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Mechanical Properties

Large Strain Behavior
Polymeric Behavior
• Gels
• Elastomers
Polymer single-crystal fibre
• Glasses
• Semicrystalline
• Fibers
Stress

Young’s Modulus
Glassy polymer Types of Polymer
Semi-crystalline polymer (N/m2)
Gel ~103
Elastomer Elastomer ~ 106
Strain Glassy polymer ~ 109
Schematic stress-strain curves of different types of polymers, drawn approximately Polymer crystal (⊥, // to c) ~ 109, 1011
to scale.

Figure by MIT OCW.
SWCNT (|| to c) ~ 1012

• Large anisotropy of bonding: covalent vs. secondary
• Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous microstructures
• Microstructure: amount, size, shape, orientation and connectivity-topology
• Large (huge) changes in microstructure with deformation

Localized Deformation in Polymers

• 1. Crazing (dilational deformation)
• 2. Shear banding (constant volume deformation)

Crazes (for glassy polymers, micronecks for semiXLine polymers)
Orient perpendicular to principal tensile stress

Shear Bands
Orient along directions of principal shear stress

Shear Yielding
ΔV ≅ 0 σf

+
neck formation
work hardening
εymetals ~ 0.1% σengr σy
εf
εypolymer ~ 5-10% Energy to Fracture = ∫ σ dε
cold drawing 0

εy εf
Necking: reduction in sample x-sectional area
Ao l f
λdraw = =
A f lo
Ao Af True stress ≥ Engr stress. Therefore necked region
must be stronger (by a factor of λ) than un-necked
region of sample.

Strain Hardening in Polymers
dσ entropic subchains, crystal orientation and crystallization

. NY: Chapman and Hall.Polymers . 1991.Hydrostatic Pressure Effects • Tresca and Von Mises treat tension ≅ compression but unlike metals.27 in Lovell. and Young. 5. Please see Fig. pressure hydrostatic pressure σy(P) = σoy –μP (-) compression (+) tension material constant . yield in polymers is quite sensitive to hydrostatic pressure: P = (1/3)(σ11 + σ22 + σ33) Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Peter A. New York. Introduction to Polymers. Robert Joseph.

σy ↑ with ↓ T ε • Response of sub-chains T to rate of loading . NY: Chapman and σy ↑ with ↑ ε Hall. and PMMA Young.29 in Lovell. Please see Fig. Peter A. Viscoelastic/Relaxation: Interplay of Temperature and Strain Rate Image removed due to copyright restrictions. 1991. Robert Joseph. Introduction to Polymers. 5.. New York.

Environmental Crazing Agents • lower surface • plasticize . Craze Yielding ΔV > 0 dilation/cavitation – void formation under tension • nucleation @ flaws – usually at surface • crazing only occurs for (+) hydrostatic tensile stress state • craze plane forms ⊥ to max principal tensile stress SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW Taylor meniscus instability (Argon/Kramer) growth crack nanovoids ~ 20-50Å diameter fibrils (oriented) about 50% void volume fraction scatter light due to large Dn Fibrils in cross section craze growth direction Figure by MIT OCW.

Craze Microstructure • Elongated fibril/void network. • Voids grow and fibrils elongate as polymer chains orient. fibril spacing ~ 20nm. • Draw ratio of fibrils is 1/(void volume fraction) ~ 2 • Voids form at advancing craze tip due to dilational stresses • Craze tip growth is by Taylor meniscus instability (see schematic) of fingering and fibril pinch-off. become drawn into the craze and work harden. • Craze thickens by drawing in new material as well as by further elongation of the fibril (decrease in diameter) • Heating above Tg leads to healing and recovery (entanglement network of subchains). • Typical void content approximately 50%. . • Fibril diameter ~ 5nm.

le Me / Mo λ ≈ ≈ ≈ Me de Me . Craze Microstructure cont’d • Crazes with high void content and a large fibril draw ratio are prone to easy breakdown (crack propagation and brittle fracture). • The draw ratio (λ) of a fibril depends on the contour length (le) between entanglements and the distance between entanglements (de).

• Crazing occurs if the yield stress is lower. . for example if the molecular weight is low (few entanglements) or the temperature is high (constraint release). Shear Banding vs. Crazing • Shear banding occurs if the number of entanglements per chain is large so that the crazing stress is higher than the yield stress.

. http://www. heat dissipation. • Methods of Fabrication • Establishing relations between Geometry and Performance • Mechanical Behavior of Micro-Nano-Structured Materials Evans A.Courtesy Elsevier. Advantages in ultra-light structures. Properties of cellular materials are sensitive to the microstructure of the cells. 309-32 (2001). Progress in Materials Science 46. Cellular Materials Used with permission. . G.sciencedirect. vibration control. and energy absorption Cellular metals have the highest energy absorption per unit mass of any material. et al.com. Inc.

sciencedirect. Random vs Periodic Cellular Materials Used with permission.com. Inc. Unlike random materials. periodic cellular solids can be precisely described and their properties accurately calculated. 309-32 (2001). Fabrication and Testing on the same structure. et al. G. . “The topological design of multifunctional cellular materials” Progress in Materials Science 46. Periodic cellular solids can be constructed with topologies exhibiting properties greatly superior to those demonstrated by their stochastic analogues at the same volume fraction. Structures based on a repeating unit cell. http://www. Evans A..Courtesy Elsevier. Periodic Cellular Solids: Modeling. Random Cellular Materials: Periodic Cellular Materials: Open and closed cell alloy foams.

Millitrusses Lightweight structures comprised of stiff load bearing connections made using as little material as possible. Stretch dominated structures .fully triangulated 2D 3D Bending Stretch Stretch Dominated Dominated Dominated . Bending dominated structures 2. 1.

Bicontinuous Please see Cover. 2006) Polymer/Air Structures • Stiff. Microframes: 2D & 3D Periodic Materials by Rational Design Ultra-light. Strong Variable Xlink Density Materials: • Lightweight Gradients in Structure. designer structures by IL with length scale dependent mechanical behavior Specified Symmetry and Porosity Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Advanced Materials 18 (August. Xlinks Negative Tone Resists • New Deformation Mechanisms Ceramic Infill Positive Tone Resists • Towards Champion Toughness NP Additives .

Phys. Lett. A 20.. quasi crystals • Advantages: .Control over cell geometry and volume fraction 1. K. Multibeam Multibeam Interference Interference Lithography Lithography • Idea: Interference of light Î periodic intensity distribution in a photoresist • Length scale: 500-2000 nm • Accessible architectures: 1D. Appl. . C. 948 (2003). Ullal et al. Ullal et al. Appl. Phys. J. 2. C. 5434 (2004).Defect free . 2D.. Am. 3D. K. Opt. 84. Lett. Soc.Fast and efficient .

V. and Farris. “The Elastic Properties and Plastic Behavior of 2D Polymer Structures Fabricated by Laser Interference Lithography. 2 in Feng. J. Ullal.Formulation SU8 +Rubrene (Photoinitiator) • High aspect-ratio +OPPI (PAGs) • Mechanical stability +Base • Thermal stability Supercritical CO2 drying Tensile strain of Macroscopic SU8 Samples Image removed due to copyright restrictions. of SU8 Please see Fig.. 16 (10).” Journal • Fully crossliked: 230 oC of Micromechanics and Microengineering 13 uncrosslinked (2003): 80-88. Jang.K. E.. Micromech.. Thomas. J. M.. C. .C.V. LeMieux. Ru..” Advanced Functional Materials. 1324-1330 (2006). “Influence of Processing Conditions • Uncrosslinked: 50 oC on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Bulk SU8 Negative PhotoresistCoatings.L. fully crosslinked Glass Transition Temp.. T. Microeng. 13 (2003) 80 Choi. Tsukruk.H. Richard J.

2D Microframe: Air Cylinders on Triangular Lattice 2D Interference Lithography Image removed due to copyright restrictions.” Physical Review Letters 94 (March 25. “Hypersonic Photonic Crystals. Please see Fig. • Lattice parameter a=1360 nm • Porosity – 39% • “Single crystal” of SU8 . T.. et al. 1b and c in Gorishnyy. 2005): 115501.

Please see Fig. et al. Fabrication of “3 Term Diamond” by 3D Interference Lithography Images removed due to copyright restrictions.H.. 1e in Jang. Negative Resist (SU8) J-H. J. “3D Polymer Microframes that Exploit Length-Scale Dependent Mechanical Behavior.” Advanced Materials 18 (2006): 2123-2127. Jang .

Templating and Inverting Networks Polymer/Air Air/TiO2 R3m Images of bicontinuous networks removed due to copyright restrictions. Polymer/Air Air/TiO2 Pm3m .

. “Mechanically Tunable Three-Dimensional Elastomeric Network/Air Structures via Interference Lithography. Ji-Hyun. 1 and 2 in Jang. Please see Fig. et al.3D Bicontinuous Elastomer/Air Network 3D diamond-like frame fabricated via infil of DMS Monomer into positive resist Demonstrated length scale reversible/tunable phononics: 3D Elastomeric MechanoPhononic Crystals Image removed due to copyright restrictions.” Nano Letters 6 (2006): 740-743.

12 connected Inspired by: J. T. Hutchinson. Wadley . H. M. “Millitrusses” Unit cell Image of extended truss structure removed due to copyright restrictions. Evans. Ashby.

3 in Maldovan.Designs: 12-Connected Stretch Dominated Structures Octo-Truss Structure Inverse FR-D IL Structure (Red Curves) (Blue Curves) Images removed due to copyright restrictions." Advanced Materials 19 (2007): 3809-3813. Please see: Fig. et al. Martin. . "Sub-Micrometer Scale Periodic Porous Cellular Surfaces: Microframes Produced by Holographic Interference Lithography.

Martin." Advanced Materials 19 (2007): 3809-3813. Single P (Dots) . et al.79) Tubular P (solid line) . "Sub-Micrometer Scale Periodic Porous Cellular Surfaces: Microframes Produced by Holographic Interference Lithography.21 to 0. Tubular P Please see: Fig. Single P (0.Experimental Realization and FEM (linear) of P Microframe 6-connected Single P Images removed due to copyright restrictions. 4 in Maldovan.

2 for struts ~ 2. 1c. Please see Fig.” Advanced Materials 18 (2006): 2123-2127.H..3 gm/cm3 .3 for posts • Density ~ 0. d. and e in Jang. • L/D ~ 3. J.Large Large Strain Strain Deformation Deformation Images removed due to copyright restrictions. et al.3D 3D Microframe Microframe with with 200 200 nm nm feature feature size size -. “3D Polymer Microframes that Exploit Length- Scale Dependent Mechanical Behavior.

and c in Jang.” Advanced Materials 18 (2006): 2123-2127. 2b.H. “3D Polymer Microframes that Exploit Length- Scale Dependent Mechanical Behavior. J.Large Large Strain Strain Deformation Deformation Modes Modes of of Microframe Microframe Images removed due to copyright restrictions. . 3b. Peel Test Please see Fig. c. et al..

“3D Polymer Microframes that Exploit Length-Scale Dependent Mechanical Behavior.H. “Influence of Processing 130 μm SU-8 film: Conditions on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of SU8 Negative Photoresist Coatings. . Please see Fig. Mechanical Properties of SU8 1.” Advanced Materials 18 (2006): 2123-2127. 2 in Feng. used in MEMS applications. Please see Fig. J. Ru.” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 13 (2003): 80-88..(95 oC) Bulk 6% 2. (200 oC) Tensile test results of Richard J. Abnormal mechanical behavior observed in SU-8 Microframe NanoFrame 300% Images removed due to copyright restrictions. and Ferris. Image removed due to copyright restriction. et al. SU-8: negative photoresist. 3b in Jang.

1 min. Soft bake: 65 oC. SU-8 2002: 2 μm. Exposure: λ=365 nm.65 μm 1 μm Diameter: 25 μm 1.5 μm) 2. 3.5 μm 24 μm 1. (A mask is an array of windows having a length of 1 mm and variable line widths of 25 μm. 2 μm. and SU-8 200.Fabrication of SU-8 “fibers” using photolithography 1. 95 oC 3 min.7 μm . Spin-coat SU-8 on Si substrates. 95 oC. 1 min. Hard bake: 180 oC 5 min. total dose: 270 mJ/cm2. 1 min. 6.5: 0.8 μm 0. Post-exposure bake: 65 oC. 20 μm 1. Cross-sectional SEM images of the fibers: Images of SU8 fibers removed 27 μm due to copyright restrictions.6 μm 0. and 1 μm.) 4. Develop. (SU-8 2025: 25 μm. 5.

23 μm SU-8 thin film 250 25 μm SU-8 fiber 1. 10 mm •Exposure: λ: 365 nm.8 0.7 0. Get Simple: Tensile Behavior of SU8 “Fibers” •Spin coat SU-8 on silicon substrates 2 μm •Soft bake: 65 oC.1 0. •Hard bake: 180 oC 5 min. 150 100 50 Cardboard template & fiber 0 0.7 μm SU-8 fiber Engineering Stress (MPa) Image of experimental apparatus removed 200 due to copyright restrictions. 1 min. total dose: 270 mJ/cm2. 1 min.2 0.6 0.3 0. 1 min.4 0.5 0. •Post-exposure bake: 65 oC. •Develop: SU-8 developer (from Microchem Corporation).0 0.9 Strain (mm/mm) .8 μm SU-8 fiber 0. 95 oC 3 min. 95 oC.

5 min ) Stress-strain curves removed due to copyright restrictions.Tensile Test Results of SU-8 fibers Without hard-baking With hard-baking (180 oC. .

7 85. SU-8 film .5 72.8 μm 0.4 ± 3. Summary of SU8 Tensile Test Results Toughness 25 μm 1.7 μm Material Kevlar Polycarbonate SU-8 fiber SU-8 fiber SU-8 fiber Toughness (MPa) 120 ± 3.3 Modulus Plot of Young’s modulus against fiber diameter removed due to copyright restrictions.5 ± 2.2 60 44 ± 0.

Lessons Learned • Red indicates material deforming • Blue indicates material not deforming • Small scale of epoxy makes it deformable • Micro-frame geometry creates multiple deformation domains which spread the deformation through the structure .” Advanced Materials 18 (2006): 2123-2127. “3D Polymer Microframes that Exploit Length-Scale Dependent Mechanical Behavior. and stress-strain curve removed due to copyright restrictions. 3b in Jang.Micromechanics of Tensile Deformation Microscopic response under tension Actual Sample Image removed due to copyright Images of simulated deformation Model restrictions..H. J. et al. Please see Fig.