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Shell Nigeria Exploration and Production

Company Ltd.

Bonga FPSO
Plant Operating Procedures Manual

Volume 11
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

OPRM-2003-0311

Version: 1.2

This document is not confidential.


The Copyright of this document is vested in Shell Nigeria
Exploration and Production Company Limited. All rights reserved.
Neither the whole nor any part of this document may be
reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, reprographic,
recording or otherwise) without the prior written consent of the
copyright owner.
Shell Nigeria E & P Company Ltd. Unrestricted

Document Status Information

1.0. DOCUMENT CONTROL

1.1. Change History

Ref
Date Version Author Change Description
Indicator

01/03/04 1.0 ODL – Issue of document for


signature.
31/08/05 1.1 ODL – Amendments to:
• Preliminary Pages
• Part 1 Section 2
Paragraphs 3.4.2 and 4.0

Part 2 Section 1:
• Procedure No 1/001
removed
• Pre-start Checks Steps 1
and 5 altered and
addition to Step 2
• Cold Start-up Steps 2
and 3 removed. Steps 6,
7, 10 and 16 altered,
Step 11 added.
• Procedure No 1/005 ERS
2 altered

Part 2 Section 3
Hydrocyclone Back-
flushing Procedure No
3/002 title ‘ Manual
Backwash’ added and
Automated Backwash Steps
1 to 9 added.
30/04/06 1.2 ODL/SNEPCO – Amendments throughout to
address outstanding HOLDs
and to reflect the final as-
built P&IDs.

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2.0 PURPOSE
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on the safe, efficient
and environmentally aware operation of the Produced Water Treatment
Systems.
It is one Volume within an overall suite of Volumes which comprise the
Bonga FPSO Plant Operating Procedures Manual (POPM). The full listing of
Volumes is as follows:
Volume 1 Field and Facilities Overview
Volume 2A Subsea Production System
Volume 2B Subsea Waterflood System
Volume 2C Subsea Control System
Volume 2D Flow Assurance Guidelines
Volume 3 Oil Separation and Treatment
Volume 4 Oil Storage, Handling and Ballast Systems
Volume 5 Oil Metering and Export System
Volume 6 Vapour Recovery Compression System
Volume 7 Field Gas Compression System
Volume 8 Gas Dehydration/Glycol Regeneration Systems
Volume 9 Gas Export/Import/Lift Systems
Volume 10 Flare and Vent Systems
Volume 11 Produced Water Treatment Systems
Volume 12 Waterflood System
Volume 13 Chemical Injection and Methanol Injection System
Volume 14 Fuel Gas System
Volume 15 Heating Medium System
Volume 16 Drainage Systems
Volume 17 Sewage Treatment Systems
Volume 18 Bilge and Oily Water Separation Systems
Volume 19 Inert Gas System
Volume 20 Nitrogen Generation System
Volume 21 Seawater System
Volume 22 Fresh and Potable Water Systems
Volume 23 Diesel Fuel System and Incinerator
Volume 24 Aviation Fuel System
Volume 25 Instrument and Utility Air System
Volume 26 Deck Hydraulic Systems
Volume 27 Fire Protection Systems and Equipment
Volume 28 Safety and Lifesaving Equipment
Volume 29 PSCS and ESS
Volume 30 Power Generation and Distribution Systems
Volume 31 Black Start Procedures
Volume 32 HVAC Systems
Volume 33 Deck Machinery and Mechanical Handling Systems (Cranes, etc)
Volume 34 Telecommunications
Volume 35 Ancillary Living Quarters (ALQ)

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3.0 SCOPE
This document provides a detailed description of the plant and equipment
which comprise the Produced Water Treatment Systems and includes step-
by-step guidance on the operation of the system and its equipment, under
both normal and abnormal operation.

4.0 TARGET READERSHIP


All SNEPCO staff, contractors and other third-party personnel who may be
involved in the operation of the Produced Water Treatment Systems onboard
the
Bonga FPSO.

5.0 SPECIAL NOTE


Not applicable.

6.0 ABBREVIATIONS
The abbreviations used within this document are listed at the end of these
introductory pages.

7.0 REFERENCE INFORMATION/SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION


The primary reference/supporting documents, which have been either used
or referred to in the development of this document, are listed at the end of
these introductory pages. These are part of the available Operational
Documentation, which SNEPCO Offshore Operations (OO) has in place to
support its day-to-day operations. These and many other documents are
available within the SNEPCO Livelink System. Where appropriate, these
documents have been cross-referenced within this document.

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Abbreviations

AC Alternating Current
ACB Air Circuit-breaker
AEP Authorised Electrical Person
ANSI American National Standards Institute
API American Petroleum Institute

BA Breathing Apparatus
bara Bar Absolute
barg Bar Gauge
BASEEFA British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in
Flammable Atmospheres
BBL Barrel
BOPD Barrel of Oil per Day
BPD Barrels per Day
BS&W Base Sediment and Water
BWPD Barrel of Water per Day

CCR Central Control Room


CEP Competent Electrical Person
CI Chemical Injection
CT Current Transformer
CIV Chemical Injection Valve
CV Production Choke Valve

DC Direct Current
DCS Distributed Control System
DE Drive End
DO Digital Output
DPR Department of Petroleum Resources

ECP Engine Control Panel


ESR 1 Process Shutdown
ESR 2 Surface Process Shutdown
ESR 3 Total FPSO Shutdown
ESS Emergency Support System

F&G Fire and Gas


FBHP Flowing Bottomhole Pressure
FC Fail Closed Valve
FCV Flow Control Valve
FG Flow Indicating Gauge
FIC Flow Indicating Controller
FLA First Line Ashore

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FO Fail Open Valve


FPSO Floating Production, Storage and Offloading
FS Fuse Switch
FT Flow Transmitter
FTP Flowing Tubing Pressure
FZA Flow Safety Alarm

GA General Alarm
GOR Gas/Oil Ratio
GT Gas Turbine

H High Alarm
HH High Trip
HCU Hydraulic Control Unit
HCV Hand Control Valve
HMI Human Machine Interface
HOV Hand Operated Valve
HP High Pressure
HPI High Performance Insulation
HPU Hydraulic Power Unit
HSE Health, Safety and Environment
HV High Voltage
HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
Hz Hertz (Frequency)

ID Internal Diameter
IGF Induced Gas Flotation
IGG Inert Gas Generator
IGV Inlet Guide Vane
IP Intermediate Pressure
IS Intrinsically Safe
ISO International Standards Organisation

kW Kilowatt

L Low Alarm
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LC Locked Closed
LCV Level Control Valve
LEL Lower Explosive Limit
LG Level Gauge
LIC Level Indicating Controller
LL Low Trip
LO Locked Open
LOS Line of Sight
LP Low Pressure

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LPG Liquified Petroleum Gas


LS Level Switch
LSA Load-shed Application
LSA Low Specific Activity (Scale)
LT Level Transmitter
LV Low Voltage
LZA Level Safety Alarm

MOV Motor Operated Valve


m/s Metre per Second
MSDS Material Safety Datasheets
MW Megawatt
m3 Cubic Metres
MAC Manual Alarm Callpoint
MCC Motor Control Centre
MCCB Moulded Case Circuit-breaker
MEG Mono Ethylene Glycol
MGPS Marine Growth Prevention System
MIS Management Information System
MIV Methanol Injection Valve
MMSCFD Millions of Standard Cubic Feet per Day

NB Nominal Bore
NC Normally Closed
NDE Non-drive End
NDT Non-destructive Testing
NGL Natural Gas Liquid
NO Normally Open
NPSHA Net Positive Suction Head Available
NRV Non-return Valve

O/A/S Off/Auto/Start
OD Outside Diameter
OID Operator Interface Display
OLI On-line Inspection

P&ID Piping and Instrument Diagram


PCF Permit Control Facility
PCV Pressure Control Valve
PDR Pressure Difference Ratio
PDS Differential Pressure Switch
PDT Differential Pressure Transmitter
PFD Process Flow Diagram
PFS Programming Functional Specification
PG Pressure Gauge
PIC Pressure Indicator Controller

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PIV Pigging Isolation Valve


PM Production Manifold
PMV Production Master Valve
PPE Personnel Protective Equipment
ppm v/v Part per Million by Volume
ppm wt/wt Parts per Million by Weight
PSCS Process Safety and Control System
PSD Process Shutdown
PT Pressure Transmitter
PTW Permit to Work
PZA Pressure Safety Alarm

RV Relief Valve
RVP Reid Vapour Pressure
RTJ Ring Type Joint

SCSSV Surface Controlled Subsea Safety Valve


SCU Subsea Control Unit
SDV Shutdown Valve
SI Statutory Instrument
SI Switchgear and Instrumentation
Sm3/hr Standard Cubic Metres per Hour
SPM Single Point Mooring
SRB Sulphate-reducing Bacteria
SSDS Safety Shutdown System
SWL Safe Working Load
SWP Safe Working Pressure
SWV Sacrificial Wing Valve

TCV Temperature Control Valve


TDS Total Dissolved Solids
TEG Tri-ethylene Glycol
TG Temperature Gauge
TIC Temperature Indicating Controller
T/T Tangent to Tangent (Vessel Length)
TT Temperature Transmitter
TVP True Vapour Pressure
TZA Temperature Safety Alarm

UCP Unit Control Panel


UEL Upper Explosive Limit
UF Under-frequency
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply
USD Unit Shutdown
UV Ultraviolet

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VCB Voltage Circuit-breaker


VDC Video Display Computer
VDU Visual Display Unit
VFC Vacuum Fused Contactor
VFD Variable Frequency Drive
VRU Vapour Recovery Unit
VT Voltage Transformer

WHRU Waste Heat Recovery Unit


WI Water Injection
WI WOBBE Index
WSV Well Switching Valve

XOV Crossover Valve

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Reference Information/Supporting Documentation

Project Data

Document No/Ref Document Title

BON-AME-3PP-B-01043-001- Operator Guide Produced Water System


A01 (System 43)
BON-AME-3PP-B-21423-002- P&ID LP Separator
C06
BON-AME-3PP-B-21423-003- P&ID LP Separator
C06
BON-AME-3PP-B-21423-007- P&ID Bulk Oil Treater
C06
BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-001- P&ID Produced Water Tank and Pumps
C06
BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-002- P&ID Hydrocyclone
C06
BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-003- P&ID Induced Gas Flotation Separator
C06
BON-AME-3PP-B-21448-001- P&ID Closed Drain and Overboard Header
C06
BON-AME-3GN-B-25082-012- Cause and Effect Diagram Produced Water
A01 System (System 43)
Sheet 1 of 1
BON-AME-3GN-B-25082-004- Cause and Effect Diagram LP Production
C02 System (System 23)
Sheet 1 of 1

Vendor Data

Vendor Document Number Document Title

Baker Process Production P237-H-002 Technical Maintenance Manual


and Refining Volume 1 of 1 for Induced Gas Flotation
Vessel
Baker Process Production P237-H-004 Technical Maintenance Manual
and Refining Volume 1 of 1 for De-oiling Hydrocyclone

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Sulzer Pumps P0001/29/M008/00 Technical Manual (Installation,


1 Operation and Maintenance)
Sulz-088-340
Baker Process Production P237-M-500 Datasheets for the
and Refining Volume 1 of 1 Hydrocyclone Vessel S-4340
Baker Process Production P237-M-501 Datasheets for the IGF
and Refining Volume 1 of 1 Separator V-4341

HEMP Actions

No Description Control Measure ODL Action

1 Valve alignment of Update POPM with correct Procedure


produced water out of the valve alignment and valve No 1/001 Cold
LP Separators, incorrect numbering, ensure latest Start-up Valve
listing of valves. available revision of the table amended.
documentation is available
prior to writing of POPM.
2 Priming and starting of Input more information to Procedure
produced water pumps – the POPM concerning type Nos 1/001 and
confusion due to of pump and specific 1/002 amended.
statement of cracking start-up sequence.
open suction SDV and
starting of pump with
closed discharge valve.
Could pre-filling of piping
be a better option?

The discharge valve is a


CSO valve.
3 Charging of the system Specific description of the Added to pre-
with seawater prior to operation to be detailed in start checks in
start-up, POPM is vague the POPM. Procedure
as to the management of No 1/001.
the operation.
4 Start-up of oil-in-water More detail required in the Amended in
analysis is not specific as procedures. Procedure
to when system should be Nos 1/001
placed in operation. and 1/002.

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HAZOP Actions

Action
Operation Procedure
Number/ Node Description Response to HAZOP
Section/Procedure
Node

290/6.0 Produced Water Carry out routine Part 2 Section 3 Procedure


3 Hydrocyclones back-flushing once No 3/002.
per shift.
130/17 Induced Gas Methanol from Text and references added to
Flotation production process Part 1 Section 1 Paragraph
Separator passing overboard 3.3.
with the produced
water.

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Main Table of Contents

Document Status Information


Abbreviations
Reference Information/Supporting Documentation

Part 1 – Technical Description


Section 1 System Overview
Section 2 Detailed Description

Part 2 – Operating Procedures


Section 1 System Operating Procedures
Section 2 Equipment Operating Procedures
Section 3 Supplementary Operating Procedures

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PART 1
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

Section 1 System Overview

Section 2 Detailed Description

Part 1 Technical Description


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Part 1
Technical Description

Section 1
System Overview

Table of Contents

1.0 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 2

2.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................. 2

3.0 HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT (HSE) .......................................................... 3


3.1 General................................................................................................................ 3
3.2 Specific Hazards.................................................................................................. 4
3.3 Environmental Issues .......................................................................................... 4

FIGURES
Figure 1.1 – Produced Water System Overview ...................................................................... 6

Part 1 Section 1 System Overview


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1.0 INTRODUCTION
All produced water extracted from the Bonga well fluids by the Oil Separation and
Treatment System is processed by the Produced Water Treatment System. The
produced water treatment facilities ensure the quality of the water discharged to sea
meets the required standard of 15ppm (wt) from a maximum inlet hydrocarbon
concentration of 1000ppmv.
The Produced Water Treatment System consists of the following major components:
• Produced Water Tank V-4340
• Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B
• Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340
• Induced Gas Flotation (IGF) Separator V-4341
The system is currently rated to process 100,000BWPD of produced water but is
designed to accommodate future expansion of up to 160,000BWPD.

2.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION


Refer to Figure 1.1.
The produced water leaving the Oil Separation and Treatment System contains too
high a concentration of oil for dumping at sea, and is therefore treated by passing
the fluid through the Produced Water Treatment System.
Produced water separated in the LP Separators V-2341A/B and Bulk Oil Treater
V-2343 enters the Produced Water Tank V-4340 under the interface level control of
these vessels. The combined incoming flow passes into a 20in inlet manifold and
mixes with any clean produced water recycled from the hydrocyclone.
Dosing points for the injection of water clarifier and scale inhibitors are located on
the produced water outlets from the LP separators.
Produced Water Tank V-4340 is a vertical, two-phase vessel designed to remove
dissolved hydrocarbon gases from the incoming produced water. The vapours are
released to the first-stage VRU suction scrubber. The produced water tank operates
at low pressure to maximise hydrocarbon vapour recovery to the VRU compressor.
Degassed produced water is passed from the tank to the suction of the 100%
capacity Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B. The duty pump discharges the
produced water to Hydrocyclone S-4340. The produced water pumps are
specifically designed to limit the shearing effect on any oil droplets in the produced
water, so as not to adversely affect the oil removal efficiency in the hydrocyclone.
The produced water pumps are protected against operating below the minimum
flowrate by a recycle line. When the discharge flow falls below the minimum
set point, a recycle flow control valve opens to recycle water from the pump
discharge back to the produced water pump.
There is provision to install a third produced water pump (P-4340C) at a later date
when the water cut of the Bonga reservoir fluids has increased to a point where the
existing capacity of the Produced Water Treatment System is exceeded.
Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340 consists of a single hydrocyclone unit, which
contains a number of individual hydrocyclone tubes (normally referred to as
hydrocyclone liners).

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There is provision to install a second produced water hydrocyclone (S-4341)


to process the extra produced water in the future.
In the hydrocyclone unit the oil droplets suspended in the produced water are
separated from the water by enhanced gravity separation and leave the
hydrocyclone through three individual oil reject lines to a common oil reject header
for re-processing in the production sump. The denser water phase exits the
hydrocyclone at about 40ppm (wt) and discharges into a clean water outlet header.
Clean water from the hydrocyclone is directed to Induced Gas Flotation Separator
V-4341, which further reduces the oil-in-water concentration until it is within the
required specification of 15ppm (wt) total.
A chemical injection point is provided on the clean water outlet from the
hydrocyclone so as to enable water clarifier to be injected to the induced gas
flotation separator, if required. The addition of this chemical encourages bonding of
the small oil droplets to enhance the performance of the IGF separator.
The induced gas within the IGF separator assists the upward velocity of the oil
droplets to float to the surface as a foam, where they are skimmed off and directed
to the production sump. Hydrocarbon gas is vented from the IGF separator to the
first-stage VRU suction scrubber.
Clean, degassed produced water is discharged to the sea from the IGF separator,
under level control. An oil-in-water analyser is provided for monitoring the produced
water being dumped overboard. This is located on the downstream pipework of the
IGF separator and will alarm to indicate a high level of oil-in-water content.
Final disposal of the produced water takes place through the overboard header and
caisson to the sea.
Off-spec produced water which cannot be dumped to sea is switched to the slop oil
tank or the primary reception tank.

3.0 HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT (HSE)

3.1 General
The Produced Water Treatment System is located on the vessel topsides and as
such forms part of the main topside operating area.
All personnel in the area must have received training in, and be fully conversant
with, the following:
• Location and use of fire and safety equipment in the area
• Recognition and response to all the vessel’s visual and audible alarms
• Muster and evacuation procedures
• Escape routes
• Location and use of lifesaving equipment

Part 1 Section 1 System Overview


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3.2 Specific Hazards


The Produced Water Treatment System handles mainly produced water at relatively
low temperature (50°C) and pressure. Therefore, hazards are low compared with
other processing systems. However, it is incorrect to assume that no hazards exist.
Potential hazards include the following:
• The produced water tank is gas blanketed
• Level control problems in the LP separators or oil treater could result in large
quantities of oil reaching the produced water tank
• Level control problems in the LP separators could result in gas blowby,
with large volumes of gas flowing to the produced water tank
This system cannot be taken for granted just because it usually contains
mostly water.
All personnel must wear the appropriate protective clothing (overalls, safety helmet,
gloves, goggles etc) when in the area, and wear hearing protection if noise levels in
the area are high.
The Produced Water Treatment System employs various items of rotating
equipment which must have all moving parts securely guarded at all times.

3.3 Environmental Issues

3.3.1 Overboard Discharge


Since the Produced Water System discharges effluent overboard, environmental
issues could arise if the discharge fails to meet the required discharge parameters.
However, the final effluent is automatically monitored and if its quality deteriorates
below the allowable value, the off-specification water is automatically diverted for
further treatment. Diverted water will usually be routed to the dirty slops tank.
From there it will be pumped to the LP separator for reprocessing. Refer to
Volume 2 Subsea Facilities, Flowlines and Risers for details.

3.3.2 Low Specific Activity (LSA)


Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) is found throughout the natural
environment, including reservoir formations. Formation water (ie produced water)
dissolves radioactive salts from the formation rock and brings NORM to the surface
with the produced water. The activity concentration of this NORM contamination is
very low, and to emphasise that the concentrations are very low, such material is
usually referred to as LSA.
Since the levels are typically very low, LSA in produced water is not a problem,
unless it becomes concentrated in some manner. As the produced water is
subjected to changes in temperature and pressure during the treatment process,
dissolved solids may precipitate out of solution and deposit scale and sediment
(sludge). Sludge and scale wastes should be removed from production equipment in
a safe and controlled manner, and disposed of in a manner that complies with
local regulations.

Part 1 Section 1 System Overview


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3.3.3 Methanol in Produced Water


Methanol injected at the crude oil wells, flowlines and topsides process facilities
appears in the produced water. Methanol biodegrades in water, however methanol
in high concentrations (>1%) in fresh or salt water can have harmful effects on
aquatic flora and fauna within the immediate discharge area.
Under current environmental guidelines and standards for the Petroleum Industry in
Nigeria (revised edition 2002) issued by the Department of Petroleum Resources
(DPR), methanol discharge from offshore structures is currently unregulated.
However, in line with best practice, methanol discharge from Bonga should be kept
as low as reasonably practicable.

Part 1 Section 1 System Overview


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Figure 1.1 –
Produced Water System Overview

Part 1 Section 1 System Overview


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Part 1
Technical Description

Section 2
Detailed Description

Table of Contents

1.0 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 2

2.0 EQUIPMENT DETAILS .................................................................................................. 2


2.1 Produced Water Tank.......................................................................................... 2
2.2 Produced Water Pumps ...................................................................................... 3
2.3 Produced Water Hydrocyclone............................................................................ 4
2.4 Induced Gas Flotation Separator......................................................................... 6

3.0 CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION.......................................................................... 7


3.1 Produced Water Tank V-4340 ............................................................................. 7
3.2 Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B .................................................................... 8
3.3 Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340 ............................................................... 9
3.4 Induced Gas Flotation Separator S-4341 .......................................................... 11
3.5 Overboard Discharge Water Quality.................................................................. 13

4.0 MODES OF OPERATION............................................................................................. 14

5.0 SAFEGUARDING ......................................................................................................... 14

TABLES
Table 2.1 – Produced Water Tank Controllers, Alarms and Trips............................................ 8
Table 2.2 – Produced Water Pumps Controllers, Alarms and Trips......................................... 9
Table 2.3 – Induced Gas Flotation Separator Controllers, Alarms and Trips......................... 13
Table 2.4 – Produced Water System Relief Valve Settings ................................................... 15

FIGURES
Figure 2.1 – Produced Water Tank and Pumping Facilities ................................................... 16
Figure 2.2 – Produced Water Hydrocyclone ......................................................................... 17
Figure 2.3 – Induced Gas Flotation Separator ....................................................................... 18

Part 1 Section 2 Detailed Description

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
The Produced Water Treatment System removes the traces of oil from the water
which has been produced with the crude oil from the Bonga formation and
undergone separation in the LP separators and bulk oil treater. After treatment,
the clean water is discharged overboard.
Major items in the Produced Water Treatment System are as follows:
• Produced Water Tank V-4340
• Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B
• Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340
• Induced Gas Flotation (IGF) Separator V-4341

2.0 EQUIPMENT DETAILS

2.1 Produced Water Tank


Equipment Details
Tag Number: V-4340
Location: Port Process Module
Manufacturer: IMS
Design: Welded steel with vertical support
Design Temperature: -10°C to 94°C
Design Pressure: +1.034barg/-0.052barg
Capacity: 729.0m3/hr
Refer to Figure 2.1 or P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-001-C066.
Equipment Description
The purpose of Produced Water Tank V-4340 is to collect produced water from the
LP separators and bulk oil treater operating at pressures ranging from 20.0barg to
2.4barg, and to provide safe disposal to the first-stage VRU suction scrubber of
gases liberated by the pressure reduction in the vessel to 0.5barg.
Because the produced water tank is fed with produced water by process vessels at
different pressures, emulsification and oil droplet dispersion may occur in the vessel.
Consequently, the size of the next downstream vessel, Induced Gas Flotation
Separator V-4341, has been designed to give a long residence time to aid the
break-up of emulsions.
Produced Water Tank V-4340 is a vertically mounted vessel which measures
5.486m in diameter and 5.586m in height (tan/tan). The internal surfaces of the
tank are epoxy lined to avoid corrosion. The tank has a design pressure of
+1.034/-0.052barg, a temperature range of -10 to +94°C and is sized for the future
produced water flowrate of 160,000BWPD.

Part 1 Section 2 Detailed Description

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Produced water enters at the top of the tank through a 20in flanged nozzle.
The fluid is directed through an internal drop line to the bottom of the tank where it
is distributed through a series of 25mm x 230mm slots to minimise splatter.
This process, together with the drop in pressure, encourages dissolved hydrocarbon
gases to flash-off.
Under normal operating conditions the pressure in the produced water tank is not
allowed to exceed 0.5barg, with make-up gas directed through 32-PCV-001 to the
tank as necessary. Vacuum Breaker 43-PSV-303, which is set at -26mbarg provides
protection against vacuum conditions.
The produced water tank is designed to counteract the adverse effects of FPSO
motion, and operates as a two-phase separation vessel approximately half liquid full,
with 4 minutes hold-up time between high and low alarm points.
Any separated oil droplets float on top of the water and form a layer over a period
of time. Provision is made to drain off or ‘skim’ any such accumulations of oil in the
vessel by means of 10 individual valved tappings over the operating range of the
vessel with 6in spacing. The tappings are arranged in two groups of five each with a
manifold, leading to two tundishes. Skimmed oil is disposed of from each tundish to
the Collection Sump S-4701B.
Level Gauges 43-LG-302A and B allow constant monitoring of the level inside
the tank. An overflow line is hard piped from the produced water tank to the dirty
slops tank.
Degassed produced water flows through a vortex breaker from the tank to the
Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B.

2.2 Produced Water Pumps


Equipment Details
Tag Number: P-4340A/B
Location: Port Process Module
Manufacturer: Sulzer Pumps
Model: VCR 10-14-24A/6 Stage
Driver Rating: 350kW
Voltage: 6.6kV
Suction Pressure: 0.5barg
Discharge Pressure: 12.1barg
Capacity: 662.5m3/hr
Refer to Figure 2.1 or P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-001-C064.

Part 1 Section 2 Detailed Description

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Equipment Description
The produced water pumps are required to raise the pressure of the degassed
produced water from Produced Water Tank V-4340 up to 12barg. This is the
required pressure to drive the fluids through the hydrocyclone.
There are two identical pump sets provided, one dedicated for duty and the other as
standby. The manufacturer of the pump sets is Sulzer Pumps.
The produced water pumps are low speed, low sheer, vertical canister pumps,
which are specifically designed to limit the shearing effect on any oil droplets in the
produced water, so as not to adversely affect the oil removal efficiency in the
downstream hydrocyclone. A removable strainer is provided on the produced water
pump suction to protect the pump from debris.
The pump has six stages and is driven through a Kopflex, disc type, spacer coupling
by a 350kW electric motor.
The pump bowl is supported by the discharge column, which also houses the line
shaft drive to the impellers. At the top of the discharge column is the suction and
discharge head, which allows connection of the lines to and from the pump.
The suction connection directs produced water into the canister from where the
pump draws the fluid. Draining of the suction can and pump casing is achieved by
pressurising the suction can with nitrogen.
The electric motor driver is mounted vertically upon the suction and discharge head.
Produced water leaves the discharge column through an elbow to the discharge
nozzle. The line shaft penetrates the elbow to connect to the driver,
with containment provided by a John Crane single-cartridge mechanical seal.
Each produced water pump has a capacity of 662.5m3/hr (100,000BWPD).
Produced water exits the discharge of the duty pump and is directed to Produced
Water Hydrocyclone S-4340.
The duty pump operates continuously at a constant throughput with Flow Control
Valve 43-FCV-321 regulating the discharge flow through a recycle line, from
downstream of the hydrocyclone, back to the inlet header for the produced
water tank.

2.3 Produced Water Hydrocyclone


Equipment Details
Tag Number: S-4340
Location: Port Process Module
Manufacturer: Baker Process Production and Refining
Model: M1150-Km-300#
Operating Weight: 7710kg
Design Temperature: -10°C to 94°C
Design Pressure: 24.1barg
Inlet Oil Concentration: 1000ppm
Outlet Oil Concentration: <40ppm
Capacity: 168.9m3/hr (minimum) to 662.5m3/hr (maximum)
Refer to Figure 2.2 or P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-002-C064.

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Equipment Description
The hydrocyclone is manufactured to a proprietary design marketed under the trade
name of ‘Vortoil’ and consists of four main sections:
• Involute inlet chamber
• Concentric reducing section
• Fine tapered section
• Parallel section
Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340 consists of a single hydrocyclone pressure
vessel, which contains 241 individual hydrocyclone liners and 30 blanks to permit
upgrade for a throughput of 110,000BWPD.
The liners operate in parallel inside the vessel and can be added or removed,
and blanked internally to adjust capacity whilst maintaining the required flow through
each liner, thereby allowing fine tuning of the hydrocyclone. All hydrocyclone liners
are fed from a common inlet nozzle, and each hydrocyclone liner discharges into
a common clean water outlet header. The reject oil from each liner is piped
individually to a manifold, which has a common outlet for the reject stream.
Driven by the system pressure of 12.1barg (ie produced water pump discharge
pressure), the oily water mixture enters each hydrocyclone liner via a tangential inlet
to form a vortex. On entering the inlet of the hydrocyclone liner, the produced water
undergoes virtually instantaneous separation of oil and water due the cyclonic forces
imparted.
Forced down the liner, the fluid is accelerated in the concentric reducing section
thus inducing high centrifugal forces. The denser water phase moves outwards
passing down the liner and exiting at the clean water outlet, while the lower density
oil is drawn into the low pressure core. This last section provides increased
residence time for smaller, slower oil droplets to migrate to the core.
Note: The minimum flowrate is 2.0m3/hr per liner. Below this flowrate the centrifugal
forces inside the hydrocyclone are too weak to provide efficient separation.
The combination of the back-pressure applied to the clean water outlet (controlled
by 43-LCV-301A) and the lower reject pressure (controlled by 43-PDCV-325)
causes reverse flow to be induced in the central oil core. The oil reject leaves the
hydrocyclone liner through an orifice centrally positioned in the back wall of the
involute chamber at the top of the liner.
The clean produced water from the hydrocyclone passes to the induced gas flotation
separator, and the rejected oil stream is directed to the production sump.
Limitations on the use of hydrocyclones are as follows:
• The flow through the hydrocyclone must be within the recommended
operating range
• The oil-in-water of the feed should not exceed the design limit of 1000ppm
• There should be no device upstream of the hydrocyclone which could reduce
droplet size or form emulsions. If small hydrocarbon droplets (ie less than
15 microns) are present in the produced water, a chemical such as
polyelectrolyte should be introduced upstream of the hydrocyclone to encourage
bonding of the small droplets

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In the pipework associated with the hydrocyclone there is a facility to direct


produced water from the inlet stream to the reject oil line in order to back-flush the
orifice in the reject oil outlets. This facilitates backwashing the holes in the reject
plates should they become blocked.
Relief Valve 43-RV-323 provides overpressure protection for the hydrocyclone
chamber from a blocked-in thermal/fire condition. This RV is set to relieve to the
production relief header at a pressure of 24.1barg.
Relief Valves 43-RV-347A/B, located on the clean produced water header, provide
liquid overpressure protection for the induced gas flotation separator. The relief
valves are set to relieve to the slop oil or primary reception tank at a pressure
of 1.05barg.

2.4 Induced Gas Flotation Separator


Equipment Details
Tag Number: V-4341
Location: Port Process Module
Manufacturer: Baker Hughes Production and Refining
Design: ASME VIII DIV 1 1998 + 2000 Addenda
Operating Weight: 120,320kg
Design Temperature: -10°C to 93.3°C
Design Pressure: 1.049barg/Full Vacuum
Inlet Oil Concentration: 300ppm (maximum)
Outlet Oil Concentration: <15ppm
Capacity: 662.4m3/hr
Refer to Figure 2.3 or P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-003-C064.
Equipment Description
Induced Gas Flotation Separator V-4341 is a single horizontal depurator vessel
consisting of three compartments in series where further recovery of oil not removed
by the hydrocyclone takes place. The unit measures 3024mm in width and
11,328mm tan to tan.
The first and second compartments are sub-divided into two cells, each with a 15kW
motor-driven rotor mechanism (stirrer/agitator) surrounded by a dispenser, draft tube
and standpipe arrangement. These facilities are fitted with blanket gas intake ports
to induce gas into the produced water.
‘Clean’ produced water from the upstream hydrocyclone enters the IGF separator,
passes through an underflow baffle and enters the first compartment where the
entrained oil is removed by the action of the rotation mechanism and the induction of
blanket gas in each of the two cells. The rapid rotation of the rotor forms a liquid
vortex which extends from the standpipe to just above the tank bottom.
This generates a static pressure reduction, resulting in a natural ingestion of gas
and a circulating liquid flow from the bottom of the vessel through the draft tube to
the rotor.
Note: The flotation process in the IGF separator can be enhanced by the addition
of polyelectrolyte chemicals to the produced water passing to the vessel.

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The ingested gas, in the form of small bubbles, assists the upward velocity of the oil
droplets to float to the surface as a foam, where they are periodically skimmed off
via an internal trough and removed under level control to the production sump.
The flotation unit operates at 0.3 to 0.35barg, with any hydrocarbon gases breaking
out of the produced water being discharged through a vent line to the first-stage
VRU suction scrubber.
The produced water then leaves the first compartment via an external nozzle and
flows into the second compartment under level control, where the flotation process
is repeated but at the lower pressure of 0.05 to 0.1barg.
Produced water flows into the third compartment, or discharge cell, where any
remaining oil/gas rises to the surface to be skimmed and collected in a boot, which
discharges under level control to the production sump. Clean produced water exits
the bottom of the induced gas flotation vessel into the overboard header, under level
control, to be dumped overboard. The required overboard oil-in-water quality is
15ppm on a monthly average and 29ppm for a single occurrence.
Pressure Relief Valves 43-RV-348 and 43-RV-349 provide overpressure protection
for Compartment 1 and Compartments 2 and 3 respectively. These RVs are set to
relieve to the first-stage VRU suction scrubber at 0.5barg.

3.0 CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION

3.1 Produced Water Tank V-4340


Produced water discharged from the LP separators and bulk oil treater is combined
in a manifold together with any clean water recycled from the produced water
hydrocyclone and routed to the produced water tank to be degassed.

3.1.1 Level Control and Protection


The liquid level in the produced water tank is maintained at mid height of the vessel
to give sufficient hold-up time for any dissolved gases to flash off.
The level is maintained at 2743mm above the bottom of the vessel by Level
Indicating Controller 43-LIC-301 acting on 43-LCV-301A, located downstream of the
produced water hydrocyclone to maintain back-pressure on the hydrocyclone.
There are High and Low Level Alarms, LAH-301 and LAL-301, derived from
43-LIC-301. The LAH and LAL annunciate in the CCR via the DCS and alert the
operator to deviations from the set level control point allowing sufficient time to
rectify the problem.
However, should the level in the produced water tank continue to rise or fall,
independent High Level Trip LZH-302B or Low Level Trip LZL-302A operates and
initiate executive action via the SSDS System. Refer to the latest revision of Cause
and Effect Charts for full details on the executive actions resulting from these trips.

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3.1.2 Pressure Control and Protection


The released gas from the produced water tank is fed directly to the 1st stage VRU
suction scrubber. The produced water tank is normally controlled by the VRU
1st stage suction pressure control system when VRU is running and by the
atmospheric vent pressure controller system when the VRU is not running.
Pressure Controller 32-PIC-001, which is set at 0.05barg, controls the blanket gas
make-up line. It is provided to prevent a vacuum being drawn on the produced water
tank if insufficient gas is being liberated from the produced water entering the tank.
It is also a means of preventing the ingress of oxygen during normal operations.
Failure of 32-PIC-001 causes a USD shutdown by the activation of Low Low
Pressure Trip 32-PZL-002.

Instrument Low Low Low High High High Controller


Tag Number Trip Alarm Alarm Trip Set Point

43-LZL-302A -27.4%
43-LIC-301 3.8% 66.7% 50%
43-LZH-302B 97.6%
32-PZL-002 0.017barg
32-PIC-001 0.03barg 0.3barg 0.052barg

Table 2.1 – Produced Water Tank Controllers, Alarms and Trips

3.2 Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B


Produced water from Produced Water Tank V-4340 flows to the two produced water
pumps, which share the same suction and discharge manifolds. Both pumps are
rated for 100% duty.

3.2.1 Pump Control


The pumps are normally started and stopped from the DCS. The pumps can also be
started and stopped from the starter in the MCC. An emergency stop pushbutton is
located adjacent to each pump.
The produced water pumps can be set to operate in duty/standby configuration.
The standby pump is automatically started after a time delay of 10 seconds for
motor acceleration in the following circumstances:
• The duty pump trips
• The pump selected as duty fails to start
An electronic interlock ensures that both pumps cannot operate simultaneously.

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Produced Water Pump P-4340A or B is protected against operation below its


minimum flowrate by Flow Indicator Controller 43-FIC-321, which is set at 662m3/hr,
minimum flow for a single pump. When the flow falls below this set point,
Recycle Valve 43-FCV-321 opens to divert some flow from the discharge of the
pump to flow back to the produced water tank, maintaining flow through
the pump.
Pressure Controller 43-PIC-336 on the hydrocyclone clean water outlet provides an
alternative control signal to the minimum flow controller for the produced water
pumps. If the pressure at the clean water outlet of the hydrocyclone, as measured
by 43-PIT-336, increases above 8barg, 43-PIC-336 overrides the signal from
43-FIC-321 opening 43-FCV-321 to reduce excessive back-pressure on the clean
water outlet of the hydrocyclone and ensure effective operation of the hydrocyclone.

3.2.2 Pump Protection


Activation of the high high or low low discharge pressure trip shuts down the
respective produced water pump via the SSDS System. Refer to the latest revision
of Cause and Effect Charts for full details on the executive actions resulting from
these trips.
Pump running indication is annunciated at the DCS via 43-XI-311 and 43-XI-312.

Instrument Low Low Low High High High Controller


Tag Number Trip Alarm Alarm Trip Set Point

43-PZL-317 7barg
43-PZH-317 17.1barg
43-PZL-318 7barg
43-PZH-318 17.1barg

Table 2.2 – Produced Water Pumps Controllers, Alarms and Trips

3.3 Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340


Produced water from Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B is directed into the
produced water hydrocyclone, where the oily produced water is separated into a
clean water stream, which exits to the induced gas flotation vessel and a reject oily
water stream to the production sump.

3.3.1 Hydrocyclone Operation and Control


The two controlled variables, which affect operation of the produced water
hydrocyclone, are the flowrate of produced water through the hydrocyclone and the
reject ratio (ie the ratio of oil flow rejected to the inlet produced water flowrate).
To operate effectively, the hydrocyclone must operate over a given flow range
(2.0m3/hr to 8.5m3/hr per liner). Below the minimum flowrate, insufficient vortex is
produced to effect efficient oil/water separation. Above the maximum flowrate,
high swirl areas in the liner may result in erosion.

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The rate of flow is controlled by the action of produced water tank Level Indicating
Controller 43-LIC-301, acting on Level Control Valve 43-LCV-301A on the clean
water outlet line, in conjunction with flow and/or pressure control via 43-FIC-321 and
43-PIC-366 acting on the recycle valve 43-FCV-321. These control loops respond to
changes in the level, flow and pressure in such a way as to achieve a balance
between tight level control and stable flow conditions to the hydrocyclone.
The produced water tank Level Control Valve 43-LCV-301A, located downstream of
the produced water hydrocyclone creates a back-pressure on the hydrocyclone.
The oil contained in the core of the hydrocyclone is in a low pressure zone and the
effect of the external back-pressure causes the oil to reverse its direction and flow
back through the reject orifice, to the reject header and on to the production sump.
The reject ratio is defined as the ratio of the reject oil stream flowrate to the inlet
volume flowrate of fluid:
Reject Oil Flow
Reject Ratio % = x 100
Total Inlet Flow
Although the reject stream is designated ‘oil’, it typically contains less than 10% oil.
For efficient operation, the reject ratio will typically be set at 2.5%.
A minimum reject ratio exists below which the efficiency of the hydrocyclones is
severely reduced, the central core becomes unstable resulting in poor separation of
oil and water. Extremely high reject ratios also have a similar effect.
The reject ratio can be determined without direct measurement by using the
operating pressures across the hydrocyclone. The reject ratio is directly proportional
to the Pressure Differential Ratio (PDR), which is defined as:
Pin − Pr ej
PDR =
Pin − Pout
Where: Pin = Inlet pressure (barg)
Pout = Water outlet pressure (barg)
Prej = Reject pressure (barg)
As the flow through the produced water hydrocyclone varies in response to
43-LIC-301 so the produced water pressure differential, 43-PDIT-325A varies
accordingly.
The differential pressure signals generated in 43-PDIT-325A, between oily water
inlet and clean water outlet, and 43-PDIT-325B, across oily water inlet and oil reject,
are fed to Differential Pressure Ratio Controller 43-PDRC-325, which is located in
the produced water hydrocyclone UCP and set at 1.5.
This instrument controls the oil reject flow by modulating Pressure Difference
Control Valve 43-PDCV-325 on the reject line to react in order to maintain a
constant PDR of 1.5, and hence constant reject ratio.
High and low PDR alarms are provided. The High PDR Alarm 43-PDAH-325,
set at 1.6, warns of unnecessarily excessive reject stream flowrates, ie there may
be too few hydrocyclone liners installed. A Low PDR Alarm 43-PDAL-325,
set at 1.4, warns of impaired separation performance, ie there may be too many
liners installed and the number should be reduced by removing liners and
installing blanks.

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Provided the differential pressure ratio is maintained across the produced water
hydrocyclone, the performance is unaffected by alterations in the flowrate of
produced water directed to the hydrocyclone, if the flow is within the
minimum/maximum flowrate for the liners.
There are no trip conditions for Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340.

3.4 Induced Gas Flotation Separator S-4341


Produced water from the hydrocyclone flows to the Petrico induced gas flotation
separator for further treatment and reduction of oil-in-water content.
The IGF separator is a horizontal, multi-cell, depurator vessel, which removes the
entrained oil particles from the produced water by floating them to the surface using
fine gas bubbles. Floating oil is skimmed from the surface of the produced water and
the fully treated water is discharged overboard at 15ppm.

3.4.1 Produced Water Level Control and Protection


Clean produced water from the hydrocyclone flows under level control of 43-LIC-301
to the IGF separator, as described in Paragraph 3.3.1, and enters the first
compartment through an underflow baffle.
The two cells in Compartments 1 and 2 operate together. The produced water
leaves the first compartment and enters the second compartment through a second
baffle and then passes on to a third, single-cell compartment.
Note: All descriptions in the following paragraphs refer to Compartment 1.
The equivalent tag numbers for Compartment 2 are indicated in parenthesis
alongside Compartment 1 tag numbers.
The produced water level in the compartment is maintained at a constant level by
Level Indicating Controller 43-LIC-502 (512) modulating 43-LCV-502 (512) on the
produced water line to the next compartment. High and low level alarms
43-LAH-502 (512) and 43-LAL-502 (512) annunciate in the CCR via the DCS and
alert the operator to deviations from the set level control point.
The compartment is fitted with a magnetic type Level Gauge 43-LG-504 (514) and
Level Transmitter 43-LZT-504 (514), which provides high high and low low trip
signals to the SSDS System.
Produced water from the second compartment flows into the third compartment or
discharge chamber, where any remaining oil rises to the surface and is skimmed via
the boot to the production sump.
The produced water level in the third compartment is monitored by two level
transmitters. Level Transmitter 43-LIT-522 provides the process variable signal to
43-LIC-522, which modulates Level Control Valve 43-LCV-522 on the clean water
outlet line and provides high and low level alarms. Level Transmitter 43-LZIT-524
provides high and low trip signals to the SSDS System.
These trip conditions are also repeated via the DCS. Refer to the latest revision of
Cause and Effect Charts for full details on the executive actions resulting from
these trips.
Clean produced water exits the bottom of the third compartment under the level
control of 43-LCV-522 to the overboard header and is directed through the
overboard caisson to the sea.

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3.4.2 Skimming Control and Protection


The system provides an auto-skimming function for Cells 1 and 2. (Cell skimming for
the cells is independent of each other.) Oily froth is skimmed from the surface of the
produced water into the skimmings boot by raising the level up to 2641mm
(configurable) via the DCS facilities at timed intervals (typically 15 to 30 seconds
every 30 minutes) using control loops 43-LIC-502 (512) modulating 43-LCV-502
(512). Normally oil is skimmed off on an intermittent basis as the produced water
level builds up. There is no requirement to inhibit the high level alarms and trips
during skimming. The operator has the facility to disable auto-skimming.
Note: All descriptions in the following paragraphs refer to Compartment 1.
The equivalent tag numbers for Compartment 2 are indicated in parenthesis
alongside Compartment 1 tag numbers.
The skimmings level in the boot is continuously monitored by two level transmitters.
Level Transmitter 43-LIT-501 (511) provides the process variable signal to
43-LIC-501 (511), which modulates Level Control Valve 43-LCV-501 (511) on the
skimming outlet line to the Production Sump. Transmitter 43-LZIT-503 (513)
provides high and low trip signals to the SSDS System.
Two level transmitters continuously monitor the liquid level in the skimmings boot
provided for the third compartment. Level Transmitter 43-LIT-521 provides a signal
for level control via 43-LIC-521, which modulates 43-LCV-521 on the skimmings
outlet line and provides a high and low level alarm. Transmitter 43-LIT-524 provides
high high and low low level trip signals to the SSDS System.
These trip conditions are also repeated via the DCS. Refer to the latest revision
of Cause and Effect Charts for full details on the executive actions resulting from
these trips.

3.4.3 Pressure Control


A 2in blanket gas supply line is hard piped from the Blanket Gas System to the inlet
nozzles, which distribute the gas to the IGF separator compartments.
The operating pressure in Compartment 1 is maintained at 0.3barg by blanket gas
entering the IGF separator through self-regulating 44-PV-381 on the blanket gas
supply line. The flowrate of blanket gas passing to Compartment 1 is measured by
Flow Transmitter 44-FIT-382 and displayed on the DCS via 44-FI-382. If the
pressure in the compartment increases up to 0.35barg, excess gas is directed to the
first-stage VRU suction scrubber through self-regulating 44-PV-344 on the vent line.
Compartments 2 and 3 are maintained at the lower pressure of 0.05barg by blanket
gas entering the IGF separator through self-regulating 44-PV-383 on the blanket gas
supply line and leaving the cells through 44-PV-383, which is set at 0.1barg.
The released gas is fed directly to the vent for safe disposal.
The flowrate of blanket gas passing to Compartments 2 and 3 is measured by Flow
Transmitter 44-FIT-384 and displayed on the DCS via 44-FI-384.

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3.5 Overboard Discharge Water Quality


The quality of the water leaving the clean water compartment is monitored by an
oil-in-water analyser 43-AZE-355. The analyser provides a high oil content trip
signal to the SDSS logic if the oil content of the discharge water approaches 15ppm.
The control logic opens the Shutdown Valve 43-SDV-351 to direct the out-of-spec
water to the slop oil tank or primary reception tank and then closes the 43-SDV-381
to the overboard header. When the water quality is restored the operator can rest
the trip to direct water overboard.

Instrument Low Low Low High High High Controller


Tag Number Trip Alarm Alarm Trip Set Point

Compartment 1
43-LZL-504 5.1%
43-LIC-502 22.2% 73.8% 28%
43-LZH-504 86.9%
43-LZL-503 20%
43-LIC-501 37.5% 62.5% 45%
43-LZH-503 75%
Compartment 2
43-LZL-514 5.1%
43-LIC-512 22.2% 73.8% 28%
43-LZH-514 86.9%
43-LZL-513 25%
43-LIC-511 37.5% 62.5% 45%
43-LZH-513 75%
Compartment 3
43-LZL-524 40.7%
43-LIC-522 49.4% 66.8% 56%
43-LZH-524 75.5%
43-LIC-521 37.5% 62.5% 45%
43-LZH-523 75%
Clean Water Discharge
43-AZH-355 25ppm 30ppm

Table 2.3 – Induced Gas Flotation Separator Controllers, Alarms and Trips

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4.0 MODES OF OPERATION


Oily water from LP separators and bulk oil treater passes into Produced Water Tank
V-4340 under interface level control.
The flow of produced water from the tank is controlled via the DCS Level Controller
43-LIC-301, which modulates Level Control Valve 43-LCV-301A on the clean water
outlet downstream of the hydrocyclone to maintain the required level in the
produced water tank. Any free oil accumulating on the surface of the produced water
in the tank is manually skimmed to the collection sump.
Produced water from the tank is directed to Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B
as there is insufficient pressure in the tank to drive it through the hydrocyclone.
The produced water pumps are operated from the DCS on a continuous basis.
The pump selected for standby will automatically start in the event of duty
pump failure.
Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340 operates without intervention provided that
the hydrocyclone is maintained within the minimum/maximum flowrates for the total
number of liners installed. As the flow of produced water increases, more liners can
be brought online as required. The addition of extra liners within the hydrocyclone
requires the unit to be taken out of service, isolated and the work carried out under
Permit to Work conditions by the vendor.
The hydrocyclone is back-flushed by closing the oil reject line and opening the
back-flush valve for 30 seconds (configurable) to ensure the reject flow orifice
remains clear and correct separation efficiency is achieved. The back-flush
sequence can be manually initiated or set to automatically initiate at a certain time.
Induced gas flotation separator is operated remotely from the DCS to degas and
polish the produced water from the hydrocyclone. Normally, oil is skimmed off
intermittently as the level of oil at the interface builds up. The duration of skimming
and the cycle time are field adjustable.
Regular samples must be taken from the produced water outlet of the IGF separator
to ensure that the oil content of the produced water directed to the overboard
caisson is within specification.
The produced water to the overboard caisson is also monitored by Oil-in-water
Analyser 43-AZE-355, which generates a High Oil Content Alarm on the DCS.

5.0 SAFEGUARDING
Produced Water Tank V-4340 is protected against vacuum conditions by the
Pressure/Vacuum Relief Valve 43-RV-303. This vacuum breaker is set to operate at
26mbarg (vacuum) and is located in an accessible area.
A Pressure Transmitter 32-PZIT-002 located on the gas outlet line provides a low
low trip signal to the ESR and SSDS System. Activation of 32-PZL-002 initiates a
shutdown of the Produced Water System (System 43 Shutdown).
The instrument bridles for the produced water tank are fitted with an independent
Level Switches 43-LZT-302A and B. These instruments provide trip signals to the
ESR and SSDS System.
The primary means of safeguarding Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B is provided
on the ESR and SSDS System via suction valve position indication, system inhibits
on pump starts.

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Protection for Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B is provided by Pressure


Transmitters 43-PZIT-317/318 located on the pump discharge lines. The ESR and
SSDS System receives signals from the pressure transmitter to trip the pump on low
low or high high discharge pressure.
Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340 does not have any trip functions of any
description. Thermal protection for the produced water hydrocyclone is provided by
43-RV-323, on the produced water inlet line which is set to operate at 24.1barg.
Liquid supply overpressure protection from the produced water pumps to the IGF
separator is provided by 43-RV-347A and B, which are set to operate at 1.03barg.
Induced Gas Flotation Separator V-4341 is fitted with a series of level transmitters,
which monitor the operating levels in the vessels.
The oil/water separation cells are fitted with magnetic type level transmitters,
which provide a high high and low low trip signal to the ESR and SSDS System.
All skimming compartments are fitted with independent level transmitters.
These instruments provide level control and trip signals to the ESR and
SSDS System.
Gas overpressure protection for the IGF separator is provided by Pressure Relief
Valves 43-RV-348 and 43-RV-349 set to relieve at 1.0barg.

Equipment Sizing Basis RV Tag No Setting

Produced Water Tank V-4340 Vacuum Basis 43-RV-303 -26mbar


Produced Water Hydrocyclone Thermal 43-RV-323 24.1barg
S-4340
Produced Water to IGF Blocked Flow 43-RV- 1.03barg
Separator V-4341 347A/B
IGF Separator V-4341 Gas Flow from 43-RV-348 0.5barg
fully open Blanket 43-RV-349 0.5barg
Gas Valve

Table 2.4 – Produced Water System Relief Valve Settings

Part 1 Section 2 Detailed Description

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FFigure 2.1 – Produced Water Tank and


PPumping Facilities

Part 1 Section 2 Detailed Description


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FFigure 2.2 –
Produced Water Hyydrocyclone

Part 1 Section 2 Detailed Description


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FFigure 2.3 – Induced Gas


FFlotation Separator

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PART 2
OPERATING PROCEDURES

Section 1 System Operating Procedures

Section 2 Equipment Operating Procedures

Section 3 Supplementary Operating Procedures

Part 2 Operating Procedures

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Part 2
Operating Procedures

Section 1
System Operating Procedures

Procedure
Number

PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS OPERATING PROCEDURES


PROCEDURE NO 1/001: COLD START-UP
PROCEDURE NO 1/002: HOT START-UP
PROCEDURE NO 1/003: NORMAL OPERATION
PROCEDURE NO 1/004: PLANNED SHUTDOWN
PROCEDURE NO 1/005: PROCESS AND EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN

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SYSTEM/EQUIPMENT: PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

PROCEDURE NO 1/001: COLD START-UP

THE WHOLE OF THIS PROCEDURE MUST BE READ THROUGH AND


FULLY UNDERSTOOD BEFORE CARRYING OUT ANY OF THE
FOLLOWING ACTIONS.

INTRODUCTION
This procedure details the operator actions required to be carried out on the Produced Water
Treatment System for a cold start-up, typically following major maintenance activities.
If the system or parts of the system have been open for maintenance work or for any other
reason, the vessels or pipework may contain air/oxygen. Under these circumstances,
the affected facilities must be nitrogen purged prior to the introduction of produced water.
Due to the likelihood that the water cuts on the producing wells will increase at a later stage
in the field life, it may be necessary to consider starting the produced water treatment system
and run on recycle prior to opening the producing wells to prevent the possibility of high
water trips on the separation system.

PRECONDITIONS

Supporting Drawings
The cold start-up procedure utilises the following P&IDs:
• BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-001-C06
• BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-002-C06
• BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-003-C06
• BON-AME-3GN-B-21448-001-C06

Interface Systems
Before the Produced Water Treatment System can be started, the following systems are
required to be operational:
• Oil Separation and Treatment. Refer to POPM Volume 3 (OPRM-2003-0303)
• Flare and Vent Systems. Refer to POPM Volume 10 (OPRM-2003-0310)
• Chemical Injection and Methanol Injection System. Refer to POPM Volume 13
(OPRM-2003-0313)
• Fuel Gas System. Refer to POPM Volume 14 (OPRM-2003-0314)
• Drainage Systems. Refer to POPM Volume 16 (OPRM-2003-0316)

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• Instrument Air and Utility System. Refer to POPM Volume 25 (OPRM-2003-0325)


• Power Generation and Distribution Systems. Refer to POPM Volume 30
(OPRM-2003-0330)
Pre-requisites
• No Permits to Work are in force that may prohibit start-up of the Produced Water System
• After completion of all maintenance activities, all workscope documentation must be
completed and signed-off by the relevant authorities before the start-up can commence
• All spades and spectacle blinds are in their correct positions as per the Produced Water
System P&IDs listed in Supporting Drawings
• All disturbed flanges and fittings in the system have been nitrogen leak/pressure tested
as appropriate, and any leak test certificate signed-off. The produced water facilities
have been purged with nitrogen and left with a slight positive nitrogen pressure
• All system pipework drain, vent, purge and sample point valves are closed
• All system equipment drain and vent valves are closed
• All instrument isolation valves are open
• All level bridle process isolation valves are open and vent and drain valves are closed
• The isolation valves for Oil-in-water Analyser 43-AZE-355 are closed
• The DCS, SSDS and ESS control and shutdown facilities are operational and healthy
• Toolbox talks have been held with all directly and indirectly concerned parties outlining
the workscope and procedure
• Communications are established between all personnel involved in this procedure
• All level bridle process connection valves are open

PLANT STATUS
• The system isolation valves are positioned as indicated in Valve Checklist No 1 Pre-start
Positions – Produced Water System Cold Start-up
• Oil-in-water Analyser 43-AZE-355 has been calibrated and is available for use
• The production sump is prepared to accept reject oil from the produced water
hydrocyclone and IGF separator
• The slop oil or primary reception tank are prepared to accept off-spec treated produced
water from the induced gas flotation separator
• The overboard header and caisson are prepared to accept on-spec treated produced
water from the induced gas flotation separator

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VALVE CHECKLIST NO 1: PRE-START POSITIONS: PRODUCED WATER SYSTEM


COLD START-UP

Tag No Function Setting Checked


LP Separator V-2341A
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21423-002-C06
23-SDV-045 12in produced water outlet SDV from V-2341A CLOSED
23-BLV-079 12in produced water outlet ball valve from OPEN
V-2341A upstream of 23-LCV-032
23-BLV-082 12in produced water outlet ball valve from OPEN
V-2341A downstream of 23-LCV-032
23-SDV-046 12in produced water outlet SDV from V-2341A CLOSED
to the produced water tank
LP Separator V-2341B
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21423-003-C06
23-SDV-075 12in produced water outlet SDV from V-2341B CLOSED
23-BLV-122 12in produced water outlet ball valve from OPEN
V-2341B upstream of 23-LCV-062
23-BLV-125 12in produced water outlet ball valve from OPEN
V-2341B downstream of 23-LCV-062
23-SDV-076 12in produced water outlet SDV from V-2341B CLOSED
to the produced water tank
Bulk Oil Treater V-2243
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3SP-B-21423-007-C06
23-SDV-143 12in SDV at outlet from V-2343 CLOSED
23-BLV-220 8in ball valve at inlet to 23-LCV-134 OPEN
23-BLV-223 8in ball valve at outlet from 23-LCV-134 OPEN
23-BLV-224 6in ball valve at 23-LCV-134 bypass CLOSED
Produced Water Tank and Pumps
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-001-C06
44-BLV-280 Isolation Block Valve for Fuel Gas Supply to LOCKED
Tank upstream of 32-PCV-001 OPEN
44-BLV-281 Isolation Block Valve for Fuel Gas Supply to LOCKED
Tank downstream of 32-PCV-001 OPEN
43-BLV-233 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6A CLOSED
43-BLV-238 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6B CLOSED
43-BLV-234 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6C CLOSED
43-BLV-239 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6D CLOSED
43-BLV-235 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6E CLOSED
43-BLV-240 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6F CLOSED
43-BLV-236 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6G CLOSED

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VALVE CHECKLIST NO 1: PRE-START POSITIONS: PRODUCED WATER SYSTEM


COLD START-UP (cont’d)

Tag No Function Setting Checked


43-BLV-241 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6H CLOSED
43-BLV-237 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6J CLOSED
43-BLV-242 Isolation Valve on Skim at Nozzle N6K CLOSED
43-BLV-200 Isolation Valve on Drain Line at Produced CLOSED AND
Water outlet from Tank BLANKED
43-BLV-243 43-LIT-301 vent equaliser to tank OPEN
43-SDV-314 Produced Water Pump P-4240A Suction Valve CLOSED FOR
START-UP
43-BLV-203 P-4240A Discharge Block Valve CAR SEAL
OPEN
43-SDV-315 Produced Water Pump P-4240B Suction Valve CLOSED FOR
START-UP
43-BLV-206 P-4240B Discharge Block Valve CAR SEAL
OPEN
43-GTV-202 P-4340A Suction Can Vent to Tank LOCKED
OPEN
43-GTV-204 P-4340B Suction Can Vent to Tank LOCKED
OPEN
43-GTV-203 P-4340A Suction Can Vent to Atmos CLOSED
43-GTV-205 P-4340B Suction Can Vent to Atmos CLOSED
Hydrocyclone
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-002-C06
43-BLV-207 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Inlet to CLOSED FOR
Hydrocyclone START-UP
43-BLV-227 Isolation Valve on Bypass Line for Produced CLOSED
Water Hydrocyclone S-4340
43-BLV-211 Isolation Valve on Clean Water Outlet from CLOSED FOR
the Hydrocyclone START-UP
43-BLV-213 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Line to OPEN
Separator upstream of 43-LCV-301A
43-BLV-215 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Line to OPEN
Separator downstream of 43-LCV-301A
44-GTV-200 Isolation Valve on 43-LCV-301A Bypass Line LOCKED
CLOSED
43-BLV-229 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Recycle LOCKED
Line downstream of 43-FCV-321 OPEN
44-BLV-249 Isolation Valve on Oil Reject Line for CLOSED FOR
Hydrocyclone upstream of 43-PDCV-235 START-UP
44-BLV-251 Isolation Valve on Oil Reject Line for OPEN
Hydrocyclone downstream of 43-PDCV-325

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VALVE CHECKLIST NO 1: PRE-START POSITIONS: PRODUCED WATER SYSTEM


COLD START-UP (cont’d)

Tag No Function Setting Checked


43-BLV-245 Hydrocyclone Vent Valve on 43-RV-323 CLOSED
Relief Line
43-BLV-246 Hydrocyclone Drain Valve at Nozzle N5A CLOSED
43-BLV-247 Hydrocyclone Drain Valve at Nozzle N5B CLOSED
Induced Gas Flotation Separator
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-003-C06
43-BLV-216 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Inlet to CLOSED FOR
IGF Separator START-UP
43-BLV-230 Isolation Valve on Bypass Line for IGF CLOSED
Separator
43-BLV-218 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Line from OPEN
IGF Separator upstream of 43-LCV-522
43-BLV-221 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Line from OPEN
IGF Separator downstream of 43-LCV-522
43-BLV-222 Isolation Valve on 43-LCV-522 Bypass Line CLOSED
43-SDV-351 Shutdown Valve on Produced Water outlet to OPEN
Slop Oil or Primary Reception Tank
43-BLV-231 Upstream Isolation Valve for 43-RV-354 CLOSED
(43-RV-354 has been removed. Isolation valve
will be locked open only if RV is re-installed)
43-BLV-260 Isolation Valve on Compartment 1 Skimmings OPEN
Line upstream of 43-LCV-501
43-BLV-262 Isolation Valve on Compartment 1 Skimmings OPEN
Line downstream of 43-LCV-501
43-BLV-257 Isolation Valve on Compartment 2 Skimmings OPEN
Line upstream of 43-LCV-511
43-BLV-259 Isolation Valve on Compartment 2 Skimmings OPEN
Line downstream of 43-LCV-511
43-BLV-254 Isolation Valve on Compartment 3 OPEN
Skimmings Line upstream of 43-LCV-521
43-BLV-256 Isolation Valve on Compartment 3 OPEN
Skimmings Line downstream of 43-LCV-521
43-SDV-381 Shutdown Valve on Produced Water outlet to CLOSED
Overboard Header
43-BLV-272 Isolation Valve on Compartment 1 Drain Line CLOSED
43-BLV-273 Isolation Valve on Compartments 2 Drain Line CLOSED
43-BLV-274 Isolation Valve on Compartment 3 Drain Line CLOSED
44-BLV-285 1st in Line Isolation Valve on Blanket Gas Line OPEN
to IGF Separator upstream of 44-PV-381

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VALVE CHECKLIST NO 1: PRE-START POSITIONS: PRODUCED WATER SYSTEM


COLD START-UP (cont’d)

Tag No Function Setting Checked


44-GTV-204 2nd in Line Isolation Valve on Blanket Gas OPEN
Line to IGF Separator upstream of 44-PV-381
44-GTV-200 Isolation Valve on to Blanket Gas Line to IGF LOCKED
Separator downstream of 44-FIT-382 OPEN
44-BLV-292 Isolation Valve for Blanket Gas to IGF OPEN
Separator Cell 1
44-BLV-255 1st in Line Isolation Valve on Blanket Gas Line OPEN
to IGF Separator upstream of 44-PV-383
44-GTV-205 2nd in Line Isolation Valve on Blanket Gas OPEN
Line to IGF Separator upstream of 44-PV-383
44-GTV-201 Isolation Valve on to Blanket Gas Line to IGF LOCKED
Separator downstream of 44-FIT-384 OPEN
44-BLV-293 Isolation Valve Blanket Gas to IGF Separator OPEN
Compartment 2
43-BLV-267 Isolation Valve on Compartment 1 Vent OPEN
Line upstream of 43-PV-344
43-BLV-268 Isolation Valve on Compartment 1 Vent OPEN
Line downstream of 43-PV-344
43-BLV-269 Isolation Valve on Compartments 2 and 3 OPEN
Vent Line upstream of 43-PV-345
43-BLV-270 Isolation Valve on Compartments 2 and 3 Vent OPEN
Line downstream of 43-PV-345

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COLD START-UP OVERRIDES: PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM


During the Cold Start-up of the Produced Water Treatment System the following inputs to the
Safety Shutdown System (SSDS) require to be overridden until steady operating conditions
are achieved.

Tag No Equipment Description


None

Part 2 Section 1 System Operating Procedures


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PRE-START CHECKS AND CONDITIONS

Step Action

1 ENSURE that blanket gas is lined up for use in Produced Water Tank V-4340
via Pressure Control Valve 32-PCV-001, with controller on Auto and a set point of
0.052barg.
2 FILL Produced Water Tank V-4340 with utility seawater, using suitably rated hoses
and connections via the unused 3in level transmitter connection.
Slowly RAISE the level in the tank to just above the normal operating level.
ISOLATE the seawater supply, remove the filling hose and replace the blank(s)
when the produced water tank is at the required level.
Alternatively, a vessel can be filled with produced water using the following process:
• ALIGN the produced water outlet lines from LP Separators A and B, and bulk oil
treater to the produced water tank by OPENING Shutdown Valves
23-SDV-045/046, 23-SDV-075/076 and 23-SDV-143 respectively
• SET the interface level controllers for the LP separators and bulk oil treater to
MANUAL and OPEN the produced water level control valves (to approximately
10%) if water is available in the separators to FILL the produced water tank until
the normal working level is reached
3 ENSURE electrical power is available for Produced Water Pumps P-4340A/B main
drive motors and the pumps are ready for use.
4 ENSURE that Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340 is ready for use.
5 ENSURE that blanket gas is available from the Fuel Gas System for use in Induced
Gas Flotation Separator V-4340. CHECK that self-regulating 44-PV-381 is set to
control Compartment 1 pressure at 0.3barg and 44-PV-383 is set to control the
pressure of Compartments 2 and 3 at 0.05barg. ENSURE that 44-PV-344 and
44-PV-345 on the vent lines are set at 0.35barg and 0.1barg respectively.
6 FILL the induced gas flotation separator with utility seawater, using suitably rated
hoses and connections.
Slowly RAISE the level in all cells to just above the normal operating level. ISOLATE
the seawater supply, remove the filling hose and replace the blank(s) once the
induced gas flotation separator is at the required level.
7 ENSURE electrical power is available for all four Stirrer Motors V-4341-MM 01A, B,
C and D.
8 If installed, ENSURE that the water clarifier injection facilities are ready and primed
to point of injection at the produced water inlet to the induced gas flotation
separator.
Note: At the present time there is no permanent connection for water clarifier.
There is an injection point, however it is not in service at present.
9 ENSURE that the water clarifier and scale inhibitor facilities are ready and primed to
point of injection at the produced water outlet from LP Separators A and B.
10 Before starting either of the produced water pumps CHECK the oil level in the thrust
bearing housings and TOP-UP as necessary.

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Step Action

11 Fill the line from the hydrocyclone to 43-LCV-301A with utility seawater via the
connection for the future hydrocyclone. This will prevent water hammer and
hydraulic shock on produced water pump start-up.
12 SET 43-LIC-502 the produced water level in Compartment 1 of the IGF separator to
AUTO at 28% (2546mm). Level Controller 43-LIC-502 is configured to operate over
the normal range and modulate 43-LCV-502 on the produced water line to
Compartment 2, as required.
13 SET 43-LIC-512 for the produced water level in Compartment 2 of the separator to
AUTO at 28% (2546mm). Level Controller 43-LIC-512 is configured to operate over
the normal range and modulate 43-LCV-512 on the produced water line to the
discharge compartment as required.
14 SET Level Controller 43-LIC-522 for the depurator to AUTO at 56% (1590mm).
This is to maintain the clean water level in the discharge compartment at the centre
line. ENSURE 43-LCV-522 opens to maintain the level at this point and discharge
the vessel contents to the slop oil or primary reception tank.

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COLD START-UP PROCEDURE

Step Action

1 ENSURE that the Oil Separation and Treatment Facilities are in operation and
produced water is available from the LP Separators V-2341A/B and Bulk Oil Treater
V-2343 at the normal operating pressure and flow.
2 SET Level Controller 43-LIC-301 for produced water tank to MANUAL with the Level
Control Valve 43-LCV-301A on the produced water line to the IGS separator fully
closed. This is a temporary setting for start-up.
3 OPEN Suction Valve 43-SDV-314 and OPEN pump canister Vent Valve
43-BLV-224 to allow the canister to FILL through the pump.
4 CLOSE the pump canister Vent Valve 43-BLV-224 when produced water shows at
the vent tundish.
5 FILL and PRIME Produced Water Pump P-4340B, following an identical procedure
detailed for P-4340A in Steps 5 and 6.
6 SET Flow Controller 43-FIC-321 for the Produced Water Treatment Systems to Auto
with a set point of 622.5.
Note: 43-PIC-336 is only active once the pressure exceeds 8.0barg. When the
pressure is below at 8.0barg, 43-FIC-321 is in control and it is not possible to
set the set point for 43-PIC-336.
7 OPEN the Hydrocyclone Bypass Valve 43-BLV-227.
8 SELECT Produced Water Pump P-4340A or B for duty and standby operation then
START the duty selected pump from the DCS and establish a flow through the
recycle loop on pressure control.
9 SET Pressure Differential Ratio Controller for 43-PDRC-325 (43-PDRC-325-R) for
the produced water hydrocyclone at 1.5.
10 SET 43-PDRC-325 to MANUAL and ensure valve 43-PDY-325 is fully closed.
11 PARTIALLY OPEN the manual isolation valve 43-BLV-207 on the produced water
inlet to the hydrocyclone to bleed water into the hydrocyclone pressure vessel.
Pressurisation should take approximately 90 seconds. Once pressurised fully, open
the produced water inlet valve 43-BLV-207.
Note: Care should be taken to pressurise the vessel slowly as rapid pressurisation
can damage the hydrocyclone liners.
12 OPEN 43-BLV-216, the block valve downstream of 43-LCV-301A.
13 SLOWLY OPEN the vent valve 43-BLV-245 for the hydrocyclone vessel to expel
any air. FILL the hydrocyclone with produced water, using the isolation valve on the
vent line for control. Avoid excessive liquid carryover by closing the vent valve after
a short time period.
14 SLOWLY OPEN the clean water outlet 43-BLV-211 for the hydrocyclone vessel.
This will fill and pressurise the clean water outlet from the hydrocyclone against
43-LCV-301A in the produced water line to the induced gas flotation separator.

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Step Action

15 Slowly CLOSE Hydrocyclone Bypass Valve 43-BLV-227. This will pressurise the
clean water outlet from the hydrocyclone against 43-LCV-301A in the produced
water line to the induced gas flotation separator.
16 CAR SEAL closed Hydrocyclone Bypass Valve 43-BLV-227.
17 Once the pressure in the clean water outlet header increases to 8barg, as indicated
by 43-PIC-336, ENSURE Flow Control Valve 43-FCV-321 opens to induce flow
through the hydrocyclone. The oil reject line is still isolated at this point.
18 CHECK the amperage on the pump.
19 Two minutes after start-up, OPEN the isolation valve 43-BLV-249 and begin
cracking open 43-PDCV-325 for the reject stream on the hydrocyclone to allow
reversal of the central oil core and separation to take place.
20 Gradually open 43-PDCV-325 until the PDRC is 1.5, then SET to AUTOMATIC with
a set point of 1.5. If the flow through the hydrocyclone is within the correct limits
(as measured by the reject ratio) the unit will quickly produce the required oil/water
separation.

WHEN STARTING UP A HYDROCYCLONE ALWAYS OPEN THE REJECT


VALVES LAST TO MINIMISE THE POSSIBILITY OF REJECT BLOCKAGE.

21 CONFIRM that the expected differential pressure across the hydrocyclones package
as a function of flow corresponds with the predicted flow, 168.9m3/hr minimum flow
to 728.8m3/hr maximum flow.
22 RESET Level Controller 43-LIC-301 for produced water tank to AUTO with a set
point of 50% (2743mm). ENSURE the Level Control Valve 43-LCV-301A on the
produced water inlet line to the IGF separator opens to maintain the level.
23 CONFIRM Shutdown Valve 43-SDV-351 on the produced water disposal line from
the IGF separator to the slop oil or primary reception tank is open.
24 MONITOR the operating level in the four cells included in Compartments 1 and 2 of
the IGF separator. Each cell is provided with a rotor mechanism connected to a
stirrer/agitator, which assists the upward velocity of any oil droplets in the
produced water.
25 Once the level in each cell reaches the maximum operating level SWITCH ON the
stirrer/agitator. This is to direct the oil froth to the skimming compartments.
26 SET Level Controllers 43-LIC-501, 43-LIC-511 and 43-LIC-521 for the skimming
compartments to AUTO at the required set points of 45% (2112mm), 45% (2112m)
and 45% (1220mm) respectively. Oil recovered in the skimming compartments is
directed to the Production Sump via 43-LV-501, 43-LV-511 and 43-LV-521.

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Step Action

27 OPEN the isolation valves for oil-in-water analyser 43-AZE-355 to put the
analyser online.
28 ENSURE that the Produced Water Treatment System is reducing the oil-in-water
content effectively. Collect samples of the inlet and outlet from the hydrocyclone
pressure vessel and separator.
29 ENSURE that the Produced Water Treatment System is reducing the oil-in-water
content effectively. Collect samples from the outlet from the IGF separator.
30 Once the produced water discharged from the IGF separator is at the required
specification of 15ppm, confirmed by lab testing, OPEN Shutdown Valve
43-SDV-381 on the produced water disposal line to the overboard caisson. CLOSE
43-SDV-351 to the slop oil or primary reception tank.
Note: If the oil-in-water content monitored by the oil-in-water analyser 43-AZE-355
reaches 15ppm, the water will automatically be directed to the slop
tank/reception tank via 43-SDV-351 and overboard discharge will be stopped
by closure of 43-SDV-381.
31 When the Produced Water System is operating satisfactorily REMOVE the start-up
overrides detailed in the start-up overrides table.
32 START the injection of water clarifier and scale inhibitor on the produced water
outlet of LP Separators A and B as required.

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SYSTEM/EQUIPMENT: PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

PROCEDURE NO 1/002: HOT START-UP

THE WHOLE OF THIS PROCEDURE MUST BE READ THROUGH AND


FULLY UNDERSTOOD BEFORE CARRYING OUT ANY OF THE
FOLLOWING ACTIONS.

INTRODUCTION
The Hot Start-up Procedure provides a safe and efficient means of starting up the Produced
Water Treatment System following the resolution of a trip situation. The reason for the
Produced Water Treatment System trip has been established, the situation rectified and the
system is ready to be re-started.
Due to the likelihood that the water cuts on the producing wells will increase at a later stage
in the field life, it be necessary to consider starting the produced water treatment system and
run on recycle prior to opening the producing wells to prevent the possibility of high water
trips on the separation system.

PRECONDITIONS

Supporting Drawings
The Hot Start-up Procedure utilises the following P&IDs:
• BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-001-C06
• BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-002-C06
• BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-003-C06
• BON-AME-3GN-B-21448-001-C06

Interface Systems
Before the Produced Water Treatment System can be re-started, the following systems are
required to be operational:
• Oil Separation and Treatment. Refer to POPM Volume 3 (OPRM-2003-0303)
• Flare and Vent Systems. Refer to POPM Volume 10 (OPRM-2003-0310)
• Seawater Flooding System. Refer to POPM Volume 12 (OPRM-2003-0312)
• Chemical Injection and Methanol Injection System. Refer to POPM Volume 13
(OPRM-2003-0313)
• Fuel Gas System. Refer to POPM Volume 14 (OPRM-2003-0314)
• Drainage Systems. Refer to POPM Volume 16 (OPRM-2003-0316)

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• Instrument Air and Utility System. Refer to POPM Volume 25 (OPRM-2003-0325)


• Power Generation and Distribution Systems. Refer to POPM Volume 30
(OPRM-2003-0330)
Pre-requisites
• No Permits to Work are in force that may prohibit re-start of the Produced Water
Treatment System
• The DCS, SSDS and ESS control and shutdown facilities are operational and healthy
• It is assumed that in a short-duration shutdown, it is unlikely that spades or spectacle
blinds would be moved, isolation block valves operated, or drain and vent valves opened,
unless required to take corrective action on the cause of the shutdown
• All shutdown valves are set in their respective positions as per Hot Valve Checklist
No 1 Produced Water Treatment System. It is assumed that all manual isolation valves
have remained in their normal operating positions with the exception of the hydrocyclone
valves, which require to be closed prior to a re-start of the facility

PLANT STATUS
• Levels, pressures and temperatures throughout the Produced Water Treatment System
have remained within the normal operating range. The produced water pumps,
hydrocyclone, induced gas flotation separator and all associated pipework are fully
charged with produced water
• The system isolation valves are positioned in their normal operating position except for
valves shown on Valve Checklist No 1 Hot Start Positions
• The production sump is prepared to accept reject oil from the produced water
hydrocyclone
• The slop oil or primary reception tank are prepared to accept off-spec treated produced
water from the induced gas flotation separator
• The overboard header and caisson are prepared to accept on-spec treated produced
water from the induced gas flotation separator

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VALVE CHECKLIST No 2: HOT START POSITIONS: PRODUCED WATER


TREATMENT SYSTEM

Tag No Function Setting Checked


LP Separator V-2341A
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21423-002-C06
23-SDV-045 LP Separator V-2341A Produced Water CLOSED
Outlet Valve
23-SDV-046 LP Separator V-2341A Produced Water CLOSED
Outlet Valve
LP Separator V-2341B
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21423-003-C06
23-SDV-075 LP Separator V-2341B Produced Water CLOSED
Outlet Valve
23-SDV-076 LP Separator V-2341B Produced Water CLOSED
Outlet Valve
Bulk Oil Treater V-2243
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3SP-B-21423-007-C06
23-SDV-143 Bulk Oil Treater V-2343 Produced Water CLOSED
Outlet Valve
Hydrocyclone
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-002-C06
43-BLV-207 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Inlet to CLOSED FOR
Hydrocyclone START-UP
44-BLV-249 Isolation Valve on Oil Reject Line for CLOSED FOR
Hydrocyclone upstream of 43-PDCV-325 START-UP
44-BLV-251 Isolation Valve on Oil Reject Line for OPEN
Hydrocyclone downstream of 43-PDVC-325
43-BLV-211 Isolation Valve on Oil Reject Line for CLOSED FOR
Hydrocyclone START-UP
Induced Gas Flotation Separator
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-003-C04
43-SDV-351 Shutdown Valve on IGF Separator produced OPEN
water outlet to Slop Oil or Primary Reception
Tank
43-SDV-381 Shutdown Valve on IGF Separator produced CLOSED
water outlet to Overboard Header

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HOT START-UP OVERRIDES: PRODUCED WATER SYSTEM


During the Hot Start-up of the Produced Water Treatment System the following inputs to
the Safety Shutdown System (SSDS) may require to be overridden until steady operating
conditions are achieved.

Tag No Equipment Description


None

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HOT START-UP PROCEDURE

Step Action

1 CONFIRM that the SSDS System has been reset.


2 ENSURE 43-PIC-336 for the Produced Water Treatment System is SET to 8barg in
AUTO mode. The output from 43-PIC-336 is used as the set point for flow controller
43-FIC-321.
3 ENSURE 43-FIC-321 is SET to CASCADE, using 43-PIC-336 as the set point
for flow.
4 SET Pressure Differential Ratio Controller 43-PDRC-325 for the produced water
hydrocyclone is SET at 1.5 in MANUAL mode.
5 ENSURE that 23-LCV-032 and 23-LCV-062 for the produced water outlet from LP
Separator V-2341A and B, respectively, are closed.
6 RESET and OPEN LP Separator V-2341A and B produced water outlets
23-SDV-045/046 and 23-SDV-075/076 respectively.
7 ENSURE that 23-LCV-134 for the produced water outlet from Bulk Oil Treater
V-2343 is closed.
8 RESET and OPEN 23-SDV-143 on Bulk Oil Treater V-2343 produced water outlet to
the produced water tank.
9 ENSURE Level Controller 43-LIC-301 for produced water tank is SET to AUTO at a
setpoint of 50% (2743mm).
10 OPEN the Hydrocyclone Bypass Valve 43-BLV-227.
11 RE-START the duty Produced Water Pump P-4340A or B from the DCS and
establish a flow through the recycle loop on pressure control.
12 PARTIALLY OPEN the clean water outlet valve 43-BLV-211 for the hydrocyclone
and allow the hydrocyclone vessel to pressurise. Pressurisation should only take a
few seconds as the vessel is liquid filled. Once pressurised, the outlet valve
43-BLV-211 can be fully opened.
13 PARTIALLY OPEN the produced water inlet valve 43-BLV-207 for the hydrocyclone
then open the inlet valve fully.
14 Two minutes after start-up, OPEN the isolation valve 43-BLV-249 on the reject
oil stream.
15 Slowly open 43-PDIC-325 to start reject flow. Open 43-PDIC-325 until DPR is
approximately 1.5. Set controller to AUTO mode with a set point of 1.5.

WHEN STARTING OR RE-STARTING FULL HYDROCYCLONES ALWAYS


OPEN THE REJECT VALVES LAST TO MINIMISE THE POSSIBILITY OF
REJECT BLOCKAGE.

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Step Action

16 OPEN the LCVs on the LP separators and bulk oil treater as required to direct
produced water from the oil separation and treatment system to the produced
water tank.
17 Slowly CLOSE Hydrocyclone Bypass Valve 43-BLV-227 as the LCVs on the LP
separators and bulk oil treater are opened.
18 CAR SEAL Closed Hydrocyclone Bypass Valve 43-BLV-227.
19 ENSURE Level Controllers 43-LIC-502, 43-LIC-512 and 43-LIC-522 for the water
levels in the IGF separator are set to AUTO at the required set points of 28%
(2546mm), 28% (2546mm) and 56% (1590mm) respectively.
20 RE-START the stirrer/agitators for the IGF separator to direct the oil forth to the
skimmings compartments.
21 ENSURE Level Controllers 43-LIC-501, 43-LIC-511 and 43-LIC-521 for the
skimming compartments are on AUTO at the required set points of 2112mm, 2112m
and 1220mm respectively.
22 Once the produced water discharged from the IGF separator is at the required
specification of 15ppm, confirmed by lab testing, OPEN Shutdown Valve
43-SDV-381 on the produced water disposal line to the overboard caisson. CLOSE
43-SDV-351 to the slop oil or primary reception tank.
Note: If the oil-in-water content monitored by the oil-in-water analyser 43-AZE-355
reaches 15ppm, the water will automatically be directed to the slop
tank/reception tank via 43-SDV-351 and overboard discharge will be stopped
by closure of 43-SDV-381.
23 RESTART the injection of water clarifier and scale inhibitor on the produced water
outlet of LP Separators A and B as required.

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SYSTEM/EQUIPMENT: PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

PROCEDURE NO 1/003: NORMAL OPERATION

GENERAL OPERATOR ROUTINES


(1) MONITOR the overall operation of the Produced Water Treatment System.
(2) The Field Operator should regularly walk the system to visually inspect for leaks,
damage and any system abnormality. REPORT any chemical leaks, malfunctions or
irregular operating occurrences to the Team Leader as soon as possible.
(3) The Field Operator should regularly liaise with the Control Room Operator so as to
cross-check the accuracy of the instrumentation, ie the comparison between the local
instrument and the transmitted level in the DCS.
(4) Visually inspect the condition of the system equipment and pipework for
corrosion/deterioration including the security of pipe hangers/fittings.
Off-going shift operators are to ensure that the on-coming shift operators are fully briefed as
to the status of the plant as detailed in the shift operators’ logbook. The logbook is to contain
sufficient detail of the plant status including any deviation from the norm and, in particular,
any isolation of protection equipment. Both the off-going and the on-coming shift operators
must sign the logbook before responsibility is handed over.

PRODUCED WATER TANK V-4340


The produced water tank normally operates from the DCS without direct operator
intervention. However, some operator intervention is required in the field.
(1) Monitor the hydrocarbon level in the produced water tank. Over a period of time,
free oil accumulates on the surface of the produced water in the tank and is required to
be periodically drained or ‘skimmed’ and subsequently disposed of using the skimming
facilities provided. Refer to Part 2 Section 3 Procedure No 3/001 for full details on this
operation.
(2) Ensure that the level control system for the produced water tank modulates
43-LV-301A on the clean water outlet line from Produced Water Hydrocyclone S-4340
to maintain the level in the tank.
(3) Monitor the operation of the recycle loop to ensure that the flow and pressure functions
are being maintained.
(4) Routinely cross-check the local level instrumentation with the respective level
indications on the DCS.

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PRODUCED WATER PUMPS P-4340A/B


The duty produced water pump normally operates without direct operator intervention.
However, the following running checks should be carried out periodically so as to ensure that
the duty produced water pump is within the normal desired parameters.
(1) Check all joints and glands on the pump sets for signs of leakage.
(2) Check the pump set for unusual noise/excessive noise and vibration and compare
against the normal running parameters previously logged.
(3) Check the pump mechanical seal for leakage and signs of overheating.
(4) Check the amperage at the MCC for the pump and compare against the normal
running amperage previously logged.
(5) Check the oil level in the thrust bearing housing and top-up as necessary.

PRODUCED WATER HYDROCYCLONE V-4340


The hydrocyclone normally operates without direct operator intervention.
(1) Check the flow of produced water through the hydrocyclone to ensure it is within the
operating range for the vessel (168.9m3/hr minimum to 728.8m3/hr maximum). If the
flow is outside the operating envelope for the hydrocyclone, the oil-in-water content in
the clean water outlet will drift out of specification.
(2) Take regular produced water samples from the hydrocyclone to detect any potential
fall-off in efficiency. The hydrocyclone is provided with a sample point on the clean
water outlet line. There are also sample points on the produced water inlet and reject
oil header.
(3) Back-flush the hydrocyclone on a daily basis by closing the oil reject line and opening
the back-flush valve for 30 seconds to ensure the oil reject flow orifices remain clear.
Refer to Part 2 Section 3 Procedure No 3/002 for full details on this operation.

INDUCED GAS FLOTATION SEPARATOR V-4341


The induced gas flotation separator normally operates without direct operator intervention.
However, some operator intervention is required in the field.
(1) Ensure that the level control systems for the induced gas flotation separator modulate
43-LV-502 and 43-LV-512 on the produced water pipework to maintain the levels in the
induced gas flotation separator.
(2) Once per shift, check the produced water flowrate (43-FI-321) and the blanket gas
flowrates (44-FI-382 and 44-FI-384) to the induced gas flotation separator.
(3) Ensure the stirrer/agitator provided for each of the four compartments are operating
satisfactorily. Running indication is provided at the DCS for each of the stirrer/agitators.
(4) Monitor the hydrocarbon levels in the skimmings compartments of the induced gas
flotation separator. Check that 43-LCV-501, 43-LCV-511 and 43-LCV-521 operate
under the level control of 43-LC-501, 43-LC-511 and 43-LC-521 to maintain the
required level within the skimmings compartments.
(5) Monitor to ensure that 43-LIC-502 and 512 periodically raise the water levels as
programmed to allow the oil to skim off.

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SAMPLING OF PRODUCED WATER FOR DISPOSAL OVERBOARD


A sample point is located on the clean water outlet line from the induced gas flotation
separator, upstream of the overboard disposal facilities, to enable the oil/water separation
efficiency to be determined. Once per shift, take a sample of the produced water for
discharge overboard. Analyse the sample for oil-in-water content and compare the result with
the readings given by Analyser 43-AZE-355.
Sampling must be carried out by approved personnel and to the required standards, while
observing all safety regulations.
Ensure that the sample container is clean and completely free of hydrocarbon contamination
prior to use. Clean glass bottles with tightly fitting plastic stoppers are essential for sampling
produced water.
Flushing prior to sampling is vital and must be maintained until the sample temperature is
that of the main overboard dump line. This ensures that representative samples are used for
the oil-in-water analysis performed on the sample.
If the quality of the overboard water is poor, the efficiency of the upstream induced gas
flotation separator and produced water hydrocyclone should be investigated.

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SYSTEM/EQUIPMENT: PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

PROCEDURE NO 1/004: PLANNED SHUTDOWN

THE WHOLE OF THIS PROCEDURE MUST BE READ THROUGH AND


FULLY UNDERSTOOD BEFORE CARRYING OUT ANY OF THE
FOLLOWING ACTIONS.

INTRODUCTION
This procedure provides a safe and efficient means of shutting down the Produced Water
Treatment System.
It is assumed that the Produced Water Treatment System has been running normally and is
to be shut down as part of a planned process shutdown.

PRECONDITIONS

Supporting Drawings
The Shutdown Procedure makes use of the following P&IDs:
• BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-001-C06
• BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-002-C06
• BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-003-C06
• BON-AME-3GN-B-21448-001-C06

Interface Systems
Before the Produced Water Treatment System can be shut down, the following systems are
required to be operational:
• Flare and Vent Systems. Refer to POPM Volume 10 (OPRM-2003-0310)
• Chemical Injection and Methanol Injection System. Refer to POPM Volume 13
(OPRM-2003-0313)
• Fuel Gas System. Refer to POPM Volume 14 (OPRM-2003-0314)
• Drainage Systems. Refer to POPM Volume 16 (OPRM-2003-0316)
• Instrument Utility and Air System. Refer to POPM Volume 25 (OPRM-2003-0325)
• Power Generation and Distribution System. Refer to POPM Volume 30
(OPRM-2003-0330)

Part 2 Section 1 System Operating Procedures


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Pre-requisites
• No work permits are in force which will prohibit the shutdown of the Produced
Water System
• Toolbox talks have been held with all directly and indirectly concerned parties outlining
the workscope and procedure

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PROCEDURE

Step Action

1 CONFIRM that all oil production has ceased.


2 RESET the oil/water interface level controllers for the LP separators and bulk oil
treater to MANUAL and progressively CLOSE the produced water level control
valves. This stops the flow of produced water from the Oil Separation and Treatment
System to the produced water tank.
3 As the oil separation is shut down, ENSURE that 43-PIC-336 opens 43-FCV-321
from the hydrocyclone clean water outlet to the produced water tank, to put the
Produced Water Treatment System on full recycle.
4 SELECT the standby produced water pump to OFF then STOP duty Produced
Water Pump P-4340A or B.
5 Once the flow of produced water to the tank has stopped, CLOSE the isolation valve
in the oil reject line from the produced water hydrocyclone to the oil reject header.

WHEN TAKING THE HYDROCYCLONE OFFLINE, ALWAYS CLOSE


THE REJECT VALVES FIRST TO MINIMISE THE POSSIBILITY OF
REJECT BLOCKAGE.

6 CLOSE the isolation valve on the produced water inlet to the hydrocyclone.
7 CLOSE the isolation valve on the clean water outlet from the hydrocyclone.
8 STOP the agitators for each of the four cells inside the vessel.
9 On shutting down the upstream produced water hydrocyclone, ENSURE
43-LCV-522 on the induced gas flotation separator clean water outlet closes as the
level falls below 43-LIC-522 set point. Unless intrusive maintenance is to be carried
out, the induced gas flotation separator remains in this state until the Produced
Water System is started up.
10 CLOSE Shutdown Valve 43-SDV-381 on the produced water disposal line from the
induced gas flotation separator to the overboard header. Also ENSURE Shutdown
Valve 43-SDV-351 on the produced water disposal line to the slop oil or primary
reception tank is closed.
11 DRAIN any surface oil from the produced water tank as described in Part 2
Section 3 Procedure No 3/001. If all the oil has not been drained off before the level
is at Nozzle 6B, continue draining via Nozzle 6C.
12 The planned shutdown is now complete. The next steps will depend on the required
maintenance to be performed on the Produced Water Treatment System.
If maintenance work is to be carried out further isolation can be implemented as
required under the Permit to Work System.

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SYSTEM/EQUIPMENT: PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

PROCEDURE NO 1/005: PROCESS AND EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN

THE WHOLE OF THIS PROCEDURE MUST BE READ THROUGH AND


FULLY UNDERSTOOD BEFORE CARRYING OUT ANY OF THE
FOLLOWING ACTIONS.

INTRODUCTION
Process and emergency shutdowns for the Produced Water Treatment Systems are initiated
by intertrip from the ESR System and by activation of one or more of the various SSDS trips,
which are clearly indicated on the Cause and Effect Charts.

Supporting Drawings
The process and emergency shutdowns pertinent to the Produced Water System are shown
on the following Bonga Cause and Effect Charts:
• BON-AME-3GN-B-25082-004 C02 Sheet 1 of 1
• BON-AME-3GN-B-25082-012 A01 Sheet 1 of 1
The cause and effect logic attached to each specific trip is illustrated in detail in the Cause
and Effect Chart.

SHUTDOWN HIERARCHY
The process and emergency shutdown hierarchy designed for the FPSO is based on a
cascade system, the highest level of shutdown being ESR 3 (Total FPSO Shutdown).
A shutdown initiated at any particular level automatically initiates all shutdowns associated
with lower levels, ie an ESR 3 shutdown automatically triggers shutdown actions associated
with ESR 2, ESR 1 and SSDS trip levels.
A brief explanation of the various FPSO shutdown levels is given below:

ESR 3
Total isolation of the FPSO from external sources of hydrocarbons, shutdown and blowdown
of all process non-essential utility systems, including subsea shutdown and Surface
Controlled Subsea Safety Valve (SCSSV) closure followed by depressurising of hydraulic
supplies and electrical isolation.
An ESR 3 shutdown is initiated by activation of the following devices:
• Manual pushbuttons located at the Helideck
• Manual pushbuttons located at the Lifeboat Stations
• Manual pushbuttons located in the CCR

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ESR 2
Shutdown of all process systems, including subsea production (not closure of SCSSVs)
followed by depressurising of LP hydraulic supplies. The utilities supplied from the
emergency and essential generators remain operational but the main power generator
turbines changeover from gas to liquid fuel.
An ESR 2 shutdown is initiated by activation of the following devices:
• ESR 3 shutdown
• ESR 2 manual pushbuttons
• Manual pushbuttons located in the CCR
• Confirmed fire in a hazardous area
• Confirmed gas in a process area, subsea module or hull

ESR 1

Shutdown of all process systems along with the closure of the FPSO boarding valves and
subsea production (not closure of SCSSVs) followed by closure of the oil production, water
injection and gas lift riser valves and venting of all SDV air supply manifolds.
An ESR 1 shutdown is initiated by activation of the following devices:
• ESR 3 shutdown
• ESR 2 shutdown
• Manual pushbutton located in the CCR
• Confirmed fire in equipment space, MCC or Hull
• Any blowdown valve failing open
• Total loss of main power generation
• Failure of the SSDS System

SSDS

Shutdown of individual items of equipment, ie rotating machine or process equipment. A unit


shutdown does not impair the safe operation of the remainder of the process.
An SSDS shutdown is initiated by activation of the following devices:
• ESR 3 shutdown
• ESR 2 shutdown
• ESR 1 shutdown
• Manual pushbutton located in the CCR
• PSD or USD trips
The cause and effect logic attached to each specific trip is illustrated in detail in the Cause
and Effect Charts listed in the Supporting Drawings at the beginning of this procedure.

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Manual Emergency Shutdown


An emergency shutdown of the drive motors for the produced water pumps and the IGF
separator stirrer/agitators can be initiated from the following locations:
• The DCS
• The stop button at the MCC starter
• The emergency stop pushbutton adjacent to the respective pump, stirrer/agitator
There are no remotely operated emergency stop facilities provided for the remainder of the
facilities in the Produced Water Treatment System.
Refer to the Procedure No 1/004 for details of the planned shutdown of the Produced
Treatment Water System.

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Part 2
Operating Procedures

Section 2
Equipment Operating Procedures

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PREAMBLE
There are no Equipment Operating Procedures identified for the Produced Water Treatment
System.
Start-up, Shutdown and Normal Operation of the system equipment is provided in Part 2
Section 1.
Procedures for skimming the produced water tank and back-flushing the hydrocylone are
given in Part 2 Section 3.

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Part 2
Operating Procedures

Section 3
Supplementary Operating Procedures

Procedure
Number

PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SUPPLEMENTARY OPERATING PROCEDURES


PROCEDURE NO 3/001: PRODUCED WATER TANK SKIMMING
PROCEDURE NO 3/002: HYDROCYCLONE BACK-FLUSHING PROCEDURE

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SYSTEM/EQUIPMENT: PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

PROCEDURE NO 3/001: PRODUCED WATER TANK SKIMMING

THE WHOLE OF THIS PROCEDURE MUST BE READ THROUGH AND


FULLY UNDERSTOOD BEFORE CARRYING OUT ANY OF THE
FOLLOWING ACTIONS.

PREAMBLE
Although the oil-in-water concentration is reduced to 1000ppm in the upstream LP separators
and bulk oil treater, some oil/water separation takes place in Produced Water Tank V-4340.
The degree of separation depends on the performance of the oil separation and treatment
facilities and satisfactory clean water outlet quality from the LP separators and bulk oil
treater. Over a period of time free oil accumulates at the interface of the produced water tank
and is required to be periodically drained or ‘skimmed’ and subsequently disposed of using
the skimming facilities provided.
The oil settling out from the produced water is manually skimmed off to the closed drains
through 10 internal pipes, with the top one at Nozzle N6A. The skimming frequency depends
on various factors including plant upsets etc and is determined by operator experience.
This procedure details the operator actions required to carry out skimming on Produced
Water Tank V-4340.

PRECONDITIONS
• No Work Permits are in force which will prohibit any part of this procedure
• CHECK Produced Water Tank V-4340 is operating normally and the isolation valves are
positioned as indicated in Valve Checklist No 2, Pre-skimming Positions – Produced
Water Tank
• All instrument block valves are open
• All produced water tank drain and vent block valves are closed
• The oil collection sump is available for the disposal of skimmed hydrocarbons from the
produced water tank
• Communications are established between all personnel involved in this procedure

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VALVE CHECKLIST NO 2: PRE-SKIMMING POSITIONS: PRODUCED WATER TANK

Tag No Function Setting Checked


Produced Water Tank and Pumps
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-001-C06
44-BLV-280 Isolation Block Valve for Blanket Gas Supply to LOCKED
Tank upstream of 32-PCV-001 OPEN
44-BLV-281 Isolation Block Valve for Blanket Gas Supply to LOCKED
Tank downstream of 32-PCV-001 OPEN
43-BLV-233 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6A CLOSED
43-BLV-238 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6B CLOSED
43-BLV-234 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6C CLOSED
43-BLV-239 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6D CLOSED
43-BLV-235 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6E CLOSED
43-BLV-240 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6F CLOSED
43-BLV-236 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6G CLOSED
43-BLV-241 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6H CLOSED
43-BLV-237 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6J CLOSED
43-BLV-242 Isolation Valve on Skim Line at Nozzle N6K CLOSED
43-BLV-242 Isolation Valve on Drain Line at Produced CLOSED
Water outlet from Tank

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PROCEDURE

Step Action

OPEN the top skimming valve 43-BLV-233 at Nozzle N6A and OBSERVE any oil/water
flow at the local tundish. If there is no flow (or when flow ceases), CLOSE the top skimming
valve and proceed to Step 3.
If the flow is constant and mainly water, CHECK Level Controller 43-LIC-301 is operating in
the correct mode with the required set point. This indicates that the vessel level is high. Level
Controller 43-LIC-301 is normally set on auto at 50% (2743mm) to control the tank level at
the centre line.
OPEN the skimming valve, 43-BLV-238 at Nozzle N6B and OBSERVE any oil/water flow at
the local tundish. CLOSE the skimming valve when water instead of oil is seen or oil flow
ceases. If water is seen, no further drain-off is required. If oil is still present, further draining is
required.
If further drain-off is required, OPEN the skimming valve 43-BLV-234 at Nozzle N6C and
OBSERVE any oil/water flow at the local tundish. Close the skimming valve when no more oil
is seen flowing at the local tundish.
If on opening the skimming valve at Nozzle N6C water is seen flowing at the local tundish
close the valve. This indicates that the oil/water interface is between Nozzles N6C and N6B.

DO NOT DRAIN WATER OFF TO REDUCE THE INTERFACE LEVEL ANY


FURTHER. THIS IS TO PREVENT UNNECESSARY QUANTITIES OF
PRODUCED WATER ENTERING THE COLLECTION SUMP.

ENSURE all isolation valves on the skimming lines are closed.

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SYSTEM/EQUIPMENT: PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

PROCEDURE NO 3/002: HYDROCYCLONE BACK-FLUSHING PROCEDURE

THE WHOLE OF THIS PROCEDURE MUST BE READ THROUGH AND


FULLY UNDERSTOOD BEFORE CARRYING OUT ANY OF THE
FOLLOWING ACTIONS.

PREAMBLE
Internal blockage of a hydrocyclone may occur in the small oil reject stream orifices. There is a
greater chance of blockage occurring if the hydrocyclone has been shutdown for a period of time.
Blockages in the oil reject orifices are identified by:
• Increased oil-in-water outlet concentrations over those normally attained
• Lower than normal reject pressure over a range of flowrates
Back-flushing is carried out when oil reject orifice blockages are suspected. Inlet produced
water is utilised for back-flushing operations.
However, back-flushing should be routinely carried out at least once per shift.

SCALE FORMATION COULD DEVELOP IN THE HYDROCYCLONE IF RAW


OR POTABLE WATER IS USED.

The produced water hydrocyclone is provided with a 2in backwash line supplied from the
produced water inlet header. By opening the block valve on the back-flush line, any debris
can be flushed out of the hydrocyclone vessel.
This procedure details the operator actions required to back-flush Produced Water
Hydrocyclone S-4340.

PRECONDITIONS
• No Work Permits are in force which will prohibit any part of this procedure
• Produced Water Hydrocyclone V-4340 is achieving poor separation efficiency and a
blocked oil reject orifice is suspected
• The produced water hydrocyclone is online and the isolation valves are positioned as
indicated in Valve Checklist No 6, Back-flushing – Produced Water Hydrocyclone
• All instrument block valves are open
• All produced water hydrocyclone drain and vent block valves are closed
• Communications are established between all personnel involved in this procedure

Part 2 Section 3 Supplementary Operating Procedures


OPRM-2003-0311 Page 5 of 8 30-April-2006
Shell Nigeria E&P Company Ltd Unrestricted

VALVE CHECKLIST NO 3: BACK-FLUSHING: PRODUCED WATER HYDROCYCLONE

Tag No Function Setting Checked


Hydrocyclone
Refer to P&ID BON-AME-3PP-B-21443-002-C06
43-BLV-227 Isolation Valve on Bypass Line for Produced CLOSED
Water Hydrocyclone S-4340
43-BLV-207 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Inlet OPEN
to Hydrocyclone
43-BLV-245 Hydrocyclone Vent Valve on 43-RV-323 CLOSED
Relief Line
44-BLV-249 Isolation Valve on 0Oil Reject Line for OPEN
Hydrocyclone upstream of 43-PDCV-325
44-BLV-251 Isolation Valve on Oil Reject Line for OPEN
Hydrocyclone downstream of 43-PDCV-325
43-BLV-246 Hydrocyclone Drain Valve at Nozzle N5A CLOSED
43-BLV-247 Hydrocyclone Drain Valve at Nozzle N5B CLOSED
43-BLV-211 Isolation Valve on Clean Water Outlet from the OPEN
Hydrocyclone
43-BLV-229 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Recycle LOCKED
Line downstream of 43-FCV-321 OPEN
43-BLV-213 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Line to OPEN
Depurator upstream of 43-LCV-301A
43-BLV-215 Isolation Valve on Produced Water Line to OPEN
Depurator downstream of 43-LCV-301A
44-GTV-200 Isolation Valve on 43-LCV-301A Bypass Line CLOSED

Part 2 Section 3 Supplementary Operating Procedures


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Shell Nigeria E&P Company Ltd Unrestricted

MANUAL BACKWASH PROCEDURE

Step Action

1 OPEN the isolation valve on the bypass line for Produced Water Hydrocyclone
S-4340. This directs the off-spec water from Produced Water Pump P-4340A/B to
the induced gas flotation separator.
2 TAKE the affected hydrocyclone offline by slowly closing the isolation valves on the
oil reject line, produced water inlet line and clean water outlet line.

WHEN TAKING HYDROCYCLONE PRESSURE VESSELS OFFLINE,


ALWAYS CLOSE THE REJECT VALVE FIRST TO MINIMISE THE
POSSIBILITY OF REJECT BLOCKAGE.

3 DEPRESSURISE the produced water hydrocyclone to the collection tanks by


OPENING the drain valves for the clean water chamber at Nozzles N5A and N5B.
4 OPEN the backwash inlet valve to the produced water hydrocyclone and maintain
the flow for a minimum of 60 seconds. This will create the maximum DP across the
reject orifices and drive any debris into the clean water outlet chamber.
5 CLOSE the drain valves for the clean water chamber at Nozzles N5A and N5B.
6 SLOWLY OPEN the clean water outlet valve, produced water inlet valve and after a
short time delay the oil reject valve to put the hydrocyclone online.

WHEN STARTING HYDROCYLONE PRESSURE VESSELS ALWAYS


OPEN THE REJECT VALVE LAST TO MINIMISE THE POSSIBILITY OF
REJECT BLOCKAGE.

7 SLOWLY CLOSE the isolation valve on the bypass line for Produced Water
Hydrocyclone S-4340 to divert all the produced water flow through the hydrocyclone.
8 ALLOW conditions to settle then check the clean water is of the required quality,
ie an oil-in-water content of 40ppm or lower. Carry out an analysis of the clean outlet
water to gauge the success of the backwashing.
9 If the water outlet quality is still poor then backwashing the hydrocarbon has not
been successful. The backwash procedure may be repeated if the first attempt is
unsuccessful. The hydrocyclone vessel may require to be positively isolated,
flushed, drained and depressurised to allow further investigation.

Part 2 Section 3 Supplementary Operating Procedures


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Shell Nigeria E&P Company Ltd Unrestricted

AUTOMATED BACKWASH PROCEDURE

Step Action

1 SELECT Backwash Sequence.


2 CONFIRM backwash time and delay are set to the required value (adjustable
between 20 and 60 seconds).
3 SELECT ‘MANUAL BACKWASH’.
4 SELECT ‘MANUAL START’.
5 The sequence will then perform the following actions:
• 43-PDCV-325 will close
• 43-XV-324 will open

WHEN TAKING HYDROCYCLONE PRESSURE VESSELS OFFLINE,


ALWAYS CLOSE THE REJECT VALVE FIRST TO MINIMISE THE
POSSIBILITY OF REJECT BLOCKAGE.

6 At completion of the backwash, the sequence will:


• CLOSE 43-XV-324
• RELEASE 43-PDRC-325 to control by set point prior to backwash
7 ALLOW conditions to settle then check the clean water is of the required quality,
ie an oil-in-water content of 40ppm or lower. Carry out an analysis of the clean outlet
water to gauge the success of the backwashing.
8 If the water outlet quality is still poor then backwashing the hydrocarbon has not
been successful. The backwash procedure may be repeated if the first attempt is
unsuccessful. The hydrocyclone vessel may require to be positively isolated,
flushed, drained and depressurised to allow further investigation.

WHEN STARTING HYDROCYLONE PRESSURE VESSELS ALWAYS


OPEN THE REJECT VALVE LAST TO MINIMISE THE POSSIBILITY OF
REJECT BLOCKAGE.

9 SELECT ‘AUTO BACKWASH’ to allow the sequence to be automatically initiated at


the times entered.

Part 2 Section 3 Supplementary Operating Procedures


OPRM-2003-0311 Page 8 of 8 30-April-2006