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SUBSTATION COMMISSIONING COURSE Page 1 of 60

SUBSTATION COMMISSIONING
COURSE

MODULE FOUR

COMMISSIONING
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Written by:
Raymond Lee, Technical Trainer
Copyright ©2010

Electrical Industry Training Centre of Alberta


4234 – 93 Street
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Phone: (780) 462-5729
Fax: (780) 437-0248

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Headings Page

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Introduction
This module will detail the requirements for performing electrical and
mechanical tests on the MV circuit breakers. The purpose of the test, testing
requirements and procedures are presented.

This module will introduce the NETA acceptance testing procedures for
circuit breakers comprising of mechanical and visual inspections, electrical
testing and test data analysis. General guidelines for acceptance testing will
be presented. When equipment specific instructions are required the
equipment manuals should be consulted.

Circuit breaker are used to control power flow and designed to interrupt
short circuit current with the use of protective relays. An understanding on
the theory of operations, functions, types and ratings are discussed and this
information will be useful when performing acceptance tests. The discussion
will be applicable to the medium voltage class, station type and indoor /
outdoor circuit breakers. Circuit breakers for application in Gas Insulated
Substation (GIS) and generator circuit breakers are not discussed.

It is beyond the scope of this module to discuss the details of circuit breaker
design and their arc extinguishing technologies. Any breaker design
discussions will be limited in scope.

Objective
By the end of this module the participants will have the basic skills to
perform acceptance testing on circuit breakers, conduct visual and
mechanical inspections, perform insulation resistance tests, dielectric
withstand test, contact resistance test, timing test, operational tests, control
circuit checks, power factor test and completing the inspection / test forms
and conducting an assessment of the test data.

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1. North American Circuit Breaker Standards


The principle North American AC high voltage circuit breaker standards in
use today are the US standards which comprise of the ANSI/IEEE, and
NEMA standards. ANSI/IEEE standards for the most part have been
harmonized with the IEC standards and in turn the IEC standards have been
harmonized with the ANSI/IEEE standards.

There are no existing Canadian CSA standards for the AC high voltage
circuit breakers for rating or application guidelines / specifications.

Table 1 lists the principle standards that are applicable to AC high voltage
circuit breakers. The standards listed are not all inclusive as it excludes the
generator breakers and applications for shunt capacitor and reactor
applications. There are also other standards that are applicable to relays,
device numbers, wires and equipment or devices for use in conjunction with
circuit breakers that are not listed.

The more significant ANSI/IEEE standards are:


• C37.04 Rating Structure for AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers
• C37.06 AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical
Current Basis – Preferred Ratings and Related Required
Capabilities
• C37.09 Standard Test Procedures for AC High Voltage Circuit
Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis
• C37.010 Application Guide for AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers
Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis

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Table 1: North American AC High Voltage Circuit Breaker Staandards


STANDARD REV SPONSOR TITLE WORKING
GROUP
C22.021 1999 IEEE Standard for Metal Clad Switchgear
C37.04 1999 IEEE Standard Rating Structure for AC HV Circuit Breakers IEEE
C37.06 2009 ANSI/IEEE Standard for AC HV Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical NEMA
Current Basis – Preferred Ratings and Related Required
Capabilities for voltages above 1000 V
C37.09 1999 ANSI/IEEE Test Procedure for AC HV Circuit Breakers Rated on a IEEE
Symmetrical Current Basis
C37.010 1999 ANSI / Application Guide for AC HV Circuit Breakers IEEE
IEEE Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis
C37.11 1997 ANSI/IEEE Requirements for Electrical Control for AC High Voltage IEEE
Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis
C37.12 1991 ANSI AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical AEIC
Current Basis – Specification Guide
C37.24 2003 ANSI/IEEE Guide for Evaluating the Effects of Solar Radiation on Outdoor
Metal-Enclosed Switchgear
C37.85 2002 ANSI/IEEE AC high Voltage power vacuum Interrupters– Safety NEMA
Requirements for X-Radiation Limits
C57.13 2008 IEEE Standard Requirements for Instrument Transformers IEEE
SG-4 2009 NEMA Alternating Current High Voltage Circuit Breakers NEMA
1. Indoor circuit breakers are recognized in C37.09 for their unique test and application requirements as dictated by their use in metal-
clad switchgear.

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1.1 Rating
The ratings of a circuit breaker are considered to be the minimum design limits that
are expected to be met by the device operating under defined operating conditions.
This includes its operating devices and auxiliary equipment.

Rated Characteristics
• Maximum voltage; kV rms
• Voltage range factor; K
• Continuous Current, Amperes rms
• Symmetrical Interrupting current; kA rms
• % DC component (asymmetrical Interrupting current, kA peak
• Interrupting time, msec
• Maximum Permissible Tripping Time Delay; sec
• Transient recovery voltage; kV peak, μsec time to peak
• Withstand voltage, power frequency; kV rms
• Withstand voltage, BIL; kV crest
• Closing and latching current; kA peak

Table 2 and 3 shows the preferred rating for the medium voltage circuit breakers as
tabled in IEEE C37.06.

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Table 2: Preferred Ratings for Indoor Circuit Breakers with Rated Voltage Range Factor K=1.0
Rated Rated Continuous Rated Short- Rated Transient Rated Maximum Rated Closing
Maximum Current circuit and Recovery Voltage Interrupting Permissible and latching
Voltage (Amperes rms) Short Time Rated Rated Time Tripping Current
(kV rms) Currents Peak Time to (ms) Time Delay Y (kA peak)
(kA rms) Voltage Peak T2 (sec)
E2
(kV peak) (μ sec)
4.76 1200, 2000 31.5 8.9 50 83 2 82
4.76 1200, 2000 40 8.9 50 83 2 104
4.76 1200, 2000, 3000 50 8.9 50 83 2 130
8.25 1200, 2000, 3000 40 15.5 60 83 2 10
15 1200, 2000 20 28 75 83 2 52
15 1200, 2000 25 28 75 83 2 65
15 1200, 2000 31.5 28 75 83 2 82
15 1200, 2000, 3000 40 28 75 83 2 104
15 1200, 2000, 3000 50 28 75 83 2 130
15 1200, 2000, 3000 63 28 75 83 2 164
27 1200 16 51 105 83 2 42
27 1200, 2000 25 51 105 83 2 65
38 1200 16 71 125 83 2 42
38 1200, 2000 25 71 125 83 2 65
38 1200, 2000, 3000 31.5 71 125 83 2 82
38 1200, 2000, 3000 40 71 125 83 2 104

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Table 3: Preferred Ratings for Outdoor Circuit Breakers 72.5 kV and Below Including Circuit Breakers Applied
in Gas Insulated Substation with Rated Voltage Range Factor K=1.0
Rated Rated Continuous Rated Short- Rated Transient Rated Maximum Rated Closing
Maximum Current circuit and Recovery Voltage Interrupting Permissible and latching
Voltage (Amperes rms) Short Time Rated Rated Time Tripping Current
(kV rms) Currents Peak Time to (ms) Time Delay Y (kA peak)
(kA rms) Voltage Peak T2 (sec)
E2
(kV peak) (μ sec)
15.5 600, 1200 12.5 29 36 83 2 33
15.5 1200, 2000 20 29 36 83 2 52
15.5 1200, 2000 25 29 36 83 2 65
15.5 1200, 2000, 3000 40 29 36 83 2 104
25.8 1200, 2000 12.5 48.5 52 83 2 33
25.8 1200, 2000 25 48.5 52 83 2 65
38 1200, 2000 16 71 63 83 2 42
38 1200, 2000 20 71 63 83 2 52
38 1200, 2000 25 71 63 83 2 65
38 1200, 2000 31.5 71 63 83 2 82
38 1200, 2000, 3000 40 71 63 83 2 104
48.3 1200, 2000 20 91 80 83 2 52
48.3 1200, 2000 31.5 91 80 83 2 82
48.3 1200, 2000, 3000 40 91 80 83 2 104
72.5 1200, 2000 20 136 106 83 2 52
72.5 1200, 2000 31.5 136 106 83 2 82
72.5 1200, 2000, 3000 40 136 106 82 2 104

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1.2 Application Considerations


The main functions of circuit breakers can be found in its definition in IEEE
C37.100. Circuit breaker applications must address many items of technical
importance to ensure that misapplication does not happen.

“A circuit breaker is a mechanical device capable of making, carrying and breaking


currents under normal circuit conditions and also making, carrying for a specific
time and breaking currents under specified abnormal conditions such as those of
short circuit”.

The following notes will present a brief explanation of the breaker ratings without
an in depth technical explanations. Technical details can be found in the referenced
standards and suggested reading section.

Maximum voltage
The rated maximum voltage is the upper limit of the system voltage for which the
breaker application is to be used on a continuous basis.

Rated maximum voltage for medium voltage class circuit breakers are:
• 4.76, 8.25, 15, 15.5, 25.8, 38 kV

Frequency
The rated North American frequency is 60 Hz. Manufacturers should be consulted
for applications at other frequencies.

Continuous Current
The rated continuous current rating sets the upper limit for the temperature rise of
the breaker operating for usual service conditions such as:
• Operating at an ambient temperature not exceeding 40 ºC
• Installed at an altitude above sea level and up to 1000m or less
• Effects of solar radiation is not significant
• Seismic loading is not significant relative to total weight (.2g x Hor, .16g x
Vert. measured at the centre of gravity)

When a circuit breaker is properly selected for continuous current operation, it may
be used for starting equipment such as motors, synchronous condensers and cold
loads. Under these conditions, the continuous current rating may be momentarily
exceeded without causing damage to the circuit breakers.

The preferred continuous current ratings are:

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• 600, 1200, 2000, and 3000 amperes.

Short Circuit Current Rating


The rated short circuit current rating corresponds to the maximum value of
symmetrical currents that can be interrupted by the circuit breaker.

Voltage Range Factor K


The rated voltage range factor K will be 1.0 for current and all future circuit
breakers. This makes the circuit breaker short circuit current rating constant for all
operating voltages up to the rated maximum voltage. Future standards will
eliminate the voltage range factor as breakers will be treated as a constant current
interrupting rated circuit breaker.

The constant current interrupting rating for circuit breakers are applicable to the
vacuum and SF6 breaker whereas air magnetic and oil circuit breakers have a
higher interrupting rating when operating at a voltage that is lower than the rated
voltage. However since the air-magnetic and oil circuit breakers are obsolete,
today’s standards are addressing the future direction of circuit breaker design and
applications.

Symmetrical Interrupting Capability


The maximum symmetrical interrupting capability for a circuit breaker is K times
the rated short circuit current. For modern breakers the interrupting capability is its
symmetrical interrupting current since its K factor is equal to 1.0.

Note: For older circuit breakers, the symmetrical interrupting capability between
the rated maximum voltage and 1/K times the rated maximum voltage is:

Isym = (Rated Isc) x (Rated Vmax / Voperate) or

Isym = MVA / (Voperate x √3)

% DC Component
The % DC component is related to the asymmetrical interrupting capability of the
circuit breaker as defined by the symmetrical current. It is used to derive a
multiplying factor for the symmetrical current to result in the asymmetrical current
value.

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The % dc requirement that circuit breakers are required to interrupt correlates to


the contact parting time obtained from a standard decay curve based on an X/R
ratio of 17 at 60 Hz. Refer to Figure 1.

Figure 1: Standard DC Decay curve for X/R ratio of 17 at 60 HZ.

The standard DC decay time constant can be calculated by:


τ = (X/R) / (2 π f)
for X/R ratio of 17, τ = 45 msec
Where:
X = the system’s inductive reactance in ohms (Ω)
R = the system’s resistance in ohms (Ω)
π = phi
F = frequency

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The asymmetrical interrupting rating is calculated multiplying the symmetrical


rating by a factor S. Calculation for S:

%dc 2
S= 1+ 2 ×( )
100

Where:
%dc = the short circuit percent DC current breaking requirement as related t
to the breaker speed for systems with X/R = 17.

Therefore:

It = Isym x S

or

%dc 2
It = Isym x 1 + 2 ×( )
100

Interrupting Time
The rated interrupting time is the maximum allowable time between the
energization of the trip circuit at rated voltage (and rated mechanism pressure for
gas circuit breakers) and the arcing extinction time at the main contact in all poles.

It is used to classify breakers at different speeds. Refer to figure 2.

Note: Oil and air magnetic circuit breakers may have interrupting time
greater than the rated interrupting time when interrupting below 25%
of the rated interrupting capability at maximum voltage.

Note: Rated interrupting time can be exceeded for extreme cold weather
condition, low control voltage, low stored energy mechanism and
certain fault types.

Figure 2 shows the various time interval for a circuit breaker with resistor contacts.

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Figure 2: Resistorized Breaker Operating Time

Permissible Tripping Delay T


The rated permissible tripping delay is a thermal limit when considering delayed
tripping schemes to reduce asymmetrical fault currents to decay towards the
symmetrical fault current values.

Total energy dissipated = I2t (joules)

Closing and Latching Current


The closing and latching current is the asymmetrical peak current rating that the
breaker must be able to withstand closing onto a faulted situation and stays in the
latched position. The ability to stay latched and overcome the mechanical short
circuit forces is required to enable downstream protection to operate and isolate the
faulted part of the power system.
Power Frequency Dielectric Withstand

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The rated power frequency dielectric withstand capability is its voltage withstand
capability with specified magnitudes and waveshapes of voltage applied under
specified conditions.

The 1 minute power frequency dielectric withstand test provides a margin of safety
for minor contamination, deterioration and voltage surges encountered during
service.
• Dry power frequency withstand for indoor circuit breakers
• Dry and wet power frequency withstand for outdoor circuit breakers

Field acceptance test are conducted at 75% of the factory values.

Table 4 shows the preferred factory dielectric withstand rating for dry and wet test
applied to indoor and outdoor medium voltage breakers as tabled in IEEE C37.06.

Table 4: Preferred Dielectric Withstand Rating at 60 Hz 1


Rated 1 Minute Dry 10 Second
maximum (kV rms) Wet
voltage (kV rms)
(kV rms)
Indoor Circuit Breakers
4.76 19 Not required
8.25 36 Not required
15.0 36 Not required
27 60 Not required
38 80 Not required
Outdoor Circuit Breakers
15.5 50 45
25.8 60 50
38 80 75
1. Not applicable for breakers used in gas insulated substation.

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Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage


Lightning impulse insulation level (or BIL basic impulse level) must be
coordinated with surge arresters installed locations and specifications. A breaker in
the open position may be subjected to surge voltage which can double due to
reflection and may result in a line-to ground fault or an open gap dielectric failure
of the circuit breaker.

The factory lightning impulse withstand voltage tests are:


• Full-wave lightning impulse
• Impulse voltage test for interrupters and resistors
• Chopped wave lightning impulse (for outdoor circuit breakers rated 15.5 kV
and above)

The basic purpose of all dielectric withstand test is to ensure that insulation system
to ground potential and the insulating medium across the open contacts in the
breaker poles will not fail.

Transient Recovery Voltage


Transient recovery voltage is the voltage limits to which the circuit breaker
terminals can be exposed to following arc interruption. This is the voltage that will
appear across the interrupters and which it must withstand in order to sustain an
interruption. Failure of the dielectric to withstand the TRV after the contact parting
cycle will result in a re-ignition or re-strike across the open contact and a failure of
the interrupters.

Circuit breakers must be capable of interrupting three-phase grounded and


ungrounded terminal faults and the rated short circuit current in any circuit in
which the TRV does not exceed the rated TRV envelope.

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Figure 3: Fault Current Interruption and Resulting TRV

The TRV rating is specified in kV peak (E2) and the time to achieve peak voltage
in μsec (T2).

Below 100 kV, E2 specified at 1.88 x rated maximum voltage and T2 varies with
rated voltage. Refer to table 2 and 3.

1.3 Nameplate Data


The nameplate data show the minimum requirement for equipment information.

Circuit breaker nameplate data shall include the following:


• Manufacturer’s name
• Manufacturer’s type designation
• Manufacturer’s serial number
• Year of manufacture
• Rated maximum voltage
• Rated power frequency
• Rated continuous current

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• Rated full wave lightning impulse withstand voltage


• Rated switching-impulse withstand voltage
1.Terminal-to-ground circuit breaker closed
2.Terminal-to-ground circuit breaker open
• Rated operating duty cycle
• Rated interrupting time
• Rated short circuit current
• Percent dc component
• Short time current duration
• Normal operating pressure
• Minimum operating pressure
• Volume of oil per tank or weight of as per circuit breaker
• Weight of circuit breaker complete (with oil or gas)
• Instruction book number
• Part list number
• Rating for capacitance current switching
1.Rated overhead line charging current
2.Rated isolated cable and isolated shunt capacitor bank switching current
3. rated back-to-back cable and isolated shunt capacitor bank switching
current
4. Rated transient inrush current peak
5. Rated transient inrush current frequency
• Rated out-of-phase switching current

Note: It is beyond the scope of this module to provide a full description of all the
nameplate data. The rating structure provides a basic understanding of the rating /
nameplate data specifications of the circuit breaker.

Operating Mechanism Nameplate Data


The operating mechanism nameplate data may be combined with the circuit
breaker nameplate data.

Operating mechanism nameplate data shall include the following:


• Manufacturer’s name
• Manufacturer’s type designation
• Manufacturer’s serial number
• Year of manufacture
• Closing control voltage range

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• Tripping control voltage range


• Closing current
• Tripping current
• Compressor or hydraulic pump or spring charging motor control voltage
range
• Compressor or hydraulic pump or spring charging motor current
• Compressor or hydraulic pump control switch closing and opening pressure
• Low-pressure alarm switch closing and opening pressure
• Low-pressure lockout switch closing and opening pressure
• Wiring diagram number
• Instruction book number
• Parts list number

Accessories
Nameplate of all accessories shall include identification and pertinent operating
characteristics

1.4 Instructions and Warning Signs


Essential marking should be provided to identify, provide or call attention to:
• operating devices and positions
• instructions for operation
• special precautions
• environmental warnings

2. Types of Circuit Breakers

Note: It is beyond the scope of this module to provide a detailed description of the
various circuit breaker types, operating principles and various interrupting
technologies. Circuit breaker design information can be found in the listed
references and suggested reading section.

Circuit breakers types are classified according to their arc interrupting technology.
The circuit breaker types are:
• Air magnetic
• Oil (tank oil, minimum oil and bulk oil)
• Air Blast - Two-pressure and single pressure air blast
• SF6 - Two pressure and single pressure SF6
• Vacuum

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Air Magnetic circuit breakers were older equipment used for indoor applications,
5kV – 38 kV were in dominant use until the 1975 time period. Air magnetic circuit
breakers are currently in use for low voltage applications.

Bulk oil circuit breakers were made up to 150 kV and were superseded by the
minimum oil circuit breaker in the 1930’s. Bulk oil circuit breakers ceased
production in early mid-century and the minimum oil circuit breakers ceased
production in the late 1980’s.

Air blast circuit breakers began production at the same time as the minimum oil
circuit breakers in the 1930’s and was an alternative to the minimum oil circuit
breakers. Air blast circuit breakers were used in MV to HV applications up to 500
kV. Air blast circuit breakers ceased production in the 1990’s.

The SF6 circuit breakers have their dominant position in the HV to Ultra HV
applications and also available for MV application. SF6 circuit breakers began
production in the 1960 as a two pressure SF6 circuit breaker. Advancement in
design produced the single pressure SF6 circuit breaker which appeared in late
1970’s. SF6 circuit breakers are still in production today from the MV to the Ultra
HV class.

The vacuum circuit breakers have their dominant position in the MV classs. It was
introduced in the early 1970’s after the SF6 circuit breakers appeared. Vacuum
circuit breaker are limited to use below 60 kV due to the non-linearity of the
vacuum pressure dielectric strength at higher voltages as compared to SF6 gas
dielectric property which are more linear when applied at higher gas pressures.

Note: The vacuum and SF6 circuit breakers are the two predominant types
manufactured today for use above 1000V.

3. Functions of Circuit Breakers

3.1 Switching
Circuit breakers are used to control the flow of electrical energy in an electrical
networks by closing / tripping (or opening) its main contacts. Electrical energy is
applied to downstream circuits when the breaker is closed and removed when the
breaker is tripped.

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Breaker operations can be performed locally at the breaker, from a local control
station or remotely from a central station via SCADA. Breaker operations are
accomplished by energizing the associated tripping and closing coils.

3.2 Fault interruption


Circuit breakers are the primary equipment used for interrupting short circuit
currents. A circuit breaker used for three phase operation is called a three-pole
circuit breaker. Each pole comprises of one interrupter or arc-extinguishing
chamber. In HV applications, each pole may be fitted with multiple series
interrupters and provisioned with grading capacitors or resistors for minimizing
switching surges.

Interrupters
The interrupters are mounted on support insulators. The interrupter encloses
a set of fixed and moving contacts called the main contacts. The moving contacts
are connected to an insulated operating rod and can be drawn apart by linkages of
the operating mechanism. The operating mechanism provides the mechanical
energy for opening and closing of the main contacts at rated velocity.

3.3 Current Interruption


During contact separation, a dielectric media is introduced between the main
contacts parting surfaces. The dielectric media’s functions are to cool the arc, to
extinguish the arc and to provide a dielectric medium between the parting contacts.
If re-ignition and re-strike of the arc is prevented, current interruption will be
successful.

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4. Circuit Breakers Testing

Note: The testing procedures described in this module are for vacuum and SF6
circuit breakers only. Oil, air-blast and air-magnetic circuit breakers which
are obsolete and which are not encountered on new installation are not
included.

4.1 Safety Considerations

4.1.1 High Voltage Safety


Many of the tests involve the use of high voltage test equipment, testing should be
done by qualified personnel familiar with the test set operations and the hazards
associated with the tests.

Safety working practices and guidelines are covered in module two.

Refer to module two for safety work practice when testing with high voltages.

Refer to IEEE Standard 510 – 1983, Recommended Practice for Safety in High
Voltage & High Power Testing.

4.1.2 X-Ray Radiation


High voltages applied across the open main contacts of the vacuum interrupters
can produce x-rays. During vacuum bottle integrity tests, indoor vacuum breakers
can be tested with maximum enclosure shielding when tested in the CONNECTED
position. For testing indoor breakers outside of the enclosure, maintain a minimum
distance of one meter. For testing outdoor circuit breakers, maintain a minimum
distance of one meter with the covers in place.

Test voltage should not exceed the manufacturer’s suggested field testing levels or
75% of the factory dielectric test voltage levels.

4.1.3 Electrostatic Charge


An electrostatic charge may be retained by the vacuum interrupters after high
voltage potential is removed. Electrostatic charge should be discharged by direct
grounding to prevent an electrical shock. All six primary bushings of the circuit
breaker and the metallic mid-band ring should be grounded for at least 60 seconds.

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4.1.4 Stored Energy


Mechanical adjustments and checks should only be attempted after all stored
energy devices have been discharged, isolated or after the application of blocking
devices to the operating mechanism. Only manufacturer’s approved blocking
devices should be used. Care should be taken to prevent the inadvertent application
of energy to the breaker mechanism during testing.

Circuit breaker operations typically rely on the release of stored energy devices for
its closing and tripping functions. Stored energy devices can consist of charged
springs and pneumatic pressures or hydraulic pressure from accumulator storage
systems. Circuit breaker function can also be initiated by the energization of large
operating coils where its magnetic energy provides the power to move the
operating mechanism.

4.1.5 Safety Interlocks


Mechanical interlocks are provided to ensure the safe operation of the equipment
thus preventing hazardous condition to arise with may be injurious to personnel.

CAUTION:
Do not defeat any safety interlocks that are provided for the proper operations of
the circuit breakers.

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4.2 Mechanical Testing:


Mechanical testing consists of:
• Mechanical Inspections
• Manual tripping and closing
• Mechanical interlocks checks
• Contact timing test / time travel test

4.2.1 Mechanical Inspection


The mechanical inspections are used to:
• Verify the circuit breaker ratings matches the design specifications
• Verify the circuit breakers are installed correctly
• Determine any physical damage resulting from installation or
transport
• Check supply of auxiliary equipment as listed in the manual

Mechanical Inspection Procedure


1. For indoor circuit breakers remove the circuit breaker from the enclosure for
inspection.
- Check for total freedom of movement of the wheels on a level surface.
Roll the breaker steering with the metal frame.
- Check for proper mechanical operation of the lifting hoist / truck
devices

Caution: Do not handle or move the circuit breakers by the primary disconnecting
devices, as damage may occur.

2. Confirm the nameplate rating with the contract specification, bill of material list
or applicable drawings / one line diagrams / three line diagrams.

3. Confirm that the cubicles are properly grounded.

4. Confirm that the cubicles / structures are installed level and plumb.

5. Inspect the circuit breaker for signs of damage during shipping or installation.

6. Check the bushings for any signs of chipping for cracking.

7. Inspect the sealing compound between porcelain and the center conductor.

8. Ensure that the correct breaker is in the correct location / position.

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4.2.2 Manual Closing and Tripping


Manual tripping and closing operations are conducted to verify the functionality of
the:
• Energy storage devices
• Trip / latch mechanism
• Manual charging system
• Operations counter

Manual tripping and closing are performed with the circuit breakers out of the
cubicle cell or tested in the cubicle cell in the TEST / DISCONNECTED position.
The breaker operations counter will count of the number of operating cycles that
the breaker has been subjected to. One operating cycle comprise of a Close and a
Trip operation.

Manual Closing Procedure


1. Record the operations counter reading

2. Verify that both the OPEN and DISCHARGE indications are shown.

3. Insert the manual charging handle into the appropriate slot for charging the
ratchet drive for the closing spring.

4. Charge the closing spring by operating the manual charging handle.

Note: It may take several operations of the charging handle to fully charge the
closing spring.

5. Listen for an audible indication that the holding pawl has latched onto the
spring drive mechanism once the closing spring is charged.

6. Confirm that the CHARGED indicator is shown.

7. Remove the charging handle.

8. Depress the manual CLOSE pushbutton.

9. Verify that both the CLOSED and DISCHARGED indications are shown.

Manual Tripping Procedure

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1. Verify that the CLOSED indication and discharged indication are shown.

2. Depress the manual OPEN pushbutton.

3. Verify that both the OPEN and DISCHARGED indications are shown.

4. Verify that the operations counter has incremented by one for mechanically
operated counters.

4.2.3 Mechanical Interlock Check


The mechanical interlock checks are performed for indoor circuit breaker to ensure
that a circuit breaker cannot be inserted or disengaged from the primary bus with
the main contacts left in the Closed position.

The most common mechanical interlocks are:


• Positive interlock: Prevent moving the breaker to or from the CONNECTED
position while the main contacts are closed
• Positive interlock: Prevent closing the main contacts unless the breaker is in
the fully connected position
• Spring discharge interlock: To discharge all store energy in the breaker
mechanism whenever the breaker is withdrawn from the cubicle
• Rating interference plate: Permits only a breaker with a matching continuous
current rating to be inserted into a compartment of identical rating

Mechanical Interlock Test Procedure

Note: The control power must be ON to enable the closing spring charging motor
to function.

1. Insert the breaker into the cubicle cell and rack-in into the TEST /
DISCONNECTED position.

2. Close the breaker main contacts.

3. Rack-in the breaker towards the CONNECTED position.

4. Verify that the mechanical interlock had opened the main contact before the
cluster fingers engages the primary stabs.

5. Rack-in the breaker into the CONECTED position.

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6. Close the breaker main contacts

7. Rack-out the breaker towards to the DISCONNECTED position, if possible.

8. Verify that the mechanical interlock prevents racking out of the breaker in the
Close position, or had opened the main contact before the cluster fingers
disengages from the primary stabs.

9. Rack-out the breaker to the TEST / DISCONNECTED position. The charged


closing spring should have been discharged during the racking-out interval.

4.2.4 Contact Timing / Time Travel Test

Timing test
The breaker timing test is a mechanical test that analyzes the speed and position of
the breaker main contacts before, during and after an operation. A contact monitor
is applied to the breaker contacts and a position transducer is attached to the
operating mechanism. The breaker is then cycled for a close and open operation.
The contact change of state is timed and the travel signature of the operating
mechanism is recorded.

There are two general types of timer in use:


• digital contact timers
• digital contact timers and breaker travel analyzers.

The digital contact timers are used for contact timing, it measure the contact
transition time from the energization of the closing or tripping coils to the time that
the main contacts changes position.

The travel analyzer measures the operating rod velocity, total travel, over travel,
bounce back, speed / acceleration rate and the contacts operating time. The
operating rod signature can be used to evaluate the condition of mechanical parts
of the breaker, such as closing mechanism, springs and shock absorbers. Test data
are analyzed and compared to the original factory specifications.

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Operating Times
There are 3 operating time parameters that assess the condition of the circuit
breaker main contacts:
• Discrepancy time (or pole spread time)
• Closing time
• Opening time

Discrepancy time (td)


Discrepancy time is the difference in time between the first and the last contact
operations between phases or between multiple contacts within a pole.

Closing time (tc)


Closing time is the time interval between the instant the closing circuit is energized
and the instant when the contacts have touched in all phases.

Opening time (to)


Opening time is the time interval between the instant the tripping circuit is
energized and the instant the contacts have separated in all phases.

Figure 4 shows a three pole breaker motion analyzer trace showing the various
breaker times.

Figure 4: Breaker Contact Timing Chart and DC Current


Measurement

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Figure 5 shows a simplified connection diagram for a digital timer test set with
internal trip and close coil current monitor.

Figure 5: Circuit Breaker Timing Test Connection Diagram

Timing / Time Travel Test Procedure


1. Connect the contact monitor / timing leads for phase-A, phase-B and phase-C.

2. Connect the +ve control voltage to the supply input for the trip and close
control on the circuit breaker timer test set.

3. Connect the switched Close output of the circuit breaker timer test set to the
close terminal (C) of the circuit breaker.

4. Connect the switched Trip output of the circuit breaker timer test set to the trip
terminal (T) of the circuit breaker.

5. Set the circuit breaker timer test to monitor the closing and tripping current.

6. Connect the position transducer (LVDT or RVDT) to monitor the main


operating rod as required. Refer to the circuit breaker manual for the proper
placement of the transducer (if required).

7. Perform a closing and opening operation to set the travel limits of the
transducer (if required).

8. Perform an opening operation recording all required parameters.

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9. Perform a closing operation recording all required parameters.

4.3 Electrical Testing

Electrical testing consists of:


• Insulation resistance test
• Dielectric withstand test
• Vacuum bottle integrity test
• Contact resistance test
• Operations test
• Power factor test (for maintenance baseline values as required)

4.3.1 Insulation Resistance Test


The insulation resistance test is a DC voltage test conducted at 100% of the rated
AC insulation phase-to-ground crest level. The DC equivalent is at 1.414 of the AC
RMS rated insulation to ground value.

Note: The above value is higher than the recommended NETA insulation
resistance test level.

Note: For indoor circuit breakers, the insulation resistance tests can be combined
with the switchgear insulation resistance test with the breaker in the
connected position and the main contacts closed. Refer to module 2

The results of the test serves as a preliminary assessment of the primary insulation
system to determine if it is should be subjected to the power frequency dielectric
withstand test.

Note: Insulation resistance testing is best performed when the ambient temperature
is at 20° C.

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Figure 6: Insulation Resistance Test Connection Diagram.

Insulation Resistance Test Procedure


1. For outdoor circuit breaker, isolate the equipment, apply working grounds to all
incoming and outgoing cables and disconnect all incoming and outgoing cables
from the breaker bushing terminals connections. Disconnected cables should
have sufficient clearance from the switchgear terminals greater that the phase
spacing distance. Use nylon rope to hold cable away from incoming and
outgoing terminals as required.

2. For indoor circuit breaker isolate the breaker by placing the circuit breaker in
the test / disconnected position or withdraw the breaker from the cubicle cell.

3. Ensure that the equipment is properly grounded.

4. Close the main contacts.

5. Apply the test voltage at the test duration on phase-A terminals with the frame
and all other phases grounded.

6. Record test values

7. Repeat step 5 and 6 for phase-B and phase-C

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4.3.2 Power Frequency Withstand Test


The 60 Hz dielectric withstand tests are conducted at 75% of the factory dielectric
withstand test voltage level of the test values given in Table 4.

The AC test voltage shall have a crest equal to 1.414 times the RMS value
specified in Table 4. The wave shape shall be essentially sinusoidal. The frequency
shall be within 20% of the rated power frequency. The test voltage is to be
increased gradually from zero at a rate no greater than 1000 V per second to reach
the required test value and shall be held there for 1 minute. Consult the
manufacturer’s manual for limited rate of rise at 500V per second.

Note: For SF6 circuit breakers the dielectric withstand tests are conducted on a per
phase basis with the main contacts in the opened and closed positions while
the untested phase or pole grounded.

Note: For vacuum circuit breakers, the dielectric withstand test are conducted on a
per phase basis with the main contacts closed while the untested phase or
pole grounded

Figure7: Vacuum and SF6 Circuit Breakers Dielectric Withstand Test


Connection Diagram.

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Power Frequency Withstand Test Procedure


1. For outdoor circuit breaker, isolate the equipment, apply working grounds to all
incoming and outgoing cables and disconnect all incoming and outgoing cables
from the breaker bushing terminals connections. Disconnected cables should
have sufficient clearance from the switchgear terminals greater that the phase
spacing distance. Use nylon rope to hold cable away from incoming and
outgoing terminals as required.

2. For indoor circuit breaker isolate the breaker by placing the circuit breaker in
the test / disconnected position or withdraw the breaker from the cubicle cell.

3. Ensure that the equipment is properly grounded.

4. Close the main contacts for vacuum and SF6 circuit breakers.

5. Apply the test voltage at the test duration on phase-A terminals with the frame
and all other phases grounded.

6. Record test values.

7. Repeat step 5 and 6 for phase-B and phase-C.

8. For SF6 circuit breakers only: Open the main contacts.

9. Apply the test voltage at the test duration on phase-A incoming terminal with
phase-A outgoing terminal and all other phases grounded.

10.Record test values.

11.Apply the test voltage at the test duration on phase-A outgoing terminal with
phase-A incoming terminal and all other phases grounded.

12.Record test values.

13.Repeat step 9 to 11 for phase-B and phase-C.

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4.3.3 Vacuum Bottle Integrity Test


The Vacuum bottle integrity test is a power frequency dielectric withstand tests
conducted at 75% of the factory dielectric withstand test voltage level of the test
values given in Table 4.

The AC test voltage shall have a crest equal to 1.414 times the RMS value
specified in Table 4. The wave shape shall be essentially sinusoidal. The frequency
shall be within 20% of the rated power frequency. The test voltage is to be
increased gradually from zero at a rate no greater than 1000 V per second to reach
the required test value. Consult the manufacturer’s manual for limited rate of rise
at 500V per second.

Note: For vacuum bottle integrity test are conducted on a per phase basis across an
opened main contact opened while the untested phase or pole grounded. This
is a 10 second test for some breaker. Consult the manual to determine the
applicable test time duration (10 sec or 1 minute).

Figure 8: Vacuum Bottle Integrity Test Connection Diagram

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Vacuum Bottle Integrity Test Procedure


1. For outdoor circuit breaker, isolate the equipment, apply working grounds to all
incoming and outgoing cables and disconnect all incoming and outgoing cables
from the breaker bushing terminals connections. Disconnected cables should
have sufficient clearance from the switchgear terminals greater that the phase
spacing distance. Use nylon rope to hold cable away from incoming and
outgoing terminals as required.

2. For indoor circuit breaker isolate the breaker by placing the circuit breaker in
the test / disconnected position or withdraw the breaker from the cubicle cell.

3. Ensure that the equipment is properly grounded.

4. Open the main contacts

5. Apply the test voltage at the test duration on phase-A incoming terminals with
the frame and all other terminals grounded.

6. Record test values.

7. Repeat step 5 and 6 for phase-B and phase-C.

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4.3.4 Contact Resistance Test


The contact resistance test is performed by injecting a constant 100Adc current
between the incoming and the outgoing terminals on each phase. The voltage drop
across the main contact is read using a 4-wire resistance measurement circuit
which eliminates the measuring voltage leads wire resistance to obtain the contact
resistance value.

The breaker contact resistance test should be measure across the main contacts
with the breaker in the closed position. The best lead placement using the 4 wire
method is to place the current source leads furthest from the resistance to be
measured and the voltage measuring leads closest to the resistance to be measured.

Figure 9: Contact Resistance Measurement Connection Diagram.

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Contact Resistance Test Procedure


1. Close the main contacts.

2. Connect the +ve current lead at the incoming primary terminal on phase-A and
the –ve current lead on phase-A outgoing terminal.

3. Connect the +ve voltage lead at the incoming primary terminal on phase-A and
the –ve voltage lead on phase-A outgoing terminal.

Note: Place the voltage leads between the current lead and the main contact.

4. Inject 100 Adc through phase-A main contacts.

5. Record test value.

6. Repeat step 2 to step 5 for phase-B and phase-C

4.3.5 Operational Test


The operational test is conducted with the breaker in the normal operating position.
For indoor circuit breakers, it must be inserted in the cubicles in the CONNECTED
position. The control power should be present at the breaker controls and all
associated control circuits.

Note: The control circuit wiring insulation resistance test must be completed and
the control wiring must be free of short circuits and grounds. The power
supply polarity, voltage levels and type (AC / DC) should be checked prior
to energizing the control circuits and fused properly as per specified
drawings.

The operational tests include:


• Close and trip test
• Trip-free test
• Anti-pump test
• Anti-slam test
• Interlock test

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Note: Circuit breaker operations should only be attempted using the designated trip
/ close push buttons, electrical trip / close control switches / relays or
designated control devices. No attempt should be me made to manually
disengage any of the mechanical latching devices to initiate a tripping or
closing operation.

Close Test
The close test will confirm the closing operation of a tripped breaker from all
designated locations. The breaker should Close and the indicators should show
Red.

Trip Test
The trip test will confirm the tripping operation of a closed breaker from all
designated locations. The breaker should Trip and the indicators should show
Green.

Trip-free Test
The trip-free test will confirm the failure of the closing operation when a
maintained trip signal is present during a Close command. Since the tripping
function overrides the closing function, the presence of a maintained trip signal
during a close operation should collapse the closing mechanism pivot point and
prevent the operating rod from completing a full closing stroke. Ideally, the main
contacts should not touch during a trip-free condition.

Note: To determine the travel motion of the operating rod, a motion analyzer
should be connected. This exercise may not be practical for circuit breaker
having minimal operating stroke.

Anti-pump Test
The anti-pump test will confirm the operation of the anti-pump circuit. The anti-
pump circuit is enabled during the Close command and prevents pumping of the
circuit breaker for a failure of the mechanical latch to hold the main contacts in the
Closed position. The circuit breaker shall make one failed closing operation
without reclosing.

Anti-slam Test
The anti-slam test will confirm the prevention of the closing mechanism to operate
when the main contacts are already in the Closed position. The anti-slam function
prevents hammering of the main contacts. This function is normally achieved by
inclusion of an “b” contact in the closing coil circuit path.

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Interlock Test
The interlock test will confirm the blocking of the Close command or automatic
initiation of Trip command from the various control devices included in the circuit
design.

Control Circuit Test


The control circuit test is to verify the functionality of all circuit paths as per
design drawings. These include all breaker controls, indications, alarms, interlocks
and other controls.

Operational Test Procedure


1. Obtained the most up-to-date as built schematics for the breaker control scheme
and associated control prints.

2. Place the breaker in the normal operating position as connected to the primary
bus. Ensure the breaker is isolated / grounded with applicable test and work
permit in place.

3. Apply control power to the breaker control circuits and associated control
circuits to be tested.

4. Perform Trip and Close command from all designated control location. The
breaker should Trip and Close from each control location.

5. With the breaker in the open position, put a maintained trip signal via any one
of the tripping devices. Initiate a maintained Close command. Verify that the
trip-free function works and anti-pump works correctly and that the breaker did
not close and did not pump.

Note: A close watch on the circuit breaker operations is required as multiple


tripping and closing operations will occur if the anti-pump function does not
work. Remove the Close comand if this situation arises.

6. With the breaker in the Close position, initiate a Close command to the breaker.
Verify that the operating mechanism did not operate and that the anti-slam
function works correctly.

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7. With the breaker in the Open position, initiate each close permissive device
individually and initiate a Close command. Verify that the breaker did not
operate.

8. With the breaker in the Close position, initiate each automatic tripping devices
individually. Verify that the breaker did Tripped.

9. Verify all local and remote indications.

10.Initiate each alarm devices individually. Verify that each device is correctly
annunciated and properly designated. Refer to the appropriated alarm
schematics for the alarm designations.

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5. Power Factor Testing

Note: Power factor testing information has been included in this module since it
may be a required to be conducted to establish a baseline reading for future
maintenance comparison and trending. Power factor test is similar to the
power dissipation / capacitance test which is also a maintenance test, but are
not included in this module.

The first power factor test is used to establish the initial baseline reading for which
future comparison and trending are made. Normal insulation system degradation
and aging are synonymous with a gradual deteriorating test results which can take
years to develop while unexpected large sudden changes could be indicative of an
insulation system that has quickly degraded or been contaminated which could lead
to insulation system failure if not addressed.

5.1 Theory of Power Factor Testing


The power factor test is an AC, 60Hz, voltage application test that is used to
measure the capacitive and resistive currents at a fixed voltage. The capacitive
current is representative of the capacitive nature of dielectrics while the resistive
current is representative of the dielectric losses. Temperature correction is used to
normalize all readings to 20° C such that successive test results can be compared
and proper trending and analysis can be performed.

The equivalent circuit of an insulation system can be represented by a simple R-C


parallel circuit. The resistor represents the dissipated loss and the capacitor
represents the insulation capacitance.

E = test voltage
IT = total current
IC = capacitive current
IR = resistive current
CP = equivalent parallel capacitance
RP = equivalent parallel resistance

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Figure 10: Insulation System Equivalent Parallel Circuit

From the values of IR, IC and IT, the watts loss, power factor, capacitance and
resistance of the insulation system can be calculated. A good insulation is
characterized by a power factor approaching unity (or a cosine of 90º) as in a pure
capacitor and exhibiting a very small watts loss (or a small IR component). A
deteriorating insulation system is characterized by a decreasing power factor and
an increasing watts loss value.

E = test voltage
IT = total current
IC = capacitive current
IR = resistive current
θ = phase angle between E and IT

Figure 11: Vector component of parallel RC circuit.

5.2 Power Factor Test Voltage

Total Insulation System


The test is conducted at a voltage level below the operating phase-to-ground stress
level.

Table 5: Circuit Breaker Power Factor Test Voltage Levels


Breaker Voltage Test Voltage
Rating (kV)1,2
(kV)
15 kV and above 10
7.2 and 7.5 5
5 2
1. Air-magnetic, SF6 and vacuum circuit breakers should be tested at the maximum voltage
selected at the initial test. The initial test voltages are made at a voltage below the corona
inception voltage up to the rated operating line-to ground voltage to determine that there
is no appreciable increase in watts-loss or power factor is observed to indicate the
presence of corona.
2. Air-magnetic, grounded-tank SF6 and vacuum breakers rated at 13.8 kV may be tested at
10 kV for a 10-25% overvoltage providing condition of item 1 are met.

Bushing

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Table 6 list the recommended test voltage for bushing of the medium voltage class
rated up to 10 kV. Each bushing may have a different rating than the circuit
breaker maximum voltage rating which can be found on the bushing nameplate
data.

Table 6: Non Condenser Bushing Power Factor Test Voltage Levels


Bushing Rating Test Voltage
(kV) (kV)
8.7 kV and above 10
8.7 5
5.0 5
4.3 2
1.2 1

The main function of a bushing is to provide an insulated entrance for an energized


conductor into an apparatus tank or chamber. A bushing may also serve as a
support for other energized parts of the apparatus.

Bushings used outdoor medium voltage class circuit breakers are typically of the
non-condenser type. Non condenser types are:
• Solid core or alternate layers of solid and liquid insulation
• Solid mass of homogeneous insulating material (such as solid porcelain)
• Gas filled

The primary insulation is contained in a porcelain housing filled with insulating oil
or SF6 gas. Some solid bushings may use oil to fill the space between the
conductor and inner wall of the porcelain housing.

5.2 Power Factor Test Mode


The basic power factor test set is provisioned with three test leads comprising of
the:
• High voltage lead
• Low voltage lead
• Ground lead

The HV lead is connected to the specimen are where the HV potential is applied.
The position of the measuring circuit, relative to the LV lead or the ground lead
provides three modes of operation.
• Grounded specimen test

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• Guarded specimen test


• Ungrounded specimen test

Grounded specimen test measure the total current to the ground lead.

Guarded specimen test does not measure the current in the LV lead.
The LV lead is guarded.

Ungrounded specimen test does not measure the current in the ground lead.
The ground lead is guarded.

Figure 12: Power Factor operating test mode

Note: Power factor test set may be provided with two LV test leads which can be
selectively guarded and grounded. It is beyond the scope of this module to
discuss the connection variations and its metering implications.

Note: The power factor test is typically applied to outdoor circuit breakers
provisioned with bushing terminals but may be applied to bushingless indoor
circuit breakers if required by the customer.

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5.3 Circuit Breaker Test Connection


Table 6 details the connection requirements for testing the MV circuit breakers.

Table 6: Circuit Breaker Power factor Test Mode and Connections1


Test Breaker Test Mode Bushing Bushing Bushing
number Position Energized Floating UST
All Breakers
1 Open GST 1 2 ---
2 Open GST 2 1 ---
3 Open GST 3 4 ---
4 Open GST 4 3 ---
5 Open GST 5 6 ---
6 Open GST 6 5 ---
Oil Circuit Breakers
7 Closed GST 1&2 --- ---
8 Closed GST 3&4 --- ---
9 Closed GST 5&6 --- ---
Air-Magnetic, Vacuum and Grounded-Tank SF6 (single interrupter)
7 Open UST 1 --- 2
8 Open UST 3 --- 4
9 Open UST 5 --- 6
Grounded-Tank SF6 (two interrupters in series)
10 Closed GST 1&2 --- ---
11 Closed GST 3&4 --- ---
12 Closed GST 5&6 --- ---
1. For candlestick type SF6 circuit breakers only 2 tests are required per pole. T2 to the HV lead,
T1 to the LV lead and T3 grounded.

Circuit Breaker Power Factor Test Procedure


1. For outdoor circuit breakers isolate the equipment and apply working grounds
to all incoming and outgoing cables.

For indoor circuit breakers isolate the breaker by placing the circuit breaker in
the test / disconnected position or withdraw the breaker from the cubicle cell.

2. For outdoor Circuit breakers disconnect all incoming and outgoing cables from
the breaker bushing terminal connections.

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Disconnected cables should have sufficient clearance from the circuit breaker
terminals greater that the phase spacing distance. Use nylon rope to hold cable
away from incoming and outgoing terminals as required.

3. Ensure that the equipment / frame is properly grounded.

4. Close the main contacts.

5. Apply the test voltage on phase-A terminals with the frame and all other phases
grounded.

6. Record test values.

7. Repeat step 5 and 6 for phase-B and phase-C.

8. Open the main contact.

9. Apply the test voltage on phase-A incoming terminal with phase-A outgoing
terminal and all other terminals grounded.

10.Record test values.

11.Apply the test voltage on phase-A outgoing terminal with phase-A incoming
terminal and all other phases grounded.

12.Record test values.

13.Repeat step 9 to 11 for phase-B and phase-C.

5.4 Bushing Hot Collar Test Connection


The hot collar test is used for testing dry-type-solid-porcelain bushings and oil
filled bushings. Non-condenser bushings are tested by the hot collar test in the
GST mode.

The hot collar test applies an increased voltage stress in the upper region of the
bushing below the first skirt (or top petticoat). The upper region is the most
probable location for moisture ingress or insulation deterioration.

The conducting collar is drawn tightly around the bushing to ensure intimate
contact with the surface. Collar material can be conducting rubber or metallic

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materials. The collar is energized while the center conductor is grounded.

Figure 13: Bushing Hot Collar Connection Diagram

Bushing Hot Collar Test Procedure


1. For outdoor circuit breakers isolate the equipment and apply working grounds
to all incoming and outgoing cables.

For indoor circuit breakers isolate the breaker by placing the circuit breaker in
the test / disconnected position or withdraw the breaker from the cubicle cell.

2. For outdoor Circuit breakers disconnect all incoming and outgoing cables from
the breaker bushing terminal connections.

Disconnected cables should have sufficient clearance from the circuit breaker
terminals greater that the phase spacing distance. Use nylon rope to hold cable
away from incoming and outgoing terminals as required.

3. Ensure that the equipment / frame is properly grounded.

4. Connect the PF test set as per bushing hot collar connection diagram for phase-
A incoming terminal.

5. Perform a GST test.

6. Record test values

7. Repeat step 4 to 6 for all other bushings.

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6. NETA Circuit Breaker Acceptance Test Procedure

Note: The NETA circuit breaker acceptance testing procedures applicable to the
MV class has been condensed and recompiled.

6.1 Visual and Mechanical Inspection

6.1.1 General – Visual and Mechanical Inspection

Note: Consult the manufacturer’s manual for equipment specific instructions.

1. Compare equipment nameplate data with drawings and specifications

2. Inspect physical and mechanical condition.

3. Inspect anchorage, alignment, and grounding.

4. Verify that all maintenance devices, special tools, external gauges /indicators,
manual racking handles, breaker lifting carts, umbilical cords are available for
servicing and operating the breaker.

5. Verify the unit is clean.

6. Perform all mechanical operation tests on the operating mechanism.


• Red “CLOSED” mechanical indicator
• Green “OPEN” mechanical indicator
• Yellow with black lettering “CHARGED” mechanical indicator
• White with black lettering “DISCHARGED” mechanical indicator
• Manual release OPEN and CLOSE
• Trip-free and anti-pump feature
• Racking and mechanism interlocks
• Primary and secondary disconnects

7. Inspect accessible bolted connections for high resistance by either


• calibrated torque-wrench method or Table 2
• low resistance ohm meter

8. Verify cell fit and element alignment.

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9. Verify racking mechanism operation.

10.Verify appropriate lubrication on moving current-carrying parts and on moving


and sliding surfaces.

6.1.2 Air Circuit Breaker Visual and Mechanical Inspection


1. Verify the arc chutes are intact.

2. Inspect moving and stationary contact condition and alignment.

3. Verify arcing and main contact sequence, contact wipe via slow closing if
applicable.

4. Verify / inspect puffer action.

6.1.3 Oil Circuit Breaker


1. Verify correct oil level in all tanks and bushings.

2. Verify Breather vents are clear.

3. Inspect pneumatic and hydraulic systems.

6.1.4 Vacuum Circuit Breaker


1. Perform contact gap / wear measurements as per manufacture’s manual as
required.

6.1.5 SF6 Circuit Breaker


1. Verify gas operating pressure shall be within 1% of the indicated pressure
requirements.

2. Perform gas purity and density test if sampling valve is provided. Convert
density test to reference temperature at 20°C. Consult manufacturer’s manual
for required specifications

3. Operate low pressure gas switched if isolation valve and purge / sampling valve
is provided. Confirm operating low pressure setting is as per manufacturer’s
manual.

4. Check for leaks if as pressure indicator is below acceptable limits.

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Note: The procedure is different than those listed in the NETA standards. The
reader is urged to review the NETA standard and adopt those practices that
are applicable to their requirements.

6.2 Electrical Test

6.2.1General - Electrical Test


1. Perform resistance measurements through bolted connections with a low-
resistance ohmmeter, if applicable.

2. Perform insulation-resistance tests for one minute on each phase with the main
contacts closed and the other phase and frame grounded.

Apply voltage at the crest value of the rated maximum voltage

3. Perform a dielectric withstand voltage test on each phase with the circuit
breaker closed and the phases not under test grounded. Apply voltage at 75% of
the factory power frequency withstand test level for 1 minute.

4. Perform a power-factor or capacitance / dissipation tests on each pole with the


breaker open and on each phase with the breaker closed for station and outdoor
breakers fitted with bushing terminals as required.

4a.Performed hot collar tests on bushing as required.

5. Perform main contacts resistance tests from pole to pole using a 100 Adc low
resistance ohm meter.

6. Perform time-travel analysis on the main operating rod if feasible.

6a.Perform contact timing test and trip / close coil current monitor.

7. Perform a one minute insulation-resistance tests on all control wiring with


respect to ground. Apply 500 Vdc for 300-volt rated cable and 1000 Vac for
600-volt rated cable.

For units with solid-state components or control devices that can not tolerate the
applied voltage, follow manufacturer’s recommendation.

8. Perform operational test using normal source power:

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i. Trip and close breaker with the control switch.


ii. Trip breaker by operating each of its protective relays.
iii. Confirm proper operation of the breaker’s mechanical / electrical position
indicators.
iv. Verify trip-free, anti-pump and anti-slam functions.
v. Record as-found and as-left operation-counter readings
vi. Perform minimum pickup voltage tests on trip and close coils in accordance
with manufacturer’s published data as required.

Note: This procedure can be achieved with the use of a suitable capacity
variable power supply source but may not always be feasible to
perform if the operating coils inrush current is very large. Step 6a coil
current monitor test results can be used to determine if portable any
portable power supply source has the capacity to deliver the inrush
current.

9. Perform instrument transformer test as detailed in module 3.

10.Verify that heaters and anti-condensate circuit and temperature controller are
operational.

6.2.2 Air Circuit Breaker Electrical Test


1. Measure the blow-out coil resistance.

6.2.3 Oil Circuit Breaker Electrical Test


1. Remove a sample of insulating oil for analysis. Sample shall be tested for:
• Dielectric breakdown voltage: ASTM D-877
• Color: ASTM D-924
• Power Factor: ASTM D-924
• Clarity: ASTM D-1554

6.2.4 Vacuum Circuit Breaker Electrical Test


1. Perform vacuum bottle integrity test (dielectric withstand voltage) test across
each vacuum bottle with the breaker in the open position. Voltage level applied
shall be as per manufacture’s manual.

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6.2.5 SF6 Circuit Breaker Electrical Test


1. Verify low gas pressure switch alarm indication.

2. Verify low-low gas pressure switch emergency trip operation.

3. Verify extra low pressure block closing function.

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6.3 Test Values

6.3.1 Visual and Mechanical

General Test Values – Visual and Mechanical


1. Compare bolted connection resistance values to values of similar connections.
Investigate values which deviate from those of similar bolted connections by
more than 50 percent of the lowest value.

2. Bolt-torque levels shall be in accordance with manufacturer’s published data. In


the absence of manufacturer’s published data, use Table 100.12.

3. Main operating rod travel and velocity curve shall be in accordance with
manufacturer’s published data.

4. Operations counter shall advance one digit per close-open cycle.

Note: The preferred arrangement is for the counter to advance during the
opening cycle.

Air Circuit Breaker Visual and Mechanical Inspection


1. Mechanical and operations and contact alignment / wipe shall be as per
manufacturer’s manual.

Oil Circuit Breaker Visual and Mechanical Inspection


1. Oil level shall be as per manufacturer’s manual

Vacuum Breaker Visual and Mechanical Inspection


1. Contact gap / wear measurements shall be as per manufacture’s manual.

SF6 Breaker Visual and Mechanical Inspection


1. Temperature compensated gas pressure shall be as per manufacturer’s manual.

2. Gas purity and density shall be as per manufacturer’s manual.

6.3.2 Test values - Electrical


1. Compare bolted connection resistance values to values of similar connections.
Investigate values which deviate from those of similar bolted connections by
more than 50 percent of the lowest value.

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2. Insulation-resistance values of circuit breakers shall be in accordance with


manufacturer’s published data. In the absence of manufacturer’s published data,
use Table 100.1. Values of insulation resistance less than this table or
manufacturer’s recommendations should be investigated.

3. Insulation-resistance values of control wiring shall not be less than two


megohms.

4. Main contacts resistance values from pole to pole shall be as per manufacturer’s
manual.

5. Breaker mechanism charge, close, open, trip, trip-free, anti-pump and anti-slam
features shall function as designed.

6. Minimum pickup voltage of the trip and close coils shall conform to the
manufacturer’s published data. In the absence of the manufacturer’s published
data, refer to Table 100.20.

9. If no evidence of distress or insulation failure is observed by the end of the total


time of voltage application during the dielectric withstand test, the circuit
breaker is considered to have passed the test.

10.Instrument transformer test values shall be satisfactory as detailed in module 3.

11.Heaters shall be operational.

Air Circuit Breaker Test Values - Electrical


1. The blowout coil circuit shall exhibit continuity.

Oil Circuit Breakers Test Values – Electrical


1. Insulating liquid test shall be as per table 100.4

2. Power-factor or dissipation-factor values and tank loss index shall be compared


to manufacturer’s published data. In the absence of manufacturer’s published
data, the comparison shall be made to test data from similar breakers or data
from test equipment manufacturers.

3. Power-factor or dissipation-factor and capacitance values shall be within ten


percent of nameplate rating for bushings. Hot collar tests are evaluated on a
milliampere / milliwatt loss basis, and the results should be compared to values

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of similar bushings.

Vacuum Circuit Breakers Test Values – Electrical


1. If no evidence of distress or insulation failure is observed by the end of the total
time of voltage application during the vacuum bottle integrity test, the circuit
breaker is considered to have passed the test.

SF6 Circuit Breakers Test Values – Electrical


1. Pressure switches operating set point shall be as per manufacturer’s manual.

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7. Test Set Operational Manual

Breaker Timing Test Set

Power Factor Test Set

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8. Circuit Breaker Test Forms

Vacuum Breaker Test Form

SF6 Breaker Test Form

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References and Suggested Reading

IEEE C37.04-1999
Standard rating Structure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers
Copyright © 1999 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 100-16-5997, USA
PDF: ISBN 0-7381-1781-1
Print: ISBN 0-7381-1782-X

ANSI / IEEE C37.06-2009


AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis –
Preferred ratings and Related Required Capabilities
Copyright © 2009 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 100-16-5997, USA
PDF: ISBN 978-0-7381-6078-8
Print: ISBN 978-0-7381-6079-5

IEEE C37.09-1999
Standard Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis
Copyright © 1999 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 100-16-5997, USA
PDF: ISBN 0-7381-1784-6
Print: ISBN 0-7381-1783-8

IEEE C37.010-1999
Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical
Current Basis
Copyright © 2000 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 100-16-5997, USA
PDF: ISBN 0-7381-1828-1
Print: ISBN 0-7381-1827-1

Doble Test Procedures


Copyright © 2000 by Doble Engineering Company
85 Walnut Street, Watertown, Massachusetts, 02472-4037, USA
PN 500-0397

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