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A Research and Documentation Study

Submitted To:Mr.Christopher Lee C. Villablanca

Submitted By: Daniel L. Pajantoy


BestLink College of the Philippines

MV Campus Novaliches, Quezon City

A Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Subject

IT 202 Operating System

JULY 2018


Table of Contents .

That might be because there won't really be any future major versions of Windows in the foreseeable future. Instead of big releases. and the initial result is Windows 10. the reality is a little more complex. It's all just Windows 10. Now." That was the message from Microsoft employee Jerry Nixon. Nixon was explaining how Microsoft was launching Windows 8. Part of this is achieved by splitting up operating system components like the Start Menu and built-in apps to be separate parts that can be updated independently to the entire Windows core operating system. .1. Microsoft are still working on Windows 10. While it immediately sounds like Microsoft is killing off Windows and not doing future versions. The Windows 10. a developer. but in the background. The future is "Windows as a service. and because Windows 10 is the last version of Windows." Microsoft has been discussing the idea of Windows as a service. Microsoft has altered the way it engineers and delivers Windows. but the company hasn't really explained exactly how that will play out with future versions of Windows. it was developing Windows 10. but it's something Microsoft has been actively working on for Windows 10 to ensure it spans across multiple device types. there will be regular improvements and updates. INTRODUCTION The project titled The Last Version of Windows OS. It's a big undertaking. Microsoft employees can talk freely about future updates to Windows 10 because there's no secret update in the works coming next.

To realize these flaws. there is a chance that they may not work with Windows 10. to do compatibility tests when the corporate image is changed. This test plan will be used in the future. to be used when testing compatibility of applications with new images. on both the web and client-side applications. • The objective of this test plan is to establish and document a structured testing procedure. which is IE 11. a completely new OS with the newest version of Internet Explorer (IE). • While current corporate applications work with IE 8 and Windows 7. testing on a Windows 10 OS and on IE 11 is required. . Windows 10 is Microsoft’s latest operating system (OS). or when testing of other applications is required. OBJECTIVE • Currently the company has decided to start the transitioning to Windows 10 for all corporate machines.

glitches. Not an ideal outcome! It’s a good idea to research the latest update first to see if there are any notable issues. PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED Like any complex piece of software. . If you’ve got Windows 10 installation problems. you’ve come to the right place. That being the case. The April 2018 update alone had the potential to wipe all the data from your desktop or break Chrome. Windows 10 and its installation process is vulnerable to mistakes. and hardware errors. a sign that you should perhaps hold off on the update anyway and check back later to see if a trouble-free version is available. you may also want to wait. here are some of the most commonly- encountered problems that arise when installing or upgrading to the new version of Windows. Side note: If the latest version of Windows 10 is experiencing widespread problems.

show you how the operating system in your desktop computer works and give you some examples of how to take control of the other operating systems around you. Most desktop or laptop PCs come pre-loaded with Microsoft Windows. and the real man behind the curtain handling the necessary tasks is the operating system. you're probably pleased that operating systems can now be found on many of the devices we use every day. The operating system (OS) is the first thing loaded onto the computer -. The purpose of an operating system is to organize and control hardware and software so that the device it lives in behaves in a flexible but predictable way. The computer in a typical modern cell phone is now more powerful than a desktop computer from 20 years ago. from cell phones to wireless access points.without the operating system. There's the trusty computer mouse. . it's nice to think that you're in control. More recently. summoning up your music library or Internet browser at the slightest whim. Although it's easy to feel like a director in front of your desktop or laptop. If you like to tinker with electronic devices. The computers used in these little devices have gotten so powerful that they can now actually run an operating system and applications. we'll tell you what a piece of software must do to be called an operating system. a computer is useless. HOW IT WORKS When you turn on your computer. which you can move anywhere on the screen. so this progression makes sense and is a natural development. Macintosh computers come pre-loaded with Mac OS X. In this article. there's a lot going on inside. operating systems have started to pop up in smaller computers as well. Many corporate servers use the Linux or UNIX operating systems.

and process data without thought. HOW THE DATA PROCESS Data processing. flow of data through the CPU and memory to output devices. Again. . but output usually goes to a printed report as well. garbage out. The CPU follows the programmer's logic to process the data given it. Part of the programmer's instructions will be how to save the processed data. it prints checks. Any use of computers to perform defined operations on data can be included under data processing. The CPU has an internal set of instructions it follows when it receives a command. A computer uses a Central Processing Unit or CPU to do all its decision-making and data processing. data processing refers to the processing of data required to run organizations and businesses. or the output will be useless. The data that is input to the computer must be good data. Manipulation of data by a computer. The computer's brain. They follow the instructions given them. In the commercial world. These languages are more human readable than the CPU's machine language. Computers on their own are unintelligent machines. updates accounting databases and produces files that are sent to the government to show the amount of taxes withheld. Garbage in. It includes the conversion of raw data to machine-readable form. Data as output. data can be written to a file. Programmers use different languages to give the CPU commands. and formatting or transformation of output. A payroll system will produce several types of output.

SD cards. Software is responsible for organizing. Binary numbers use two digits. Third. The data on tapes and disks can be destroyed if they come too close to magnets. The computer's operating system. While the computer is operating. data is converted to simple numbers that are easy for a computer to store. stored as data in electronic memory. to represent all possible values. Conventional numbers use ten digits. for example. and do not retain the data when the computer is turned off. Finally. The numbers are then converted to binary numbers. HOW THE DATA STORED Computer data storage is a complex subject. The numbers 0 through 8 look like this as binary numbers: 0. electronics or optics. Primary Data Storage The main data storage in most computers is the hard disk drive. and photographs are converted to a large set of numbers that indicate the color and brightness of each pixel. Floppy disks. but after several years the capacitors lose their ability to store electrical charges. MP3 players. or software. or Light/Dark. The computer's BIOS contains simple instructions. 110. Second. . 101. Temporary Data Storage Drives. similar to memory chips in USB keys. For example. application programs process the data. to move data in and out of different storage locations and around the computer for processing. Binary numbers are very long. and tapes all use magnetism to record binary numbers. similar to how cassette tapes work. letters are converted to numbers. to represent all possible values. and sending data to application programs and devices such as printers. managing temporary data storage. disks and USB keys are used for long term data storage. Other Data Storage Some new laptop computers use solid state drives for primary data storage. but it can be broken down into three basic processes. data is also stored in many temporary locations. but with binary numbers any value can be stored as a series of items which are true (1) or false (0). Binary Numbers Every piece of data in a computer is stored as a number. Larger amounts of data are temporarily stored in the memory chips and video card. 100. In fact. early home computers used cassette tapes for data storage. It is a spinning disk or disks with magnetic coatings and heads that can read or write magnetic information. First. printer and sections of the motherboard and processor. 10. moving and processing all those numbers. Electronic data storage is more rugged than magnetic data storage. Charged/Uncharged. the numbers are organized. Organizing Data Storage Data is stored as lots of binary numbers. 111. by magnetism. Binary numbers are recorded as a series of tiny areas on the disc which are magnetized either north or south. 11. the numbers are recorded by hardware inside the computer. ZIP drives. moved to temporary storage and manipulated by programs. These have memory chips. 1000. such as North/South. Binary numbers are recorded by charging or not charging a series of tiny capacitors in the chip. Within the computer there are many areas for short term electronic data storage. 0 and 1. Temporary data storage areas are designed to be smaller but faster than long term storage. 1. Small amounts of data are temporarily stored in a keyboard. from 0-9. cell phones and so on. contains instructions for organizing data into files and folders.

 Static Memory Allocation: The program is allocated memory at compile time. Memory allocation has two core types. Programs and services are assigned with a specific memory as per their requirements when they are executed.  Dynamic Memory Allocation: The programs are allocated with memory at run time. Memory allocation process is quite similar in physical and virtual memory management. . Once the program has finished its operation or is idle. the memory is released and allocated to another program or merged within the primary memory. HOW THE MEMORY ALLOCATION PROCESS Memory allocation is primarily a computer hardware operation but is managed through operating system and software applications.

the Windows shell also implements a shell namespace that enables computer programs running on Windows to access the computer's resources via the hierarchy of shell objects. below it there are a number of files and folders stored on the disk. HOW THE SHELL WORKS In Windows 10. is an evolution of what began with Windows 95. the Windows Shell Experience Host interface drives visuals like the Start Menu. Action Center. as well as a number of special folders whose contents are either virtual or dynamically created. a Windows component that can browse the whole shell namespace. . The Windows shell. Recycle Bin. It is intimately identified with File Explorer. Libraries. Control Panel. as it is known today. "Desktop" is the top object of the hierarchy. released in 1995. However. Taskbar. and Task View/Timeline. This PC and Network are examples of such shell objects.

The kernel takes responsibility for deciding at any time which of the many running programs should be allocated to the processor or processors. it is one of the first programs loaded on start- up (after the bootloader). printers. disk drives. printers. On most systems. and display devices. It handles memory and peripherals like keyboards. HOW THE KERNEL WORKS The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system. monitors. with complete control over everything in the system. translating them into data-processing instructions for the central processing unit. . The central processing unit (CPU) This central component of a computer system is responsible for running or executing programs. The kernel is responsible for deciding which memory each process can use and determining what to do when not enough memory is available. and speakers. mice. Random-access memory (RAM) Random-access memory is used to store both program instructions and data. USB devices. Often multiple programs will want access to memory. both need to be present in memory in order for a program to execute. network adapters. It handles the rest of start-up as well as input/output requests from software. The kernel allocates requests from applications to perform I/O to an appropriate device and provides convenient methods for using the device (typically abstracted to the point where the application does not need to know implementation details of the device). frequently demanding more memory than the computer has available. Typically. Input/output (I/O) devices I/O devices include such peripherals as keyboards.

this mode of windows only runs verified apps from the store. when you try to install an application from your flash drive there’s a message. HOW AN APPLICATION INSTALL & WORKS In other windows 10 baseline edition like Windows 10 HOME. However. you can unlock that features by upgrading to windows 10 pro. which mean that you cannot install an application that not from the windows Appstore. . and it say “For security and performance.