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Cowx, I.G. (1994): Stocking strategies.

Fisheries Management and Ecology
1994, 1. 15-30.
Abbreviated version of the publication

Abstract Stocking, transfer and introduction of fish are commonly used to mitigate loss of stocks, enhance
recreational or commercial catches, restore fisheries or to create new fisheries, However, many stocking
programmes are carried out without definition of objectives or evaluation of the potential or actual success of the
exercise. This paper describes a strategic approach to stocking aimed at maximizing the potential benefits, A
protocol is discussed which reviews factors such as source of fish, stocking density, age and size of fish at
stocking, timing of stocking and mechanism of stocking, The potential genetic, ecological and environmental
impacts of stocking are described.

Stocking, transfer or introduction of fish is frequently used by fisheries owners, managers and
scientists in the belief they will improve the quantity or quality of catches and have long-term
beneficial effects on fish stocks. Over the past 50 years, large-scale movements of fish have
occurred, including a total of 1354 introductions of 237 species into 140 countries.
Furthermore, many thousands of stocking events, involving millions of individual fish, take
place annually in managed fisheries.
Although large sums of money have been invested in stocking activities, relatively few
programmes have been properly evaluated and the evidence suggests stocking exercises rarely
lead to any long-term tai benefit. This appears to be the result of indiscriminate stocking,
without well-defined objectives or prior appraisal of the like likelihood of the success of the
exercise. However, if stocking programmes are designed and implemented to satisfy defined
goals it should be possible to improve the success rate.
More recently, concerns have also been expressed about the potential risks associated with the
stocking and introduction of fish, and the subsequent interactions with wild stocks. These
include the loss of genetic integrity in indigenous stocks and ecological imbalance and
consequent shift in community structure.
Thus them is a need for fisheries managers to be more aware of the possible impactof
stocking, both in terms of the effects on wild populations and the likelihood of improvements
in stocks. Of particular importance is the need to develop a strategic approach to stocking
which defines the objectives of the exercise and orients the implementation phase towards
meeting these goals.

Objectives of stocking
The reasons for stocking are many and varied but generally fall into four main categories
which are related to the states of the wild stocks, the impact of anthropogenic activities and
the ease with which factors limiting natural production can be removed or ameliorated.

Stocking for mitigation
This encompassess stocking with fish carried out as a voluntary exercise or statutory function
for fishery protection schemes, such as reservoir dam construction, land drainage works or

dace. but where reasons for the poor stocks cannot be identified. or bream may lead to the failure of the stocked species to produce a self-sustaining population and/or a reduction in the biomass of one or all . This is the most controversial stocking procedure and has led to considerable contention in the past.g. barbel. Stocking for restoration Stocking for restoration relates to that which is carried out after a limiting factor to stock recovery or improvement has been removed or reduced. or where new (exotic) species are introduced into existing fisheries in an attempt to increase species diversity. or to enhance stocks in sections of river where access is restricted by natural barriers. However. stocked fish may be released into unaffected parts of the river catchment or lake. it is unlikely that stocking will have a beneficial long-term effect. water quality improvement. It also includes activities carried out to strengthen quality and quantity of spawning stock of a given species so as to improve natural reproduction potential. If production is already limited or driven by natural population cycles. Introduction of species which will compete with indigenous species at some stage of their life history. However. if the new species is able to occupy a vacant niche the impact on the indigenous species may be negligible and the introduced species may become a valuable addition to the fishery. England have become a valuable component of the recreational fishery. e. e. For example. introduced into the River Severn. improve fish yield or fill an apparent vacant niche. lake or reservoir which has not previously held that stock because of natural barriers. roach. Mitigation stocking has been considered the simplest way to compensate for such activities. habitat restoration or the easing of passage for migratory fish. This type of stocking is used where fishermen express dissatisfaction with the quality of fishing. However.g. in many cases the fishermen’s and fisheries managers’ assessments of the state of the stock have probably been unduly pessimistic. for example mixing chub. Stocking in this case is justifiable because he underlying problems limiting production have been tackled and long-term benefits arc likely to accrue. resulting from natural fluctuations which can have a profound effect on sonic fish populations. or merely the estimates of the potential production have been unrealistically high. The majority of stocking in the past probably falls into this category and it is driven by fishermen complaining about the status of the fishing. the introduction of Nile perch into Lake Victoria. Creation of new fisheries This category includes attempts to establish a new stock of fish in a river. evolutionary isolation. Re establish of fisheries which have previously been eliminated by poor water quality or habitat degradation are in this category.similar habitat perturbation. or in the operation of commercial or put- and-take fisheries where the production of exploited species needs enhancing. and the impact on the wild stocks in these areas must be considered. Stocking for enhancement Enhancement stocking is the principal method used to maintain or improve stocks where production is actually or perceived to be less than the water body could potentially sustain.

but there is probably little sense in stocking a water if it is not capable of supporting a sustainable population. a in the case of a dam. If no apparent cause can be identified. Essentially.the indigenous species. Part of this exercise includes establishing whether the stock is below optimum production level or whether the quality of the stock (e. the activities can be broken down into the following phases: identification. This approach is useful in setting out the design of the stocking programme in a clear and logical way so that any weaknesses that exist can be addressed at an early stage. exclude put-and-take fisheries. In this case it is probably worth while considering alternative improvement strategies or just leave the system alone and concentrate resources on rivers or lakes which can possibly be restored. preparation. enhancement stocking could be considered. These assessments must be based on firm evidence from scientific studies and not hearsay or unsubstantiated complaints. the stocking can be aborted. If remedial action cannot be taken. This does not. implementation and evaluation. it is important to establish whether it is suitable for the proposed introduction and whether there is likely to be an impact on other indigenous species. This requires not only an assessment of the status of existing stocks. assessing and implementing a stocking programme is shown in Fig. a technique commonly employed in development project formulation. then mitigation stocking could be considered. Where the limiting factor(s) can be isolated. A step—by-step approach to planning. 1. Stocking generally does not tend to improve the catches in waters where there is adequate natural recruitment. Alternatively. If production is considered to be below the potential of the system it is important to try to identify the constraints and resolve them before stocking is carried out. appraisal. Consequently. stocking of this type needs careful planning to avoid potential catastrophic effects on the natural fish populations. or if these are insuperable. This will probably not lead to a sustainable population and stocking may have to be on a continuous basis. but an appraisal of the condition of the water body and the natural and artificial factors that may limit production. the need for any stock improvement must be questioned. efforts should be made to resolve the problems before resorting to stocking. for example. It is only then that he project proposal can be properly formulated to achieve the desired effects. considerations could be given to creating a new fishery based on species found elsewhere in the catchment or exotic species. Establish objectives of stocking If the fishery is of the desired quality. a responsible attitude towards the activity is essential. it mitigation stocking is not a viable or statutory option. however.which are stocked to provide catchable-sized fish for rapid exploitation by anglers and do not take into account sustainability through natural recruitment.g. Under these circumstances alternative improvement strategies should be considered or the ‘do nothing’ approach adopted. The first step when considering any stock improvement activity must be to ensure proper clarification of the management policy and objectives. If the system has not previously held the species to be stocked. in terms of age or size distribution) could be improved. It is based on the ‘project approach’ to management activities. Protocol for pre-stocking appraisal Identify need for stock improvement In view of the many concerns that exist about stocking. To aid the decision-making process. .

In cases where natural recovery may be ineffective. for example. the spawning stock has been reduced to an apparently critically low level. The assessment of benefits should not include the public relations value of the programme. this course of action should be taken.Finally. Estimation of the costs should include all capital and recurrent expenditure and be evaluated against the predicted benefits of the proposal. species mix. the source of fish. Development of stocking strategy If the stocking appears to be worth while then implementation of the proposal must be carefully planned to minimize potential problems and risks (Fig. However. should all be defined. therefore. and only then should a decision. with all the known or predicted advantages and disadvantages being accurate identified. it should be noted that demonstrating improved . although in many situations this may provide a major incentive for undertaking the work. and attempt to identify the factors contributing to their success or failure. The evaluation should assess the efficiency and long- term benefits of the various stocking practices and regimes. 2) This formulation phase should assess the resources available to undertake the project. Details of the genetic risks and possible fishery and environmental effects associated with stocking activities must be discussed. labour. and identify any constraints which might jeopardize the successful implementation of the stocking programme. transport and finance. for example in terms of improved catches. particularly in terms of justifying costs. timing and mechanism of release. Habitat improvement is the most desirable option because it should lead to long-term sustainable improvement with minimal deleterious ecological impact. It is also an efficient use of resources because it may have greater long-term benefits than enhancement stocking and also have other conservation and ecological benefits. if it is possible to remove or minimize the cause of the decline in the fishery. Such evaluations should be considered an integral part of the programme. The socio-economic influence of any change can also be crucial and must. The fishery may then recover without stocking. Finally. For example. because. improved primary or secondary production. the opportunity for public relations should not be foregone. stocking density. and stocking should not be approved without building in a post-project evaluation. Post-stocking evaluation One component of stocking exercises which has been largely neglected is an evaluation of the programme and an audit of the degree of success of the work. size or age of fish to be stocked. The stocking proposal must also be assessed for its possible impacts on the potential yield and stability of both the introduced stock and the resident species. a complete review of all the accumulated information should be carried out by an independent. be evaluated. be made whether to implement or reject the original proposal. The protocol to be adopted to accrue the maximum benefit from the exercise should also be defined. e.g. Details of the factors that need to be considered in devising the stocking strategy are discussed later Assessment of proposal All the ecological factors and consequences must be reviewed. impartial authority. including availability of stocking material. where benefits are real and substantial. restoration stocking may be appropriate to promote stock recruitment.

In the worst case scenario. through predation and starvation. increased mortality rates. where pure donor stock have a lower return rate than natural stock. Several examples of this problem exist in the literature particularly with respect to returning adult salmon. Conversely. reduced growth rates and increased dispersion generally follow. growth potential. and to a lesser extent from within the same catchment. These geographic.catches alone does not necessarily signal a successful stocking exercise. Species interaction. If too many fish are present. Ecological interactions Carrying capacity of the target habitat. Unfortunately. consideration must be given to maintaining the genetic integrity of the indigenous stocks. . the number of smolts may decrease. to in stocking strategies and techniques. and stocking may be less successful than expected. For example is a reduction found in the survival of stocked salmon fry due to competition from resident trout fry and salmon parr. Consequently. while stocking may produce large increases in fish numbers at certain times or in localized areas. but the presence of the salmon parr does cause a reduction in trout stocks. changes in trout populations have similarly been recorded following salmon parr stocking. below that prior to the introduction. overstocking can lead to a reduction in the performance of the fishery. or fish that have not been held in captivity for more than one generation. or. They may also have some adaptive significance with respect to the performance of the stocks in a particular environment. In this case the salmon do not affect trout fry survival. the intensity and long-term nature of many stocking programmes will make it difficult to rectify the situation once genetic integrity has been disrupted. 1) to improve the formulation of realistic management objectives where stocking is a fundamental activity. Perhaps one of the greatest concerns with stocking programmes is that they rarely take into account the capacity of the recipient system to support the enhanced stocks. when the spawning stock of salmon exceeds an optimal level. Thus. In addition. as it may not lead to a good spawning stock or sustainable recruitment. where possible. and to provide a database of experiences against which the risks and the feasibility of new proposals can be appraised. stock from non-indigenous sources may be less well adapted to the riverine or lacustrine environment into which they are released. exhibit genetic variation. age at maturity. fecundity. any fish surviving to reproduce with indigenous individuals may also confer a reduced adaptation upon some or all of their offspring. genetic differences may manifest themselves in. for example. in salmon. Stocking of one species may have undesirable effects on endemic stocks either through predation or competition. For example. or failing that habitats which are similar. and hybrids exhibit an intermediate rate Consequently. Potential risks from stocking Genetic interactions Recently it has been recognized that fish stocks (particularly salmon) from different catchments. no more fish will survive than the habitat will allow. when embarking on any kind of stocking programme. However. season of return to fresh water. This information will provide a feedback mechanism (Fig. stocking should be restricted to those using fish derived from local populations.

a number of options relating to the source of fish should be considered Options for systems where species is extinct (1) Donor stock with the same biological characteristics as the recipient system. when fish are transferred from one river or lake to another it is improbable that disease-free status can be guaranteed In this case the disease status of both the donor and recipient stacks should be assessed and stocking only allowed if no new pathogen is being introduced and the stocked fish are healthy and have a low parasite/pathogen loading. This should be possible for fish originating from farms. altitude. but this is frequently violated with consequences that are to difficult to reverse. Although this may appear to have little impact on the receiving stock. will be discussed in morel detail. there is an obvious risk of disease transmission. Source of fish There is an increasing awareness of the importance of maintaining genetic integrity of fish stocks. is suggested in Fig. the fish should be held it quarantine until the risk has been assessed. (4) Presume genetic differences of little adaptive significance and obtain stock from anywhere they are cheaply available. In the ideal situation all fish should be certified disease-free before stocking.g. A schematic approach to the planning exercise. many of the practical aspects have to be considered in a descriptive way because relatively little information is available about the effect of various procedures on the success of stocking. Conversely. which relate to implementation strategy. Artificial propagation based on stock from (1) or (2) (sufficient fish should be used as brootistoclc to avoid reducing genetic variability of the species). (3) . gradient. profile). (2) Stock chosen from a lake or part of a river with a similar environment (e. water temperature. . With the transfer of stocks between water bodies. However. Consideration should therefore be given to minimizing the dilution of genetic variation by indiscriminate stocking policies with fish of unknown origin. Unfortunately. Stocking strategies When undertaking a stocking programme there are many procedures which should be considered during the implementation phase. there is a danger that the introduced fish may act as a reservoir for the proliferation of the disease. and must become a statutory function attached to all consent applications. Before implementing a stocking programme. to maximize range of genetic material. In any countries various legislation controls the movement of fish. It is therefore necessary to plan the stocking exercise to ensure its success. Several of these procedures have been discussed already and will be dealt with only superficially whilst others. If any possibility of disease transfer exists. to take on board these points.Disease control. flow regime. it is possible that fish introduced from one system to another may not be resistant to an endemic disease or parasite and the stocking exercise may be unsuccessful. size of stream. 2. ideally from a number of sources.

Handling and transportation of stock Handling and transportation inevitably cause stress and possibly damage to fish. As a result. Preconditioning and acclimatization There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that fish should be preconditioned to survive the prevailing conditions in the receiving water body. thus increasing their ability for sustained swimming. . During collection and transportation handling should be avoided where possible. thus particular care must be taken when obtaining fish from hatcheries. This exercising builds up the red muscle tissue in the stocked fish. All fish should be starved for at least 24h prior to transportation to reduce oxygen demand. For example. which can subsequently affect post survival. seine netting and ‘controlled’ electric fishing are the preferred techniques. If the fish are to be transported long distances consideration should be given to reducing the effective toxicity of un-ionized ammonia by lowering the temperature and pa Finally. procedures which minimize handling time or frequency should be adopted from the time of capture of the donor fish to planting into the recipient system. (2) Stock from a lake or part of a river with a similar environment which have been quarantined and certified clear of parasites and diseases alien to recipient system. Acclimatization to temperature is also thought to be important. (3) Choose stock from a system with a similar environment. and minimize ammonia production. Fish should be stored at low density and provided with an ample supply of oxygen. fish which have been reared or are to be transferred from still water to a river should be exposed to running water conditions for an extended period before their release. certified disease-free. Options for rivers where new species to be introduced (1) Farm-reared fish. (3) No obvious ecological problems likely to be caused — as with introductions of predators. as this will affect the success of the exercise. The techniques employed to capture the fish in the first instance should cause min damage. due to increased respiration rates during digestion. Stocked fish should not have been reared in captivity for more than one generation in order to limit the possible effects of selection within the hatchery. there is no point in introducing fish that are in poor condition or health. Prior to stocking barbel into the River Mehaigas they lowered the temperature of the water in which the fish were held over an extended period (10—11 days) until it approximated to that of the receiving water. (2) Redistribution of adults from elsewhere in the catchment (may be unsuited for introduction to other parts with different prevailing conditions).Options for depleted or relict stocks (1) Build-up of stock by hatchery production based entirely on local stock and return brood stock to home system.

appropriate relationship should be determined for river fisheries.Stocking density As previously discussed. eyed ova or unfed fry are probably a more cost-effective life history stage for stocking. This can only be achieved if the outcome of stocking programmes is evaluated and reported. The stocking should preferably take place when the productivity of the receiving water is high. When calculating the stocking density. a database of experiences should be set up to provide guidance on stocking densities which maximize the benefits in terms of improving stocks.g see summary in Table 1. This suggests that fed fry is probably the most effective life history stage to stock as the return rates are greatest. Stocking early in the summer. a thorough assessment of the receiving water body should be carried out to determine the optimal stocking density. This should be based on measured success of stocking at different densities. However. Very little similar information is available for other species but a common sense approach probably defines the timing reasonably well. e. it is generally based on the experience of the managers. Such data are more readily available for salmon. Fish should be stocked when the flow rates and water temperature are generally low. . when natural food availability is good and to allow the fish to adjust to the conditions in the receiving water before overwintering. Thus. this information should be evaluated in relation to the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining sufficient fish of the appropriate age or size (Table 2). consideration must be given to the existing stock biomass and allowances should be made for migration/dispersal. a similar. depth and predicted fish biomass. effort should be made to construct tables to indicate the success of stocking of all species at different densities. to minimize displacement of fish and stress respectively. In lakes a relationship exists between shore line development. but rarely for other species. If possible. Timing of stocking There is a considerable volume of literature on the most appropriate time for stocking of salmonids. Many of these arguments can be removed by drawing up tables which illustrate the success of stocking of different a groups. is preferable. no definitive relationship is available for calculating stocking density of different species in rivers. Size or age of stock There has been much debate over the most appropriate size or age of fish for stocking. Values of between 10 and 80% annual mortality are given in the literature. Alternatively. When this comparison is made. predation and predicted survival of stocked fish. Table 1 gives a summary example for salmon. The general conclusion is that stocking in spring is more efficient (4—12 times) than winter. However. so compensatory densities will be difficult to determine The most important issue is that overstocking is avoided. but not during the spawning period as the stocked fish may interfere with natural reproduction processes.

Mechanism of release Three mechanisms for releasing fish are used: (1) Spot planting . genetic and ecological interactions should be considered fully and the ‘precautionary principle’ adopted if any adverse impacts are foreseen. the management rationale and implications of stocking activities have not received the attention desired to support such a commonly used tool. • When evaluating stocking as a possible management tool. (2) Scatter planting — introducing fish into several sites in the same region: (3) Trickle planting — introducing fish into the same region over a period of time.introducing all the fish into the receiving waters ‘at the same site. transfer or introduction should becarefully tailored to suit the species in question. recreational or conservation purposes. the relative benefits and cost of all options should be considered. Trickle stocking similarly removes competition but is often constrained by lack of labour. and in rives is often associated with considerable downstream displacement to reduce population interactions. the aims. taking into account its entire suite of ecological prerequisites. Access to the target zone may also be problematic. making scatter stocking difficult. However. so as to maximize the chances of success. Spot planting can lead to competition among the stocked fish. Evidence suggests that scatter and trickle stocking are more successful than spot stocking. • The potential adverse impacts of stocking in terms of environmental. albeit for commercial. and specific objectives of the exercise must be clearly defined and adhered to. It is recommended that a strategic approach to stocking is adopted. As part of this approach a number of aspects should be addressed: • Whenever. . • The strategy for any programme of stocking. ‘The ‘do nothing’ option should not be disregarded but should be considered as fully as any of the other options under discussion. A recurring problem is that the fish for stocking may not be readily available at the ideal time or in the numbers required. 1-lowever. they are of little importance if the resources for implementing the programme are not available when required. stocking of fish is to be considered. but the latter is generally carried out because it is easier to undertake. or with natural stocks. Scatter stocking gives a wider dispersal at the outset and minimizes competitive pressures. Recommendations Stocking is an important tool in the management of fisheries. and a compromise strategy for implementation must be drawn up. despite possible public pressure to stock. Resource problems The previous sections have described many of the issues that must be addressed when designing the stocking strategy. finance and available stock. All these circumstances must be addressed.

obogate rekreacione i komercijalne ulove. To uključuje gubitak genetičkog integriteta u autohtonim zalihama i ekološku neravnotežu i dosljedan pomak u strukturi zajednice. Iako su uložene velike sume novca u poribljavanje. kako u odnosu na efekte na divlju populaciju te vjerojatnost poboljšanja poribljavanja. uključujući ukupno 1354 predstavljanja 237 vrste u 140 zemalja. prijevoz i upoznavanje ribe je često korišten od strane vlasnika ribnjaka. Potencijalne genetičke. Ovo se događa kao rezultat indiskrimrajućeg poribljavanja. Menadžment i Ekonomija u Ribarstvu. 1994 Apstraktno poribljavanje. Kakogod. Protokol je diskutovan i otkrio nam je faktore kao što su izvor ribe. Uvod Poribljavanje. Od posebne važnosti je potrebu da se razvije strateški pristup poribljavanja koji definiše ciljeve vježbi i upućuje fazu implementacije prema ispunjavanju tih ciljeva. relativno nekoliko programa su bili ispravno procijenjeni. prijevoz i prezentacija ribe su najčešće korišteni da ublaže gubitke pri poribljavanju. clearly defining the most effective protocol for deciding whether stocking should take place. bez dobro definisanih objektiva ili prijašnjih procjena vjerovatnosti uspjeha vježbe.G. Strategije Poribljavanja Sažeta verzija publikacije od I. ekološke i okolišne posljedice poribljavanja su opisane. nastala su migriranja riba po velikoj skali. Dalje mnogo hiljada poribljavanja. . • A series of guidelines should be produced for all species which are stocked or introduced. Ovaj članak opisuje strategijski pristup poribljavanju s ciljem maksimiziranje potencijalne dobiti. vrijeme poribljavanja i mehanizmi poribljavanja. Kako god mnogi programi poribljavanja su izvršavani bez definisanih objektiva ili procjene potencijalnog ili stvarnog uspjeha vježbe. menadžera i naučnika u uvjerenje da poboljšati kvantitet ili kvalitet ulova i daće imati dugoročne koristi.• All projects should have in place the methodology to enable adequate monitoring of progress. Stoga je potrebno da poribljavači budu svjesni mogućih posljedica poribljavanja. zabrinutost je izražena o mogućim rizicima povezanima s poribljavanjem i uvođenjem ribe. how it should be implemented and the potential impacts of such activities. a naknadne interakcije s divljim zalihama. se desi godišnje u upravljanim ribnjacima. povrate ribarstvo ili da stvore novo. a dokaz preporučuje da vježbe poribljavanja rijetko kada vode u bilo koju dugoročnu dobit. U zadnjih 50 godina. Nedavno. ako su programi poribljavanja dizajnirani i implementirani da zadovolje zdane ciljeve trebalo bi biti moguće da se poboljša stopa uspjeha. uključujući milione pojedinačnih riba. gustoća poribljavanja. success or failure. and ultimately. This post-stocking appraisal should include a mechanism o disseminating the outcome to minimize the risk of any unforeseen adverse effects in future exercises.

a pokretana je od strane ribara koji su se žalili na status ribarenja. poboljšanje u kvalitetu vode. Npr. jezeru ili rezervoaru koji nije prije toga bio ribnjak zbog prirodnih prepreka. isušivanja zemljišta ili slične perturbacijae staništa. Smanjenje poribljavanje se smatra najjednostavnijim načinom kompenzacije za takve aktivnosti. a gdje se razlozi za loše poribljavanje ne mogu procijeniti. ili da bi se obogatio ribnjak u dijelovima rijeke u kojima je pristup ograničen prirodnim barijerama. Poribljavanje radi smanjivanja Ovo prevazilazi poribljavanjeribom dobijenom iz dobrovoljnih vježbi ili zakonske funkcije za zaštitu ribnih sistema. Većina poribljavanja u prošlosti vjerovatno pada u ovu kategoriju. Poribljavanje radi poboljšavanja Poboljšano poribljavanje je glavni metoda korišten za održavanje ili poboljšanje proizvodnje gdje je proizvodnja stvarno ili se pretpostavlja da je manja nego što bi vodeno tijelo moglo održati. Poribljavanje u ovom slučaju je opravdano jer osnovni problemi ograničene proizvodnje se rješavaju i dugoročno gledano dobit je vjerovatna. a uvežene vrste mogu postati vrijedan dodatak ribnjaku. barbel uvezen u rijeku Severn. Engleska je postala . To također obuhvata aktivnosti poboljšavanja kvalitete i kvantitet mriještenja ribe kako bi se popravio reprodukcijski potencijal. Ovaj se način poribljavanja koristi tamo gdje ribari izraze nezadovoljstvo u vezi kvalitete ribarenja. Objektivi Poribljavanja Razlozi za poribljavanje su mnogi ali u glavnom spadaju u četiri glavne kategorije koje se odnose na stanje divljih ribnjaka. kao što su izgradnja brana rezervoara. Poribljavanje radi obnavljanja Poribljavanje radi obnavljanja odnosi se na ono što se iznese nakon što oraničavajući faktor obnavljanja ribnjaka ili poboljšanje biva uklonjen ili smanjen npr. Ako je proizvodnja već ograničena za ne očekivati je da će poribljavanje imati dobre dugoročne efekte. Ovo je najkontraverzniji proces poribljavanja i doveo je do značajne sporova u prošlosti npr. ili u komercijalnim ili spusti-i-uzmi dijelovima gdje se količina ribe treba povećati. Međutim. Međutim. Stvaranje novih ribnjaka Ova kategorija uključuje pokušaje da se uspostavi novi ribnjak u rijeci. obnova staništa ili olakšavanje prolaza za migraciju ribe. poboljšao prirast ribe i sl. uvoženje Nilskog smuđa u Jezero Viktorija. posljedice antropogenih aktivnosti i lakoća s kojom se faktori koji ograničavaju prirodnu proizvodnju mogu ukloniti. Međutim. ili u procjene o potencijalnoj proizvodnji ribe koje su bile nerealistično visoke. ako nova vrsta naseli slobodan prostor njen utjecaj na autohtone vrste može biti zanemarljiv. i utjecaj na divlje ribnjake u ovim područjima mora biti razmotren. evolucijske izolacije ili gdje su nove (egzotične) vrste uvežene u već postojeće ribnjake da bi se povećala raznolikost. Ponovno uspostavljanje ribnjaka koji su ranije bili eliminisani zbog lošeg kvaliteta vode ili degradacije staništa su ovoj kategoriji. što je rezultiralo u prirodnu fluktuaciju koja može imati dubok učinak na populaciju „akustičnih“ riba. riba u ribnjacima može biti puštena u nedirnute dijelove rijeka i jezera. u većini slučajeva procjene ribara i menadžera ribnjaka o stanju ribnjaka su bile bezrazložno pesimistične.

u slučaju brane tad se smanjeno poribljavanje može uzeti u obzir. Gdje se ograničavajući faktori mogu izolirati. a ne rekla-kazala činjenicama ili nedokazanim pritužbama. Da bi se pripomoglo pri stvaranju odluka. Ako se ne može naći jasan uzrok. implementacija i evaluacija. već i procjenu stanja vode i prirodnih i umjetnih faktora koji mogu ograničiti proizvodnju. Ako se proizvodnja smatra ispod sistemskog potencijala važno je da se identificiraju kočnice i riješe prije nego se krene sa poribljavanjem. bjelice. ukrštanje klena. a koncetristai se na rijeke i jezera koja se mogu povratiti. U ovim slučajevima bolje je razmotriti alternativne strategije poboljšanja ili jednostavno ostaviti sistem na miru. ne isključuje „stavi i uzmi“ ribnjake. Korak po korak pristup pri planiranju. On je baziran na „projektnom pristupu“ kojim se upravlja aktivnostima. npr. Ako se korektivna akcija ne može izvršiti. crvenperke ili deverike može dovesti do neuspjeha poribljene vrste da proizvede samo-održivu populaciju i smanjenja biomase jedne ili svih autohtonih vrsta. tehnika najčešće korištena je formulisanje razvojnog projekta. Dio ove vježbe uključuje saznanje o tome da li je ribnjak ispod optimalnog nivoa proizvodnje ili da li se kvalitet ribnjaka (npr. potreba za bilo kakvim poboljšanjima mora biti preispitana.značajna komponenta u obnavaljanju ribnjaka. ili ako su nepremostive poribljavanje se može prekinuti. Ovo zahtjeva ne samo procjenu stanja postojećeg ribnjaka. Najvažnije je da se aktivnosti mogu podijeliti na slijedeće faze: identifikacija. procjena. Prvi korak kada razmatramo bilo kakvo unaprjeđenje ribnjaka je da se osigura ispravna i razjasni pravilno upravljanje politikom i ciljevima. Zbog toga. Ovo vjerovatno neće dovasti to održive populacije i može se desiti da poribljavanje mora biti konstantno. međutim. kada se govori o starosti ili veličini) može poboljšati. Pod ovim uslovima bi se trebale razmotriti alternativne strategije poboljšanja ili jednostavno da se ne radi ništa. . koji se poribljavaju da bi dali ribu za brzu eksploataciju. poboljšano pohranjivanje se može razmatrat. ali nema baš puno smisla poribljavati vodu koja ne može podržati samoodrživu populaciju. poribljavanje na ovaj nači traži pažljivo planiranje da bi se izbjegle moguće katastrofalni efekti na prirodnu riblju populaciju. Samo se tada predloženi projekt može pravilno formulisati da dostigne željene efekte. Ovo. preuzimanju i implementiranju programa poribljavanja je prikazan na slici 1. Ovaj pristup je koristan za postavljanje dizajna programa poribljavanja na jasan i logičan način tako da se sve slabosti koje mogu postojati vide u ranoj fazi. Protokol za ocjenjivanje pre-poribljavanja Utvrđivanje potreba za poboljšavanje ribnjaka U pogledu mnogih zabrinutosti koje se pojavljuju kad je riječ o poribljavanju. Uspostavljanje ciljeva poribljavanja Ako je ribnjak željenog kvaliteta. priprema. trebaju se preuzeti napori za rješavanje problema prije nego se pređe na poribljavanje. veoma važno je biti odgovoran u radu. Uvoženje vrsta koje će se takmičiti sa autohtonim vrstama u nekom stadiju postojanja. Generalno poribljavanje neće poboljšati ulov u vodama u kojim već postoji prirodni odabir. Ove procjene moraju se temeljiti na čvrstim dokazima iz znanstvenih istraživanja. npr.

i samo onda be se trebala donijeti odluka da li da se implementira ili odbije originalni prijedlog. Potencijalni utjecaj prijedloga poribljavanja na potencijalni pomladak i na stabilnost kako uveženih tako i rezidentnih riba se mora ocijeniti. ako umanjeno pohranjivanje nije održivo ili zakonito. gustoća poribljavanja. sa svim poznatim predviđenim prednostima i manama precizno određenim. zbog npr. kvantitet mlađi je spao na kritično nizak nivo. možemo razmatrati uvoz ribe iz drugih ribnjaka il uvoz egzotične ribe. ovaj tok akcija treba primijeniti. uključujući raspoloživost materijala potrebnog za poribljavanje.Alternativno. gdje je korist stvarna i bitna ne bi trebalo ne iskoristiti odnos sa javnošću. Ribnjak se tad možda povrati bez poribljavanja. npr. prijevoz i financije. Međutim. a poribljavanje ne bi trebalo biti prihvaćeno bez ugrađivanja post-projektne . Procjena troškova mora uključiti sve glavne i povratne izdatke i more biti ocjenjena naspram predviđene dobiti prijedloga. Ako sistem nije mogao održati ribe koje su bile pohranjene prije. Razvoj strategija poribljavanja Ako se poribljavanje čini isplativim onda se implementacija mora pažljivo isplanirati da bi se minimizirali potencijalni problemi i rizici (Slika 2). trebaju biti određeni. raznolikost vrsta. Konačno ako je moguće ukloniti ili smanjiti uzrok degradacije ribnjaka. Procjena dobiti ne bi trebala uključiti javnu ocjenu programa. iako u mnogim situacijama ovo može veli poticaj za poduzimanje posla. poboljšana glavna ili sekundaran proizvodnja. Detalji faktora koji se moraju razmotriti pri razrađivanju strategije poribljavanja će biti objašnjeni kasnije. u slučaju poboljšanog ulova. U slučajevima gdje prirodna obnova može biti neučinkovita. Protokol koje se treba usvojiti za ostvarivanje maksimalne dobiti se također mora odrediti. Ova formulaciona faza treba procijeniti raspoložive resurse za preuzimanje projekta. izvor ribe. Ocjenjivanje prije poribljavanja Jedna komponenta poribljavanja koja je u velikoj mjeri zapostavljena je evaluacija programa i revizija stepena uspjeha u radu. Takva evaluacija bi se trebala smatrati integralnim dijelom programa. Npr. Konačno kompletan pregled sakupljenih informacija bi trebao iznijeti neovisan i nepristran sud. i da identifikuje bilo koje zapreke koje mogu ugroziti uspješnu implementaciju programa. Ovo je također efikasno iskorištavanje resursa jer može imati veće dugoročne koristi nego poboljšano poribljavanje i također ima i druge ekološke koristi. Procjena prijedloga Svi ekološki faktori i posljedice se moraju razmotriti. a osobiti u smislu opravdavanja troškova. veličina i starost ribe ribe koja će se poribljavati. npr. važno je provjeriti da li je uredu ostvariti uvoz to jest da li će on ugroziti autohtone vrste. Detalji o genetičkim rizicima i mogućim okolišnim uticajima ili uticajima na ribu koji mogu nastati zbog poribljavanja se moraju razmotriti Socio-ekonomski utjecaj na bilo koju promjenu može također biti presudan pa se zbog toga mora procijeniti. Poboljšanje staništa je najpoželjnija opcija jer bi trebala voditi ka dugoročnim održivim poboljšanjima sa minimalnom ekološkom štetom. radnu snagu. vrijeme i mehanizam puštanja u vodu. obnavljanje ribnjaka je možda najbolja opcija.

predstavljaju genetičku varijaciju. Ove geografske genetičke razlike se mogu manifestirati kao npr. U idealnim slučajevima sve ribe bi trebale biti pregledane i certifikovane kao zdrave prije poribljavanja. Ako ima previše ribe uveća će se smrtna stopa putem izgladnjivanja. Ova informacija bi trebala pružiti povratni mehanizam (Slika 1) za unapređivanje formulacije realnih ciljeva gdje je poribljavanje osnovna aktivnost. moramo razmotriti očuvanje genetskog integriteta autohtonih vrsta. U bilo kojoj zemlje postoje legalne norme o premještanju ribe.evaluacije. Ako postoji bilo kakva mogućnost zaraze ribe bi se trebale držati u karanteni dok se rizik ne procjeni. Poribljavanje samo jedne vrste može dati neželjene efekte na endemski ribnjak kroz kompetitivno izumiranje. . Sa premještanjem ribe između različitih voda. Posljedično ribnjak sa ne-autohtonom ribom može biti slabije prilagođeni riječnom ili jezerskom okruženju u koji su pušteni. poribljavanje bi trebalo biti ograničeno na ribe sa lokalnih područja ili na ribe koje nisu držane u zatočeništvu više od jedne generacije. Npr. potencijal uvećanja. broj lososa pređe optimalni nivo broj mlađi će se smanjiti. Na nesreću intenzitet i dugoročna priroda većine programa poribljavanja će napraviti teškim ispravljanje situacije kad se jednom genetički integritet naruši. pa poribljavanje može biti manje uspješno nego što je očekivano. Možda jedna od najvećih briga u vezi poribljavanja je da ona rijetko uzimaju u obzir kapacitet sistema koji prihvata poboljšano poribljavanje. i da osigura bazu iskustava pomoću kojih će se moći procjeniti rizik i isplativost novih projekata. ali su one često prekršene sa posljedicama koje teško popraviti. Potencijalni rizici kod poribljavanja Genetska interakcija Nedavno je uviđeno da da ribe iz ribnjaka (posebno losos) sa različitih lovišta. Ekološke interakcije Prihvatni kapacitet ciljanih staništa. Dakle kada krećemo sa bilo kojim načinom poribljavanja. ispod onog prije uvoza ribe. gdje je moguće. zrelosna dob ili kod lososa kao vrijeme povratka u slatke vode. smanjenje nađeno kod poribljenog lososa zbog takmičenja pastrva sa mladim lososima. Kontrola bolesti. postoji jasan rizik od pojave bolesti. Interakcija vrsta. Međutim. Evaluacije bi trebala procijeniti efikasnost i dugoročnu dobit raznih pokušaja i režima poribljavanja. Npr. smanjena stopa rasta i uvećana disperzija slijede. i pokuša da odredi faktore uspjeha ili neuspjeha . Dakle. U najgorem slučaju preveliko poribljavanje može dovesti do redukcije u radu ribnjaka. Oni mogu imati i neke veze s prilagodljivosti s obzirom na izvedbu ribnjaka u određenoj okolini. Osim toga bilo koja riba koja preživljava tako što se reproducira sa autohtonim jedinkama može također izazvati smanjeno prilagođavanje svoga potomstva. Međutim kad se ribe premjeste sa jedne rijeke (ili jezera) u drugu nemoguće je zajamčiti bez zaraznu situaciju jer i primajuća rijeka (ili jezero) mora biti zdrava. te u manjoj mjeri one iz istih lovišta. dok poribljavanje može proizvesti veliko povećanje broja ribe u određeno vrijeme i li u određenom području riba više neće moći preživjeti.

da bi se dobio maksimalni raspon genetskog materijala. Ribe se nebi trebale držati u zatočeništvu duže od jedne generacije da bi se ograničili mogući genetski efekti na budući pomladak. Proizvodne zalihe po mrijestilištu temelji se isključivo na lokalnim zalihama i povratu mlađi u početni sistem. s nekoliko ovih procedura smo već upoznati pa će se manje objašnjavati dok one vezane za implementaciju će biti opisane detaljno. Zbog toga je neophodno planirati poribljavanjeda bi se osigurao njegov uspjeh. (2) Uvoz ribe iz dijela rijeke ili jezera sa sličnim uslovima koje su bile u karanteni i provjerene na bolesti i parazite. (3) Umjetna propagacija na temelju (1) i (2) (dovoljno ribe treba koristiti da bi se izbjeglo smanjenje genetska raznolikosti vrsta. Zato bi trebalo raditit na smanjenju genetskih varijacija koje nastaju od uvoza ribe nepoznatog porijekla. Strategije poribljavanja Kad preuzimamo projekt poribljavanja postoji mnogo procedura koje se moraju razmotriti tokom implementacijske faze. Šematski pristup je predložen na Slici 2. (2) Izabrani dio rijeke ili jezera sa sličnim okruženjem (veličina toka. najidealnije od više izvora. (3) Pri uvozu predatornih riba mora se provjeriti da neće izazvati ekološke probleme. (4) Pretpostaviti manje važne genetske razlike pri prilagođavanju i uzeti ribe od bilo kud gdje je ona jeftina. nekoliko opcija koje se odnose na porijeklo ribe treba razmotriti.Isto tako moguće je da uvežena riba iz jednog sistema u drugi neće biti otporna na neku endemsku bolest ili parazita pa poribljavanje može biti neuspješno. temperatura vode. Opcije za sisteme sa izumrlim vrstama (1) Ribnak koji donira ribu treba imati iste biološke karakteristike kao i ribnjak primalac. protok itd). . Opcije za osiromašene ili napuštene ribnjake (1) Build-up of stock by hatchery production based entirely on local stock and return brood stock to home system. Prije implementacije programa poribljavanja. Na nesreću mnogo praktičnih aspekata će se morati posmatrati samo pismeno jer je relativno malo informacija je dostupno efektima raznih procedura. Porijeklo ribe Postoji sve veća svijest o važnosti o održanju genetičkog integriteta ribnjaka. (2) Redistribucija odrasle ribe drugdje može biti nepogodna zbog toga što okruženje ukojese uvozi riba može imati različite prevladavajuće uslove (3) Izabrati ribe iz sistema sasličnimokruženjem. Opcije za rijeke u koje treba puštati nove vrste (1) Uzgajana riba i certifikovano zdrava riba.

hvatanje mrežom ili „kontrolisanim“ elektricitetom (strujom) se preporučuju. prehranu i predviđeni vijek ribe. jer će ovo imati jak utjecaj na poribljavanje. Vrijednosti od 10 – 80 % smrtnosti su date u literaturi. Tokom hvatanja i transporta kontakt sa ribama bi se trebao izbjegavati gdje god je moguće. koje mogu dosta utjecati na kasnije preživljavanje. najčešće se bazira na ranijim iskustvima. Ribe bi trebale biti u vodi niske gustoće sa pojačanim dotokom kisika. odgovarajući odnos se treba odrediti za riječno poribljavanje. Odnosno treba napraviti bazu iskustava koja će davati smjernice pri određivanju gustoće poribljavanja kako bi se povećala dobit kod poboljšanog poribljavanja. Najvažnije je izbjeći pre-poribljavanje. Ovakvi podataka ima najviše za losose (pogledaj Tabelu 1). Gustoća poribljavanja Kao što je ranije razmatrano detaljna procjena vode je potrebna da bi se odredila optimalna gustoća poribljavanja. U jezerima postoji odnos između priobalnog područja. Ovo se može postići samo ako se program poribljavanja procjeni i dokumentuje. Kad se računa gustoća poribljavanja. Tako da bi se trebalo potruditi i stvoriti tabele uspješnosti poribljavanja i za ostale vrste. sličan. dubine i predviđene količine ribe. Međutim ne postoji konačni odnos za računanje gustoće kod upuštanja različite vrste ribe u rijeke. Sve ribe bi trebale biti izgladnjivane bar 24 sata prije transporta da bi se smanjile potrebe za kisikom. Prije puštanja barbela u rijeku Mehaigas spuštena je temperatura vode u kojoj se riba nalazila nekih 10-11 radi prilagođavanja riba budućoj temperaturi vode u kojoj će se nalaziti. Veličina ili starost ribe .. pa je kompenziranje gustoće teško utvrditi. Konačno nema koristi uvoziti ribu koja je u lošem stanju . Ako je moguće. zbog povećanog disanja tokom probave. zbog toga procedure koje će smanjiti vrijeme i učestalost kontakta s ribama trebaju biti korištene. Tehnike pomoću kojih se ribe hvataju iz prve stvaraju najmanje ozljeda. Pre-kondicioniranje i aklimatizacija Aklimatizacija određenoj temperaturi je vrlo važna. Rukovanje i transport ribe Rukovanje (kontakt) i transport neminovno izazivaju stres i povrede riba. Ovi bi trebalo biti bazirano na mjerenom uspjehu poribljavanja sa različitim gustoćama. mora se obratiti pažnja na trenutnu biomasu i mora se ostaviti prostora za migriranje i širenje. Ako ribe treba transportovati na velike udaljenosti treba uzeti u obzir smanjenje temperature radi umanjivanja količine amonijaka.

Svi ovi problemi moraju biti poznati i kompromisna strategija za implementaciju stvorena. Međutim kod ove informacije treba uzeti u obzir odnos prednosti i mana uzimanja ribe odgovarajuće starosne dobi. Veličine. Ona nam govori da je hranjena mlađ vjerovatno najbolja starosna dob za poribljavanje. ikra je vjerovatno jeftinije rješenje kao izbor starosne dobi za poribljavanje. Ispuštanje na jedno mjesto može dovesti do nastanka takmičenja između domaćih i uveženih riba. tj. Mehanizmi ispuštanja ribe Tri mehanizma za ispuštanje ribe se koriste: (1) Ispuštanje na jedno mjesto – ispuštanje svih riba na jedno mjesto. Raspršeno ispuštanje daje veću disperziju i smanjuje kompetitivnost. rekreacione ili konzervativne potrebe. ono još nije dobilo dovoljnu i potrebnu pažnju. Preporuke Poribljavanje je važan alat u radu ribnjaka. Veoma malo sličnih informacije je dostupno za ostale vrste. Ribe bi se trebale prebaciti u ribnjake kad nivo vode i temperatura vode padnu previše. ali je isto puno lakše izvršiti. Preporučuje se da se poribljavanju pristupi strateški. Poribljavanje bi se trebalo izvršiti onda kada je produktivnost buduće vode domaćina najviša. Problem koji se ponavlja je da rabi koja je potrebna za poribljavanje nije odmah dostupna u idealno vrijeme za poribljavanje ili da je nema u dovoljnoj količini. (Tabela 2). Tabela 1 daje primjer lososa. Vrijeme poribljavanja Postoji znatan obim literature koji govori o najboljem vremenu za početak poribljavanja lososa i sličnih vrsta. Dokazi kažu da je raspršeno i intervalno ispuštanje uspješnije od ispuštanje ribe na jedno mjesto. Generalni zaključak je da je poribljavanje u proljeće više efikasno (4 do 12 puta) nego zimi. (3) intervalno ispuštanje —ispuštanje ribe u vremenskim periodima u isti region. Međutim. Kada se ova usporedba izvrši. Mnogi od ovih argumenata se mogu izbaciti crtanjem tabela koje ilustruju uspjeh poribljavanja u različitim grupama. Kao dio ovog pristupa treba poznavati sljedeće aspekte: . kako za komercijalne. ali može se slobodno pretpostaviti da ovo može vrijediti i za ostale vrste. Problemi sa resursima Prethodna poglavlja su opisala mnoge od problema koje moramo rješavati kada dizajnira strategija poribljavanja.Bilo je mnogo rasprave oko najodgovarajuće veličine ili starosne dobi ribe koja se treba koristit za poribljavanje. da bi se smanjilo raspršivanje ribe i stres. Intervalno ispuštanje također smanjuje kompetitivnost ali je često ograničeno nedostatkom radne snage. financijama i nedostupnošću ribe. (2) Raspršeno ispuštanje — ispuštanje riba na različita mjesta koja pribadaju istoj regiji. Poribljavanje u rano ljeto kada je izvor prirodne hrane dobar omogućava ribama da se prilagode brže pa je i preporučljiv. ali ne tokom perioda mriješćenja.

• Kad se ocjenjuje poribljavanje kao mogući upravljački (menadžmentski) alat. jasno navodeći najefikasniji protokol koji govori da li poribljavanje treba uraditi. • Svi projekti bi trebali imati ovu metodologiju da bi omogućili adekvatno nadgledanje progresa i u konačnici uspjeha ili propasti.• Kadgod se razmatra poribljavanje. a i da bi se šanse uspjeha dovele na maksimum. Opcija da se „ne radi ništa“ se ne treba odbaciti već razmotriti kao jedna od mogućih opcija. • Strategija bilo kojeg programa poribljavanja. transporta ili uvoza treba biti pažljivo skrojena da se ne bi ugrozio ekološki sistem. • Potencijalni štetni utjecaji poribljavanja na okruženje i genetičke i ekološke interakcije se moraju razmotriti u potpunosti i trebaju se usvojiti principi predostrožnosti ako se neki od problema mogu predvidjeti. Ovo naknadno ocjenjivanje poribljavanja treba uključiti mehanizam za smanjivanje rizika od bilo kakve nepredviđene nuspojave u budućnosti. i određeni objektivi se moraju jasno odrediti i ispoštovati. ciljevi. kako treba izvršiti implementaciju i potencijalne posljedice takvih akcija. • Niz smjernica trebaju biti napravljene za sve vrste koje se nalaze u ribnjaku ili se trebaju uvesti. relativna dobit i trošak svih opcija se moraju razmotriti. .