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FROM 3D SOLID MODELS

LE NGUYEN TUONG VU

(Bachelor of Science)

A THESIS SUBMITTED

**FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE
**

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

2012

DECLARATION

**I hereby declare that this thesis is my original work and it has been written by me in its
**

entirety. I have duly acknowledged all the sources of information which have been used in

the thesis.

This thesis has also not been submitted for any degree in any university previously.

Le Nguyen Tuong Vu

Acknowledgements

**I would like to express my deep-felt gratidude to my advisor, Dr. Low Kok-Lim of the School
**

of Computing, National University of Singapore, for his advice, encouragement, patience

and support. During the course of this research, despite the fact that I was lost so many

times, he has never stopped believing but constantly provided me with clear explanations

and guidance to keep me on track.

I also wish to thank Prof. Tan Tiow-Seng, Dr. Yin Kang-Kang, Dr. Cheng Ho-Lun

and my colleagues in G3 Lab. Their invaluable comments and suggestions have helped me

explore many interesting aspects of this research problem and spot many weaknesses in my

approach.

iii

Table of Contents

Page

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

3 Overview and Formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3.1 Feasible Scaffold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.2 Scaffold Realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

4 Sliceform Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

4.1 Generalized Cylinder Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4.1.1 Approximation Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4.1.2 Approximation by Topology Simplification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.2 Finding Feasible Scaffold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

4.2.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

4.2.2 Algorithm Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.2.3 Constructing Using a Dominant Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.2.4 Constructing Using Both Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.2.5 Generating Scaffold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

5 Paper Realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

6 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

7 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

8 Conclusion and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

iv

Summary

**Paper sliceform (or lattice-style pop-up) is an art form that uses two groups of parallel paper
**

patches slotted together to make intriguing foldable structures. Although paper sliceform

can be considered as a variant of both recently studied v-style and origamic architecture

pop-ups, automatic designing and manufacturing of paper sliceforms still remain challenges

to the existing computational models. We propose novel geometric formulations of valid

sliceform designs that are guaranteed to be stable, flat-foldable and physically realizable.

Based on a set of sufficient construction conditions, we also present an automatic algorithm

for generating valid sliceform designs that closely depict given 3D solid models.

By approximating the input models using a set of generalized cylinders, our method

drastically reduces the search space for stable and flat-foldable sliceforms and has poly-

nomial time complexity. To ensure physical realizability of the designs, the algorithm

automatically generates slots on the patches so that no two rings embedded on two dif-

ferent patches can be knotted together. We demonstrated our method on a number of

example models. The experimental results suggest that the approach is robust and able

to deal with different types of input models. We also attest the algorithm by successfully

making the output designs into real paper sliceforms.

v

. . 19 4. . . . (a) Without bending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Generalized Cylinder Approximation. . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White patches: supporting patches. and paper realization. . . . . . . . . . (c) The patches at the final state. . 3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (c) Rendering of the paper sliceform of 2D layout in (b). . . . . . . . . . 20 vi .1 Cases when different number of patches are required to support existing patches. .2 Screen shots of Autodesk 123D Make when creating a sliceform for the cow model. . . . . . feasible scaffold construction. . . . . . . . which are physically impossible to be as- sembled. . . . the two patches collide (marked as red circles). . . . (b) The printable 2D layout. . . (d) The real paper sliceform assembled form the 2D layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 A Reeb graph from a torus model. . .4 (a) The input model. . . . .List of Figures 1.1 Some sliceform pop-up examples. . . . 13 4. . . . . . . 16 4. . . . . . . . . Right: two interlocking rings generated. . . . . . The model slice sets are extracted. . . . . . .2 The main building blocks of our algorithm: generalized cylinder approxima- tion. . . . . . . . . . . simplified and eventually grouped into generalized cylinders. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Left: a hollow sphere sliceform computed by Autodesk 123D Make. . . (b) A patched is being bent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Reeb graph edge-merging operations. . . . 4 3. . . . . . . .1 A patch is bent and warped to go through a slot. . . . . . . . . . 12 3. . 3 1. . . We experimented with different slicing parameters but did not man- age to get a correct sliceform model. . . Orange patches: existing patches. . . . . . . . . 17 4. .

. . . . . . .7 Input models and sliceforms (from left to right. . . . . 31 5. . .4. . . . . . . Cow.2 Left: Although the two ring-shaped patches do not collide at their hinges. . . . . . Left: original slice sets. . . . Mother and Child Statue. . . . . . . . . . . . Middle: α-supports are used to stabilize DU . . . . . . . . . . 41 7. . .3 Left: two patches and their Reeb graphs. . .6 Cases when patches are sparsely distributed in a cylinder. Top-right: 75-degree opened. . . . 38 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottom-left: 45-degree opened. . . Top-left: fully opened. . . . . . . . . they cannot be physically assembled. . Middle: slot combinations are checked and rejected from combination table. . . 32 7. . . . . . . . 41 7. . . .6 Left: cylinders in CU are ensured to have at least one descriptor. Kitten. Right: a valid combination in the table is chosen as the realization of the two patches. . . . . . . . . 39 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7. . . . . . . . 40 7. . Mechanical Part. . Bottom-left: cut-through. . . . . . . . . . Right: The slice sets after edge-merging. . .5 Cases when slots are close to patches’ boundaries. . . Bunny. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hollow Cube. 30 5. . .3 Illustration of one side of a v-fold that is used as a base that is attached to a patch in order to turn a sliceform to a sliceform pop-up. . . . . . . . Bottom-right: none. . 43 vii . . . . Top-right: down. . . . . . . 25 5. . . . . . .1 Four types of slots (illustrated as the slot on the orange patch). Hollow Sphere and Torus.1 Real paper sliceforms made from our algorithm. . . Right: The two ring-shaped patches can be physically assembled. Right: DV is stabilized by modifying some of DU descriptors. 21 4. . . . .4 A paper sliceform pop-up made using v-fold base technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottom- right: fully closed.5 The horns of the cow model is preserved after Reeb graph simplification. .2 Comparison of sliceform generated from our algorithm (right) and that from Autodesk 123D (left). . . Top-left: up. . top to bottom): Capitol Building. . . . .

paper sculptures. and the intersections act as hinges that allow the paper sliceform to be opened (popped up) or folded flat.12]. commonly known as paper sliceform. pop-ups. which has been extensively studied for almost twenty years [6]. We find that for a typical model. was originally invented by mathematicians at the end of the nineteenth century. the research community is now being drawn to exploring new exciting paper engineering techniques such as strip-based paper toys [22]. making a valid slice- 1 . Although paper craft is often thought of as origami.Chapter 1 Introduction For many years paper craft has long been a source of great fascination to people of all ages and cultures. etc. 16]. it actually spans a wide spectrum of styles and techniques. Software tools such as Autodesk 123D Make and SliceModeler plugin for Google Sketchup have been available for people to generate paper sliceform designs from solid models [1. Some typical paper sliceform pop-ups are shown in Figure 1. It has been popularized and become one of the most frequently used techniques in paper pop-ups. including origami. very intricate sliceforms can be made. With patches having appropriate shapes and slots. Besides computational origami. These systems typically provide users with an interactive interface where they can choose how to slice the model and get visual feedback of whether the chosen slicing parameters are appropriate for making the sliceform. origamic architectures and v- style pop-ups [15. Straight slots (or slits) are cut out from these patches along their intersections such that the patches can be slotted together. These patches are taken from the cross-sections of a solid model by slicing it many times in two directions.1. A paper sliceform is a 3D structure consisting of multiple planar patches of paper. Lattice-style paper pop-up.

The designs are guaranteed physically possible to be assem- bled. Each patch is indicated by its outlines. a sliceform design is output by our system as a set of 2D patches drawn on one or more pages.3. form design by simply setting the slicing parameters is extremely difficult. Each patch 2 . This difficulty in design is even more severe for models that have more complex topology and geometric details. we develop a fully automatic algorithm that generates paper sliceform designs from 3D solid models. such as the interlocking rings example shown in Figure 1. In this work.1: Some sliceform pop-up examples. We demonstrate an example use of Autodesk 123D Make in Figure 1. Figure 1. and straight line segments are drawn to indicate slots. Given an input 3D solid model (represented as polygon meshes).2. Another major limitation of the current systems is that they do not automatically guarantee that the final design is stable and it can be physically assembled without the need to break some patches. The interactive selection of slicing positions also does not help because the change of one can easily affect the validity of the other patches.

8 ⇥ 8 slices 10 ⇥ 10 slices 12 ⇥ 12 slices Figure 1. Right: two interlocking rings generated. We experimented with different slicing parameters but did not manage to get a correct sliceform model. 3 . which are physically impossible to be assembled.3: Left: a hollow sphere sliceform computed by Autodesk 123D Make.2: Screen shots of Autodesk 123D Make when creating a sliceform for the cow model. Figure 1.

(a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 1.4.4: (a) The input model. An example result from our system is shown in Figure 1. it shares some similarities in geometric and folding properties with the two styles. (d) The real paper sliceform assembled form the 2D layout. (c) Rendering of the paper sliceform of 2D layout in (b).is labelled with a unique number. (b) The printable 2D layout. sliceform design poses a greater challenge in ensuring the physical realizability of the sliceform. However. The user can print the design on real paper. and assemble the sliceform according to the labels. 4 . cut the patches and slots out. and each slot line is labelled with the ID of the patch that should go into the slot. since real paper patches cannot intersect each other and there is the possibility of interlocking rings that prevent assembility. We would like to point out that since sliceform can be considered a variant of both v-style and origamic architecture pop-ups.

• We present a new 3D shape abstraction/simplification method using Reeb graph edge-merging and generalized cylinder approximation. 5 . we have made the following contributions: • We present geometric formulations for feasibility and physical realization of sliceform designs. In order to achieve this. • We develop an efficient alogrithm to construct stable and flat-foldable sliceforms that approximate 3D solid models. • We describe a set of sufficient conditions that can be used to construct stable sliceform designs. Contributions The objective of our work is to automate the design of realizable slice- forms. • We demonstrate a computational method to produce physically assemble-able slice- form designs. which guarantee the stability. foldability as well as the assembility of the resulted paper sliceforms.

Although sharing the same foldability problem with v-style and origamic architecture pop-ups.Chapter 2 Related Work Paper Pop-up Craft Recent studies in computational paper pop-ups have been much inspired by books and phenomenal artworks in the paper pop-up community [2. Except the work in [20]. 15. sliceforms require more rigorous treatment in order to realize and manufacture sliceform designs. paper pop-up has its own branch of theory due to signif- icant variation in the folding and construction mechanism. [24] is among the few devoted to the special type of sliceform pop- ups. The boundaries between different types of pop-ups. 8. A general class of v-style pop-ups is formulated in the significant piece of work by Li and colleagues [15]. Computational Paper Pop-ups Although sharing the central problem of foldability with computational origami [6]. Early works in computational paper pop-ups mostly focus on explaining the geometrical properties and simulation of v- style folding mechanisms [7. These works have not only been able to draw attention from the research community but also set the standard for common computable pop-up mechanisms such as origamic architecture and v-style. 14]. Many pop-ups are simply categorized into those consisting of single patch and multiple patches of paper [13]. origamic architecture pop-ups are also studied in [16. 8. 21]. the mathematical formulations allow interactive pop-up design applications to be built. though. In [7. in which users are offered a set of primitive struc- tures to build virtual v-style or origamic architecture pop-ups. 21]. there has been very little research devoting to the study of sliceform paper pop-ups. are not always clear. Feedback about foldability and simulation of folding/closing of the pop-up designs are often provided in real-time. 23]. Recently. Automatic design of v-style and origamic architecture 6 .

However. sliceform pop-ups are significantly difficult to design automatically. none of them is able to guarantee the design is stable and the final print-outs can be physically assembled. sky. 16]. Although very intuitive and easy to use. An interesting pop-up card design system is demon- strated by [10]. Simplification can also be done by segmenting and approximating parts of the model by simple primitives [17]. Although not directly related to our problem. An- other approach that is excitingly related to our problem is simplification using billboard cloud [5]. that turn into layers of a pop-up card as often found in children pop-up books. Commer- cial software is also made available in aiding the design of sliceforms [1. etc. Many existing works aim to simplify the model by approximating its surface with simpler representations [3. in which a photo is segmented into ground. Model Simplification and Abstraction By transforming an input 3D model to a struc- ture consisting of a few patches. that helps explain how human visual perception abstracts a 3D model to a set of planar cross-sections [18].pop-ups have been studied in [15. 12]. to the best of our knowledge. due to the property that they only contain interlocking cross-sections of the models. the billboard cloud in [5] has no structure and cannot be guaran- teed to provide valid sliceform designs. an interesting work has recently been reported by McCrea et al. not on their surfaces like papercraft toys in [22]. Unfortunately. this kind of approach can not be directly adapted to our problem as sliceforms generally deal with patches inside the models. Similar ap- proach that can abstract human-made models has been reported by [19]. which is closely related to our approach since we also approximate the model using generalized cylinders. 7 . automatic sliceform pop-up design can be considered a special way of model simplification and abstraction. As shown in later discussion. However. works in automatic design of sliceforms have not been reported. 25].

Find an arrangement of patches and their intersections such that the resulting slice- form pop-up is a good approximation of the input solid model and it can be completely folded flat by moving any two non-coplanar patches. Determine how slots (or slits) along the intersections of the patches should be cut on the patches so that they can be physically assembled to the target arrangement. 8 . we call it a sliceform scaffold. However. A scaffold is a set of planar polygonal patches in 3D. which is described in Section 4. we formulate a sliceform pop-up as a scaffold. We call the two steps above sliceform arrangement and paper realization accordingly. we describe the geometric conditions that define the validity of a sliceform pop-up design. 2.Chapter 3 Overview and Formulations Our approach computes a sliceform pop-up by performing the following two steps: 1. Note that unlike v-style pop-up scaffold [15]. If all the patches of a scaffold are parallel to only two directions. These patches may have holes and intersect each other. the shapes of the patches are also determined in the first step. backdrop and fold angle. the scaffold in our work does not need explicit definitions of ground. In practice. Definition 1. in this section. Inspired by [15]. Each line segment in the intersection of two patches is a hinge.

S 0 is said to be foldable from S. The respective folding motion is called flat-folding or flattening and S is said to be flat-foldable. with arbitrarily small. A scaffold S is said to be feasible if • There exists a scaffold S 0 foldable from S.3. • f maintains the rigidity of patches of S. We call such a patch arrangement a feasible scaffold. If such a folding motion exists. A scaffold S is said to be stable if • There exists at least two patches of S intersecting one another. 1] → S such that • f (0) = S and f (1) = S 0 . for any t ∈ [0. let the scaffold domain be S. Definition 3. 1]. for any t ∈ [0. 1]. A folding motion from a scaffold S to another scaffold S 0 is a continuous mapping f : [0. we define Definition 2. the intermediate scaffold f (t) during the deformation of S to S 0 is stable. p2 ∈ S. Formally. 1]. Assuming paper is rigid and has zero thickness. such that the acute angle θ between any two intersecting patches of S 0 satisfies 0 < θ < . • For any t ∈ [0. Definition 4.1 Feasible Scaffold Recall that a proper patch arrangement must satisfy two important properties—it can be folded flat and the flattening does not require any extra forces besides moving any two of its non-coplanar patches. 9 . there is no other scaffold S 0 6= S foldable from S while keeping p1 . • f maintains the positions of the hinges of S on the patches. p2 stationary. • For any two non-coplanar patches p1 . A feasible scaffold is one that is both stable and foldable to a “flat” scaffold.

t2 ). It is easy to see that fL uniquely corresponds to a deformation f of S. φ) = t1~e1 + t2 · rL (φ. This implies that S has 0 degree of freedom if p1 and p2 are fixed. Clearly. this transformation deforms S to a scaffold S 0 . where rL (φ. Let O be the intersection between L. the distance in L is constrained. θ. Now we show that any scaffold S 0 foldable from S is stable. S is flat-foldable. ~e2 ) can be represented by A = t1~e1 + t2~e2 = (t1 . the angle between p1 and p2 can be arbitrarily small. t2 . We choose ~e1 . We consider the deformation of S when p1 is kept stationary while p2 rotates about their intersection. Technically. ~e2 ) is the rotation transformation of vector ~e2 by an angle φ. Note that by asking p1 and p2 to be stationary. and between any two points corresponding to two hinges on a patch p. we show that a stable sliceform scaffold S is flat-foldable. if we fix the position of p1 and p2 . S has 10 . which in turn does not violate the rigidity and hinge positions on the patches of S. p2 be two intersecting patches of S. ~e1 . any hinge of S is projected to a point. However. ~e2 as two unit vectors on L that are parallel to p1 and p2 respectively. this affinity preserves the distance between any two points that have the same t1 or t2 coordinate. we are interested in the class of sliceform scaffolds. First. in which the angle between p1 and p2 is θ0 = θ −φ and the patches are kept parallel to either p1 and p2 . Proof. but smaller than. We consider a cross-section of S on a plane L perpendicular to the intersection between p1 and p2 . and the parallelism between any two line segments in L. and the angle between them be θ. including 6 degrees of freedom by fixing p1 and 1 degree of freedom by preventing p2 from rotating about their hinge. ~e2 ) be an affine transform on L. Since S is stable. Therefore. in this work. Let fL (t1 . On this plane. Let p1 . If a sliceform scaffold is stable. our feasible scaffold formulation allows a wide set of patch arrangements. When φ is close to. Therefore. p1 and p2 . it is feasible. other patches must remain stationary. we effectively remove 7 degrees of freedom from S. for which we are able to prove that Proposition 1. Moreover. The coordinate of a point A ∈ L with respect to the coordinate system (O.

As S 0 is technically a state of S. originally placed very far away from each other.2 Scaffold Realization Patches of a scaffold have to be cut out and put together to assemble the final physical sliceform pop-up. we must also en- sure that their assembly process exists. The first condition maintains the continuity of each patch of S (it is not severed by the cuts). • Any patch p0i ∈ S 0 is a sub-patch of patch pi ∈ S. Consequently. • All the patches of S 0 do not intersect each other. 3. it is also kept stationary. Hence. it is physically impossible to have paper patches intersect each other as in a scaffold. we conclude that S 0 is stable. it suffices to find a stable sliceform scaffold in order to guarantee a feasible patch arrangement. are brought closer and closer to their target states. In practice. Note that since each slot’s width is > 0 and paper is zero-thickness. 11 . and the second condition prevents the realized patches from collision once they are in position. if we fix any two intersecting patches of S 0 .7 degrees of freedom. Let a slot be a straight line cut having width > 0. Intuitively. S 0 has the same degree of freedom to S. formed by cutting out slots along the hinges of pi . Besides avoiding collision between any two patches in a realization. As a result. we consider an assembly process as a collision-free motion in which two patches. the patches also do not intersect at their slot boundaries. We define Definition 5. A realization of a scaffold S is another scaffold S 0 that satisfies • S and S 0 have the same number of patches.

We therefore consider that. This process is shown in Figure 3. An example of this necessity is that it allows us to bend (or fold) a patch so that part of it can be squeezed through a slot or a hole on another patch. An assembly motion of patches p1 and p2 of a realization S is a continuous deformation of p1 and p2 . during assembly. we still inherit the assumption that paper has zero thickness. 1) = p1 and g(p2 . (a) Without bending. 1]. for any t ∈ [0. where ||a − b||min is the minimum Euclidean distance between any two points on a and b. it is also a common assumption in computational origami [6]. (b) A patched is being bent. In addition. Up to this point. • g(p1 . such that • g(p1 . paper can be bent and warped as long as it is not torn. t)) preserves the geodesic distance between any two points on the surface of p1 (and p2 ). (c) The patches at the final state. the rigidity of paper can forbid assembility. We formally define Definition 6. 1) = p2 . 0) − g(p2 . 12 .1: A patch is bent and warped to go through a slot.1. Figure 3. • ||g(p1 . t) and g(p2 . the two patches collide (marked as red circles). denoted g(p1 . We find this assumption practical since pop-up artists do bend and warp papers to assemble some sliceform pop-ups. 0)||min > d. However. for any arbitrarily large d. t). t) (and g(p2 .

We first compute a set of generalized cylinders that approximate the input model. • g(p1 . Finally. Definition 7. always maintains the positions of its hinges on the patches during closing. 3D Solid Feasible Scaffold Model Generalized Cylinder Paper Layout Approximation Sliceform Arragement Paper Realization Figure 3. for any t ∈ [0. slots are created on the hinges of the patches such 13 . Then we use these cylinders to find a stable sliceform scaffold. hence S is physically flat-foldable. and paper realization. the existence of an assembly motion for every pair of patches is sufficient to ensure a valid realization. this sliceform scaffold will be automatically feasible.2: The main building blocks of our algorithm: generalized cylinder ap- proximation. 1]. feasible scaffold construction. Consequently. For example. By doing this. we can assemble the patches according to their order in the slicing direction. al- though the assembly order of some pairs of patches in S may block other pairs and prevent them from being assembled. The above formulation provides a guideline to compute a sliceform pop-up design. Notice that the flattening motion of a valid realization S. Moreover. t). there exist trivial assembly sequences that guarantee non- blocking condition. this motion is collision-free. Then. A realization is said to be valid if there exists an assembly motion between any two of its patches. a patch can never be blocked by any other patches that are already assembled and parallel to it. t) does not intersect g(p2 . given that its respective scaf- fold is feasible. Therefore. By Proposition 1.

2 summarizes the building blocks and flow of our algorithm.that every pair of the resulting patches has an assembly motion. Figure 3. 14 . The resulting sliceform pop-up is guaranteed to be physically realizable.

Alternatively. These patches act as supporting structures that keep the scaffold stable. e. One approach is to incrementally construct the scaffold using stability-assuring rules similar to [15. in their positions and shapes. tend to share similar stability conditions.1. However.g. More specifically. we can start with a scaffold that best approximates the model. These patches are extracted from the model’s cross-sections taken 15 . two. Therefore. we assume that the input model is best approximated when the patches in the sliceform scaffold are perpendicular to each other. This enables us to drastically reduce the search space for the feasible scaffold and makes the problem much more tractable. this approach quickly becomes intractable. We call this an orthogonal sliceform scaffold. or even more patches to make a support as illustrated in Figure 4. In this work. similar patches can be grouped into a primitive that represents the group. due to the sheer number of combinations of the number of patches to add in each step.Chapter 4 Sliceform Arrangement Finding a sliceform arrangement that is both a feasible scaffold and closely resembles the input model is particularly challenging. a few patches are added to the scaffold until it satisfies a certain set of appearance criteria. this approach also leads to intractability. and fix it by incrementally adding more patches until it is feasible. 16]. the possible positions and shapes of the patches. Therefore. Our algorithm is grounded on a fundamental idea—patches that are geometrically simi- lar. constructing these structures is not trivial since it may require one. Unfortunately. and the feasibil- ity of a scaffold can then be verified simply by considering only a few of these primitives. Each time. we first generate a dense set of patches that captures the model’s geometric features. yet may not be feasible.

White patches: supporting patches. Then. We call the collection of cross-sections in each slicing direction a slice set. such that the patches from all the cylinders form a stable scaffold. The two slicing directions are perpendicular to each other. Figure 4. 16 . Note that p ∪? p0 6= p0 ∪? p and p ∩? p0 6= p0 ∩? p. We also denote • z(p) as the position of a patch p along its slicing axis. and the corresponding slicing direction as its axis. To set the ground for our next discussion. Orange patches: existing patches. We call this step generalized cylinder approximation. which is illustrated in Figure 4.2. at small uniform-width interval along each of the two slicing directions. Similar and consecutive patches in each slice set are grouped to form a generalized cylinder that approximates the model’s volume occupied by the group. the target feasible scaffold is computed by using each cylinder’s cross-section to create a set of patches within the cylinder. we denote p ∩? p0 as the intersection of p and the parallel projection of p0 along its slicing direction onto the plane containing p.1: Cases when different number of patches are required to support existing patches. Similarly. Each of these cylinders takes the union of patches in the group as the shape of its cross- section. Our algorithm can efficiently achieve this by checking for stability conditions only between parts of cylinders that overlap each other. let p and p0 be two parallel patches. we denote p ∪? p0 as the union of p and the parallel projection of p0 along its slicing direction onto the plane containing p.

17 . simplified and eventually grouped into generalized cylinders. The model slice sets are ex- tracted. Slice Set Simplification GCA Figure 4.2: Generalized Cylinder Approximation.

.j reaches its minimum and finally trace back in order to construct the respective optimal partitioning as well as the cylinders. such that the total approximation error does not exceed a certain threshold τA . Let Dn.i.j = (4. which is specified by j X err(i.j be the minimum error by approximating patches pi to pj by n groups. pj } in P is put into the same group. the error by cylinder- approximating Pij can be measured by the volume disparity between its cylinder and the model’s part occupied by the group. 18 . . . This problem can be efficiently solved by finding the solution to following dynamic programming problem: err(i. j) . . . 4.k+1. k) + Dn−1.n = 1 Dn. We also keep track of the value of k where Dn.1.j ) . i ≤ k < j The algorithm stops when n > N or there is an n = n0 such that Dn0 .N < τA . pi+1 . j) = ∆s | area(pk ) − area(ui )| (4. . .i. pN }. . Therefore.1. in which pi ∩? pi+1 6= ∅ and z(pi ) < z(pi+1 ). • area(p) as the area of a patch p • ∆s as the slicing interval to produce the slice sets.2) min(err(i.1) k=i We seek to find the minimal number of groups that partition P .i.1 Generalized Cylinder Approximation 4. n > 1. If a set of patches Pij = {pi .1 Approximation Fundamentals We consider the simple case of partitioning a set of parallel patches P = {p1 . we construct the corresponding generalized cylinder by taking ui = pi ∪? Pij and uj = pj ∪? Pij as its end caps.

In order to archive this. . B. where z(pi ) < z(pi+1 ) and z(p0i ) < z(p0i+1 ). C. due to small geometric details on the input model. We say that • e0 is left-merged to e if patch p1 is replaced by pM = p1 ∪? P (e0 ) and e0 is removed 19 . Directly partitioning on this graph is not efficient due to the large number of required cylinders. a Reeb graph can po- tentially have intricate topology. and their corresponding patches be P (e) = {p1 . our method is inspired by Reeb graph. The connectivity of the connected components of f −1 is captured by the graph {A. pn } and P (e0 ) = {p01 . .1. . p0m }.2 Approximation by Topology Simplification In practice. . D}. an input 3D model can have complex shapes and consist of multiple parts. Figure 4. Let e and e0 be two edges in a Reeb graph. A D B C f Figure 4. . . It is our goal to simplify the input model while still preserve its structure by retaining these parts. Generally. then separately partitions the patches on each edge of these graphs using the partition method described above. . The scalar function f (p) of a point p is its coordinate along the direction of f . where many edges containing only a few small patches.3 illustrates a Reeb graph constructed from a torus model. which is a graph of a scalar function that captures the connectivity of a level set [4].3: A Reeb graph from a torus model. Our approach uses the model’s slice sets as the level sets and constructs the respective Reeb graphs. .4.

. . p01 .4: Reeb graph edge-merging operations. • If v is a vertex having only one incoming edge e and only one outgoing edge e0 . then e and e0 are merged by replacing p(e) by pM (e) = {p1 . Prior to partitioning. Note that the procedure. Note that the case where v has multiple incoming and multiple outgoing edges cannot happen unless the input solid model is almost degenerate or the slicing interval is not small enough. although reduces the number of edges. . .4. • e0 is right-merged to e if patch pn is replaced by pM = pn ∪? P (e0 ) and e0 is removed from the graph. is actually still able to 20 . We define the following edge-merging operations: • If v is a vertex having only one outgoing edge (incoming edge) e and more than one incoming bridge edge (outgoing bridge edge). pn . . from the graph. The simplification process stops when no more edges can be merged. We illustrate the edge-merging operations above in Figure 4. Let the weight w(e) of each edge e be the sum of area of all its patches and τM be some threshold. . . then any incoming bridge edge (outgoing bridge edge) e0 of v having w(e0 )/w(e) < τM is left-merged (right-merge) to e. our algorithm simplifies the Reeb graphs via a series of these simple operations. p0m }. . e0 e e0 e e e v v2 v1 v v2 v1 v v2 v1 v2 v1 Figure 4.

denoted span(c). and exclude those unnecessary up to a predefined scale τM . Right: The slice sets after edge-merging. in which sd is a closed-span within span(c). Figure 4. and the closed-span on its axis that c covers. due to its ability to extract the most important structures of the model. A descriptor d of a cylinder c is a tuple (sd .1 Fundamentals Here.5: The horns of the cow model is preserved after Reeb graph simplification.2 Finding Feasible Scaffold 4. nd ∈ N. From the perspective of shape abstraction.2. our approach can also be considered as a scale-based shape abstraction method. Let a generalized cylinder c be specified by its surface(c). Left: original slice sets. • The positions of these patches in their respective cylinders. and nd ≥ 1. 21 . preserve small geometric details of the model by only “snapping” the silhouette of one edge to another. 4. We define Definition 8.5. We give an example of this effect in Figure 4. axis(c). nd ). we represent a feasible sliceform scaffold by • The cylinders whose cross-sections are used as patches.

We can see that a descriptor set actually represents a class of possibly-many scaffolds. or S satisfies D. Let D = {d1 . D is stable. Hence D is stable. we say that d is satisfied. d2 pair-wisely intersect d3 . Analogous to patches intersecting each other. p2 also pair-wisely intersect p3 . if • Every patch of S is taken from at least one descriptor of D. d3 . A descriptor set D is said to be stable if any scaffold S satisfying D is stable. Formally. Definition 10. Since d1 . descriptors can also “intersect”. p3 . Proof. d4 } be a set of descriptors. To construct a stable descriptor set. Proposition 1 says that the scaffold class it represents is indeed feasible. Formally. Claim 1. d2 . If d1 and d2 pair-wisely intersect d3 and d4 . d4 . obviously p1 . which is a stable scaffold. It can be shown that descriptor intersection is the mechanism behind the stability of a descriptor set. Definition 9. This is an important result since it enables us to indirectly find the feasible scaffold by constructing the proper stable descriptor set. • Every descriptors of D is satisfied. A cylinder may have zero or more descriptors. Let p1 . 22 . p2 . p4 be the patches respectively taken from d1 . d2 . we need to know the geometric conditions that make it stable. Two descriptors d and d0 on different slicing directions are said to be intersecting one another if every patch taken from d intersects every patch taken from d0 . d4 . Definition 11. p4 . If there are at least nd patches taken from c in the span of d. making a parallelogram. d3 . If the descriptor set is stable. A set of descriptors D is said to be satisfied by a scaffold S.

DV are the set of descriptors on two slicing directions. p2 also pair-wisely intersect p3 . n3 ). making a parallelogram. p03 be two distinct patches taken from d3 . Hence. If DU and DV are stabilized in D. Recall that a set of patches satisfying DU or DV only contains patches parallel to each other. any movement on a patch of S implies the movement of all the others. a scaffold S satisfying D only contains patches parallel to either of the two slicing directions. d2 . any deformation on S that keeps two of its intersecting patches stationary must keep the other patches stationary as well. obviously p1 . where d3 = (s3 . Let D = {d1 . D is stable. Definition 12. D0 ⊂ D is said to be stabilized in D if all its descriptors are stable with respect to one another in D. and so on. Under this translation. p03 . As a result. the movement of these hinges implies that any patch intersecting with p is also equally translated under this deformation. Proof. D is stable. including points on its hinges. • There exists a descriptor d3 . As a result. If d1 and d2 intersect d3 and n3 ≥ 2. Proposition 2. S is stable and thus D is stable. we conclude that D is stable. Therefore. 23 . either • There exists a stable descriptor set D0 ⊂ D that contains both d1 and d2 . Therefore. Definition 13. In turn. Let D = DU ∪ DV be a descriptor set in which DU .Claim 2. d2 . Let p3 . p2 be the patches respectively taken from d1 . such that d1 is stable with respect to d3 in D and d3 is stable with respect to d2 in D. Since d1 and d2 intersect d3 . Let D be a set of descriptors. A descriptor d1 is said to be stable with respect to another descriptor d2 in D if. a translation is the only possible movement of a patch p of S under any deformation. no points on p remain stationary. Proof. Let p1 . Let D be a set of descriptors. Similar to the proof above. d3 } be a set of descriptors.

satisfying the conditions of either Claim 1 or 2. patches on both directions are equally important for rendering the model and. d2 are from c1 . the patches on this direction often are better at conveying the characteristic appearance of the model. such that d1 . We compute the stable descriptor set according to one of the schemes above. d2 . for a model whose characteristic features cannot be primarily viewed from a single direction. e. For the following description. archi- tectural models. we accordingly represent by DU and DV the set of its descriptors on U and V .2. In the first step. Our algorithm is also guided by common schemes that we observe in making sliceforms as follows: • Constructing using a dominant direction.3 Constructing Using a Dominant Direction Let us assume that the dominant direction is U .2 Algorithm Overview Proposition 2 is an important result. which is chosen by the user.4. in which CU and CV are the cylinder sets on two slicing directions U and V respectively.g. c2 respectively. For a model whose distinctive features primarily appear when viewed from a particular direction. Our algorithm can be summarized in two steps. we find a descriptor set D such that all the cylinders CU have at 24 . 4. as it enables us to incrementally construct a stable descriptor set. supporting the pop-up structure. • Constructing using both directions. We intuitively call the cylinder stabilizing operation on two cylinders c1 . d4 } or D = {d1 . d3 } of C. c1 . while the patches on the other direction are only used to support them. This operation is denoted by D ←Stabilize(C.2. e. d3 . side-view of an animal model. On the other hand. we denote the set of cylinders as C = CU ∪ CV . c2 ). c2 ∈ C as the search for a descriptor set D = {d1 . For a descriptor set D of C. at the same time. d2 .g.

we stabilized DV . d2k . Stabilizing by α-support. d2n+1 }. DU Stabilization ↵-support DV Stabilization CU cylinder CV cylinder DU descriptor DV descriptor Figure 4. which consists of the cylinders on the dominant direction that have been stabilized. If a cylinder c ∈ CU is chosen more than once in the previous stabilization steps. We illustrate the algorithm in Figure 4. The pseudocode for the first step of our algorithm is given in Alg. such that c1 ∈ P ∧ c2 ∈ / P. Mid- dle: α-supports are used to stabilize DU . in which • d2k is a descriptor of a cylinder c0 ∈ CV . P contains an arbitrary cylinder c0 of CU . Let Dc = {d1 . and DU is stabilized. such that d2k requires at least 2 patches be taken from c0 in sd2k . This set of descriptors has to be stabilized in order to stabilize DU . d2k+1 } is stable. Initially. d2 . the loop stops. . Once P = CU . we say that Dc is an α-support 25 . for all k ≤ n. Next. we find a descriptor set D0 that stabilizes a pair of cylinders c1 . least one descriptor in D. .6: Left: cylinders in CU are ensured to have at least one descriptor. it has more than one descriptor. • d2k+1 is a descriptor of c. . c2 ∈ CU . 1. in the second step.6 and discuss the two steps in details below. At each iteration. We maintain a set P ⊂ CU . Then P and D are extended by letting P ← P ∪ {c2 } and D ← D ∪ D0 . . Right: DV is stabilized by modifying some of DU descriptors. implying that all the cylinders on the dominant direction have at least one descriptor in D. If the set {d2k−1 .

26 . c2 ) is not empty. Result: A descriptor set D. 6 D ← D ∪ D0 . such that D0 ←Stabilize(C. 3 while P 6= CU do 4 find c1 ∈ P and c2 ∈ CU \ P . for any cylinder c ∈ CU . In the second step. 10 foreach pair of consecutive descriptors di . However. if DV is stabilized using α-supports described previously. in which DU is stabilized. each descriptor of DU up to this point must intersect at least two descriptors of DV and vice versa. where it is sufficient to increase the minimum number of required patches of a few descriptors in DU to 2. 13 end 14 end between d1 and d2n+1 . stabilizing DV can be done simply by using the condition in Claim 2. c has more than one descriptor do 9 sort the descriptors of c by their spans. they are stabilized. 7 end 8 foreach c ∈ P . c1 . dj . 2 D ← ∅. Algorithm 1: DU Stabilization Data: Cylinder set C. dj of c do 11 find an α-support D0 for di . Therefore. 1 P ← {c0 }. Eventually. if all descriptors of c have an α-support between them. additional descriptors will be added to DU . the set of descriptors DU on the dominant direction is stabilized. our algorithm sorts its descriptors incrementally based on the spans and find an α-support for each pair of the consecutive descriptors. Fortunately. Therefore. due to the procedures in the first step. 5 P ← P ∪ {c2 }. c0 ∈ CU . we stabilize the descriptors of DV . 12 D ← D ∪ D0 . and DU must be stabilized again. Clearly.

10 Q ← Q ∪ {d2 }. having both DU and DV stabilized. such that d1 is stable with respect to d2 in D. while eventually stabilize DV . 27 . As a result. 11 end 12 end 13 end 14 end We adopt an expand-and-repair method for this step. The algorithm stops when Q = DV . 1 Q ← {d0 }. 6 else 7 foreach d3 ∈ DU do 8 if d3 intersects d1 ∈ Q and d2 ∈ / Q then 9 nd3 ← 2. We keep expanding Q by finding a descriptor d2 ∈ DV . D = DU ∪ DV is stable according to Proposition 2. Q contains an arbitrary descriptor d0 ∈ DV . If Q cannot be expanded. any descriptor d3 ∈ DU that intersects d1 ∈ Q and d2 ∈ / Q is “repaired” by changing its required number of patches to 2. We give the pseudocode for this step in Alg. 2. we are able to keep DU remain stabilized. Initially. 4 if found then 5 Q ← Q ∪ {d2 }. Algorithm 2: DV Stabilization Data: A descriptor set D. where DU is stabilized. Notice that by only changing the number of required patches of the descriptors in DU . A set Q ⊂ DV is used to track the stabilized descriptors of DV . 2 while Q 6= DV do 3 find d1 ∈ Q and d2 ∈ DV \ Q. Result: D. d2 ∈ / Q that is stable with respect to a descriptor d1 ∈ Q according to the conditions in Claim 1 and 2. d0 ∈ DV .

Directly generating the feasible scaffold from this descriptor set. we can substitute them by another descriptor d3 where sd3 = (sd1 ∩ sd2 ) and nd3 = max(nd1 .2. it is important that we only use α-supports to stabilize the descriptors on one direction. may produce unnecessarily many patches. Notice that each cylinder may have multiple descriptors in the final stable descriptor set. Again. and therefore. is feasible. 4. Clearly. while the descriptors on the other direction is stabilized by the expand-and-repair method. nd2 ) and still keep the new descriptor set stable. However. Let d1 and d2 be two descriptors of the same cylinder.4. the computed scaffold S satisfies D. As a result. If sd1 ∩ sd2 6= ∅. we require all the cylinders to have at least one descriptor in D after the first step. we reduce the descriptor set of all the cylinders using this descriptor reduction operation. whose spans may overlap. therefore. 28 .4 Constructing Using Both Directions The algorithm is similar to that of the previous scheme.5 Generating Scaffold We finally compute the feasible scaffold S by generating it from the stable descriptor set D. For each descriptor d.2. and uniformly place these patches in the span of d. prior to computing the feasible scaffold. we take nd cross-section patches from the respective cylinder of d.

two slots must be cut on the two respective patches (one on each patch) in order for them to be assembled at the hinge. starting at the mid-point of the hinge and ending at the patch’s boundary or the mid-point of the next hinge on the patch.Chapter 5 Paper Realization Given two patches p1 and p2 . By making slots this way. their intersection may have multiple line segments. we define four types of slot as illustrated in Figure 5. A ring is a closed and non-self-intersecting contour embedded in the patch. cut-through).2. it is guaranteed that patches do not collide with each other along their hinges. the patch is fully cut by the slot at the hinge. it is cut up (down) along the hinge’s direction. If a slot is up (down). none) and (none. down. collision-free hinges still do not ensure assembility of the patches. the patch remains intact. If a slot is none. In our algorithm. To do this. the positions and lengths of the two slots are determined in such a way that the slots do not overlap each other along the hinge. (down. since depending on the slot combination. cut-through and none. And we show that 29 . down). We define Definition 14. each of which corresponds to a hinge. the only possible combinations of slots on p1 and p2 are: (up.1: up. At each hinge. However. whichever comes first. up). At a hinge of two patches p1 and p2 . If a slot is a cut-through. (cut-through. two patches may interlock each other and prevent them from being assembled as illustrated in Figure 5.

e. The inverse motion is called a unpacking motion gU . slotted through the other and finally unpacked to the target state. Top-right: down. due to its zero-thickness. assembles p1 and p2 . respectively. are unknotted (i. and hence.p2 . there exists a packing motion gP that bends the patch to multiple layers. Bottom-right: none. Top- left: up. Proposition 3. Therefore. There exists an assembly motion g for two patches p1 and p2 if all the rings r1 . any two unknotted rings r1 . without creating any discontinuities or creases on the patch. not interlocking). r2 can be assembled together by a combination of packing and unpacking motion on p1 or p2 . which returns the patch to its original planar state. such that it is packed. As a result. r2 on p1 . Bottom-left: cut-through. 30 . there exists an assembly motion that assembles all the rings on p1 and p2 . Proof. For a patch. Figure 5.1: Four types of slots (illustrated as the slot on the orange patch). such that these layers are as closely packed together as needed.

If there is no slot combination that can resolve the conflict. Any cycle in a graph can be constructed from a small set of cycles which forms the graph’s cycle basis [9]. Fortunately. we need to consider only those containing a patch hole and also intersecting one of the hinges. A valid realization of two patches p1 . we have no choice but to break a cycle of the cycle basis of one of the patches by a cut-through slot. It is obvious that checking all pairs of rings of p1 and p2 for this condition is impractical. Figure 5. all their derived cycles also do not interlock. Consequently. Furthermore. Right: The two ring- shaped patches can be physically assembled. they cannot be physically assembled. if every cycle in a cycle basis of a Reeb graph does not interlock any cycle in a cycle basis of another Reeb graph. 31 . since they are the rings that can potentially interlock with one from the other patch. Notice that a combination that satisfies a cycle pair may not satisfy the other. Let G1 and G2 respectively be the Reeb graphs of p1 and p2 . a valid slot combination between two patches is the combination that satisfies all cycle pairs from their cycle bases. We call this situation a conflict.2: Left: Although the two ring-shaped patches do not collide at their hinges. We say that a slot combination satisfies a pair of cycles if the cycles do not interlock with respect to the combination. p2 is therefore a combination of their slots such that p1 and p2 do not contain any interlocking pair of rings. It can be seen that the cycles in G1 and G2 that intersect the hinges necessarily represent all the rings of interest.

3: Left: two patches and their Reeb graphs. at a hinge. Middle: slot combinations are checked and rejected from combination table. Given two patches p1 . we choose one of the slicing directions as the reference direction. we construct their Reeb graphs G1 and G2 and a set T of currently satisfying slot combinations. For each cycle pair from the cycle bases of G1 and G2 . without any ambiguity. we add to T the 32 . we use the combination of the slots on the patch on this reference direction to represent the slot combination on both patches. Therefore. we reject those combinations (of the slots at the cycle pair’s common hinges) in T that conflict with the current pair. for any pair of patches. Before discussing our algorithm. Right: a valid com- bination in the table is chosen as the realization of the two patches. p2 . On the other hand if T is not empty. we break one of these cycles. Our algorithm works by rejecting the conflicting combinations as illustrated in Fig- ure 5. And. If T is empty after this step. the slot type of one patch decides that of the other patch.3. we recall that. update the respective patch’s cycle basis and restart the algorithm. Combination table v2 v1 v2 v10 v1 v20 ✕ v2 v10 v20 ✓ v1 v2 v10 v1 v20 ✓ v2 v10 v20 v10 v20 ✕ v1 Figure 5. meaning there was an unresolvable conflict.

b2 ). patches and their slots according to this combination are laid out on a plane and ready for printing. 3 repeat 4 resolvable ←true. and one of the combinations in T is chosen as the slot combination. the number of common hinges are rarely more than a few and the set of cycle basis is usually small. Algorithm 3: Realization Data: Patches p1 and p2 . since once a slot is determined as none or cut-through. We summarize our realization algorithm in Alg. G2 ’s cycle bases do 6 T 0 ← test all slot combinations of (b1 . 11 break. 17 return a valid combination in T . 5 foreach cycle pair (b1 . b2 ) of G1 . 8 if T = ∅ then 9 resolvable ←false. Finally. 7 reject combinations in T conflicting with T 0 . Furthermore. Result: Valid slot combination. 2 T ← ∅. 10 break b1 and update G1 . The algorithm stops when all pairs are satisfied. for two intersecting patches. 14 end 15 end 16 until resolvable. 12 else 13 add compatible combinations in T 0 to T . G2 ←ReebGraph(p2 ). 3. In practice. it does not affect the interlocking of the patches 33 . 1 G1 ←ReebGraph(p1 ).new combinations that satisfy the pair.

for a pair of cycles the number of tested combinations is also a restricted to a few. although theoretically having exponential time complexity with respect to the number of hinges. Therefore.anymore. Additionally. we find that the algorithm. we only consider up and down slots for the slot combinations. which eventually reduces the number of cycles in the cycle bases. 34 . Therefore. the higher the chance to have conflicts. the more hinges and cycles in the patches’ cycle bases. is quite acceptable.

in-out parity of image rays parallel to the respective slicing direction is used to determine if a point (pixel) on the slicing plane (image) is inside or outside the model. a 2D layout (. On this layout. Consequently. τM and the sliceform construction scheme. In our implementation.obj file) as input and allows the user to align two orthogonal slicing directions on the model.Chapter 6 Implementation We develop an automatic sliceform design application based on the foundations established in previous discussions. finally. This representation is used both in displaying the sliceform to the user and computing it. its valid realization. where non-zero pixels represent square regions on the patches. We compute the model’s cross-section patches in image space using OpenGL using a technique similar to shadow volume. 35 . the system computes a feasible scaffold. The system takes a water-tight 3D triangle mesh (Wavefront .pdf file) that is print-ready to cut and assemble. a patch is described by a billboard orthogonal to its slicing direction. but can also be used for computation in object space as well. patches are indexed and their indices are labeled on the corresponding hinges of other patches in order to guide the assembly process. and. After the user selects the necessary thresholds τA . To simplify the computation. Connected components on this image are extracted to make the model’s cross-section patches. Parallel billboards are aligned in such a way that they are projected to the same square along the respective slicing direction. Notice that our algorithm is not restricted to image space representation. At each slicing position. all the billboards and their images are square and have the same size. The images on these billboards are binary images. the union of a set of patches can be computed simply by taking the union of their images.

where p0i = p2i−1 ∪ p2i . we are able to reduce the time complexity to O(N 2 log M ). naive implementation has O(N 2 M 2 ) time complexity for each iteration. we layout its patches on multiple planar paper sheets. The union of a set of leaf nodes is therefore equivalent to the union of a few inner nodes in this tree. In this tree. each leaf node is a patch image and each inner node is the union image of it children nodes. a binary tree data structure is used to solve (4. 36 .2). For the dynamic programming problem in (4. By querying the union patch images on this tree.2). in which N is the image size (N × N ) and M is the number of slices on each direction. Note that we simply put the patches in a left-to-right and top-to-bottom manner regardless of the space required. The rest of the implementation follows the discussion in previous sections. Observing that the union of a set of images p = ∪2k i=1 pi is also equivalent to p = ∪ki=1 p0i . After a valid realization is decided. More efficient layout can be archieved by using an optimal packing algorithm such as [11]. The computation of union of patch images is mostly accounted for this complexity.

7. As can be seen. In our experiments. geometrical symmetry is preserved very well by the positions and shapes of the patches. The program takes about 500MB of memory and 4-7 minutues of running time in all the tests. The input models are cate- gorized in two groups: architectural models (Capitol Building. Hollow Sphere and Torus) and organic models (Bunny. while approximation threshold τA is kept at 0.1. As can be seen. which also closely approximate the input models.2 compares the result from our algorithm with that from Autodesk 123D. Kitten and Mother and Child Statue). The simplification error threshold τM is ranging from 0. the algorithm is able to get rid of unnecessary geometric details in more complex organic models while retains good level of abstraction. the silhouttes of the horns of the Cow. for all the test models. Mechanical Part. Fig.05. In most of the models. Figure 7. For architectural models. Hollow Cube. We choose the first patch generation scheme for those organic models and the second scheme for the others. our algorithm successfully produces their stable sliceform scaffolds. the sliceform from our algorithm 37 . using similar number of patches. For example. we choose image size of 512 × 512 for the patches and slice the models by 128 steps. the ears of the Bunny and Kitten are all rendered in the final sliceforms.02 to 0.7 presents sliceforms generated by our system. which amounts up to 90% of the running time due to large number of pixel operations. Cow. Thanks to Reeb graph topology simplification. The most time-consuming computation is the generalized cylinder approximation. while keep the total number of patches minimal.Chapter 7 Results We run our algorithm on an Intel Core i5 PC having 4GB of RAM. the algorithm manages to generate only those mandatory to support the structure. We notice that the algorithm also controlls the number of required patches very well.

It spans from 30 minutes (the Cow) to 3 hours (the Bunny) in order to cut and assemble the models. The crease line of the v-fold is colinear with the intersection line of the two patches. a sliceform can be attached to a hardcover using a v-fold. the v-fold is opened at 90 degrees.1: Real paper sliceforms made from our algorithm. Figure 7. e. the windows in the Capitol Building and interior holes in the Hollow Sphere and the Bunny. depending on their complexity. To 38 . When the hardcover is fully opened. Bunny and Hollow Sphere models as in Figure 7.1. This v-fold has flaps that can be glued to two non-parallel patches of the sliceform and it also has two big flaps that can be glued to the cover. Basically. Figure 7. We demonstrate the ability of our algorithm in guaranteeing asssembility of the designs by making real paper sliceforms from the designs of Capitol Building. which is a simple technique we observe from professional pop-up makers. all the models have complicated patch topologies. not only is stable but also depicts the input model better. Except the Cow.3 demonstrates how we can turn a paper sliceform to a paper sliceform pop- up. Cow.g. Our algorithm manages to completely avoid knotted rings in all such cases.

more 39 . This is because in our model. patches may be slotted very near to their boundaries as illustrated in Figure 7. avoid collision during folding. long cylinders may contain only a few patches.2: Comparison of sliceform generated from our algorithm (right) and that from Autodesk 123D (left).5. which make the result slice form look sparse as illustrated in Figure 7. Figure 7. However. Similar to the slot-to-boundary issue discussed above. These patches may also form weak hinges that affect the overall strength of the sliceform structure. The pop-up an its ability to fold flat is illustrated in Figure 7. as our alogirthm computes a large set of feasible scaffolds. we do not consider the actual physical properties of paper. This results in thin patches that can easily be torn off during assemble. the height a of the v-fold is required to be at least the width b of the part not in the v-fold of these patches. Mother and Child Statue. physically stronger scaffold can be computed by constraining the mininum distance between slots and patches’ boundaries during scaffold generation step.6. Since we only generate enough number of patches that satisfy the set of descriptors. We have successfully use this technique to make a paper sliceform pop-up of the Capitol Building. Another possible solution is expanding the patches to increase the their slot-to-boundary distance.4. We notice that for models such as the Capitol Building.

3: Illustration of one side of a v-fold that is used as a base that is attached to a patch in order to turn a sliceform to a sliceform pop-up. 40 . the patch a attachment flap b cre as el ine the v-style base (one side) the hard cover Figure 7.

Top-right: 75-degree opened.5: Cases when slots are close to patches’ boundaries.Figure 7. 41 .4: A paper sliceform pop-up made using v-fold base technique. Bottom-left: 45-degree opened. Top-left: fully opened. Figure 7. Bottom-right: fully closed.

6: Cases when patches are sparsely distributed in a cylinder. spa rse cyl in der sp ars ec yli n de r patches of sparse cylinders Figure 7. uniformly and densely distributed patches can be controlled by a global optimization can be applied to the scaffold generation step to find a valid scaffold. 42 . which is constrained by the minimum and maximum distance between its parallel patches.

Bunny. 43 . Cow. top to bottom): Capitol Building.7: Input models and sliceforms (from left to right. Mother and Child Statue.Figure 7. Kitten. Mechanical Part. Hollow Sphere and Torus. Hollow Cube.

Although we have not 44 . Another important notion in our approach is the application of unknotted rings in the paper realization problem. which allows us to generate slots simply by checking the ordering combinations of the rings. Besides. our algorithm can only generate the set of scaffolds defined by the conditions in Claim 1 and 2.Chapter 8 Conclusion and Discussion We have presented a theoretical framework and a computational model for automatic de- signing of paper sliceforms from solid 3D models. Via experiments. Is it possible that we can automatically select the slicing orientations for the user? The running time of a few minutes of the current algorithm may not be desirable from the user point of view. This scaffold class can only be constructed by incrementally adding more patches to an already-stable one via two or three new descriptors. but still offer enough simplicity to the user to assemble the target sliceform structure? Another potential direction is how we can improve the experience from the user side. Despite challenges in the problem of finding feasible scaffolds. we have demonstrated the ability and robustness of our algorithm to generate valid and physically manufacturable paper sliceform designs for different types of input 3D solid models. Our approach also suggests exciting new possibilities for future research in paper pop- ups and sliceforms. given a class of feasible scaffolds. For example. we are able so make it tractable by the essential ideas of general- ized cylinder approximation and descriptor set formulation. how would slots on that scaffold be realized to ensure adequate strength. How we can speed up the algorithm to provide interactive feedback is also another interesting direction. how would we choose the best one that maximizes the similarity between the sliceform and the input model? At the same time.

been able to detect any models that cannot be approximated by this class of structures. it is possible to extend these conditions in order to include larger and more complex structures to construct the sliceform. 45 . Finding a realization method that can be use for these kinds of rigid material is quite an interesting direction. which may restrict the use of our system in practice. Therefore. During our experiment. Due to the assumption that paper can be bent and warped. the realization algorithm cannot be applied to thick or rigid material. such as wood or carton paper. different complicated models may require different kinds of scaffolds to best render them. Exploring sliceform for arbitrary polygonal mesh models is also very tempting. from the theoretic perspective. we also find that it is not always easy to find water-tight 3D solid models.

V. F. Cambridge University Press. Loops in reeb graphs of 2-manifolds. IEEE 22. 1 (1989). 46 . Interactive pop-up card design. 1 (jan/feb 2002). 2 (mar/apr 2002). and Desbrun. and Zemel. Edelsbrunner. E. [6] Demaine. 117–137. Is every cycle basis fundamental? Journal of Graph Theory 13. Interactive pop-up card design. 1. 689–696.. [5] Décoret. and Dorsey. P... Sillion. 2004). Durand. Paper Magic: Pop-up Paper Craft : Origamic Architecture. 2012. M. [9] Hartvigsen. J. pp.References [1] Autodesk. Discrete Comput. Computer Graphics and Applica- tions. and O’Rourke. [8] Glassner. V.. 74 –85. M.. 2003). and Pascucci. Geometric Folding Algorithms: Linkages. F. The world of paper magic. Billboard clouds for extreme model simplification. 1988. D. 905–914.. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Papers (New York. Alliez. NY.. Harer.. E. pp. A. NY. USA. Geom. New York. SIGGRAPH ’04. J. [3] Cohen-Steiner. IEEE 22. H.. A. 79 –86. ACM. SIGGRAPH ’03. X. Ondorisha Publishers. 2007. Polyhedra. 2. 32. Variational shape approxi- mation. D. [4] Cole-McLaughlin.. USA. [7] Glassner. K.. 2 (July 2004). [2] Chatani. 231–244. USA. Natarajan. NY. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2003 Papers (New York. D. X. J. 123D Make. Computer Graphics and Applica- tions. Origami. ACM.

E. Computer Graphics in Singapore..-M. USA. USA. and Hu. Computers & Graphics 20. M. T. Gu. and Mitra. USA.-Y.-H.. Popup: automatic paper architectures from 3d models.. pp. 2009.[10] Hoiem... 21 – 31. Mathematical modelling and simulation of pop-up books. D. 2011). Ju. 1994. Ju. pp. Approximate convex decomposition of polyhedra. X. E.. A geometric study of v-style pop-ups: theories and algorithms. SPM ’07. and Hebert. Tor. 1 (1996). A. B. [11] Huang. 2010). [12] International. 2011). In ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 papers (New York. pp. 98:1–98:10. NY. [14] Lee... NY. NY. A.-S. 511–516. T... Y.-Y. NY. In Proceedings of the 2007 ACM symposium on Solid and physical modeling (New York. 168:1–168:12. ACM. ACM. S. 2005). [15] Li. In Proceedings of the 2011 SIGGRAPH Asia Conference (New York. E. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 papers (New York. [18] McCrae. P. USA. pp. and Amato. K. SIGGRAPH ’11. A. R. ACM. P.. N.. Slices: a shape-proxy based on planar sections. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Papers (New York. The Pop-Up Book: Step-By-Step Instructions for Creating Over 100 Original Paper Projects. T. and Korf. ACM. S. NY. IJCAI’09. ACM. [16] Li. 577–584. C. 47 . In Proceedings of the 21st international jont conference on Artifical intelligence (San Francisco. Y.. J. [17] Lien. X. Efros.. USA. J. P. Henry Holt and Company. N. Shen.. and Soo. USA. M. S. 111:1–111:9. [13] Jackson. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. SIGGRAPH ’10. 121–131. SA ’11. pp. and Hu.-M. Automatic photo pop-up. 2009). L. CA. SIGGRAPH ’05. and Forrester. pp. 2007).-M. New improvements in optimal rectangle packing. An Owl book. J. S. Huang... Singh. SketchUp SliceModeler Plugin.

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