# TRUSSES

2.1 2D Trusses Or Plane Trusses:

Every truss member is identified as a truss element. Each truss element is in direct tension or compression. In a truss element all the loads and reactions are applied only at the pin joints. Hence we may define a truss element as a two nodded element having two degrees of freedom at each node. As shown in fig., for node ‘i’ the d.o.f. no. along the horizontal and vertical directions are 2i-1 & 2i resp. the corresponding displacements at node i are identified as Q2i-1 & Q2i. Compared to the 1D problems, plane truss may make inclination θ° with X-axis or (90θ)° with y axis. We may define local & global co-ordinates for a truss element. The local co-ordinate system has only one co-ordinate x1 which is located along the truss element axis. The global co-ordinate system has 2 co-ordinates x & y of cartesian co-ordinate system. x11
q4 sin θ q3cos θ

q21 θ q3 q4

2 2 y
q1cos θ q2sin θ

q11 θ q1 q2

Deformed Element q1 = q1cos θ + q2 sin θ q21 = q3cos θ + q4sin θ
1

1 x 1

Fig.2.1 Local coordinates & Global coordinates of truss element

q1 & q2 are the displacements of node 1 along x & y. q1 l m 0 0 q11 q2 = 1 q3 q2 0 0 l m q4 .1 it can be noted that q11 = q1 cosθ + q2 sinθ ………………………………………………………………(2.2) Writing q1 q12 1 (2. ∴ The element displacement vector in the global co-ordinate system is denoted by q1 q2 {q} = q3 q4 Now we should relate {q1} & {q} From fig. Hence.1) q21 = q3 cosθ + q4 sinθ ………………………………………………………………(2.2) cosθ = 0 sinθ sinθ 0 in matrix form 0 cosθ 0 q1 q2 q3 q4 We can write l = cosθ & m = sinθ where ‘l’ & ‘m’ are the direction cosines. the element displacement vector in the local co-ordinate system is denoted by {q1} = q11 q12 In terms of global co-ordinate system.Let q11& q12 be the displacement of nodes 1 & 2. respectively in the local co-ordinate system.1) & (2. q3 & q4 are displacement of node 2 along x & y. 2.

3) where [L] is called ‘transformation matrix’. In terms of local co-ordinates it can be given as Ue = 1/2 {q1 }T[ke1] {q1} ………………………………………………………………(2. in (5) we get . along x1). Ue = ½ {q}T[l]T[ke1][l]{q} =1/2 { q }T [ ke1 ] { q } where [ ke ] = [ L ] coordinates. ∴ Element stiffness matrix in the local co-ordinate system is [ke1] = AE/le 1 -1 -1 1 …………………………………………………………(2.e. we would like to express the element stiffness matrix in terms of global co-ordinates.2 Element Stiffness Matrix: It may be noted that the truss element is a 1D structural element when viewed in the local coordinate system (i. l = cosθ = (x2-x1)/le & m=sinθ = y2-y1)/le where le = length of truss element = sqrt ((x2-x1) 2+(y2-y1)2) 2. Consider the strain energy of the element.(2. T [ ke1 ] [ L ] is the element stiffness matrix in terms of the global .5) But {q1} = [l] {q} ∴ {q1}T = {q}T[l]T Substituting.4) Since we know only global co-ordinates.OR {q1} = [L] {q} ………………………………………………………………………..

3 Strain in element : Change in length ε = Original length q11 q12 = le q12 – q11 = [-1 = [-1 1]/ le 1]/ le [ L ] { q } 2.[ke] = l 0 m 0 0 l 0 m AE/le 1 -1 -1 1 l 0 -lm -m2 lm m2 m 0 0 l 0 m l2 ∴ [ke] = AE/le lm -l2 -lm lm m2 -lm -m2 -l2 -lm l2 lm 2.4 Stress in element : σ = Ee E = E/le[-1 = E/le {-l 1] [ L ] { q } -m l m} { q } .