust and
all about people and not machines. Tpm is not good will. It is important to create a flow of
culture bound.tpm will require a budget. Tpm and communication with operators, supervisors, managers
company goals must be aligned. management etc. When they perceive our sincere purpose of
commitment and not support. Tpm is all about people providing them with a better equipment and working
and not machines. Tpm is not culture bound. environment, most of the barriers will be brought
Management sees Tpm as a cost centre. Lack of tpm down. Sometimes we will find that the production
knowledge. TPM faces the natural reaction that we all foremen are not willing to give up their people for the
develop against CHANGE. As a matter of fact, any effort because they have a heavy work load. They still
change or alteration in our lives is always a source of think of the maintenance guys taking care of
concern. TPM represents a change and even though it

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 2 | Jan-Feb 2018 Page: 331
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
everything, the “I break it-you fix it” approach. REFRENCES
Maintenance is not the necessary pain or expense any
longer. We must see it as a key asset to attain our 1. Tpm Implementation In Small Scale Agriculture
21st. Century goals. It is a Productive Activity.One Industry: A Case Study Amit Bajaj,
important step to overcome these challenges is to Postgraduate Student, G.Z.S.C.E.T. Bhatinda-
make sure that people do not see this process just as 151001, Vipan Kumar,Assistant Professor,
"Change" but as "Improvement". Everybody wants to Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Improve. Other valuable concept to keep in mind is to G.T.B.K.I.E.T. Chappianwali, Malout-152107,
make sure that no one sees this as something Punjab, India, International
"they have to do", but rather as an "opportunity to Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
participate in a successful activity. The successful (IJERT), Vol. 2 Issue 5, May – 2013, ISSN: 2278-
promotion of the TPM Process and TPM itself 0181
involves facing broad challenges and numerous
promotion systems with significant responsibilities. 2. Improved organizational behavior through
Together with enterprise communication, between strategictotal productive maintenance
managers and employees, communication must be implementation. Ahuja, I.P.S., Khamba, J.S. &
improved. Still, companies may confront problems Choudhary, R. (2006). PaperNo. IMECE2006-
that may make it difficult to focus, to promote longer- 15783, ASME InternationalMechanical
term-goals, or less easy to see certain cause & effects. Engineering Congress and Exposition(IMECE),
This is particularly the case when employees’ Chicago, IL, November 5-10, 1-8
commitment to such activities is not high. To solve 3. Applying Total Productive Maintenance in
these problems, we analyzed the eight pillars, and Auto Sector: A Case Study with Sona Koyo
dissected their contents. This would serve to simplify Group Gurgaon, Sandeep Kumar
the four activities for the implementation of TPM. (Student),Mech.Engg. Department, U.I.E.T,
M.D.U, Rohtak, PardeepGahlot (Asst.
Professor),Mech.Engg. Department, U.I.E.T,
Conclusion. M.D.U, Rohtak, International Journal of
Tpm goals and the company's goals must be aligned, Enhanced Research in Science Technology &
if they are different then you will have a hard time in Engineering, ISSN: 2319-7463,Vol. 3 Issue 8,
implementing tpm. Tpm cannot be done by one August-2014, pp: (271-275), Impact Factor: 1.252
person or a tpm facilitator, it requires an office,
staffed by full-time people with a manager to whom 4. TPM implementation to invigorate
they will report. Managers must be included in pilot manufacturing performance: an Indian industrial
machines. Tpm called this the manager's model rubric Murugadoss K Panneerselvam,
machine and this is one of requirement. Tpm is costly International Journal of Scientific& Engineering
most specially during the initial stages of the Research, Volume 3, Issue 6, June-2012 1 ISSN
implementation as restoration and correction of 2229-5518 IJSER © 2012 http://www .ijser.org
abnormalities will take place. Tpm is heavy on 5. Total productive maintenance, Handbook of
documentation, make sure that the people doing it Maintenance Management and Engineering,
understands this requirement. Documents should not Ahuja, P. 2009.
be placed on folders but rather on bulletin boards for
everyone to see. Highlight the success, this is the only 6. Relationship of 5S and Manufacturing
leverage that you have to sell them to management. Performance with Mediator of TPM and TQM
Do not present it yourself but rather have the team B. DevarajNaik, LakhanPatidar, Pradeep
present them to top management. Tpm will never Kumar Soni, International Research Journal of
work through management support, what we need is Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN:
management commitment & involvement. Training is 2395 -0056 Volume: 02 Issue: 07 | Oct-2015
very important for tpm start-up activities, all must be www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2015
trained most specially management. Tpm is a top 7. The impact of total productive maintenance
down approach, and can never work on a down-up practices on manufacturing performance.
approach. The decision to implement tpm must come Kathleen E. McKone a;, Roger G.
from the highest person in the industry. Schroeder b, Kristy O. Cuab(2015)

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 2 | Jan-Feb 2018 Page: 332
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
8. Total Productive Maintenance: Need & 14. The Pathway to Operational Excellence in the
Framework, Yash Parikh, PranavMahamuni Pharmaceutical Industry – Overcoming the
(2015), ISSN: 2349-2163, Issue 2, Vol. 2 Internal Inertia.
9. Relationship of 5S and Manufacturing 15. TPM orients enterprises towards production
Performance with Mediator of TPM and TQM, excellence: A Practical Analysis of OEE. Liu
B. DevarajNaik, LakhanPatidar, Pradeep Kumar Yong, Zhu Jiajia.
Soni (2015), e-ISSN:2395 -0056 Vol: 02 Issue:
16. Total productive maintenance: Literature review
07, p-ISSN: 2395-0072
and directions, International Journal of Quality
10. Review Paper On: Total Productive and Reliability Management, Ahuja I.P.S.,
Maintenance, Narinder Singh, Onkar Singh Khamba, J.S., (2008), Vol.10 No.2, pp. 93-106
Bhatia, (2014), ISSN: 2454-132X
17. Total Productive Maintenance: A Case Study in
11. TPM-A PDCA Approach, P.K.Suresh, Dr.M. Manufacturing Industry, M.WorknehWakjira, Ajit
Joseph, Dr.J.Raj. (2014) [12] A review of tangible Pal Singh (2012), Vol.25 No.1, ver. 01
benefits of TPM implementation, Arunraj K.,
18. Factors affecting successful implementation
Maran M (2014), ISSN 2277 – 9442, Vol. 3, Issue
of total productive maintenance:a UK
1
manufacturing case study, Journal of Quality in
12. Review Paper on TPM- A Key Strategy for Maintenance Engineering,
productivity Improvement in Medium Scale Bamber,C.J.,Sharp,J.M. and Hides,M.T. (1999),
Industry, Wasim.S.Hangad, Vol. 2 No.3 , pp 4-20
Dr.SanjayKumar(2013), ISSN 2229-5518 ,
19. Upgrading Operational Capabilities with the
Vol.4, Issue 11
Implementation of TPM Initiatives in an Indian
13. Investigation of Human Aspect in Total Industry: A Case Study, Pardeep Gupta (2015),
Productive Maintenance (TPM). A Methodology ISBN: 978-1-63248-074-3
for Implementing Total Productive
20. An enhanced approach for implementing total
Maintenance in Manufacturing Industries–A
productive maintenance in the manufacturing
Case Study Total Productive Maintenance: A Case
environment, Journal of Quality in
Study in Manufacturing Industry.
Maintenance Engineering, Blanchard, B.S (1997),
Vol. 1 No. 1, 1995, pp. 20-26

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 2 | Jan-Feb 2018 Page: 333