UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA
EDU 3232 READINGS AND PROJECT WORK FOR TEACHING LITERATURE IN ESL CONTEXTS
RESEARCH PAPER Exploration of streetwise knowledge as the center of human personality in ‘Great Expectations’ by Charles Dickens, ‘The Mill on the Floss’ by George Eliot and ‘Robinson Crusoe’ by Daniel Defoe.
LECTURER: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Malachi Edwin Vethamani
SUPERVISOR: Puan Juridah Md Rashid
PREPARED BY: Nor Ayuni bt Kamarul Zahan 860911-09-5048
139786 B.Ed TESL
Thesis Statement: Exploration of streetwise knowledge as the center of human personality in ‘Great Expectations’ by Charles Dickens, ‘The Mill on the Floss’ by George Eliot and ‘Robinson Crusoe’ by Daniel Defoe. 1.0 Introduction This paper will discuss the skills that informal education can offer. Informal education has been around as long as people have grouped together. It is also well known as the education of daily living. In 19th century, education has become an important tool for anyone in order to get a better job and being respected by the society. Plus, 19 th century witnesses the beginning of industrial era and boys are encouraged to begin their schooling at young age with a hope that it will helps them become a better person in future. However, formal education alone can never mould a person into a good personality. Informal education or streetwise could probably become a better educator compared to formal education. According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, streetwise is a skill when the person is able to deal with the dangerous situations and people that are common in some cities and towns. From this definition, it shows that streetwise or informal education as the learning that goes on in daily life. For example, we may well encourage others to talk about things that have happened in their lives so that they can handle their feelings and to think about what to do next. Others may view informal education as the learning projects that we undertake for ourselves. For example, one may takes traveling as their hobby. Soon, the activity can be useful for them to cope with their challenging life. All in all, informal education is a process of helping the person deal with their life. Therefore, it can be considered here as well that streetwise knowledge is the center of human personality.
2.0 Biography of the authors 2.1 Charles Dickens DICKENS, CHARLES JOHN HUFFAM (1812-1870) was born on the 7th February 1812 at a house in the Mild End Terrace, Commercial Road, Landport (Portsea). The house was opened as a Dickens Museum on 22 nd July 1904. Charles Dickens is generally considered as the greatest writer of the Victorian period because of his writings on social evils, injustice and hypocrisy. He had also experienced dramatic ends of education in his youth oppression, when he was forced to end school in early teens and work in a factory. The defining moment of Dickens’s life occurred when he was 12 years old. His father, who had difficult time managing money and constantly in debt, was imprisoned in the Marshalsea debtor’s prison in 1824. Because of this, Dickens was withdrawn from school and forced to work in a warehouse that handled ‘blacking’, or shoe polish to help support the family. This experience has profound psychological and sociological effects on his life. It gave him a firsthand acquaintance with poverty and made him the most vigorous and influential voice of working classes in his age. Dickens was allowed to go back to school after his father was released from prison. However, at 15 years old, his formal education ended and he found employment as an office boy at an attorney’s, while
similar to Pip in the novel ‘Great Expectations’ Through his experiences with lack of money in life. which is a novel that will be discussed in this research paper. In 1829.he studied shorthand at night. His relationship with her is rather similar with Pip and Estella’s different social class at the beginning of the novel ‘Great Expectations’. which is one the texts that will be discussed in this research. probably because her parents did not think him as a good suitor for her. and in 1830 he met and fell in love with Maria Beadnell. set in the years of French Revolution. With this experiences. His point of life at this stage is written in his work. Interestingly. In 1834. he became a free-lance reporter at Doctor’s Commons Courts. This is the beginning of his involvement into the world of writing. He plays at the characters and the story in his collections as one of the ways to sustain the idea in writing. it could probably be the reason why most of his writing revolves around the issue of morality. Charles Dickens was left alone without any father figure in his life. ‘Robinson Crusoe’ is one of the books. However. Their different family background and his social class seem to be the reason for his incompatible match for the family. the daughter of a banker. his relationship with Maria Beadnell ended. there are probabilities that
. and he was forced to help the father. ‘David Copperfield’ (1849-1850). Later in his life. His duty for the family was not more than obligation rather than a sense of concerned towards his family members. Dickens had a small collection of books which were kept is a little room upstairs in his house. One of the novels is ‘Great Expectations’(1860-1861). ‘Bleak House’ (1852-1853) and ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ (1859). money and social class. his impecunious father was once again arrested for debt. where Dickens used his own personal experiences of work in a factory. In other words. Another writing which owns similar issue with ‘Great Expectations’ are ‘Oliver Twist’ (1837-1839) and ‘Old Curiosity Shop’ (1840-1841) which depicts the hard years of the society’s struggle to cope with the industrial era. both his parents and his brothers were frequently after him for money. ‘Great Expectations’.
Contrary to his wish to be buried in Rochester Cathedral. At Miss Lathim's. but almost entirely to his inordinate gift of observation. both of their names. Plus. he is still remembered until today. it pays in the end.Dickens writing styles or issues might be similar to Daniel De Foe (the author of ‘Robinson Crusoe’) writing style. Arbury. his sympathy with the inauspicious group of society and his power over the emotions. missing the companionship and comfort of her brother. all the hardship he had to bear when he was a youngster and the rejection for his social class. and Isaac. Chrissy. she had four siblings: Robert. Mary Anne shared an especially close relationship with her brother Isaac and they were inseparable playmates. Maggie and Mary Anne are rather similar. Mary Anne first turned to books as a source of amusement. Isaac was sent to school at Foleshill. the suffering. Despite his dark life with his parents. and Mary Anne was sent to Miss Latham's boarding school. His unique force in literature not only reflects supreme artistic or intellectual quality. Fanny. Her stage of life at this moment is rather similar to the relationship between Tom Tulliver and Maggie Tulliver in ‘The Mill on the Floss’. Charles Dickens died at home on June 9. After years struggling with his health decreasing condition. Those
. and the oppressed. It seems like the author is already intense to write the novel based on her life experience. “He was a sympathizer to the poor. one of England’s greatest writers is lost to the world” The inscription truly reflects his identity as a great writer. in 1824. The inscription on his tomb reads. he was buried in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey.2 George Eliot GEORGE ELIOT is a pen-name of MARY ANNE EVANS (1819-1880) She was born on the 22nd November 1819 at South Farm. 1870 after suffering a stroke. 2. However. and by his death. As an author of various intellectual writings. As the youngest child of Robert Evans and Christiana Pearson Evans. a close and inseparable sibling. Both name starts with M and ends with E.
well-modulated. However. Mary Anne became an accomplished pianist. The author’s appearance is quite similar with her imaginary version of self-reflect. However. a London publisher and bookseller. and Mary Anne suspected that her father had chosen it in order to enlarge her social circle. sensitive. was admired for her skill at writing. Unlike her friend. 19 years old. She also wrote poetry and fiction. after finishing at Miss Latham's. which impressed everyone who knew George Eliot in later years. Mary Anne and her father moved to a new home at Foleshill. Mrs. Evans died. Later. and read widely. In February of 1839. and introspective child. she came into contact with John Chapman. Wallington's Boarding School at Nuneaton. Her emotion was torn between the society’s expectation for women and her own belief that she deserve to break free from the norm. Compared to the women at that particular era. Having read her translation of Strauss. Mary Anne’s father died in 1849 when she was 29. Later. In 1828. Maggie is quite similar with her real life character. In the novel. left school to take care of her father. their relationship becomes closer and Mary
. and Mary Anne. In 1841. Her self-reflect character. Upon leaving Miss Wallington's. Maggie is described as unattractive and not a beautiful child. he asked her to write an article for the Westminster Review. and perhaps help her find a husband. At Miss Franklin’s school. Mary Anne was sent to Mrs. It was here that Mary Anne worked to rid herself of her Midland accent and cultivated the low. Maggie Tulliver. Foleshill was a larger town than Griff. Mary Anne attended Miss Franklin's school at Coventry. Mary Anne felt distanced from those around her and could not stand in the estimation of her neighbors. Mary Anne seems to be ahead more accomplished than any other women.who knew her found Mary Anne as a serious. it is not education that merely changes these two characters but their social values and inner beauty that actually works as the medium of change. studied French. musical voice. Maggie is being categorized as impolite young girl for her ongoing and outspoken character. She had straight light-brown hair and a plain face.
One of the novels is ‘The Mill on the Floss (1860). Mary Anne then adopted George Eliot as her ‘nom de plume’. which is a novel that will be discussed in this research paper. easily pronounced word’ When the truth about her identity was firmly established. 1856. Mary Anne began to write ‘The Sad Fortunes of the Reverand Amos Barton’ . But the book was finally published and despite all the controversial nature of their relationship. He was the one who introduce her to the world of novel writing. Despite his avowed confidence in her. ‘Silas Marner (1861). He feared that the controversy surrounding her life with Lewes would keep it from selling. Lewes sends the story to publisher. he still had some doubts about her ability to write fiction.Lewes’s Christian name. In those years. Another writing which owns similar issue with ‘The Mill on the Floss’ are ‘Middlemarch (1871-1872) which tells the awakening to the many complications involved in a person’s life and how she should live her life. On 23rd September. and Eliot was a good mouth-filling.Anne had to move from the house under Chapman’s wife. 1857 less than 2 months after her 37th birthday. Those doubts were removed when he read ‘Amos Barton’. humanity and power of knowledge. She met George Henry Lewes in October. ‘The Mill on the Floss’. the book was a success. Susanna’s demand. claiming it was a work of a (male) friend who wanted to remain anonymous because there has not been any female writer yet in that era. the publisher balked at publishing her new novel. it could probably be the reasons why most of her writing revolves around the issue of morality. They live a life like a married couple though they were not even tied up in a marriage. which is about a man who has been alone for a long
. Through her experiences with different kinds of people and her desire to break free from the norm. the society will look down on those against the cultural norm. which would later become a part of ‘Scenes of Clerical Life’. The story was published on New Years Day. 1851 and they decided to live in unmarried relationship. She chose the name because ‘George was Mr.
As one of the best-known writers throughout the world for having written ‘Robinson Crusoe’. Daniel Defoe lived a very interesting life. they had two sons and five daughters. Until now. or maybe a strange one which made him one of the most important figures of English Literature. pamphleteer. This poem attacked those who thought England should not have a foreign-born king. and each had him thrown into prison for a time. In 1684 he married Mary Tuffley. after the death of Lewes. London. She even reflects her own relationship with her aunt. Mary Anne continues her serious works for years.3 Daniel Defoe DANIEL DEFOE or DANIEL FOE (1660-1731) was born in September 1660 at St. He studied at Charles Morton's Academy. Elliot married John Walter Cross. He plunged into politics and trade. 1880. traveling extensively in Europe before he starts writing fiction. including ‘The Review’ newspaper. compassion and understanding. She died in London on 22nd December. His subsequent publications. and journalist. London. a Methodist preacher through the novel ‘Adam Bede’ (1859). In 1702 Defoe wrote his famous pamphlet ‘The Shortest Way With Dissenters’. In 1880. Cripplegate. Giles.time and who has lost his faith in his any man. but he was arrested and pilloried in May
. were not so well received by those in positions of power. She was then regarded as ‘the greatest living English novelist’. she still gained the extreme respect and admiration from her peers and fellow novelists. In 1695 he adopted the more aristocratic sounding ‘Defoe’ as his surname. The novel demonstrates happiness as a reward of tolerance. Defoe managed to anger the Anglican Church and the Whig Party in turn. He is considered as the founder of English novel. In the early 1680 Defoe was a commission merchant in Cornhill but went bankrupt in 1691. He earned fame and royal favor with his satirical poem ‘The True born Englishman’ (1701). Nobody was amused. He mimicked the extreme attitudes of High Anglican Tories and pretended to argue for the extermination of all Dissenters. 2. Defoe jumps into the world of writing on 1700. He is well-known as an English novelist.
He followed the success of Crusoe with ‘Captain Singleton’ (1720). his extended visits abroad. Indeed. The character in the novel is not only a good trader. The poem was sold in the streets and so. It gives him a broader exposure towards life from his encounter with various groups of people. middle-class family man. economic and government structure. ‘Robinson Crusoe’. While his years as a broker endowed him with insight into human nature. in his mind and heart. Defoe’s family background and ‘Robinson Crusoe’ was a little similar because both of them seem to care less about their family and focus more These novels hold a similar theme with
. writing ‘Robinson Crusoe’. in April 1719 he turned to fiction. he would have been a wealthy man if he had taken his own advice. based on the true account of a shipwrecked mariner. diabolical journalist. he undoubtedly saw himself in the role of solid. "Hymn To The Pillory" (1703). but an excellent practitioner of voyage trading as well. Unlike the 2 previous authors. it could probably be the reason why most of his writing revolves around the issue of morality and made him weary of the dangers inherent in political commentary. and ‘Roxana’ (1724). Through his experiences with political issue. Later on. deceit and political doubledealing. However. he was regarded as an unscrupulous. and his absence for works lead to a wide barrier between him and the family. his marriage to Mary Tuffley.1703. He wrote numerous treaties which demonstrated that he considered himself as an expert in economic and family matters. ‘Moll Flanders’ (1722). However. ‘A Journal of the Plague Year’ (1722). He was one of the first to write stories about believable characters in realistic situations using simple prose. he even wrote countless essays and pamphlets on economic theory which were advanced for his time. Besides literature works. While in prison. despite its length of 47 years cannot be considered as a model of matrimonial paradise. Still. Daniel Defoe’s background does not reflect much of the story line in the novel ‘Robinson Crusoe’. his risky judgment always steered him in debt. His unstable fortunes. Charles Dickens and George Elliot. he wrote a mock ode. ‘Captain Jack’ (1722).
Even though the novel seems to suggest positive value and encouraging ending.
3. Similar to the year when ‘The Mill on the Floss’ was first published. he had an encounter with an escaped convict who springs up from behind a tombstone. Both the story line and his life seem to imply an irony statement. He orders him to bring him food and a file for his leg irons. As a child. but the education has done a great harm on some of the characters. the readers will be able to see that their experiences have brought a great impact towards their personality.0 Synopsis of the novels This section will discuss the storyline of the three novels. After another arrest in 1715. Through the novel. Pip. poor and fighting for the debt. Pip obeys. who is a young orphan lives with his sister and her husband in the marshes of Kent. but the
. the writer however did not reflect much of the positive side of the character. he spent his time covertly editing other newspapers as he worked on the novel ‘Robinson Crusoe’ and ‘Moll Flanders’. The Mill on the Floss by George Elliot and Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. It suggests the idea that ‘Robinson Crusoe’s experience might be Defoe’s dream of his life. The main characters experiences will lead them to a better person compared to formal education that they had received before. Moorfields.1 ‘Great Expectations’ by Charles Dickens This novel was published on 1860. Even though all of the characters receive formal education during their young age.on their own life. Defoe faced bankruptcy in 1692. Pip (Philip Pirrip). It seems like their personal desire is much more important than spending the time with their family. On the other hand. 3. streetwise education seems to be the one that helps them to take control of their life and makes them become more respectable by the society. He died on 1731 in Ropemaker’s Alley. Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. The story revolves around the main character.
he dedicated his life to make Pip a gentleman. With Miss havisham’s guidance. Compeyson. Therefore. One day. However. falls in love with her and dreams of becoming a wealthy gentleman so that he might be worthy for her. The convict. He tells Pip that he was so moved by Pip’s boyhood kindness. Several years past. a lawyer named Jaggers appears with strange news that a secret benefactor has given Pip a large fortune. Therefore.fearsome convict is soon captured. A complicated mystery begins to fall into place when Pip discovers that Compeyson is the man who has abandoned Miss Havisham at the altar and Estella is Magwitch’s daughter. During his visits he meets a beautiful young girl named Estella. struggling to be better in education. who is the village blacksmith. but he feels morally bound to help Magwitch escape from London as the convict is pursued by the police and his former partner in crime. Pip works in the forge unhappily. brings him more trouble for he has to run on debts in order to maintain his wealthy lifestyle. Pip is appalled. she tells him that she will fill out the papers necessary for him to be a common laborer in her family’s business. Education however. Joe. the convict protects Pip by claims that he stole the items all by himself. he must come to London immediately to begin his education as a gentleman. Pip is apprenticed to his brother in law. He happily assumes that his previous hope has come true. Miss Havisham
. that Miss Havisham is his secret benefactor and the old woman intends to marry Estella to him. he begins to deny Joe’s existence and went after Estella. Pip is taken by his Uncle Pumblechook to play at Satis House. Wemmick. Magwitch. But his hopes are dashed when after months of regular visits to Satis House. In London. until a familiar figure barges into Pip’s room one night. He even hopes that Miss Havisham intends to make him a gentleman and marry him to Estella. Thinking that he has become parts of the middle class group. Pip however. One day. Pip befriends a young gentleman named Herbert Pocket and Jaggers’s law clerk. who treats him coldly. stuns Pip by announcing that he is the source of Pip’s fortune.
Pip begins to see the good side of Magwitch and begins to care for him deeply. As the weeks pass. After the death of Magwitch. Herbert decided to go abroad for his business and Pip plans to follow Herbert. Estela is in the carriage. And she meets Pip who is bought to him by her husband. Then. Pip goes abroad to Herbert. Pip forgives her. Magwitch is sentenced to death and Pip loses his fortune. Drummle. After the death of her husband. who is happily married to Clara and Pip becomes his clerk. as revenge of all men. Knowing about Pip’s condition. Pip makes a visit to Satis House. The author wrote different ending for this novel. Dickens plans to ends the novel like this. he leaves Pip again and returns to the village. But it was too late for she is already married to Joe. So. They try to sneak Magwitch down the river on a rowboat. the time comes for Pip and Herbert to help Magwitch escape from London. he rushes back home. As a result. Compeyson is the one who gives the information to the police. The author. Another ending is quite similar to the revised version where Estella is treated cruelly by her husband. but they are discovered by the police. Joe comes to help him. Pip was merely a boy for the young Estella to practice on.has raised her to break men’s hearts. where Miss Havisham begs for his forgiveness for the way she has treated him in the past. However.
. Finally. he changes his mind because he becomes too ill because of the fever. Estella is married to a doctor. The author then. accompanied by the servant and there is a strange feeling between the two them. intends to marry Biddy. plans on different endings starting from this point. Estella marries a gentleman named Bentley Drummle. Realizing the mistakes that he had done and thinking that Biddy was once in love with him. Before Magwitch’s escape attempt. The first ending is a typical situation of an unexpected meeting in the street after years of separation between Pip and Estella. The original ending does not suggest any reconcile between Pip and Estella. Both convicts fight in the river and Compeyson is drowned.
Mr Tulliver decides to pay an additional education for Tom rather than to have him take over the mill. the book received remarkably supportive by the readers. By the time Eliot published ‘The Mill on the Floss’. Tom Tulliver. she had gained a notoriety as an "immoral woman" because she was living with the writer George Henry Lewes. who was married.2 ‘The Mill on the Floss’ by George Eliot This novel was published on 1860. In this ending.
. was a businessman who had married a woman from a higher social class. Ogg’s. her character and physical is quite different and she is considered as unattractive young girl. Pip and Estella meet again in the ruined garden at Satis House. 3. The society disapproved their relationship and makes the publishing almost impossible but when it was published. His disapproval and cruel comments towards her always creates dramatic despair in Maggie. which is the ending of the book used for this research paper ends in different way. though separated from his wife. Drummle. like Mr. Similar to the year when ‘Great Expectations’ was first published. is left open.The revised version. but he is now dead. Maggie frustrates her mother with her unconventional dark skin color and unnatural activeness and intelligence. her husband treats her badly. Maggie’s greatest happiness is her brother’s affection. In late 19th Century. clever younger daughter of the Tullivers of Dorlcote Mill in St. Tulliver in the novel. who was three years older than Eliot. contrast to the original version. Eliot's father. but the possibility of them being together or even married. Pip finds that Estella’s coldness and cruelty have been replaced by a sad kindness. similar to the character models for the aunts in the novel. The story revolves around Maggie. Maggie Tulliver is the impetuous. Though Tom is less intelligent compared to Maggie. They leave the garden hand in hand and Pip believes that they will never part again. Compared to other young girls. whose sisters were rich and self-satisfied. The novel is based partially on Eliot’s own experiences with her family and her brother Isaac.
Philip finally confesses to Maggie that he loves her. Maggie and Philip renew their close relationship. Maggie is sent to school with her cousin. Tulliver meets Lawyer Wakem and attacks him. with a help from Bob Jakins. Maggie reencounters Philip Wakem on one of her walks in the woods. Philip and Maggie meet secretly for a year. who is a clergyman. Lawyer Wakem. Therefore. whom strongly disagree earlier with extending Tom’s education offer little help. Stelling. takes Tom on as a student. since Maggie's father would be hurt by their friendship as he has sworn to hold Lawyer Wakem as his life-long enemy. a childhood friend of Tom. Lucy has a handsome and rich suitor named Stephen Guest. Tom has amassed enough money to pay off Mr. Lucy who has taken care of Mrs Tulliver. Mr Tulliver is rendered bankrupt and ill. she longs to see Philip again. He is the son of her father’s enemy. Several years later. after losing contact with Philip Wakem. Years later. Soon. On the way home from the official repayment of the debts. On one of these visits. and Maggie starts to
. The Dodson’s. and makes Maggie swear not to see Philip again. the sensitive. Tom provides as much help he can offer to the family. she befriends with another Mr Stelling’s student. Tulliver falls ill himself and dies the next day. cruelly upbraids Philip. At this critical situation. As Lucy mentions the name again. but Mr.Tom discovers their meetings. Tulliver's debts. Tom returns home as well to support the family. On a business venture with Bob Jakin. Mr. and Maggie visits him at school several times. she is called home when her father finally loses his extended lawsuit to Lawyer Wakem over the use of the river Floss. and they are friends with Philip Wakem. at first surprised. and Maggie. crippled Philip Wakem. says she loves him back. Mr. she asks Tom for permission to see Philip and Tom grudgingly gives her. Soon.schooling education requires a large amount of money and it is given priority to men. She returns to St Ogg’s to visit her cousin. striking woman becomes a teacher in another village. Lucy but at 13 years old. Maggie who is now a tall.
On the other hand. However. and Lawyer Wakem is eventually responsive to both propositions. Stephen pursues her and Philip quickly becomes aware of the situation. against their expectations and wishes. Maggie vows to bear the burden she has caused others and must endure herself until death. Feeling ill and jealous. They sleep over on the boat deck and when they reach Mudport. But
. Maggie rescues Tom. Maggie wakes the Jakins’ and takes one of their boats. water begins to rush under the Jakin’s door from the nearby river Floss. rowing down the river in a feat of miraculous strength towards Darlcote Mill. Philip speaks to his father about selling the mill and about his love for Maggie. Maggie gives no answer towards his proposal. Maggie had to continue carrying all the burden and pain. Maggie is befriended only with the Jakins and the clergyman Dr Kenn. if only his father approved. which acknowledges all the blame upon himself.consider marriage to Philip. Lucy realizes that Tom wishes to purchase back Dorlcote Mill. Lucy. she wonders on how long this trial and her life will be. Lawyer Wakem. Maggie plans to take another teaching post away from St Ogg’s soon so that their attraction will be meaningless. sends a letter of forgiveness and faithfulness. she holds firm in her decision to part with Stephen and return to St Ogg’s. when she is too preoccupied with the thought about her life and death. worrying about Tom and her mother. At this moment. Despite public knowledge about Stephe’s letter. Meanwhile. becomes well again and secretly visits Maggie to show her forgiveness. Stephen rows Maggie pat their planned meeting point with Lucy and begs her to marry him. who is trapped in the house and they row down the river towards Lucy. Stephen and Maggie have become helplessly attracted to each other. It leaves both of them alone with each other. Stephen sends Maggie a letter renewing his pleas for her hand in marriage and protesting the pain she has caused him. On her return to St Ogg’s. who has been prostate with grief. Philip cancels a boat ride with Maggie. and she asks Philip to speak to his father. she is treated in town as a fallen woman and a social outcast. Still. Philip as well. Lucy on the other hand decides to send Stephen.
He brings as many things as possible from the wrecked ship. In order to entertain himself. After spending about 15 years on the
. Stephen and Lucy visit the grave. who is a young and impulsive wanderer. along with a slave. and then shelter. Crusoe makes immediate plans for food. and he used this chance to escaped. Soon. Both drown in each other’s arms. 3. Crusoe becomes a skilled craftsman. But the canoe is too heavy to get into the water. He explores his island and discovers another part of the island which is richer and more fertile. due to the storm. as a result of some seeds which he brings along with him. to protect him from wild animals. his captors sent Crusoe out to fish.before they can reach Lucy’s house. He lands in Brazil. has defied his parents and decided to travel to the sea. He also learns about farming. The novel is about a man’s life named Robinson Crusoe and his adventure around the world. Cut off from the company of men. he aligned himself with other planters and undertook a trip to Africa in order to bring back a shipload of slaves. He begins to develop talents that he had never used in order to provide himself with necessities.3 ‘Robinson Crusoe’ by Daniel Defoe This novel was published on 1719. which he has abandoned before. Ashamed to go home. He is thrown upon the shore alone as the only survivor. One night. He is rescued by a Portuguese ship and begins a new adventure. One day. he builds a small boat and travel around the island. Alone on the island. Crusoe and the others are shipwrecked. he begins to communicate with God. Then. Robinson Crusoe. He decides on taking off again but he is taken prisoner in Sallee. Years go by and Philip. he writes a journal about the tasks that he has done everyday. Crusoe boards another ship and returns from a successful trip to Africa. As time pass. One of the first tasks is to build a canoe to escape from the island. the boat is capsized by debris in the river. Hoping to increase his wealth by buying slaves. and built a summer home there. he is involved in a series of violent storms and is warned by the captain that he should not be a seafaring man.
One of them is a white man. Crusoe sells his plantation in Brazil for a good price. he is horrified to find human bones scattered about the shore. their voyage is postponed due to the return of the savages. Four of them plan a voyage to the mainland to rescue 16 compatriots of the Spaniard. He becomes cautious for several years. he has become a wealthy man. they build up their food supply first to assure enough food for the extra people. The grateful captain gave Crusoe many gifts and took him and Friday back to England. he begins and overland journey back to England. By devious means. This time it is necessary for him to attack the cannibals in order to save 2 prisoners. A week later. After going to Lisbon to handle some of his affairs.island. Later. Sometime later. Crusoe saved his life and named him Friday and taught him English. married and have 3 children. He considers many possibilities for the footprint and starts to take extra precautions against a possible intruder. a Spaniard and the other is Fridays’s father. Some of the rebel crewmen are left marooned on the island. they spy on a ship but quickly learn that there has been a mutiny on board. He is plagued again with new fears. he finds a man’s naked footprint and it worries him. Crusoe and Friday agree to wait on the island while the Spaniard and Friday’s father bring back the other men. Crusoe returns to England and finds that in his absence.
. Friday becomes Crusoe’s devoted slave. he starts to explore the nature of cannibalism. However. Finally. However. a group of cannibals lands on the island and a victim is escape. he is persuaded to go on another voyage and visits his old island. They plan to leave the island and built another boat. Then. but he encountered nothing more to alarm him. Crusoe and Friday rescues the captain and the 2 other men. He promises that there will be other adventures in his later account. evidently the remains of a savage feast.
and helps us deal with personal or social values. In this research. Not all the learning that does take place is of the formal task accomplishment variety” (F. It is not merely survival skills but it can even serve experiences and knowledge of the world. there are five ways that informal education can offer for shaping the center of human personality.Borgatta. it can even offer entertainment. Actually.0 Analysis Streetwise can serve variety of functions.
. Plus. information. most learning takes place in a more informal manner. streetwise seems to be the one that forming the characters into a more respectable person.4. 1973) The idea given by F. “We tend to think of learning principally in a tutorial or didactic sense. In these three novels. Borgatta about the process of learning which is not merely focusing on the sense of achievement through formal education shows that informal education which is streetwise or experiences can be reliable as well for molding a human personality.
First of all. it is not enough yet for it teaches him nothing but the knowledge which he cannot even apply it when he need to cope with business matter. page 232) These lines show that all the knowledge that he gained in school before does not help him much when he needs to help his father solve the bankruptcy problems. However. I don’t like Latin and those things. to settle the problem. he has to carry on debts and interacting with those within the middle class. It is actually experiences and communication skills that help him in the end. based on his own experience. I don’t know what I could do with them unless I went as usher in a school. In order to suit himself with the society. streetwise seems to be the best educator to teach about real life experiences which is much more meaningful and reliable since the person conclude its understanding based on his or her own experiences. “I’d rather not have any employment of that sort. In ‘The Mill on the Floss’ Tom learns that despite all his lesson in school. besides. Plus. since real life experience is a long journey of education. I should like to enter into some business where I can get on – a manly business where I should have to look after things and get credit for what I did. After a long struggle to cope with the middle class society. I don’t want to be that sort of person. It means that. thinking that he could be part of them. solving the business
. I would as soon carry a pair of panniers. In the novel ‘Great Expectations’. uncle. he finally realizes that he can never be part of them because there are too many sacrifices he has to give in just for the sake of getting into the group of people. Book 3. Instead. Pip learns that greediness brings nothing but failure and disappointment in life. as long as the person continues breathing.” (The Mill on the Floss. then there is definitely no expires date for the knowledge gained. the person will definitely keep learning and experiencing new knowledge. it is through streetwise that he finally manages problems. and I don’t know them well enough for that. he finally realizes that all he has been through is just pretending to be what he is not.
page 136) By looking at these three novels. Along the process of building the canoe. and now I thought no more of it. though they cost me infinite labour too. his trial and error gives him inner strength because he learns to be more determine and patient. It lay about one hundred yards from water. and so to make a declivity. though it was a failure. he is not always a successful person. Along his way through a survival individual. This I began. When I made the first. but who grudges pains. he did tip and fell many times before. it was uphill towards the creek. the smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that design. I thought of nothing but sailing around the island. he is able to make the second canoe. But as I had a boat. After the failure of his attempt. it shows that informal education helps the characters learn about making use of their experiences in order to be a better person. Well. … and now I had a boat. But the first inconvenience was. Therefore. Even though all of the three characters in the novels learn different kind of lesson. but there is one thing similar to these
. and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains. Crusoe decides to work on the second canoe with a hope that he can make it this time. Even though he manages to survive and make his lonely life as comfortable as possible. Thanks to the first attempt. where it was above forty miles broad. he fail once and he had to try again for a better one. Chapter 12.While in the novel ‘Robinson Crusoe’. he chooses to make a smaller boat which he is able to push it to the sea. he is able to make it successful after a few trials because of the practice he gets through his experiences. However. Chapter 12. One of the examples is his determination to make a canoe though he had to work on it all by his own. accordingly. that have their deliverance in view? (Robinson Crusoe. and not more. He has learned from his previous mistakes. to take away this discouragement. I mean. But all my devices to get it into the water failed me. I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth. page 127-128) Failure does not seem to let him down. my next design was to make a tour round the island. (Robinson Crusoe. of venturing over to the terra firma.
with his fork midway between his plate and his mouth. However. For example. He begins to feels annoyed at Joe’s attitude for he thinks that they are now at different level of society. In his second encounter. Chapter 27. Formal education makes him see the beauty of the world but blinded him when it comes to the relationship and the value of friendship. However. Education seems to design him into a self-conscious person. in the end of the story. no matter how difficult their life is. it was not education that brings him closer to their identity but it was only through his informal knowledge and deeper understanding of the characters.…” (Great Expectation. towards the end of the story. The word ‘true color’ in this context refers to the characters personality in this novel. page 204-205) These are all his comments towards Joe Gargery. had his eyes attracted in such strange directions. Pip’s education seems to disperse him from his past. However. was afflicted with such remarkable coughs. Thinking that he is already apart of middle class society. Secondly. he begins to look down on Joe. as an educated person. streetwise helps the characters to see the ‘true color’ of other characters in the novel and it makes them value the gist of relationship with those who are sincere to them. Pip learns about other characters’ true color through his experiences instead of formal knowledge.lessons. he does not seem to be afraid of him for he views him as not a harmful person. “Why should a man scrape himself to that extent. informal education helps the person view the other characters’ personality in this novel. before he could consider himself full dressed? Why should he suppose it necessary to be purified by suffering for his holiday clothes? Then he fell into such unaccountable fits of meditation. they must never give up and takes the challenge as a journey towards success. through
. Pip manages to see the ‘true color’ of each character. in ‘Great Expectations’. For example. In other words. The education has widened the gap between Joe and him. he is afraid of him and worries if the relationship with a criminal would affect his status as part of the society. when he first encounters Magwitch as a child.
experiences of the relationship with Magwitch and as he begins to mix with various groups of people. Despite his unattractive physical. her family considers her as ugly and rude girl. Maggie seems to be the one who falls in love with him and close to him. the main character. He does not force him to learn all these but encourages him to do so. The most obvious example is her relationship with Philip Wakem. neither had they been wanting to me in their early endeavors to infuse a religious awe of God into my mind…” (Robinson Crusoe. although he is only lack of physical attraction but he is taken as rather unusual by the society. Taking into consideration that Philip has gone through similar painful experiences. Philip is seen as Maggie’s reflection because Maggie’s character is quite similar to Philip in a sense that both of them are judged as indifferent by the society. Crusoe is able to understand people’s character through his long loneliness in the island. Chapter 13. Maggie Tulliver’s experiences has makes her realizes about the others’ personality. perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. Being alone in an island makes him realizes the importance of having someone to communicate and share their thoughts together. and her outspoken character. after his encounter with Friday. In ‘The Mill on the Floss’. His experience of loneliness seems to be able to make a better and more
. page 131) Therefore. he learns to see the differences and the true identity of each characters. it could probably be the reason for Maggie to fall for him. I had been well instructed by father and mother. She does not seems to care about other people’s perception about Philip and continues befriend with him. he makes use of all the knowledge he has and teaches him about language. This is probably because Philip seems to reflect people’s perception towards Maggie. he takes into consideration of Friday’s feelings as well. religion and manner but at the same time. Philip on the other hand. In the novel ‘Robinson Crusoe’. He believes that living alone on that island is God’s punishment for him since he refuses to listen to his father’s advice before. Because of Maggie’s dark skin color. “I had lived a dreadful life.
they will eventually become a better and wiser person in making any decision. Even though he realizes the risk he might have to face in future. He learns that Magwitch has done a lot for him before. but it does not stop him from helping Magwitch out in his escapism. but he turns out to be understanding character as well because the loss of communication teaches him to value the relationship that he had lost. As for the third influence. Magwitch will never done anything for him and Pip will never have any experience living like a gentleman. As a result of their courage. although Robinson Crusoe does not communicate much with other people. Pip learns the lesson from Magwitch. Since they are experimenting with their life. he even shows no greediness and willing to share his experiences and property with the Spaniards and English Mutineers who lives in the island. once the characters has decided to make a change. then they are probabilities that they might think twice if they were to take another decision. If it was not because of Pip’s kindness when he was a child. In order to make him an educated person. he is willing to sacrifice and spend the rest of his life to find money in order to support Pip’s maintenance. Compared to Pip in ‘Great Expectations’ and Maggie in ‘The Mill on the Floss’. The sense of appreciate shown by
. ‘Courage’ in this context refers to the characters’ willingness to step forward and makes any decisions or changes in their life which might affects their future later on. Pip’s decision to help Magwitch shows a sign of courage in Pip’s personality because he is willing to break the rules in order to protect a person whom he really cares about. In ‘Great Expectations’. Therefore. All of these examples from the novels shows that experiences has makes them becomes more appreciative towards any relationship involves in their life.understanding person towards other’s feelings. Pip believes that he is obliged to pay back for what Magwitch has done for him. Plus. streetwise offer courage and makes the person becomes more matured in making wise decision.
Therefore. She seems to have an unexpected strength because of her relationship with those she loves. After a few years. elopes with Stephen Guest. Tom. For her. letting the happiness away for the sake family pride. her mother. and that whatever we may heap up indeed to
. I am come back home – for refuge – to tell you everything” (The Mill on the Floss. three yards before him. it shows that Maggie has struggle all her way long from the river where Stephen takes her to. Lucy and Philip has brings her courage to face the society’s segregation. In a word. In ‘The Mill on the Floss’. “I am come back to you. It seems that her relationship with these people has brought her courage to face the society’s segregation. streetwise has teaches Crusoe to be more matured in making wise decision and not easily gives up. Stephen but she chooses to come back home. he learns to deal with the difficulties of living alone in an uncivilized island. but she must speak. Since she is always being alone ever since her childhood. Even though she can be happy with the man she loves. However. After going through the life in the island alone. losing the faith from those who are close to her is more painful than facing the society’s segregation. page 496) From these few sentences. Lucy and Philip. her mother. Tom cannot forgive her and the society blame her for what they thought she did. “Tom. Maggie seems to be courageous enough to make such a brave decision. Maggie paused too. all her hard work seems meaningless. Book Seven. She felt the hatred in his face. In the novel ‘Robinson Crusoe’. he is finally able to make himself comfortable on the island although he feels lonely once in a while. the nature and experience of things dictated to me upon just reflection that all the good things of this world are no farther good to us than they are for our use. Tom. But. she begins to realizes the importance of these people for her. she is willing to take the risk as long as she can be with them. felt it rushing through her fibres. none appreciate her action.Magwitch makes Pip realizes that one needs to be brave enough in order to make any changes in life or make a better life. Maggie’s close relationship with those she loves.” she began faintly.
they tend to make mistakes. It shows that experiences should be taken as motivation to provoke a better personality. Despite Pip’s ungracious attitude towards Joe. This does not necessarily mean that the characters show no desire to improve but being satisfied with what they have shows a sign of gracious towards their life. Informal education makes Joe a better considerate person compared to other characters in the novel. Through his experiences
. The experience does not hold them back. streetwise makes the person becomes more satisfied with what they have and they turns out to be a happier character than those who merely focusing their life on formal education. All of the three characters gain different courage based on different experiences. It may seem simple but most people find themselves difficult to be happy for they always wanting more in life. Experience teaches him that whenever one gets too excited. Therefore. he realizes that he must never give up and willing to try on something new so that he is able to be brave and be more confident with himself. in the end of the novel. Chapter 13. and no more (Robinson Crusoe. page 129) Through his experiences on the island. Joe Gargery seems to be a character whom practice informal education as his own philosophy. the author seems to suggest that Crusoe will go on another adventure for he seems to have the courage that he can survive on another adventure. the habit of comparing between what one have with the others’ make their life ends up more miserable. yet meaningful life makes him a character that is important for Pip’s growing up model. In ‘Great Expectations’.give others. For the next effects of informal education. Plus. Looking back at the novels. His simple. Joe still forgive him and accept Pip with all his heart. we enjoy just as much as we can use. He does not holds any grudge towards Pip because he knows that Pip never really intense to hurt his feelings. yet it turns out as their motivation. all of the characters finally get their courage and become a strong person after long painful experiences.
he decided to surrender himself to God. the only thing that she can do is giving forgiveness. it shows that learns to accept what has happen before and since there no other turning ways. This is probably because of her simple personality. caring and talented. He asked me if I felt sure that I was as well as in the morning” (Great Expectations.dealing with different kind of people. and to consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted. Chapter 13. And. Joe has long understood Pip’s reaction as an accidental mistake. she falls sick. the character that seems to suit the effects of streetwise knowledge towards one life is Lucy. when I had gone to bed. “Pip. appearing a little hurried and troubled. Since God gives him life and protect him whenever he is alone. It does not necessarily mean that she enjoys it. However. At night. Joe came into my room. Getting closer to God makes him appreciate his life better. Crusoe turns to religious belief when he is alone on the island. dear sir. She is Maggie and Tom’s cousin. it does not necessarily mean that she never cares about anything or has no feelings at all. ’there has been larks.’ said Joe. For example.“I learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition and less upon the dark side. and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts that I cannot express them. what have been betwixt us-have been”. Her willingness to forgive Maggie shows her satisfaction with her life. Therefore. She always follows the society’s expectation of what a woman should be. beautiful. She seems to have fewer obstacles in her life. …” (Robinson Crusoe. But as she decided to forgive Maggie. whenever she find out about Maggie and Stephen’s betrayal towards. In the novel ‘Robinson Crusoe’. as he had done through all my recovery. Her sickness shows that there are certain things that she cannot accept in her life. page 130)
. she never shows any desire to move herself further for she simply accepts her life the way it is. but her forgiveness shows that she realizes that people will never stop making mistakes. page 430) In ‘The Mill on the Floss’. kind.
Estella finally learns her lesson. Sometimes. The ‘eyes’ shows that she has witnessed various situations in order to make her a better person. was the friendly touch of once insensible hands” (Great Expectations. It does not mean that they are being defeated. For the novel ‘Great Expectations’. For the in last point. For these entire lives. satisfaction from streetwise can be achieved from any forms of experiences. She finally learns her lesson when her husband treats her cruelly. what I have never seen before was the saddened softened light of the once proud eyes. Therefore. Chapter 59. In the end of the novel. page 441) It shows that her cruelty has been replaced with a sign of kindness and perhaps. but she finally realizes that her desire brings her nothing but unhappiness and suffering. she always wants to be among middle class group of people. but its indescribable majesty and its indescribable charm remained. of streetwise their changes the with characters the other personality terms relationship
characters in the novel. Both Joe and Lucy accept others mistakes and forgive them. ‘Robinson Crusoe’ shows that his satisfaction comes from his belief towards God. On the other hand. It depends on the challenge that they have to face in life. I had seen before. After going through many ups and down in life. forgiveness is the most precious gift to offer. regret for what she had done to Pip. through her own experiences. “The freshness of her beauty was indeed gone. she becomes a better character. they have been spending too much time on hurting other people’s feelings. they finally realizes that all these long. ‘Great Expectations’ and ‘The Mill on the Floss’ reflects similar sign of satisfaction in a life. She finally learns her lesson that happiness is not in the
. Experiences makes the characters realize how they have been less sensitive towards other people before. The author describes her as a more sympathethic character and less cruel. Those attractions in it.The 2 novels. what I had never felt before. but they are actually the true winner.
Even though the main character in ‘Robinson Crusoe’ does not communicate much with people for he has been deserted for quite a long time on an island. However.
. In ‘The Mill on the Floss’. page 384) As she grows up. Pip is able to feel her kindness which Estella keeps on holding back before. page 92) The extract shows that the family seems to regard her as a person who is lack of positive attitude. Book 6. “For one instant Stephen could not conceal his astonishment at the sight of this tall. a long her process of growing. the next. but he is able to learn his lesson in terms of his relationship with the other characters in the novel. Crusoe has always long for a companion after years of loneliness. Instead. He has changes a lot compares to the time before he starts his adventure. “Little gels mustn’t come to see me if they behave in that way. Maggie?” her mother said peevishly. All these comments. Therefore. In other words. streetwise has changes her outspoken and rough personality when she was a child. He was a level headed person before. though it may sounds rather harsh and cruel for her but it helps her a lot in future.” said Aunt Pullet. he never forces him to study. “Why. “Why don’t you sit still. They keep on commenting on how she should behave and how she should react to certain situation. he has decided to teach him as much knowledge he can offer. you’re too rough. little miss. Maggie turns a more attractive person. Maggie felt herself for the first time…” (The Mill on the Floss. but it lies in a heart. For the first time. As Friday show up. she learns to improve her personality just because she wants to cope with the relationship with the expected society. One of the characters is Friday. dark-eyed nymph with her jet-black coronet of hair. Book 1.hand of status. She never intends to attract Stephen’s attention but all she has been doing is just to be treated fairly by the society. She refuses to be the black sheep of the family anymore.” said uncle Pullet” (The Mill on the Floss. she learns to build a better personality so that she can get along with the society. he becomes more patient for he teaches him slowly about language and religious issue to him.
Estella and Crusoe become soften towards people around them.0 Implications Literature in English has long been implemented because it could improve students’ language skills which are reading. As for Maggie. literature can be considered as the source of knowledge. it shows that streetwise changes the characters’ social. At the same time. but I might depend I should never have their consent to it. he decided to change the future and become a more tolerate person. but they finally make it in the end of the novel. that for her part she would not have so much hand in my destruction.“…if I would ruin myself. and I should have it to say. However. Though it might take a long journey for the characters to realize their discontented life. he realizes the mistakes he has done. Based on these three novels. as he grows older. he makes a move on this adventure even though the family has never approved with his decision. ‘Carter (1988) considers the information-based approach as a way of teaching knowledge about literature as literature is seen to offer a source of information to the students’. there was no help for me. page 11-12) The extract shows that because of his stubbornness. informal education has been a teacher for them. writing. speaking and listening. As it was too late to turn back. cultural and social issues in the text in
. All in all. This approach requires students to study the historical background. Chapter 2.
5. she learns to adapt herself in the society. that my mother was willing when my father was not” (Robinson Crusoe.
Therefore. then the teacher could probably consider teaching the students about its culture since the cultures are quite different with our Malaysian context. ‘Malachi Edwin Vethamani (2004) Texts must also be accessible to students. as a way to encourage students to read. ‘Carter and Long (1991) Another justification for the inclusion of literature in the language classroom is that literature is a product of culture and contains a compendious store of information through which learners get insights into the culture. incorporate the tolerance aspects. it could probably be consider as the texts for literature students because despite its lengthy. it will help learners to compare with their own culture and perhaps. the language is not too difficult for intermediate readers. Plus. Teachers should consider using texts which are slightly difficult. ‘The Mill on the Floss’ and ‘Robinson Crusoe’ will be able to provide learners with tantalizing glimpses towards a range of cultures. In these novels. It will not only broaden their world-view. history. As for ‘Great Expectations’ and ‘The Mill on the Floss’. ‘The Mill on the Floss’ and ‘Robinson Crusoe’ implies similar issues and culture. but more importantly. ‘Ganakumaran Subramaniam (2007) this theory suggest that students should not be
. if the texts could be used in our syllabus. The novels ‘Great Expectations’. As applied for ‘Robinson Crusoe’. the Ministry of Education has taken the step to provide abridged text for students in secondary school. yet it should not be too difficult as this could lead to much frustration for the student’. It will even the students to study the geographical knowledge since the settings are not implies in Malaysia. reading literature texts like ‘Great Expectations’. the used of abridged text seems to a good method because too difficult text might discourage students to read. Therefore. learning literature helps the students to deal with their daily life and practice their reading of literature as one of the ways to solve a problem or perhaps as their philosophy of life. The original text is rather difficult for beginner and intermediate level of proficiency students. traditions and conventions of the target language’ Therefore. the students will be able to learn about the living in 19th century.order for them to understand the message conveys.
Some might thinks that they agree with the actions taken by the characters but there are chances that some may not. it teaches students to value their life and never easily gives up.
. understanding the novels helps to be a better person in society. the readers for each novel might interpret their understanding of the novel based on their previous knowledge.subordinate to the literature. In other words. but active participants in the reading process. Therefore. one might needs to do a lot of sacrifice before they manage to taste the beauty of achievement. making personal meaning and significance from the literature they encounter’. Through these three novels. In addition. These texts can create awareness among students about other people who have to work very hard to survive so that they should be more appreciative towards what they already have. Studying literature encourage students to provide their own personal response based on their reading of the text. Plus. Different students may come out with different understanding since all students own different schemata. The theory refers to personal development model suggested by Carter and Long. students will be to learn in order to achieve success in life. the novels suggest the idea that one must live their life to the fullest in order to become a better person.
reading these texts will encourage the students to keep on trying though they might find it difficult to face the circumstances in life.0 Conclusion In conclusion. Therefore.
. then person will always learn about new things as long as they keep on living and never gives up in life.6. reading literary texts will brings the students towards life appreciation and make their life as meaningful as possible. The novels ‘Great Expectations’ by Charles Dickens. ‘The Mill on the Floss’ by George Eliot and ‘Robinson Crusoe’ by Daniel Defoe proves these states through the writer’s exploration of the characters. streetwise knowledge is the center of human personality. Since informal education is a long process of learning. In other words.
Teaching of Literature in ESL/EFL Contexts. 2003Sasbadi Sdn Bhd Malachi Edwin Vethamani. Person Education Limited Daniel Defoe. Developments in Teaching of Literature in English. Teaching Literature. Malachi Edwin Vethamani. Teaching of Literature : An Introduction in Approaches to Teaching Literature: Theory and Practice. Literature in the Language Classroom: Seeing Through the Eyes of Learners in. published by the Penguin Group Charles Dickens. Robinson Crusoe. published by the Penguin Group
. Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Ronald Carter and Michael N. 1991. 2004. Great Expectations.References Ganakumaran Subramaniam. Long. 2007. 2003. Longman Inc Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English: The Living Dictionary.Sasbadi Sdn Bhd Gurnam Kaur Sidhu. Malachi Edwin Vethamani.
George Eliot. Darulfikir Sdn Bhd
. (Literature in English for Lower Secondary Schools). 2000. The Mill on the Floss. published by the Penguin Group Liz Drisscoll (Abridgement) Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe.