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IC 555 TIMER

M.S.P.V.L. Polytechnic College,


Pavoorchatram
What is the 555 timer?
• The 555 timer is one of the most remarkable integrated
circuits ever developed. It comes in a single or dual
package and even low power cmos versions exist -
ICM7555.
• Common part numbers are LM555, NE555, LM556,
NE556. The 555 timer consists of two voltage
comparators, a bi-stable flip flop, a discharge transistor,
and a resistor divider network.
Block Diagram of Timer 555 IC
Inside the 555 Timer
– The voltage divider (blue) has three equal 5K resistors.
It divides the input voltage (Vcc) into three equal
parts.
– The two comparators (red) are op-amps that compare
the voltages at their inputs and saturate depending
upon which is greater.
• The Threshold Comparator saturates when the voltage at the
Threshold pin (pin 6) is greater than (2/3)Vcc.
• The Trigger Comparator saturates when the voltage at the
Trigger pin (pin 2) is less than (1/3)Vcc
– The flip-flop (green) is a bi-stable device. It generates two
values, a “high” value equal to Vcc and a “low” value equal to
0V.
• When the Threshold comparator saturates, the flip flop is Reset (R) and
it outputs a low signal at pin 3.
• When the Trigger comparator saturates, the flip flop is Set (S) and it
outputs a high signal at pin 3.

– The transistor (purple) is being used as a switch, it connects pin


7 (discharge) to ground when it is closed.
• When Q is low, Qbar is high. This closes the transistor switch and
attaches pin 7 to ground.
• When Q is high, Qbar is low. This open the switch and pin 7 is no
longer grounded
What are the 555 timer
applications?
• Applications include
– precision timing,
– pulse generation,
– sequential timing,
– time delay generation and pulse width modulation
(PWM).
Pin configurations of the 555 timer
• Pin Functions - 8 pin package
• Ground (Pin 1)
• Not surprising this pin is connected directly to ground.
• Trigger (Pin 2)
• This pin is the input to the lower comparator and is used to set the latch, which in
turn causes the output to go high.
• Output (Pin 3)
• Output high is about 1.7V less than supply. Output high is capable of Isource up to
200mA while output low is capable of Isink up to 200mA.
• Reset (Pin 4)
• This is used to reset the latch and return the output to a low state. The reset is an
overriding function. When not used connect to V+.
• Control (Pin 5)
• Allows access to the 2/3V+ voltage divider point when the 555 timer is
used in voltage control mode. When not used connect to ground through a
0.01 uF capacitor.
• Threshold (Pin 6)
• This is an input to the upper comparator.
• Discharge (Pin 7)
• This is the open collector to Q14 in figure 4 below.
• V+ (Pin 8)
• This connects to Vcc and the Philips databook states the ICM7555 cmos
version operates 3V - 16V DC while the NE555 version is 3V - 16V DC.
Note comments about effective supply filtering and bypassing this pin
below under "General considerations with using a 555 timer"
Types of 555-Timer Circuits
5V 5V

R
Ra

8
4

R
7

VCC
DIS

R
7 1K

VCC
DIS
3
Q

Rb 3 6
THR
Q 2
TR LED
6 5
THR

GND
CV
2

2
TR LED NE555
C
5

1
0.01uF
GND

CV
NE555

1
C
1
0.01uF

Monostable Multivibrator (or one-


shot) puts out one pulse each time
• Astable Multivibrator the switch is connected
puts out a continuous
sequence of pulses
• Monostable Multivibrator (One Shot)
Vcc 8 4 Reset

R Threshold Comparator
Ra 2 +V
Vcc -
Q
Output
3
+
R 3
6 -V
R
Trigger +V
-
2 S Q
1 +
Vcc -V
3 Trigger Comparator Control Flip-Flop

7
R
C

1 Monstable Multivibrator
One-Shot
Behavior of the Monostable Multivibrator

• The monostable multivibrator is constructed by adding an


external capacitor and resistor to a 555 timer.
• The circuit generates a single pulse of desired duration
when it receives a trigger signal, hence it is also called a
one-shot.
• The time constant of the
resistor-capacitor
combination determines
the length of the pulse.
Uses of the Monostable Multivibrator

– Used to generate a clean pulse of the correct height


and duration for a digital system
– Used to turn circuits or external components on or off
for a specific length of time.
– Used to generate delays.
– Can be cascaded to create a variety of sequential
timing pulses. These pulses can allow you to time and
sequence a number of related operations.
Astable Pulse-Train Generator (Multivibrator)
Vcc 8 4

R Threshold Comparator
R1 +V
- Output

R Q
+ 3
R2 6 -V
R
+V
-
2 S Q
+
-V
Trigger Comparator Control Flip-Flop

7
R
C

1 Astable Pulse-Train Generator


Behavior of the Astable Multivibrator
• The astable multivibrator is simply an oscillator. The astable
multivibrator generates a continuous stream of rectangular off-on
pulses that switch between two voltage levels.
• The frequency of the pulses and their duty cycle are dependent
upon the RC network values.
• The capacitor C charges through the series resistors R1 and R2
with a time constant
(R1 + R2)C.
• The capacitor discharges
through R2 with a time
constant of R2C
Uses of the Astable Multivibrator

– Flashing LED’s
– Pulse Width Modulation
– Pulse Position Modulation
– Periodic Timers
Flashing LED’s

• 40 LED bicycle light with 20 LEDs flashing


alternately at 4.7Hz
Understanding the Astable Mode Circuit

• 555-Timers, like op-amps can be configured in different ways to


create different circuits. We will now look into how this one
creates a train of equal pulses, as shown at the output.
First we must examine how capacitors charge 10V

TCLOSE = 0 R1
1 2
8V
U1
V V 1k V

1
6V

U2 Ca p a c i t o r Vo l t a g e
V1
10V TOPEN = 0 C1
4V

1uF
2

2V

0V

0 0s
V ( U2 : 1 )
1 ms
V ( R1 : 2 )
2 ms
V( V1 : + )
3 ms 4 ms 5 ms 6 ms 7 ms 8 ms 9 ms 1 0 ms

T i me

• Capacitor C1 is charged up by current flowing


through R1 V 1 −V 10 −V
I = C A P A C IT O R
= C A P A C IT O R
R1 1k
• As the capacitor charges up, its voltage increases
and the current charging it decreases, resulting in
the charging rate shown
Capacitor Charging Equations
1 0 mA 10V

8 mA 8V

6 mA 6V
Ca p a c i t o r and Re s i s t o r Cu r r e n t

Ca p a c i t o r Vo l t a g e

4 mA 4V

2 mA 2V

0A 0V
0s 1 ms 2 ms 3 ms 4 ms 5 ms 6 ms 7 ms 8 ms 9 ms 1 0 ms 0s 1 ms 2 ms 3 ms 4 ms 5 ms 6 ms 7 ms 8 ms 9 ms 1 0 ms
I ( R1 ) I ( C1 ) V( U2 : 1 ) V ( R1 : 2 ) V ( V1 : + )
T i me T i me

• Capacitor Current − tτ
I = Ioe

V = V o  1 − e 
• Capacitor Voltage − t
τ

• Where the time constant
τ = R C = R1 ⋅C 1 = 1m s
Understanding the equations
10V

8V

6V

Ca p a c i t o r Vo l t a g e

4V

2V

0V
0s 1 ms 2 ms 3 ms 4 ms 5 ms 6 ms 7 ms 8 ms 9 ms 1 0 ms
V ( U2 : 1 ) V( R1 : 2 ) V( V1 : + )
T i me

• Note that the voltage rises to a little above 6V


−1
in 1ms. ( 1 − e ) = .6 3 2
Capacitor Charging and Discharging

• There is a good description of capacitor charging


and its use in 555 timer circuits at
http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/gadgets/555/555.html
555 Timer
• At the beginning of the
cycle, C1 is charged through
resistors R1 and R2. The
charging time constant is

τ ch arg e = ( R1 + R 2)C1
• The voltage reaches
(2/3)Vcc in a time

tch arg e = T 1 = 0.693( R1 + R 2)C1


555 Timer
• When the voltage on the
capacitor reaches (2/3)Vcc,
a switch (the transistor) is
closed (grounded) at pin 7.
• The capacitor is discharged
to (1/3)Vcc through R2 to
ground, at which time the
switch is opened and the
cycle starts over. τ disch arg e = ( R 2)C1
t disch arg e = T 2 = 0.693( R 2)C1
555 Timer

• The frequency is then given by

1 1 .4 4
f = =
0 .6 9 3 ( R 1 + 2 ⋅ R 2 ) C 1 ( R 1 + 2 ⋅ R 2 ) C 1
555 Animation

Output is high for


0.693(Ra+Rb)C

Output voltage high


turns off upper LED
and turns on lower
LED

Capacitor is charging through Ra and Rb


http://www.williamson-labs.com/pu-aa-555-timer_slow.htm
555 Animation
Output is low for
0.693(Rb)C

Output is low
so the upper
LED is on and
the lower LED
is off

Capacitor is discharging
through Rb
PWM: Pulse Width Modulation

• Signal is compared to a sawtooth wave


producing a pulse width proportional to
amplitude
What Can Be Done With PWM?
Low
Duty Cycle

Medium
Duty Cycle

High
Duty Cycle

• Question: What happens if voltages like the


ones above are connected to a light bulb?
Answer: The longer the duty cycle, the longer
the light bulb is on and the brighter the light.
What Can Be Done With PWM?

• Average power can be controlled


• Average flows can also be controlled by fully opening and
closing a valve with some duty cycle
The End

…..Thank you…..