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# Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

## Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

## Multiphase Flow in Pipes

 Multiphase flow in pipes is the concurrent movement of free gases and liquids in the
pipes.
 Multiphase flow problem can be divided into four groups:
1. Vertical Multiphase Flow.
2. Horizontal Multiphase Flow.
3. Inclined Multiphase Flow.
4. Directional Multiphase Flow.

##  Petroleum Production System

 Stage-1: The fluid must first enter the well-bore (inflow performance).
 Stage-2: The fluids traveling through the tubing and/or annulus to the surface may be
either in vertical or directional flow.
 Stage-3: At the surface, the fluids may or may not pass through the "choke".
 Stage-4: The fluids traveling from the well-head to the separator may be either
horizontal or inclined flow.
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Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015
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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

##  Pressure Losses in Well System

 Fluid flows from the reservoir to the stock tank occur because of the pressure
gradients within the system.
 The total pressure drop(loss) from the reservoir to the separator is the sum of the
individual pressure drops through three different segments:
∆Pt = ∆P1+∆P2+∆P3
∆P1 = Pr - Pwf (Inflow Performance)
∆P2 = Pwf – Pth (Vertical/directional flow Performance)
∆P3 = Pth – Psep (Horizontal/inclined flow Performance)
Where:
Pr= average reservoir pressure, psia
Psep= separator pressure, psia
Pwf= bottomhole pressure, psia
Pwh(Pth)= wellhead (or tube head) pressure, psia.

 The Multiphase Flow problems involve a study of the pressure losses in the pipes
containing two-phase fluids (gas and liquid).
 Multiphase flow correlations to predict pressure loss in the pipes is based on general
energy equation.

##  The General Energy Equation

 The theoretical basis for many fluid flow equations is the general energy equation. The
general energy equation expresses an energy balance between two points in a fluid
flow system.
 General Energy Equation states that;
{The energy of a fluid entering point 1 of a pipe …… plus…. any additional work done on the
fluid between point 1 and 2…..minus…. any energy losses by the system between point 1 and
2, is ….equal…. to the energy of the fluid leaving point 2}.

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Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015
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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

## General energy equation after a series of derivatives simplified as;

𝐝𝐩 𝐠 𝐟𝛒 𝐯 𝟐 𝐯 𝐝𝐯
= 𝛒 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝛉 + +𝛒 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-1)
𝐝𝐳 𝐠𝐜 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳
Where:
ρ= Density (lbm/ft³) d = Pipe Diameter (ft), v = Velocity (ft/sec)
2
g = Acceleration of Gravity= 32.2 ft/sec . ,sinθ = deviation of tubing.
Ibf /ft2
dp/dz = Total Pressure Gradient( ).
ft
f = Friction Factor, function of Reynolds number and roughness.
gc = Gravitational Constant= 32.2ft/sec2. { lbforce= 32.2 Poundal = 32.2lbmass. ft/sec2= Slug
.ft/sec2}

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

##  Pressure Gradient Equation

The total pressure gradient can be considered to be composed of three distinct components,
that is;
Total gradient = elevation gradient + friction gradient + acceleration gradient
𝐝𝐩 𝐝𝐩 𝐝𝐩 𝐝𝐩
( 𝐝𝐳 ) = ( 𝐝𝐳 ) + ( 𝐝𝐳 ) + ( 𝐝𝐳 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-2)
𝐭 𝐞𝐥 𝐟 𝐚𝐜𝐜
Where:
𝐝𝐩
( 𝐝𝐳 ) : Total pressure drop.
𝐭
𝐝𝐩 𝐠
( 𝐝𝐳 ) = 𝐠 𝛒 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝛉 = is the component due to elevation change.
𝐞𝐥 𝐜
𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝛒𝐯 𝟐
( 𝐝𝐳 ) = 𝟐𝐠 𝐝
= is the component due to friction losses.
𝐟 𝐜
𝐝𝐩 𝐯 𝐝𝐯
( 𝐝𝐳 ) =𝛒 = is the component due to velocity change.
𝐚𝐜𝐜. 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳

 For multiphase flow, the terms of Eq. (3-1) is modified to take care of two phases (gas and
liquid) flowing.
 The pressure-gradient, Eq. (3-1), can be modified for multiphase flow by considering the
fluids to be a homogeneous mixture.
 In particular the following variables must take into account the mixture of gas and liquid as
the following:
𝛒 = 𝛒𝐦 = 𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐨𝐟 𝐦𝐢𝐱𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐠𝐚𝐬 + 𝐥𝐢𝐪𝐮𝐢𝐝
𝐯 = 𝐯𝐦 = 𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐨𝐟 𝐦𝐢𝐱𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞
𝐟 = 𝐟𝐦 = 𝐟𝐫𝐢𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐟𝐚𝐜𝐭𝐨𝐫 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐟𝐥𝐨𝐰 𝐨𝐟 𝐠𝐚𝐬 + 𝐥𝐢𝐪𝐮𝐢𝐝
Where:
(m) Denotes mixture, the Eq.(3-1)can then be modified to read:
𝐝𝐩 𝐠 𝟐
𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐦 𝐕𝐦 𝛒𝐦 𝐕𝐦 𝐝𝐕𝐦
= 𝛒𝐦 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛉 + + ----------------------------------------------------------------- (3-3)
𝐝𝐳 𝐠𝐜 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝 𝐠𝐜 𝐝𝐳
Where:
m = symbol represents mixture fluids,
ρm= density of mixture fluids(lbm/ft³)
fm = friction factor of mixture fluids.
Vm = velocity of mixture fluids (ft/sec)

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

##  Pressure Gradient Calculations

Calculation of pressure gradients requires values of flow conditions such as velocity and fluid
properties such as density, viscosity, and others.
1. Liquid Hold-Up
Liquid holdup is defined as the ratio of the volume of a pipe segment occupied by liquid to
the volume of the pipe segment.
𝐕𝐋
𝐇𝐋 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-4)
𝐕𝐩𝐢𝐩𝐞
 Liquid holdup is a fraction which varies from zero for all gas flow to one for all liquid flow.
 The remainder of the pipe segment is occupied by gas, which is referred to as gas holdup or
gas void fraction. That is;
𝐕𝐠
𝐇𝐠 = 𝟏 − 𝐇𝐋 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-5)
𝐕𝐩𝐢𝐩𝐞
Liquid and gas holdup occurs due to;
 Gas slippage. {In Gas-Liquid Flow, the gas has a tendency to flow faster than the liquids,
i.e. gas slipping past the liquid….. OR…..
 Density difference between phases. The liquid tends to accumulate and will occupy
more of the pipe space, if no slippage was occurring.
2. No-Slip Liquid Holdup.
No-slip holdup is defined as the ratio of the volume of liquid in a pipe segment divided by the
volume of the pipe segment which would exist if the gas and liquid travelled at the same
velocity (no-slippage).
𝐪𝐋
𝛌𝐋 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-6)
𝐪𝐋 +𝐪𝐠
Where:
qL and qg are the in-situ liquid and gas flow rates, respectively.
The no-slip gas holdup or gas void fraction is defined as;
𝐪𝐠
𝛌𝐠 = 𝟏 − 𝛌𝐋 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-7)
𝐪𝐋 +𝐪𝐠
3. Density
 For Liquid Mixture (Oil-Water)
The total liquid density (𝛒𝐋 ) may be calculated from the oil and water densities and flow rates
if no slippage between the oil and water phases is assumed.

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

𝛒𝐋 = 𝛒𝐨 𝐟𝐨 + 𝛒𝐰 𝐟𝐰 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-8)
fo= Oil fraction(or oil cut) fw= water fraction (or water cut)
𝐐𝐨 𝟏
𝐟𝐨 = = 𝐁 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-9)
𝐐𝐨 +𝐐𝐰 𝟏+𝐖𝐎𝐑( 𝐰 )
𝐁𝐨

𝐟𝐰 = 𝟏 − 𝐟𝐨 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-10)
 For Two Phase Mixture (Liquid-Gas)
Calculation of the two-phase density requires knowledge of the liquid holdup. Two equations
for two-phase density are used in two-phase flow.
𝛒𝐬 = 𝛒𝐋 (𝐇𝐋 ) + 𝛒𝐠 (𝟏 − 𝐇𝐋 ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-11)
𝛒𝐧 = 𝛒𝐋 (𝛌𝐋 ) + 𝛒𝐠 (𝟏 − 𝛌𝐋 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-12)

Where:
ρs = slip density of mixture (Ibm / ft3)
ρn = non slip density of mixture (Ibm / ft3)
Eq. (3-11) is used to determine the pressure gradient due to elevation change. Some
correlations are based on the assumption of no-slippage and therefore use Eq. (3-12) for two-
phase density.
4. Velocity:
 Many two-phase flow correlations are based on a variable called superficial velocity
(Vs).
 The superficial velocity of a fluid phase is the velocity which those phases would exhibit
if it flowed through the total cross section of the pipe alone.
 For Gas and Liquid
𝐪𝐋
𝐕𝐬𝐋 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-13)
𝐀
𝐪𝐠
𝐕𝐬𝐠 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-14)
𝐀
VsL, Vsg = superficial liquid and gas velocity, respectively.
 For Two Phase Mixture (Liquid-Gas)
𝐕𝐦 = 𝐕𝐬𝐋 + 𝐕𝐬𝐠 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-15)
𝐪𝐦 = 𝐪𝐋 + 𝐪𝐠 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-16)

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

## The actual velocity is calculated from;

 (For Gas and Liquid);
𝐪𝐋
𝐕𝐋 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-17)
𝐀 𝐇𝐋
𝐪𝐠
𝐕𝐠 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-18)
𝐀 𝐇𝐠
Where:
A is the pipe area.
HL , Hg = Liquid and gas holdup, respectively.
5. Slip Velocity
The slip velocity is defined as the difference in the actual gas and liquid velocities.
𝐕𝐬𝐠 𝐕𝐬𝐋
𝐕𝐬 = 𝐕𝐠 − 𝐕𝐋 = − ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-19)
𝐇𝐠 𝐇𝐋
Using the above definitions for velocity, an alternate equation for no-slip holdup is;
𝐕𝐬𝐋 𝐕𝐬𝐋
𝛌𝐋 = = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-20)
𝐕𝐦 𝐕𝐬𝐋 +𝐕𝐬𝐠
6. Viscosity:
 For Liquid Mixture (Oil-Water)
𝛍𝐋 = 𝛍𝐨 𝐟𝐨 + 𝛍𝐰 𝐟𝐰 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-21)
 For Two Phase Mixture (Liquid-Gas)
𝛍𝐬 = 𝛍𝐋 𝐇𝐋 + 𝛍𝐠 𝐇𝐠 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-22)

𝛍𝐧 = 𝛍𝐋 𝛌𝐋 + 𝛍𝐠 𝛌𝐠 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-23)

7. Surface Tension
𝛔𝐋 = 𝛔𝐨 𝐟𝐨 + 𝛔𝐰 𝐟𝐰 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-24)
σo , σw= oil and water surface tension respectively (dyne/cm)
Problem (3-1): An oil well is flowing 10000 STB/D with a producing gas/oil ratio of 1000
scf/STB or a gas-production rate of 10 MM scf/D. At a location in the tubing where the
pressure and temperature are 1700 psi and 180°F, calculate the in-situ volumetric flow rates
and superficial velocities of the liquid and gas phases. Also calculate the mixture velocity and
the no-slip liquid holdup. Additional given data are;
Bo= 1.197 bbl/STB Bg= 0.0091 ft3/scf
Rs= 281 scf/STB d= 6 in.
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Solution:
π π 6 2
Ap = d2 = ( ) ( ) = 0.19625 ft 2
4 4 12
1) in-situ volumetric flow rates calculated from;
𝐪𝐨 = 𝐪𝐨𝐬𝐜 𝐁𝐨 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-25)
𝐪𝐰 = 𝐪𝐰𝐬𝐜 𝐁𝐰 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-26)
𝐪𝐠 = (𝐪𝐠𝐬𝐜 −𝐪𝐨𝐬𝐜 𝐑 𝐬 ) 𝐁𝐠 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-27)

Rs = Gas solubility: The gas solubility Rs is defined as the number of standard cubic feet of gas
that will dissolve in one stock-tank barrel of crude oil at certain pressure and temperature.
(𝐯𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐦𝐞) 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐞𝐫𝐯𝐨𝐢𝐫 𝐏,𝐓
B: Formation volume Factor = (𝐯𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐦𝐞)
𝐬𝐮𝐫𝐟𝐚𝐜𝐞 𝐏,𝐓 ,(𝐚𝐭 𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐧𝐭𝐚𝐫𝐝 𝐜𝐨𝐧𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐬)

## qo = qosc Bo = 10000 ∗ 1.197 = 11970 bbl/day

bbl ft3
11970( )∗5.615( ) ft3
day bbl
qo = sec = 0.778
86400 ( ) sec
day

## 2) superficial velocities of the liquid and gas phases

qL 0.778
VsL = = = 3.97 ft/sec
A 0.19625
ft 3
qg = (qgsc −qosc R s ) Bg = [10x106 − (10000)(281)](0.0091) = 65429
day
ft3
65429 ft3
day
qg = sec = 0.757
86400 ( ) sec
day

qg 0.757
Vsg = = = 3.86 ft/sec
A 0.19625
3) mixture velocity
Vm = VsL + Vsg = 3.97 + 3.86 = 7.83 ft/sec
4) no-slip liquid holdup
qL 0.778
λL = = = 0.507
qL +qg 0.778+0.757

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

## Vertical Multiphase Flow

 The vertical lift performance involves a study of the pressure losses in vertical pipes
carrying two-phase mixtures (gas and liquid) (∆P = Pwf – Pth).
 For Vertical Flow;
1) θ= 90° , and sin 90° = 1.
2) g/gc= 1.
3) dz = dL.
4) The pressure-drop component caused by friction losses requires evaluation of a two-
phase friction factor.
𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐬 𝐯𝐦 𝟐
(𝐝𝐋) = 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝
𝐟
5) The pressure drop caused by elevation change depends on the density of the two-phase
mixture.
𝐝𝐩 𝐠
(𝐝𝐋) = 𝐠 𝛒𝐬 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝛉 = 𝛒𝐬
𝐞𝐥 𝐜

## 6) The pressure-drop component caused by acceleration is normally negligible and is

considered only for cases of high flow velocities.
7) Applying above conditions, the total pressure gradient in pipe for multiphase vertical
flow becomes;
𝐝𝐩 𝟐
𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐬 𝐕𝐦
= 𝛒𝐬 + ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-28)
𝐝𝐋 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝

##  Flow patterns in vertical two-phase flow

As the pressure on a crude oil containing gas in solution is steadily reduced, free gas is
evolved; as a consequence, the liquid volume decreases. This phenomenon affects the relative
volumes of free gas and oil present at each point in the tubing of a flowing well. For instance, if
the flowing BHP in a particular well is above the bubble point of the crude being produced,
liquid only is present in the lower part of the tubing. As the liquid moves up the tubing, the
pressure drops and gas bubbles begin to form. Therefore, the flow regimes changed and that
effect on calculations of pressure drops. Figure (3-3) shows the flow patterns.

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

## Fig. (3-3): shown flow patterns

Single-phase liquid: the flowing BHP in a well is above bubble point pressure, then single-
phase liquid produce.

Bubble flow: the liquid moves up the tubing, the pressure drops under bubble point pressure
and gas bubbles begin to form. Bubbles of gas dispersed in continuous liquid medium.

Slug or plug flow: as the fluid moves further up the tubing, the gas bubbles grow and become
more numerous. Thus, the larger bubbles grow by entrainment of the smaller bubbles they
overtake. A stage is reached in which these large bubbles extend across almost the entire
diameter of the tubing, so the flow regime has become one in which slugs of oil containing
small gas bubbles.

Annular flow: still higher in tubing, the small gas bubbles are separated from each other by
gas pockets, this is, at lower pressure, the gas pockets may have grown and expanded to such
an extent that they are able to break through the more viscose oil slugs, with the result that
the gas forms a continuous phase near the center of h tubing, carrying droplets of oil up with
it. Along the walls of the tubing there is an upward-moving oil film.

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Mist flow: continued decrease in pressure with resultant increase in gas volume results in a
thinner and thinner oil film, until finally the film all disappears and the flow regime has
become a continuous gas phase in which oil droplets are carried along with the gas.

In addition to the flow regimes themselves, the viscosities of the oil and gas, the variations of
these viscosities with temperature and pressure, the PVT characteristics of the reservoir fluids,
the flowing BHP, and the tubing-head pressure (THP) all directly affect the pressure gradient at
a particular point of the tubing. Figure (3-4) shown effect of pressure and temperature in
tubing flow patterns.

Fig. (3-4): shown effect of pressure and temperature in tubing flow patterns

##  Vertical two-phase flow Methods

 Many methods have been developed to predict two-phase, flowing- pressure gradients.
They differ in the method used to calculate the three components of the total pressure
gradient.
 The empirical correlations used to predict pressure gradient in vertical multiphase flow can
be classified into three groups;

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

A. Group "A"
 No slip consideration, i.e. the gas and liquid are assumed to travel at the same velocity.
 No flow pattern consideration.
 Required friction factor determination.
 The pressure gradient equation Eq. (3-3) represents by;
 Hydrostatic pressure gradient.
 Friction pressure gradient.
Example: Poettmann and Carpenter Correlation.
B. Group "B"
 Slip considered, i.e. the liquid and gas can travel at different velocities
 No flow pattern considered.
 Required both liquid holdup and friction factor calculations.
 The pressure gradient equation Eq. (3-3) represents by;
 Hydrostatic pressure gradient.
 Friction pressure gradient.
Example: Hagedorn and Brown Correlation.
C. Group "C"
 Slip considered.
 Flow pattern considered.
 Required liquid holdup, friction factor and flow pattern calculations.
 The pressure gradient equation Eq. (3-3) represents by;
 Hydrostatic pressure gradient.
 Friction pressure gradient.
 Acceleration pressure gradient
Example: Beggs and Brill Correlation & Duns and Ros Correlation.

##  Poettmann and Carpenter Correlation

Poettmann and Carpenter developed an empirical method which is based on the following
assumptions;
 No slip consideration, i.e. the gas and liquid are assumed to travel at the same velocity.
 No flow pattern consideration.

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 The correlation is applicable to the pipe sizes of (2, 21/2, and 3 in.).
 The effects of viscosity were assumed to be negligible.
 The acceleration term of the general energy equation was considered to be negligible.
 Based on above conditions, the total pressure gradient in pipe for multiphase vertical flow;
𝐝𝐩 𝟐
𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐧 𝐕𝐦
= 𝛒𝐧 + ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-29)
𝐝𝐋 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝
Where:
ρn= no slip density of mixture, Ibm/ft3
fm = two phase friction factor, calculated using Fig.1 .
Problem (3-2): Given:
Vsg = 4.09 ft/sec VsL = 2.65 ft/sec ρg = 2.48 Ibm/ ft3 ρL = 56.6 Ibm/ ft3
d = 0.249 ft Wm = 7.87 Ibm/sec P = 720 psia
Calculate the flowing pressure gradient at these conditions.
Solution:
1. Determine no-slip density
VsL 2.65
λL = = = 0.393
VsL +Vsg 2.65+4.09

λg = 1 − λL = 1 − 0.393 = 0.607

## ρn = ρL (λL ) + ρg (1 − λL ) = (56.6)(0.393) + (2.84)(0.607) = 23.97 lbm /ft 3

2. Determine friction factor
Vm = VsL + Vsg = 2.65 + 4.09 = 6.74 ft/sec
ρn vm d = (23.97)(6.74)(0.249) = 40.23
From Fig. 1, f =0.021

## 3. Determine total pressure gradient

dp fm ρn V2m (0.021)(23.97)(6.742 ) Ibf /ft2
= ρn + = 23.97 + (2)(32.2)(0.249)
= 25.386
dz 2gc d ft

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dp 25.386 psi Ib
= = 0.176 (where psi = )
dz 144 ft in2

##  Hagedorn and Brown Correlation

Hagedorn and Brown developed this pressure gradient equation for vertical multiphase flow;
𝟐)
𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝟐𝐧 𝐕𝐦
𝟐 𝛒𝐬 ∆(𝐕𝐦
= 𝛒𝐬 + + ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-30)
𝐝𝐋 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝛒𝐬 𝐝 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳

 In this method the slip is considered, i.e. the liquid and gas can travel at different velocities;
a liquid-holdup value must be determined to calculate the pressure-gradient component
that results from a change in elevation.
 To calculate the liquid-holdup values, Hagedorn and Brown used four dimensionless
groups:
Liquid velocity number:
𝟒 𝛒
𝐍𝐋𝐯 = 𝟏. 𝟗𝟑𝟖 𝐕𝐬𝐋 √ 𝐋 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-31)
𝛔 𝐋

## Gas velocity number:

𝟒 𝛒𝐋
𝐍𝐠𝐯 = 𝟏. 𝟗𝟑𝟖 𝐕𝐬𝐠 √ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-32)
𝛔𝐋

## Pipe diameter number:

𝛒𝐋
𝐍𝐝 = 𝟏𝟐𝟎. 𝟖𝟕𝟐 𝐝 √ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-33)
𝛔𝐋

## Liquid viscosity number:

𝟒 𝟏
𝐍𝐋 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟓𝟕𝟐𝟔 𝛍𝐋 √ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-34)
𝛒𝐋𝛔𝟑𝐋

Where:
VsL and Vsg= ft/sec ρL= Ibm/ ft3

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## σL = liquid surface tension =dyne/cm µL= cpd =ft

 Fig.2 shows the correlation for liquid holdup divided by a secondary correction factor, ψ.
 The correlating function requires a value of CNL, which is correlated with NL in Fig.3.
 Fig.4 shows the secondary correction-factor ψ correlation.
 When a value for liquid holdup has been determined from Figs.2 through 4, the slip density
(ρs) can be calculated from Eq. (3-11).
 When a value for slip density (ρs) has been determined, the pressure gradient due to
elevation change can be calculated from Eq. (3-30).
𝐝𝐩
( ) = 𝛒𝐬
𝐝𝐋 𝐞𝐥𝐯
 Friction-Factor Prediction. The two-phase friction factor (fm) is correlated with a two-phase
Reynolds number and relative roughness (ε/d) using a standard Moody diagram, Fig.5.
 The Reynolds number is calculated from;
𝛒𝐧 𝐯𝐦 𝐝
𝐍𝐑𝐞 = 𝟏𝟒𝟖𝟖 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-35)
𝛍𝐬

A) Laminar Flow
NRe < 2000 → Laminar Flow
𝟔𝟒
𝐟𝐦 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-36)
𝐍𝐑𝐞

B) TurbulentFlow
3000 < NRe < 3x1010 → Turbulent Flow
For smooth wall pipes;

## 𝐟𝐦 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟓𝟔 + 𝟎. 𝟓 𝐍𝐑𝐞 −𝟎.𝟑𝟐 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-37)

 The inside wall of a pipe is not normally smooth, and, in turbulent flow, the roughness can
have a definite effect on the friction factor, and thus the pressure gradient. Therefore;
The two-phase friction factor (fm) is correlated with a two-phase Reynolds number and
relative roughness (ε/d) using a standard Moody diagram, Fig.5.

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## ε = absolute roughness of a pipe, (ft) = It is mean protruding height of uniformly distributed

and sized packed sand grains that would give the same pressure gradient behavior as the
actual pipe].
d = Pipe diameter, (ft).
ε/d = relative roughness, dimensionless.
 When a value for friction factor has been determined, the pressure gradient due to friction
loss can be calculated from Eq. (3-30).
𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝟐𝐧 𝐕𝐦
𝟐
( ) =
𝐝𝐋 𝐟 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝛒𝐬 𝐝

 Acceleration Term. The pressure gradient resulting from acceleration is given by;
𝟐)
𝐝𝐩 𝛒𝐬 ∆(𝐕𝐦
( ) =
𝐝𝐋 𝐚𝐜𝐜 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳
Where;
𝟐) 𝟐 𝟐
∆(𝐕𝐦 = 𝐕𝐦𝟏 − 𝐕𝐦𝟐
and 1, 2 designate downstream (P1, T1) and upstream (P2, T2) ends of a calculation increment,
respectively.
 If we define parameter as;
𝟐)
𝛒𝐬 ∆(𝐕𝐦
𝐝𝐋 𝐝𝐩
𝐄𝐤 = ( ) = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-38)
𝐝𝐏 𝐝𝐋 𝐚𝐜𝐜 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳

## The total pressure gradient can be calculated from;

𝐝𝐩 𝐝𝐩
𝐝𝐩 ( ) +( )
𝐝𝐋 𝐞𝐥 𝐝𝐋 𝐟
= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-39)
𝐝𝐋 𝟏−𝐄𝐤

## Problem (3-3): Given

Vsg = 4.09 ft/sec VsL = 2.65 ft/sec ρg = 2.48 Ibm/ ft3 ρL = 56.6 Ibm/ ft3
d = 0.249 ft P = 720 psi T = 128o F μo = 18 cp μg = 0.018 cp

## Neglecting acceleration, calculate the flowing pressure gradient at these conditions.

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Solution:
1. Determine liquid holdup and two-phase density.
A. Determine CNL from Fig.3 for NL = 0.08 to be 0.0055
B. Determine (HL/ψ) from Fig.2.
NLv P 0.1 CNL 6.02 720 0.1 0.0055
(N0.575) (P ) ( N ) =( ) (14.7) ( 41.34 ) = 0.00032
gv a d 9.290.575

## C. Determine secondary correction factor, ψ from Fig.4.

Ngv N0.38
L (9.29)(0.08)0.38
= = 0.00124
N2.14
d (41.34)2.14
From Fig.4, ψ = 1

## D. Determine liquid holdup from:

H
HL = ( L) . ψ = (0.52)(1) = 0.52
ψ
Ibm
ρs = ρL (HL ) + ρg (1 − HL ) = (56.5)(0.52) + (2.84)(1 − 0.52) = 30.79
ft3
2. Determine elevation term.
dp Ibf
(dL) = ρs = 30.79
elv ft3
3. Determine frictional term.
ρL VsL +ρg Vsg (56.6)(2.65)+(2.84)(4.09) Ibm
ρn = = = 23.98
Vm 6.74 ft3
μs = μL HL + μg Hg = (18) 0.52
+ (0.018)0.48 = 0.65 cp
ρ n vm d (1488)(23.98)(4.09+2.65)(0.249)
NRe = 1488 = = 92135
μs 0.65

## From Fig.5, fm = 0.021 , for ε/d = 0.0006

dp fm ρ2n V2m (0.021)(23.98)2 (4.09+2.65)2 Ibf /ft2
(dL) = 2gc ρs d s
= (2)(32.2)(30.79)(0.249)
= 1.11
ft
f

## 4. Calculate total pressure gradient

dp fm ρ2n V2m Ibf
= ρs + = 30.79 + 1.11 = 31.9
dL 2 gc ρs d ft3

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Ib
dp 31.9 3f psi Ib/in2
ft
= = 0.221 or 0.221
dL 144 in3 /ft3 ft ft

## H.W-1: Given: µo = 0.97 cp, σo= 8.41 dynes/cm,

µg = 0.016 cp, ε= 0.00006 ft.
Using the Modified Hagedorn and Brown Method, Calculate the Vertical, Multiphase-Flow
Pressure Gradient for problem (3-1).
(Answer: dp/dL = 0.193 psi/ft)
Procedure:
1. Determine Duns and Ros dimensionless groups:
NLv = 11.87 Ngv = 11.54 Nd = 143.8 NL = 0.0118

## 5. Determine friction factor:µs = 0.13 cp , NRe = 1.21x106 , f = 0.0135

6. Determine pressure gradient, neglecting kinetic energy effects (i.e. acceleration term
due velocity change effect): dp/dL = 0.193 psi/ft

H.W-2: Using the Poettmann and Carpenter Method, Calculate the Vertical, Multiphase-Flow
Pressure Gradient for problem (3-1).
Given: ρL= 47.61 Ibm/ft3 and ρg= 5.88 Ibm/ft3.
Answer: ρn= 27.04 Ibm/ft3f = 0.0068 dp/dL = 0.19 psi/ft

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

## Horizontal Multiphase Flow

 Multiphase Flow Pattern in horizontal pipe

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 The Horizontal Flow Performance involves a study of the pressure losses in horizontal pipes
carrying two-phase mixtures (gas and liquid) (∆P = Pwh – Psep).
 For HorizontalFlow;
1) θ= 0° , and sin 0° = 0.
2) dz = dx.
dp
3) There is no elevation pressure drop, ( ) = 0.
dx elv
4) The pressure gradient equation becomes:

𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐦 𝐯𝐦𝟐 𝛒𝐦 𝐯𝐦 𝐝𝐯𝐦
= + ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-40)
𝐝𝐱 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝 𝐠𝐜 𝐝𝐱
Or;
dp dp dp
=( ) +( )
dx dx dx f acc

Dukler et al Correlation
 The Dukler et al correlation was based on similarity analysis and the friction factor and
liquid holdup correlations were developed from field data.
 Dukler Friction Factor;
𝐝𝐩 𝐟 𝛒𝐤 𝐯𝐦 𝟐
(𝐝𝐱 ) = 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-41)
𝐟

Where;
𝛒𝐋 𝛌𝟐𝐋 𝛒𝐠 𝛌𝟐𝐠
𝛒𝐤 = + ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-42)
𝐇𝐋 𝐇𝐠
A correlation was developed for a normalized friction factor (f/fn), and is given in Fig.6. The
friction factor (fn) is obtained from
𝐟𝐧 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟓𝟔 + 𝟎. 𝟓 𝐍𝐑𝐞𝐤 −𝟎.𝟑𝟐 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-43)

Where;
𝛒𝐤 𝐯𝐦 𝐝
𝐍𝐑𝐞𝐤 = 𝟏𝟒𝟖𝟖 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-44)
𝛍𝐧
𝐕𝐦 = 𝐕𝐬𝐋 + 𝐕𝐬𝐠 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝛍 𝐧 = 𝛍 𝐋 𝛌𝐋 + 𝛍 𝐠 𝛌𝐠

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##  Dukler Liquid Holdup

An iterative or trial and error procedure is required to obtain a value of liquid holdup using
Dukler's method. That is
HL = f(λl, NRek) and NRek = f(HL)
The correlation is given in Fig.7 with liquid holdup plotted versus no-slip holdup with Reynolds
number as a parameter. The procedure for obtaining a holdup value consists of;
1. Calculate λL
2. Estimate HL
3. Calculate NRekEq. (3-44)
4. Obtain HL from Fig.7.
5. Compare values of HL from steps 2 and 4. If they are not sufficiently close, set the value
obtained in step 4 as the new value and return to step 3. Agreement within 5% is considered
closes enough.

##  Dukler Acceleration Term

The pressure gradient due to acceleration is given by;
𝟐
𝛒𝐠 𝐯𝐬𝐠 𝟐
𝐝𝐩 𝟏 𝛒𝐋 𝐯𝐬𝐋
(𝐝𝐱 ) = 𝚫[ + ] --------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-44)
𝐚𝐜𝐜 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐱 𝐇𝐠 𝐇𝐋
Or;
𝟐
𝛒𝐠 𝐯𝐬𝐠 𝟐
𝟏 𝛒𝐋 𝐯𝐬𝐋
𝐄𝐊 = 𝚫[ + ] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-45)
𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐩 𝐇𝐠 𝐇𝐋

## The total pressure gradient is;

𝐝𝐩
𝐝𝐩 ( )
𝐝𝐱 𝐟
= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-46)
𝐝𝐱 𝟏−𝐄𝐤

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Problem (3-4): Given the following information for a wet gas pipeline, calculate the pressure
gradient using the Dukler et al. correlation and neglecting kinetic energy effects.
qg = 400 MM scf/D qo = 4000 STB/D d= 16 in. = 1. 333ft
o
γg = 0.7 = constant API = 40 P = 2500 psia
o
T = 60 F ε = 0.0006 ft (ε/d = 0.00045)
Solution:
1. Determine Liquid Holdup
Assume HL= 0.02
ρL λ2L ρg λ2g (42.45)(0.02)2 (13.66)(0.98)2 Ibm
ρk = + = + = 14.236
HL Hg (0.02) (0.98) ft3

ρk vm d
NRek = 1488 = 7.416x106
μn
From Fig.7 for NRek≃ ∞ , HL = 0.02
Convergence is obtained on first iteration.

## 2. Determine friction factor

fn = 0.0056 + 0.5 NRek −0.32 = 0.00877

## From Fig.6, f/fn = 2.57

f
f = ( ) (fn ) = (2.57)(0.00877) = 0.0225
fn

## dp dp f ρ k vm 2 (0.0225)(14.236)(13.131)2 Ibf /ft2 psi

=( ) = = (2)(32.17)(1.333)
= 0.6439 = 0.00447
dx dx f 2 gc d ft ft

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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

## Choke Bean Performance

 Wellhead chokes are used to;
 Limit production rates for regulations,
 Protect surface equipment from slugging,
 Avoid sand problems due to high drawdown,
 Control flow rate to avoid water or gas coning.
 Two types of wellhead chokes are used. They are
1. Positive (fixed) chokes
2. Adjustable chokes
 Placing a choke at the well head means fixing the well head pressure and, thus, the
flowing bottom-hole pressure and production rate.
 The pressure loss associated with the flow of oil, water, and gas through a flow-line
restriction (i.e. choke) at the surface is known as the Choke performance.

## Multiphase Flow Choke Performance Correlations

 The chock bean performance correlations classified into the following groups:
1. Empirical correlations from field or laboratory data.
2. Empirical correlations using dimensional analysis.
3. Theoretical approaches, applying mathematical analysis.
 Theoretically, the correlations are developed with the assumption that the concurrent flow
of liquid and gas is under critical flow conditions, i.e. fluid velocity equal sound velocity,
and that happens when,
𝐏𝐮
≥𝟐
𝐏𝐝
Where:
Pu = upstream pressure.
Pd = downstream pressure.

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## Atypical choke performance curve

 Gilbert's Approach
 Gilbert correlation is the most popular correlations for multiphase flow through chokes.
 Gilbert's formula assumes that the actual mixture velocities through the chokebean
exceed the speed of sound, therefore the downstream or flow line pressure has no effect
on the rate of upstream pressure.
 Gilbert noted that his formula was good when the downstream pressure was less than
(0.7) of the upstream pressure, i.e.;

𝐏𝐝
≤ 𝟎. 𝟕
𝐏𝐮
Gilbert’s formula is;
𝟒𝟓𝟑 𝐑𝟎.𝟓𝟒𝟔 𝐪
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-47𝐏𝐰𝐡 =
𝐒 𝟏.𝟖𝟗
Where:
Pwh = flowing well tubing head pressure (upstream, well head pressure), psia
R = gas-liquid ratio GLR, Mcf/bbl ( Mcf = 1000 ft3)
q = gross liquid rate, bbl/day
S = choke size, (1/64) in
Gilbert Empirical Equation Eq. (3-47) may be written as;
𝐏𝐰𝐡 = 𝐊 𝐪 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-48)
Where:
K: is a constant for each bean size and gas-liquid ratio.

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𝟒𝟓𝟑 𝐑𝟎.𝟓𝟒𝟔
𝐊= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-49)
𝐒 𝟏.𝟖𝟗
Problem (3-5): A well is producing 100 bbl/day gross with GLR of 700 ft³/bbl. If the bean size
is 16 (1/64 in), calculate THP?
Solution:
R = GLR = 700 ft³/bbl = 700/1000 = 0.7 Mcf/bbl
453R0.546 q (453)(0.70.546 )(100)
Ptw = = = 197.57 psia
S1.89 161.89
Problem (3-6): Given data: Wellhead pressure = 400 psia
Choke size = 14 (1/64in.), GLR = 1000 ft³/bbl,
Downstream pressure = 100 psi, Find the flow rate in bpd.
Solution:
GLR = 1000 ft³/bbl = (1000/1000) = 1 Mcf/bbl
453 R0.546 q S1.89
Pwh = → q = Pwh ( )
S1.89 453 R0.546
141.89
q = (400) ( ) = 135 bbl/day
453 (1)0.546
 Poettmann and Beck Method (Ros)
 The charts are for 20o, 30o, and 40o API respectively.
 The following problems can be solved by the use of these graphs:
1. Design of chokes or beans for new wells.
2. Estimates of gas-oil ratios and gas production rates from existing wells, knowing tubing
pressures and oil flow rates.
3. Prediction of performance of a given choke or bean, knowing the producing gas-oil ratio.
4. Check for paraffin obstruction or choke cut by gas or sand.
 Good results are obtained from the charts if there is no water production and if the flow
is two-phase and at critical flow conditions.
Problem (3-7): Given data: °API = 40 Wellhead pressure = 400 psia
Choke size = 14/64, in. G/L = 1000 scf/bbl Downstream pressure = 100 psi
Find the flow rate in bpd by:
(a) Poettmann and Beck method (Ros)
(b) Gilbert method
Solution:
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## (a) Poettmann and Beck

(1) Check ratio of pressure downstream to pressure upstream Ratio = 100/400 = 0.25. If value
is less than 0.5, assume critical flow and use Fig. 29.
(2) Note G/L on abscissa = 1000 scf/bbl
(3) Proceed vertically upwards to intersection with well-head pressure on diagonal line of 400
psi.
(4) From this intersection move horizontally to choke size of 14/64in.
(5) From this intersection proceed vertically upwards to the top of the nomograph and find the
flow rate to be 152 bpd.
(b) Method of Gilbert
453 R0.546 q S1.89
Pwh = → q = Pwh ( )
S1.89 453 R0.546
141.89
q = (400) ( 1000 0.546
) = 135 bbl/day
453 ( )
1000

H.W-3: Given data: ° API = 40PWh = 600 psia Bean size = 12/64 in.
G/L = 1500 scf/bbl Pressure downstream = 200 psia
Find the flow rate in bpd.
H.W-4: Given data: °API = 30PWh = 500 psia Bean size = 10/64 in.
G/L = 800 scf/bbl Downstream pressure = 200 psia
Find the flow rate in bpd.

## Problem (3-5): Given data: °API = 40 Pwh= 500 psia

G/L = 900 scf/bbl q = 600 bpd Find the correct bean size.
Solution: (Refer to Fig. 29)
(1) Find G/L = 900 scf/bbl on abicissa
(2) Proceed vertically upward to PWh= 500 psi
(3) Find rate at top of nomograph= 600 bpd
(4) From q = 600 bpd proceed vertically downwards until intersecting the same horizontal line
encountered from step (2)

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## (5) Read the choke size = 24/64in. on the diagonal.

H.W-5: Given data:
(A) ° API = 30PWh = 350 psia G/L = 1000 scf/bblq= 200 bpd
(B) °API = 30 q = 2500 bpd PWh= 300 psi G/L = 300 scf/bbl
Find the bean size by:
(a) Poettmann&Beck method (Ros)
(b) Gilbert method
H.W-6: Given data:
(A) ° API = 40PWh = 1000 psia G/L = 500 scf/bblq = 1000 bpd
(B) °API = 30 PWh= 200 q = 2000 bpd GIL = 400 scf/bbl
Find the bean size by: (a) Poettmann&Beck method (Ros)
(b) Gilbert method.

27