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Formation of Precipitation

Precipitation is the formation of a solid in a solution or inside another solid
during a chemical reaction or by diffusion in a solid.

Formation of Precipitation:

*Precipitation formation in Warm Clouds – is done with the process of
collision-coalescence

*Precipitation formation in Cold Clouds – is done by the ice crystal process

Natural methods of precipitation:

*Settling

*Sedimentation

Types of Precipitation

*Rain - occurs when tiny cloud droplets collide to form bigger droplets

*Hail - is a product of very intense thunderstorms

*Freezing Rain - is probably the most dangerous type of precipitation.

*Sleet - is nothing more than frozen raindrops

*Snow - occurs when the layer of the atmosphere from the surface of the
earth through the cloud is entirely below freezing.

Bergeron Process

Bergeron process is the process by which precipitation is initiated in
a mixed cloud with a temperature below freezing. Because the
equilibrium vapour pressure of water vapour with respect to ice is less than
that with respect to liquid water, ice crystals grow at the expense
of supercooled water droplets.

When it hits the sub-freezing layer it will cool but not freeze. The size of hailstones varies with the intensity of the thunderstorm. Hail size is often described using common spherical objects. The super-cooled water droplets will freeze on contact to these surfaces. objects in contact with the air are also below freezing. Freezing rain occurs when there is a shallow layer of air at the surface that is below freezing followed by a layer of above freezing air above it. Sleet occurs when there is a warm layer of air above a relatively deep sub-freezing layer at the surface. they will freeze and hit the ground as frozen water droplets. There is no noticeable difference between freezing rain and rain so people ignore the fact that is can cause such things as black ice on roadways.Raindrops that evaporate before hitting the ground. but have even been seen as big as a softball or even larger. This water will freeze on contact with any surface. While this is occurring the hailstone is picking up more moisture and growing in size. The precipitation will fall through the warmer layer so it will not freeze over. the stronger the updraft and the longer the hailstone will have to grow in size. The following chart will show the temperature profile typically associated with sleet. The stronger the thunderstorm. It forms as a byproduct of strong updrafts that exist in thunderstorms. Hail is rarely seen when the surface air temperature is below freezing. super-cooled water .Water that exists in liquid form but has a temperature below freezing. The following diagram shows the atmospheric temperature profile that can cause freezing rain. This can cause problems with ice forming on roadways while it is raining. The updrafts will cause it to rise and gravity will cause it to fall.Rain Rain occurs when tiny cloud droplets collide to form bigger droplets. Sleet Sleet is nothing more than frozen raindrops. The precipitation falls from the cloud as snow and does not melt at all while falling to the ground. Sizes can range from pea-sized to golf-ball sized. Drops of water will rise up with the upward directed wind as they collide with other droplets and grow larger. Sleet usually doesn't last long and mainly occurs ahead of warm fronts during winter months. virga . Snow Snow occurs when the layer of the atmosphere from the surface of the earth through the cloud is entirely below freezing. Eventually the hailstone will grow too large for the updrafts to keep it suspended and it will then fall to the ground. . The layer above freezing will allow for liquid precipitation but as the drops hit the cold layer. it will remain liquid and fall to the ground as rain. Freezing Rain Freezing rain is probably the most dangerous type of precipitation. The following chart will show the vertical temperature profile associated with snow. This is usually associated with rain falling through a dry layer of the atmosphere. This will eventually result in the droplet freezing into a hailstone. The cumulonimbus clouds that are associated with thunderstorms can grow to heights where the temperature is below freezing. Sometimes rain will show up on the RADAR but there is no rain reaching the ground. The hailstone will "cycle" through the cloud. If the liquid water does not encounter a deep layer of sub-freezing air. Since the surface temperature is below freezing. The droplet then begins to fall. This phenomenon is called virga. Hail Hail is a product of very intense thunderstorms. This keeps happening until the droplet is two heavy for the air to support it. colliding with more cloud droplets as it gains in size. People commonly mistake hail for sleet but they each form under different conditions.