You are on page 1of 7

Table 9.1.

The standardization of Na2SO3


STANDARDIZATION
TRIAL 1 TRIAL 2
FINAL 4.6 4.8
INITIAL 0 0
VOLUME 4.6 4.8
mass KIO3 0.3215 0.3215
molarity 0.195957844 0.187792934
average molarity 0.191875389

Table 9.2. Titration of KIO4 solution with standardized Na2S2O3.


titration of KIO4 solutions with standardized Na2S2O4
volume of Na2S2O3, mL
vol.
Trial solvent final volume Initial vol. used M
1 36.6 30 6.6 0.018169933
2 d H2O 37 30.8 6.2 0.019342187
1 55.6 54 1.6 0.074950973
2 0.1 M KNO3 54 52.6 1.4 0.085658255
1 58.3 55.6 2.7 0.044415392
2 0.2 M KNO3 30.8 28.2 2.6 0.046123676
1 52.6 46 6.6 0.01817
2 0.1 M NaNO3 51.4 44.4 7 0.017132
1 45.2 38 7.2 0.016656
2 0.2 M NaNO3 44.4 37 7.4 0.016206

Table 9.3. The ionic strength of the different solutions.


Concentration (M)
solvent K+ (KIO4) IO4- K+ NO3 Na+ I, M
(KNO3)
water 0.01817 0.01817 0 0 0 0.01817
0.019342 0.019342 0 0 0 0.019342
0.1M 0.074951 0.074951 0.1 0.1 0 0.174951
KNO3 0.085658 0.085658 0.1 0.1 0 0.185658
0.2M 0.044415 0.044415 0.2 0.2 0 0.244415
KNO3 0.046124 0.046124 0.2 0.2 0 0.246124
0.1M 0.01817 0.01817 0 0.1 0.1 0.11817
NaNO3 0.017132 0.017132 0 0.1 0.1 0.117132
0.2M 0.016656 0.016656 0 0.2 0.2 0.216656
NaNO3 0.016206 0.016206 0 0.2 0.2 0.216206
Table 9.5. The determination of the actual solubility of KIO4 in KNO3 sol’n.
a b c x (+) x (-) s
KNO3
0.1 trial 1 0.375145 0.037515 -0.00035 0.00864 -0.10864 0.00864
trial 2 0.36422 0.036422 -0.00035 0.00888 -0.10888 0.00888
0.2 trial 1 0.313846 0.062769 -0.00035 0.005461 -0.20546 0.005461
trial 2 0.31258 0.062516 -0.00035 0.005482 -0.20548 0.005482

Table 9.4. Derived values for KIO 4 in different solutions.

solvent I, M log γ γ s2=Ksp Average Ksp Actual S


water 0.031659291 -0.090566665 0.811770631 0.001002311 0.000943405 0.037836926
0.029740546 -0.087779328 0.816997395 0.0008845
0.1M KNO3 0.111032783 -0.169606853 0.67669528 0.001225001 0.00097083 -
0.106715607 -0.166276836 0.681903884 0.00071666
0.2M KNO3 0.20767498 -0.231958275 0.58619448 0.001593901 0.002121908 -
0.212471842 -0.23462186 0.582610 0.002649915
0.1M 0.131659291 -0.184690067 0.653596824 0.001002311 0.001064898 0.04992798
NaNO3 0.133578036 -0.186030995 0.65158189 0.001127485
0.2M 0.234537409 -0.246503928 0.566886445 0.001192833 0.001226427 0.061776711
NaNO3 0.235496781 -0.247007574 0.566229414 0.001260021
Sample Calculations
A. Standardization of Na2S2O3

3 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2 2 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆2 𝑂3 −
𝑀𝐾𝐼𝑂3 𝑉𝐾𝐼𝑂3 ( )( )
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼𝑂3 − 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2
𝑀𝑁𝑎2 𝑆2 𝑂3 =
𝑉𝑆2 𝑂3 𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑑

Trial 1:

0.3215 𝑔 5 3 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2 2 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆2 𝑂3 −


( )( )
214 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙 50 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼𝑂3 − 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2
𝑀𝑁𝑎2 𝑆2 𝑂3 = = 0.1959578441𝑀
0.00460𝑚𝑙

Trial 2:
0.3215 𝑔 5 3 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2 2 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆2 𝑂3 −
( )( )
214 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙 50 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼𝑂3 − 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2
𝑀𝑁𝑎2 𝑆2 𝑂3 = = 0.187792934𝑀
0.00480𝑚𝑙

𝑀(𝑇𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 1) + 𝑀(𝑇𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 2)
𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑀𝑁𝑎2 𝑆2 𝑂3 =
2
0.1959578441𝑀 + 0.187792934 𝑀
𝑨𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝑴𝑵𝒂𝟐 𝑺𝟐 𝑶𝟑 = = 0.191875389𝑀
2

B. Solubility of KIO4 (Trial 1)


1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼𝑂4 −
𝑀𝑁𝑎2 𝑆2 𝑂3 𝑉𝑁𝑎2 𝑆2 𝑂3 ( )( )
2𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆2 𝑂3 4𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2
𝑠=
𝑣𝑜𝑙 𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑑
D H2O:
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼𝑂4 −
(0.191875389𝑀) (5𝑚𝑙) ( )( )
2𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆2 𝑂3 4𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2
𝑠= = 0.018169933𝑀
6.6 𝑚𝐿
0.1M KNO3:
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼𝑂4 −
(0.191875389𝑀) (5𝑚𝑙) ( )( )
2𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆2 𝑂3 4𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2
𝑠= = 0.074950973𝑀
1.6𝑚𝑙
0.2M KNO3:
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼𝑂4 −
(0.191875389𝑀) (5𝑚𝑙) ( )( )
2𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆2 𝑂3 4𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2
𝑠= = 0.044415392𝑀
2.7 𝑚𝑙

0.1M NaNO3:
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼𝑂4 −
(0.191875389𝑀) (5𝑚𝑙) ( )( )
2𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆2 𝑂3 4𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2
𝑠= = 0.018169933𝑀
6.6 𝑚𝑙
0.2M NaNO3:
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼𝑂4 −
(0.191875389𝑀) (5𝑚𝑙) ( )( )
2𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆2 𝑂3 4𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐼2
𝑠= = 0.016655772𝑀
7.2 𝑚𝑙
C. Determination of I

1
𝐼 = ∑ 𝐶𝑖 𝑍𝑖 2
2

D H2O: Ions present (K+, IO4-)


1
𝐼 = 2 ((0.018169933𝑀)(+1)2 + (0.018169933𝑀)(−1)2 )
𝐼 = 0.018169933

0.1M KNO3: Ions present (K+, IO4-, Na+, NO3-)


1
𝐼 = 2 [(0.074950973𝑀)(+1)2 + (0.074950973𝑀)(−1)2 + (0.10𝑀)(+1)2 +
(0.10𝑀)(−1)2 ]
𝐼 = 0.174950973

0.2M KNO3: Ions present (K+, IO4-,Na+, NO3-)


1
𝐼 = 2 [( 0.044415392𝑀)(+1)2 + ( 0.044415392𝑀)(−1)2 + (0.20𝑀)(+1)2 +
(0.20𝑀)(−1)2 ]
𝐼 = 0.244415392

0.1M NaNO3: Ions present (K+, IO4-,K+, NO3-)


1
𝐼 = 2 [( 0.018169933𝑀)(+1)2 + ( 0.018169933𝑀)(−1)2 + (0.10𝑀)(+1)2 +
(0.10𝑀)(−1)2 ]
𝐼 = 0.118169933

0.2M NaNO3: Ions present (K+, IO4-,K+, NO3-)


1
𝐼 = [(0.016655772𝑀)(+1)2 + (0.016655772𝑀)(−1)2 + (0.20𝑀)(+1)2 +
2
(0.20𝑀)(−1)2 ]
𝐼 = 0.216655772
D. For the calculation of 𝛾±

𝛾± = 𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑔−0.509√𝐼

Solution 1:
𝛾± = 𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑔−0.509√0.018169933
𝛾± = 0.853864367

Solution 2:
𝛾± = 𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑔−0.509√0.174950973
𝛾± = 0.612491198

Solution 3:
𝛾± = 𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑔−0.509√0.244415392
𝛾± = 0.560220014

Solution 4:
𝛾± = 𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑔−0.509√0.118169933
𝛾± = 0.668385322

Solution 5:
𝛾± = 𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑔−0.509√0.216655772
𝛾± = 0.579534575

E. For the calculation of Ksp

𝐾𝑠𝑝 = 𝑠2

Solution 1: 𝐾𝑠𝑝 =( 0.031659291)2 = 0.001002311

Solution 2: 𝐾𝑠𝑝 =( 0.011032783) (0.1+0.011032783) = 0.001225001

Solution 3: 𝐾𝑠𝑝 =(0.023236263) (0.023236263+0.2) = 0.001593901

Solution 4: 𝐾𝑠𝑝 =(0.031659291)2 = 0.001002311

Solution 5: 𝐾𝑠𝑝 =(0.034537409)2= 0.001192833


F. For the calculation of s

𝐾𝑠𝑝
𝑠= √ 2
𝛾

0.000943405405682816
dH2O: 𝑠 = √ 0.8117706309633312
= 0.037836926

0.00106489761402441
0.1M NaNO3: 𝑠 = √ 0.653596823842662
= 0.04992798

0.00122642702738766
0.2M NaNO3: 𝑠 = √ 0.5668864447115512 = 0.061776711

𝑠 2 + [𝑀]𝑠 − 𝐾𝑠𝑝 = 𝑂 (𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑚𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑜𝑛)


0.1M KNO3: 𝑆 = 0.0179713430901781

0.2M KNO3: 𝑆 = 0.027181319

1. Discuss the effect on the solubility, concentration solubility product constant, true
thermodynamic solubility product constant of KIO4 of the different concentrations
of sodium and potassium nitrate.
-the solubility of KIO4 increases as the concentration of the sodium and potassium nitrate
increases. solubility is influenced by several factors. Two of these are salting-in and the
presence of common-ion.
Salting-in effect is a result of the presence of ions in the solvent that is completely
different from the salt used. These ions are able to stabilize the solute ions as they act as
counter ions that surround the solute ions. Rendering the Le Chatelier’s principle, this
interaction lowers the concentration of the products as is very much favorable thus
pushing the reaction forward towards the dissolution of the salt. Furthermore, the increase
in the solvent concentration which contains completely different ions also shows an
increase in the ionic strength of the solution and a decrease in the activity coefficient
increasing the Ksp and decreasing the Ksp’. On the other hand, the common-ion effect is
the effect of decreasing the solubility of one salt, when another salt, which has an ion in
common with it, is also present. If the concentration of any one of the ions is increased,
then, some of the ions in excess should be removed from solution, by combining with the
oppositely charged ions. Some of the salt will be precipitated until the ion product is equal
to the solubility product. This results in a net decrease in its Ksp.
2. Compare the thermodynamic solubility product constant with the ideal solubility
product constant. Account for any difference.
- The presence of common ion leads to the decrease of both Ksp and Ksp’ since the
forward reaction (formation of the ion) is not highly favored. Thus, the salt prefers to
be in the solid state. The true thermodynamic solubility product constant Ksp’ is less
than the concentration solubility product constant, Ksp, in the solution. The difference
mainly stems from the Coulombic interaction that led to the departures from ideality in
ionic solutions, which is the basis of the Debye-Huckel Theory.

3. What is the effect of the following on the solubility of KIO4? Explain briefly.
a. Salting-in effect
- Salting-in effect increases the ionic strength of the KIO4 - NaNO3 system compared to
the KIO4 - H2O system due to the added salt, NaNO3 which dissociates into ions (Na+
and NO3-). Also, the increase in the solvent concentration shows an increase in the
ionic strength of the solution and a decrease in the activity coefficient. The increase in
the ionic strength is due to the increase in the solubility of KIO4 in NaNO3 caused by
the stabilization of the cation, K+ by the presence of counterpart anion, NO3- and
stabilization of the anion, IO4- by the cation, Na+. Rendering the Le Chatelier’s
principle, this particular interaction, to lower the concentration of the products pushing
the reaction forward. Moreover, for KIO4 - NaNO3, Ksp increases while the Ksp’
decreases (versus and KIO4-water system) because of the decrease in activity
coefficient as a result of an increase in ionic strength
b. Common-ion effect
- Adding a common ion decreases solubility, as the reaction shifts toward the left to
relieve the stress of the excess product. Adding a common ion to a dissociation
reaction causes the equilibrium to shift left, toward the reactants, causing precipitation.
c. Concentration of the common ion
- As the concentration of the common ion increases, the solubility of the salt decreases.
d. Concentration of the inert salt
- As the concentration of the inert salt increases, the solubility of the salt increases.