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Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Multiphase flow in pipes is the concurrent movement of free gases and liquids in the

pipes.

Multiphase flow problem can be divided into four groups:

1. Vertical Multiphase Flow.

2. Horizontal Multiphase Flow.

3. Inclined Multiphase Flow.

4. Directional Multiphase Flow.

Stage-1: The fluid must first enter the well-bore (inflow performance).

Stage-2: The fluids traveling through the tubing and/or annulus to the surface may be

either in vertical or directional flow.

Stage-3: At the surface, the fluids may or may not pass through the "choke".

Stage-4: The fluids traveling from the well-head to the separator may be either

horizontal or inclined flow.

1

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Fluid flows from the reservoir to the stock tank occur because of the pressure

gradients within the system.

The total pressure drop(loss) from the reservoir to the separator is the sum of the

individual pressure drops through three different segments:

∆Pt = ∆P1+∆P2+∆P3

∆P1 = Pr - Pwf (Inflow Performance)

∆P2 = Pwf – Pth (Vertical/directional flow Performance)

∆P3 = Pth – Psep (Horizontal/inclined flow Performance)

Where:

Pr= average reservoir pressure, psia

Psep= separator pressure, psia

Pwf= bottomhole pressure, psia

Pwh(Pth)= wellhead (or tube head) pressure, psia.

The Multiphase Flow problems involve a study of the pressure losses in the pipes

containing two-phase fluids (gas and liquid).

Multiphase flow correlations to predict pressure loss in the pipes is based on general

energy equation.

The theoretical basis for many fluid flow equations is the general energy equation. The

general energy equation expresses an energy balance between two points in a fluid

flow system.

General Energy Equation states that;

{The energy of a fluid entering point 1 of a pipe …… plus…. any additional work done on the

fluid between point 1 and 2…..minus…. any energy losses by the system between point 1 and

2, is ….equal…. to the energy of the fluid leaving point 2}.

2

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

𝐝𝐩 𝐠 𝐟𝛒 𝐯 𝟐 𝐯 𝐝𝐯

= 𝛒 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝛉 + +𝛒 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-1)

𝐝𝐳 𝐠𝐜 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳

Where:

ρ= Density (lbm/ft³) d = Pipe Diameter (ft), v = Velocity (ft/sec)

2

g = Acceleration of Gravity= 32.2 ft/sec . ,sinθ = deviation of tubing.

Ibf /ft2

dp/dz = Total Pressure Gradient( ).

ft

f = Friction Factor, function of Reynolds number and roughness.

gc = Gravitational Constant= 32.2ft/sec2. { lbforce= 32.2 Poundal = 32.2lbmass. ft/sec2= Slug

.ft/sec2}

3

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

The total pressure gradient can be considered to be composed of three distinct components,

that is;

Total gradient = elevation gradient + friction gradient + acceleration gradient

𝐝𝐩 𝐝𝐩 𝐝𝐩 𝐝𝐩

( 𝐝𝐳 ) = ( 𝐝𝐳 ) + ( 𝐝𝐳 ) + ( 𝐝𝐳 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-2)

𝐭 𝐞𝐥 𝐟 𝐚𝐜𝐜

Where:

𝐝𝐩

( 𝐝𝐳 ) : Total pressure drop.

𝐭

𝐝𝐩 𝐠

( 𝐝𝐳 ) = 𝐠 𝛒 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝛉 = is the component due to elevation change.

𝐞𝐥 𝐜

𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝛒𝐯 𝟐

( 𝐝𝐳 ) = 𝟐𝐠 𝐝

= is the component due to friction losses.

𝐟 𝐜

𝐝𝐩 𝐯 𝐝𝐯

( 𝐝𝐳 ) =𝛒 = is the component due to velocity change.

𝐚𝐜𝐜. 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳

For multiphase flow, the terms of Eq. (3-1) is modified to take care of two phases (gas and

liquid) flowing.

The pressure-gradient, Eq. (3-1), can be modified for multiphase flow by considering the

fluids to be a homogeneous mixture.

In particular the following variables must take into account the mixture of gas and liquid as

the following:

𝛒 = 𝛒𝐦 = 𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐨𝐟 𝐦𝐢𝐱𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐠𝐚𝐬 + 𝐥𝐢𝐪𝐮𝐢𝐝

𝐯 = 𝐯𝐦 = 𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐨𝐟 𝐦𝐢𝐱𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞

𝐟 = 𝐟𝐦 = 𝐟𝐫𝐢𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐟𝐚𝐜𝐭𝐨𝐫 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐟𝐥𝐨𝐰 𝐨𝐟 𝐠𝐚𝐬 + 𝐥𝐢𝐪𝐮𝐢𝐝

Where:

(m) Denotes mixture, the Eq.(3-1)can then be modified to read:

𝐝𝐩 𝐠 𝟐

𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐦 𝐕𝐦 𝛒𝐦 𝐕𝐦 𝐝𝐕𝐦

= 𝛒𝐦 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛉 + + ----------------------------------------------------------------- (3-3)

𝐝𝐳 𝐠𝐜 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝 𝐠𝐜 𝐝𝐳

Where:

m = symbol represents mixture fluids,

ρm= density of mixture fluids(lbm/ft³)

fm = friction factor of mixture fluids.

Vm = velocity of mixture fluids (ft/sec)

4

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Calculation of pressure gradients requires values of flow conditions such as velocity and fluid

properties such as density, viscosity, and others.

1. Liquid Hold-Up

Liquid holdup is defined as the ratio of the volume of a pipe segment occupied by liquid to

the volume of the pipe segment.

𝐕𝐋

𝐇𝐋 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-4)

𝐕𝐩𝐢𝐩𝐞

Liquid holdup is a fraction which varies from zero for all gas flow to one for all liquid flow.

The remainder of the pipe segment is occupied by gas, which is referred to as gas holdup or

gas void fraction. That is;

𝐕𝐠

𝐇𝐠 = 𝟏 − 𝐇𝐋 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-5)

𝐕𝐩𝐢𝐩𝐞

Liquid and gas holdup occurs due to;

Gas slippage. {In Gas-Liquid Flow, the gas has a tendency to flow faster than the liquids,

i.e. gas slipping past the liquid….. OR…..

Density difference between phases. The liquid tends to accumulate and will occupy

more of the pipe space, if no slippage was occurring.

2. No-Slip Liquid Holdup.

No-slip holdup is defined as the ratio of the volume of liquid in a pipe segment divided by the

volume of the pipe segment which would exist if the gas and liquid travelled at the same

velocity (no-slippage).

𝐪𝐋

𝛌𝐋 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-6)

𝐪𝐋 +𝐪𝐠

Where:

qL and qg are the in-situ liquid and gas flow rates, respectively.

The no-slip gas holdup or gas void fraction is defined as;

𝐪𝐠

𝛌𝐠 = 𝟏 − 𝛌𝐋 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-7)

𝐪𝐋 +𝐪𝐠

3. Density

For Liquid Mixture (Oil-Water)

The total liquid density (𝛒𝐋 ) may be calculated from the oil and water densities and flow rates

if no slippage between the oil and water phases is assumed.

5

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

𝛒𝐋 = 𝛒𝐨 𝐟𝐨 + 𝛒𝐰 𝐟𝐰 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-8)

fo= Oil fraction(or oil cut) fw= water fraction (or water cut)

𝐐𝐨 𝟏

𝐟𝐨 = = 𝐁 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-9)

𝐐𝐨 +𝐐𝐰 𝟏+𝐖𝐎𝐑( 𝐰 )

𝐁𝐨

𝐟𝐰 = 𝟏 − 𝐟𝐨 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-10)

For Two Phase Mixture (Liquid-Gas)

Calculation of the two-phase density requires knowledge of the liquid holdup. Two equations

for two-phase density are used in two-phase flow.

𝛒𝐬 = 𝛒𝐋 (𝐇𝐋 ) + 𝛒𝐠 (𝟏 − 𝐇𝐋 ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-11)

𝛒𝐧 = 𝛒𝐋 (𝛌𝐋 ) + 𝛒𝐠 (𝟏 − 𝛌𝐋 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-12)

Where:

ρs = slip density of mixture (Ibm / ft3)

ρn = non slip density of mixture (Ibm / ft3)

Eq. (3-11) is used to determine the pressure gradient due to elevation change. Some

correlations are based on the assumption of no-slippage and therefore use Eq. (3-12) for two-

phase density.

4. Velocity:

Many two-phase flow correlations are based on a variable called superficial velocity

(Vs).

The superficial velocity of a fluid phase is the velocity which those phases would exhibit

if it flowed through the total cross section of the pipe alone.

For Gas and Liquid

𝐪𝐋

𝐕𝐬𝐋 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-13)

𝐀

𝐪𝐠

𝐕𝐬𝐠 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-14)

𝐀

VsL, Vsg = superficial liquid and gas velocity, respectively.

For Two Phase Mixture (Liquid-Gas)

𝐕𝐦 = 𝐕𝐬𝐋 + 𝐕𝐬𝐠 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-15)

𝐪𝐦 = 𝐪𝐋 + 𝐪𝐠 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-16)

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Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

(For Gas and Liquid);

𝐪𝐋

𝐕𝐋 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-17)

𝐀 𝐇𝐋

𝐪𝐠

𝐕𝐠 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-18)

𝐀 𝐇𝐠

Where:

A is the pipe area.

HL , Hg = Liquid and gas holdup, respectively.

5. Slip Velocity

The slip velocity is defined as the difference in the actual gas and liquid velocities.

𝐕𝐬𝐠 𝐕𝐬𝐋

𝐕𝐬 = 𝐕𝐠 − 𝐕𝐋 = − ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-19)

𝐇𝐠 𝐇𝐋

Using the above definitions for velocity, an alternate equation for no-slip holdup is;

𝐕𝐬𝐋 𝐕𝐬𝐋

𝛌𝐋 = = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-20)

𝐕𝐦 𝐕𝐬𝐋 +𝐕𝐬𝐠

6. Viscosity:

For Liquid Mixture (Oil-Water)

𝛍𝐋 = 𝛍𝐨 𝐟𝐨 + 𝛍𝐰 𝐟𝐰 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-21)

For Two Phase Mixture (Liquid-Gas)

𝛍𝐬 = 𝛍𝐋 𝐇𝐋 + 𝛍𝐠 𝐇𝐠 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-22)

𝛍𝐧 = 𝛍𝐋 𝛌𝐋 + 𝛍𝐠 𝛌𝐠 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-23)

7. Surface Tension

𝛔𝐋 = 𝛔𝐨 𝐟𝐨 + 𝛔𝐰 𝐟𝐰 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-24)

σo , σw= oil and water surface tension respectively (dyne/cm)

Problem (3-1): An oil well is flowing 10000 STB/D with a producing gas/oil ratio of 1000

scf/STB or a gas-production rate of 10 MM scf/D. At a location in the tubing where the

pressure and temperature are 1700 psi and 180°F, calculate the in-situ volumetric flow rates

and superficial velocities of the liquid and gas phases. Also calculate the mixture velocity and

the no-slip liquid holdup. Additional given data are;

Bo= 1.197 bbl/STB Bg= 0.0091 ft3/scf

Rs= 281 scf/STB d= 6 in.

7

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Solution:

π π 6 2

Ap = d2 = ( ) ( ) = 0.19625 ft 2

4 4 12

1) in-situ volumetric flow rates calculated from;

𝐪𝐨 = 𝐪𝐨𝐬𝐜 𝐁𝐨 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-25)

𝐪𝐰 = 𝐪𝐰𝐬𝐜 𝐁𝐰 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-26)

𝐪𝐠 = (𝐪𝐠𝐬𝐜 −𝐪𝐨𝐬𝐜 𝐑 𝐬 ) 𝐁𝐠 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-27)

Rs = Gas solubility: The gas solubility Rs is defined as the number of standard cubic feet of gas

that will dissolve in one stock-tank barrel of crude oil at certain pressure and temperature.

(𝐯𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐦𝐞) 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐞𝐫𝐯𝐨𝐢𝐫 𝐏,𝐓

B: Formation volume Factor = (𝐯𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐦𝐞)

𝐬𝐮𝐫𝐟𝐚𝐜𝐞 𝐏,𝐓 ,(𝐚𝐭 𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐧𝐭𝐚𝐫𝐝 𝐜𝐨𝐧𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐬)

bbl ft3

11970( )∗5.615( ) ft3

day bbl

qo = sec = 0.778

86400 ( ) sec

day

qL 0.778

VsL = = = 3.97 ft/sec

A 0.19625

ft 3

qg = (qgsc −qosc R s ) Bg = [10x106 − (10000)(281)](0.0091) = 65429

day

ft3

65429 ft3

day

qg = sec = 0.757

86400 ( ) sec

day

qg 0.757

Vsg = = = 3.86 ft/sec

A 0.19625

3) mixture velocity

Vm = VsL + Vsg = 3.97 + 3.86 = 7.83 ft/sec

4) no-slip liquid holdup

qL 0.778

λL = = = 0.507

qL +qg 0.778+0.757

8

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

The vertical lift performance involves a study of the pressure losses in vertical pipes

carrying two-phase mixtures (gas and liquid) (∆P = Pwf – Pth).

For Vertical Flow;

1) θ= 90° , and sin 90° = 1.

2) g/gc= 1.

3) dz = dL.

4) The pressure-drop component caused by friction losses requires evaluation of a two-

phase friction factor.

𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐬 𝐯𝐦 𝟐

(𝐝𝐋) = 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝

𝐟

5) The pressure drop caused by elevation change depends on the density of the two-phase

mixture.

𝐝𝐩 𝐠

(𝐝𝐋) = 𝐠 𝛒𝐬 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝛉 = 𝛒𝐬

𝐞𝐥 𝐜

considered only for cases of high flow velocities.

7) Applying above conditions, the total pressure gradient in pipe for multiphase vertical

flow becomes;

𝐝𝐩 𝟐

𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐬 𝐕𝐦

= 𝛒𝐬 + ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-28)

𝐝𝐋 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝

As the pressure on a crude oil containing gas in solution is steadily reduced, free gas is

evolved; as a consequence, the liquid volume decreases. This phenomenon affects the relative

volumes of free gas and oil present at each point in the tubing of a flowing well. For instance, if

the flowing BHP in a particular well is above the bubble point of the crude being produced,

liquid only is present in the lower part of the tubing. As the liquid moves up the tubing, the

pressure drops and gas bubbles begin to form. Therefore, the flow regimes changed and that

effect on calculations of pressure drops. Figure (3-3) shows the flow patterns.

9

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Single-phase liquid: the flowing BHP in a well is above bubble point pressure, then single-

phase liquid produce.

Bubble flow: the liquid moves up the tubing, the pressure drops under bubble point pressure

and gas bubbles begin to form. Bubbles of gas dispersed in continuous liquid medium.

Slug or plug flow: as the fluid moves further up the tubing, the gas bubbles grow and become

more numerous. Thus, the larger bubbles grow by entrainment of the smaller bubbles they

overtake. A stage is reached in which these large bubbles extend across almost the entire

diameter of the tubing, so the flow regime has become one in which slugs of oil containing

small gas bubbles.

Annular flow: still higher in tubing, the small gas bubbles are separated from each other by

gas pockets, this is, at lower pressure, the gas pockets may have grown and expanded to such

an extent that they are able to break through the more viscose oil slugs, with the result that

the gas forms a continuous phase near the center of h tubing, carrying droplets of oil up with

it. Along the walls of the tubing there is an upward-moving oil film.

10

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Mist flow: continued decrease in pressure with resultant increase in gas volume results in a

thinner and thinner oil film, until finally the film all disappears and the flow regime has

become a continuous gas phase in which oil droplets are carried along with the gas.

In addition to the flow regimes themselves, the viscosities of the oil and gas, the variations of

these viscosities with temperature and pressure, the PVT characteristics of the reservoir fluids,

the flowing BHP, and the tubing-head pressure (THP) all directly affect the pressure gradient at

a particular point of the tubing. Figure (3-4) shown effect of pressure and temperature in

tubing flow patterns.

Fig. (3-4): shown effect of pressure and temperature in tubing flow patterns

Many methods have been developed to predict two-phase, flowing- pressure gradients.

They differ in the method used to calculate the three components of the total pressure

gradient.

The empirical correlations used to predict pressure gradient in vertical multiphase flow can

be classified into three groups;

11

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

A. Group "A"

No slip consideration, i.e. the gas and liquid are assumed to travel at the same velocity.

No flow pattern consideration.

Required friction factor determination.

The pressure gradient equation Eq. (3-3) represents by;

Hydrostatic pressure gradient.

Friction pressure gradient.

Example: Poettmann and Carpenter Correlation.

B. Group "B"

Slip considered, i.e. the liquid and gas can travel at different velocities

No flow pattern considered.

Required both liquid holdup and friction factor calculations.

The pressure gradient equation Eq. (3-3) represents by;

Hydrostatic pressure gradient.

Friction pressure gradient.

Example: Hagedorn and Brown Correlation.

C. Group "C"

Slip considered.

Flow pattern considered.

Required liquid holdup, friction factor and flow pattern calculations.

The pressure gradient equation Eq. (3-3) represents by;

Hydrostatic pressure gradient.

Friction pressure gradient.

Acceleration pressure gradient

Example: Beggs and Brill Correlation & Duns and Ros Correlation.

Poettmann and Carpenter developed an empirical method which is based on the following

assumptions;

No slip consideration, i.e. the gas and liquid are assumed to travel at the same velocity.

No flow pattern consideration.

12

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

The correlation is applicable to the pipe sizes of (2, 21/2, and 3 in.).

The effects of viscosity were assumed to be negligible.

The acceleration term of the general energy equation was considered to be negligible.

Based on above conditions, the total pressure gradient in pipe for multiphase vertical flow;

𝐝𝐩 𝟐

𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐧 𝐕𝐦

= 𝛒𝐧 + ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-29)

𝐝𝐋 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝

Where:

ρn= no slip density of mixture, Ibm/ft3

fm = two phase friction factor, calculated using Fig.1 .

Problem (3-2): Given:

Vsg = 4.09 ft/sec VsL = 2.65 ft/sec ρg = 2.48 Ibm/ ft3 ρL = 56.6 Ibm/ ft3

d = 0.249 ft Wm = 7.87 Ibm/sec P = 720 psia

Calculate the flowing pressure gradient at these conditions.

Solution:

1. Determine no-slip density

VsL 2.65

λL = = = 0.393

VsL +Vsg 2.65+4.09

λg = 1 − λL = 1 − 0.393 = 0.607

2. Determine friction factor

Vm = VsL + Vsg = 2.65 + 4.09 = 6.74 ft/sec

ρn vm d = (23.97)(6.74)(0.249) = 40.23

From Fig. 1, f =0.021

dp fm ρn V2m (0.021)(23.97)(6.742 ) Ibf /ft2

= ρn + = 23.97 + (2)(32.2)(0.249)

= 25.386

dz 2gc d ft

13

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

dp 25.386 psi Ib

= = 0.176 (where psi = )

dz 144 ft in2

Hagedorn and Brown developed this pressure gradient equation for vertical multiphase flow;

𝟐)

𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝟐𝐧 𝐕𝐦

𝟐 𝛒𝐬 ∆(𝐕𝐦

= 𝛒𝐬 + + ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-30)

𝐝𝐋 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝛒𝐬 𝐝 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳

In this method the slip is considered, i.e. the liquid and gas can travel at different velocities;

a liquid-holdup value must be determined to calculate the pressure-gradient component

that results from a change in elevation.

To calculate the liquid-holdup values, Hagedorn and Brown used four dimensionless

groups:

Liquid velocity number:

𝟒 𝛒

𝐍𝐋𝐯 = 𝟏. 𝟗𝟑𝟖 𝐕𝐬𝐋 √ 𝐋 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-31)

𝛔 𝐋

𝟒 𝛒𝐋

𝐍𝐠𝐯 = 𝟏. 𝟗𝟑𝟖 𝐕𝐬𝐠 √ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-32)

𝛔𝐋

𝛒𝐋

𝐍𝐝 = 𝟏𝟐𝟎. 𝟖𝟕𝟐 𝐝 √ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-33)

𝛔𝐋

𝟒 𝟏

𝐍𝐋 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟓𝟕𝟐𝟔 𝛍𝐋 √ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-34)

𝛒𝐋𝛔𝟑𝐋

Where:

VsL and Vsg= ft/sec ρL= Ibm/ ft3

14

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Fig.2 shows the correlation for liquid holdup divided by a secondary correction factor, ψ.

The correlating function requires a value of CNL, which is correlated with NL in Fig.3.

Fig.4 shows the secondary correction-factor ψ correlation.

When a value for liquid holdup has been determined from Figs.2 through 4, the slip density

(ρs) can be calculated from Eq. (3-11).

When a value for slip density (ρs) has been determined, the pressure gradient due to

elevation change can be calculated from Eq. (3-30).

𝐝𝐩

( ) = 𝛒𝐬

𝐝𝐋 𝐞𝐥𝐯

Friction-Factor Prediction. The two-phase friction factor (fm) is correlated with a two-phase

Reynolds number and relative roughness (ε/d) using a standard Moody diagram, Fig.5.

The Reynolds number is calculated from;

𝛒𝐧 𝐯𝐦 𝐝

𝐍𝐑𝐞 = 𝟏𝟒𝟖𝟖 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-35)

𝛍𝐬

A) Laminar Flow

NRe < 2000 → Laminar Flow

𝟔𝟒

𝐟𝐦 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-36)

𝐍𝐑𝐞

B) TurbulentFlow

3000 < NRe < 3x1010 → Turbulent Flow

For smooth wall pipes;

The inside wall of a pipe is not normally smooth, and, in turbulent flow, the roughness can

have a definite effect on the friction factor, and thus the pressure gradient. Therefore;

The two-phase friction factor (fm) is correlated with a two-phase Reynolds number and

relative roughness (ε/d) using a standard Moody diagram, Fig.5.

15

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

and sized packed sand grains that would give the same pressure gradient behavior as the

actual pipe].

d = Pipe diameter, (ft).

ε/d = relative roughness, dimensionless.

When a value for friction factor has been determined, the pressure gradient due to friction

loss can be calculated from Eq. (3-30).

𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝟐𝐧 𝐕𝐦

𝟐

( ) =

𝐝𝐋 𝐟 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝛒𝐬 𝐝

Acceleration Term. The pressure gradient resulting from acceleration is given by;

𝟐)

𝐝𝐩 𝛒𝐬 ∆(𝐕𝐦

( ) =

𝐝𝐋 𝐚𝐜𝐜 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳

Where;

𝟐) 𝟐 𝟐

∆(𝐕𝐦 = 𝐕𝐦𝟏 − 𝐕𝐦𝟐

and 1, 2 designate downstream (P1, T1) and upstream (P2, T2) ends of a calculation increment,

respectively.

If we define parameter as;

𝟐)

𝛒𝐬 ∆(𝐕𝐦

𝐝𝐋 𝐝𝐩

𝐄𝐤 = ( ) = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-38)

𝐝𝐏 𝐝𝐋 𝐚𝐜𝐜 𝟐 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐳

𝐝𝐩 𝐝𝐩

𝐝𝐩 ( ) +( )

𝐝𝐋 𝐞𝐥 𝐝𝐋 𝐟

= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-39)

𝐝𝐋 𝟏−𝐄𝐤

Vsg = 4.09 ft/sec VsL = 2.65 ft/sec ρg = 2.48 Ibm/ ft3 ρL = 56.6 Ibm/ ft3

d = 0.249 ft P = 720 psi T = 128o F μo = 18 cp μg = 0.018 cp

16

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Solution:

1. Determine liquid holdup and two-phase density.

A. Determine CNL from Fig.3 for NL = 0.08 to be 0.0055

B. Determine (HL/ψ) from Fig.2.

NLv P 0.1 CNL 6.02 720 0.1 0.0055

(N0.575) (P ) ( N ) =( ) (14.7) ( 41.34 ) = 0.00032

gv a d 9.290.575

Ngv N0.38

L (9.29)(0.08)0.38

= = 0.00124

N2.14

d (41.34)2.14

From Fig.4, ψ = 1

H

HL = ( L) . ψ = (0.52)(1) = 0.52

ψ

Ibm

ρs = ρL (HL ) + ρg (1 − HL ) = (56.5)(0.52) + (2.84)(1 − 0.52) = 30.79

ft3

2. Determine elevation term.

dp Ibf

(dL) = ρs = 30.79

elv ft3

3. Determine frictional term.

ρL VsL +ρg Vsg (56.6)(2.65)+(2.84)(4.09) Ibm

ρn = = = 23.98

Vm 6.74 ft3

μs = μL HL + μg Hg = (18) 0.52

+ (0.018)0.48 = 0.65 cp

ρ n vm d (1488)(23.98)(4.09+2.65)(0.249)

NRe = 1488 = = 92135

μs 0.65

dp fm ρ2n V2m (0.021)(23.98)2 (4.09+2.65)2 Ibf /ft2

(dL) = 2gc ρs d s

= (2)(32.2)(30.79)(0.249)

= 1.11

ft

f

dp fm ρ2n V2m Ibf

= ρs + = 30.79 + 1.11 = 31.9

dL 2 gc ρs d ft3

17

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Ib

dp 31.9 3f psi Ib/in2

ft

= = 0.221 or 0.221

dL 144 in3 /ft3 ft ft

µg = 0.016 cp, ε= 0.00006 ft.

Using the Modified Hagedorn and Brown Method, Calculate the Vertical, Multiphase-Flow

Pressure Gradient for problem (3-1).

(Answer: dp/dL = 0.193 psi/ft)

Procedure:

1. Determine Duns and Ros dimensionless groups:

NLv = 11.87 Ngv = 11.54 Nd = 143.8 NL = 0.0118

6. Determine pressure gradient, neglecting kinetic energy effects (i.e. acceleration term

due velocity change effect): dp/dL = 0.193 psi/ft

H.W-2: Using the Poettmann and Carpenter Method, Calculate the Vertical, Multiphase-Flow

Pressure Gradient for problem (3-1).

Given: ρL= 47.61 Ibm/ft3 and ρg= 5.88 Ibm/ft3.

Answer: ρn= 27.04 Ibm/ft3f = 0.0068 dp/dL = 0.19 psi/ft

18

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Multiphase Flow Pattern in horizontal pipe

19

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

The Horizontal Flow Performance involves a study of the pressure losses in horizontal pipes

carrying two-phase mixtures (gas and liquid) (∆P = Pwh – Psep).

For HorizontalFlow;

1) θ= 0° , and sin 0° = 0.

2) dz = dx.

dp

3) There is no elevation pressure drop, ( ) = 0.

dx elv

4) The pressure gradient equation becomes:

𝐝𝐩 𝐟𝐦 𝛒𝐦 𝐯𝐦𝟐 𝛒𝐦 𝐯𝐦 𝐝𝐯𝐦

= + ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-40)

𝐝𝐱 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝 𝐠𝐜 𝐝𝐱

Or;

dp dp dp

=( ) +( )

dx dx dx f acc

Dukler et al Correlation

The Dukler et al correlation was based on similarity analysis and the friction factor and

liquid holdup correlations were developed from field data.

Dukler Friction Factor;

𝐝𝐩 𝐟 𝛒𝐤 𝐯𝐦 𝟐

(𝐝𝐱 ) = 𝟐𝐠 𝐜 𝐝

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-41)

𝐟

Where;

𝛒𝐋 𝛌𝟐𝐋 𝛒𝐠 𝛌𝟐𝐠

𝛒𝐤 = + ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-42)

𝐇𝐋 𝐇𝐠

A correlation was developed for a normalized friction factor (f/fn), and is given in Fig.6. The

friction factor (fn) is obtained from

𝐟𝐧 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟓𝟔 + 𝟎. 𝟓 𝐍𝐑𝐞𝐤 −𝟎.𝟑𝟐 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-43)

Where;

𝛒𝐤 𝐯𝐦 𝐝

𝐍𝐑𝐞𝐤 = 𝟏𝟒𝟖𝟖 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-44)

𝛍𝐧

𝐕𝐦 = 𝐕𝐬𝐋 + 𝐕𝐬𝐠 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝛍 𝐧 = 𝛍 𝐋 𝛌𝐋 + 𝛍 𝐠 𝛌𝐠

20

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

An iterative or trial and error procedure is required to obtain a value of liquid holdup using

Dukler's method. That is

HL = f(λl, NRek) and NRek = f(HL)

The correlation is given in Fig.7 with liquid holdup plotted versus no-slip holdup with Reynolds

number as a parameter. The procedure for obtaining a holdup value consists of;

1. Calculate λL

2. Estimate HL

3. Calculate NRekEq. (3-44)

4. Obtain HL from Fig.7.

5. Compare values of HL from steps 2 and 4. If they are not sufficiently close, set the value

obtained in step 4 as the new value and return to step 3. Agreement within 5% is considered

closes enough.

The pressure gradient due to acceleration is given by;

𝟐

𝛒𝐠 𝐯𝐬𝐠 𝟐

𝐝𝐩 𝟏 𝛒𝐋 𝐯𝐬𝐋

(𝐝𝐱 ) = 𝚫[ + ] --------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-44)

𝐚𝐜𝐜 𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐱 𝐇𝐠 𝐇𝐋

Or;

𝟐

𝛒𝐠 𝐯𝐬𝐠 𝟐

𝟏 𝛒𝐋 𝐯𝐬𝐋

𝐄𝐊 = 𝚫[ + ] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-45)

𝐠 𝐜 𝐝𝐩 𝐇𝐠 𝐇𝐋

𝐝𝐩

𝐝𝐩 ( )

𝐝𝐱 𝐟

= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3-46)

𝐝𝐱 𝟏−𝐄𝐤

21

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Problem (3-4): Given the following information for a wet gas pipeline, calculate the pressure

gradient using the Dukler et al. correlation and neglecting kinetic energy effects.

qg = 400 MM scf/D qo = 4000 STB/D d= 16 in. = 1. 333ft

o

γg = 0.7 = constant API = 40 P = 2500 psia

o

T = 60 F ε = 0.0006 ft (ε/d = 0.00045)

Solution:

1. Determine Liquid Holdup

Assume HL= 0.02

ρL λ2L ρg λ2g (42.45)(0.02)2 (13.66)(0.98)2 Ibm

ρk = + = + = 14.236

HL Hg (0.02) (0.98) ft3

ρk vm d

NRek = 1488 = 7.416x106

μn

From Fig.7 for NRek≃ ∞ , HL = 0.02

Convergence is obtained on first iteration.

fn = 0.0056 + 0.5 NRek −0.32 = 0.00877

f

f = ( ) (fn ) = (2.57)(0.00877) = 0.0225

fn

=( ) = = (2)(32.17)(1.333)

= 0.6439 = 0.00447

dx dx f 2 gc d ft ft

22

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Wellhead chokes are used to;

Limit production rates for regulations,

Protect surface equipment from slugging,

Avoid sand problems due to high drawdown,

Control flow rate to avoid water or gas coning.

Two types of wellhead chokes are used. They are

1. Positive (fixed) chokes

2. Adjustable chokes

Placing a choke at the well head means fixing the well head pressure and, thus, the

flowing bottom-hole pressure and production rate.

The pressure loss associated with the flow of oil, water, and gas through a flow-line

restriction (i.e. choke) at the surface is known as the Choke performance.

The chock bean performance correlations classified into the following groups:

1. Empirical correlations from field or laboratory data.

2. Empirical correlations using dimensional analysis.

3. Theoretical approaches, applying mathematical analysis.

Theoretically, the correlations are developed with the assumption that the concurrent flow

of liquid and gas is under critical flow conditions, i.e. fluid velocity equal sound velocity,

and that happens when,

𝐏𝐮

≥𝟐

𝐏𝐝

Where:

Pu = upstream pressure.

Pd = downstream pressure.

23

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

Gilbert's Approach

Gilbert correlation is the most popular correlations for multiphase flow through chokes.

Gilbert's formula assumes that the actual mixture velocities through the chokebean

exceed the speed of sound, therefore the downstream or flow line pressure has no effect

on the rate of upstream pressure.

Gilbert noted that his formula was good when the downstream pressure was less than

(0.7) of the upstream pressure, i.e.;

𝐏𝐝

≤ 𝟎. 𝟕

𝐏𝐮

Gilbert’s formula is;

𝟒𝟓𝟑 𝐑𝟎.𝟓𝟒𝟔 𝐪

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-47𝐏𝐰𝐡 =

𝐒 𝟏.𝟖𝟗

Where:

Pwh = flowing well tubing head pressure (upstream, well head pressure), psia

R = gas-liquid ratio GLR, Mcf/bbl ( Mcf = 1000 ft3)

q = gross liquid rate, bbl/day

S = choke size, (1/64) in

Gilbert Empirical Equation Eq. (3-47) may be written as;

𝐏𝐰𝐡 = 𝐊 𝐪 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-48)

Where:

K: is a constant for each bean size and gas-liquid ratio.

24

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

𝟒𝟓𝟑 𝐑𝟎.𝟓𝟒𝟔

𝐊= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3-49)

𝐒 𝟏.𝟖𝟗

Problem (3-5): A well is producing 100 bbl/day gross with GLR of 700 ft³/bbl. If the bean size

is 16 (1/64 in), calculate THP?

Solution:

R = GLR = 700 ft³/bbl = 700/1000 = 0.7 Mcf/bbl

453R0.546 q (453)(0.70.546 )(100)

Ptw = = = 197.57 psia

S1.89 161.89

Problem (3-6): Given data: Wellhead pressure = 400 psia

Choke size = 14 (1/64in.), GLR = 1000 ft³/bbl,

Downstream pressure = 100 psi, Find the flow rate in bpd.

Solution:

GLR = 1000 ft³/bbl = (1000/1000) = 1 Mcf/bbl

453 R0.546 q S1.89

Pwh = → q = Pwh ( )

S1.89 453 R0.546

141.89

q = (400) ( ) = 135 bbl/day

453 (1)0.546

Poettmann and Beck Method (Ros)

The charts are for 20o, 30o, and 40o API respectively.

The following problems can be solved by the use of these graphs:

1. Design of chokes or beans for new wells.

2. Estimates of gas-oil ratios and gas production rates from existing wells, knowing tubing

pressures and oil flow rates.

3. Prediction of performance of a given choke or bean, knowing the producing gas-oil ratio.

4. Check for paraffin obstruction or choke cut by gas or sand.

Good results are obtained from the charts if there is no water production and if the flow

is two-phase and at critical flow conditions.

Problem (3-7): Given data: °API = 40 Wellhead pressure = 400 psia

Choke size = 14/64, in. G/L = 1000 scf/bbl Downstream pressure = 100 psi

Find the flow rate in bpd by:

(a) Poettmann and Beck method (Ros)

(b) Gilbert method

Solution:

25

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

(1) Check ratio of pressure downstream to pressure upstream Ratio = 100/400 = 0.25. If value

is less than 0.5, assume critical flow and use Fig. 29.

(2) Note G/L on abscissa = 1000 scf/bbl

(3) Proceed vertically upwards to intersection with well-head pressure on diagonal line of 400

psi.

(4) From this intersection move horizontally to choke size of 14/64in.

(5) From this intersection proceed vertically upwards to the top of the nomograph and find the

flow rate to be 152 bpd.

(b) Method of Gilbert

453 R0.546 q S1.89

Pwh = → q = Pwh ( )

S1.89 453 R0.546

141.89

q = (400) ( 1000 0.546

) = 135 bbl/day

453 ( )

1000

H.W-3: Given data: ° API = 40PWh = 600 psia Bean size = 12/64 in.

G/L = 1500 scf/bbl Pressure downstream = 200 psia

Find the flow rate in bpd.

H.W-4: Given data: °API = 30PWh = 500 psia Bean size = 10/64 in.

G/L = 800 scf/bbl Downstream pressure = 200 psia

Find the flow rate in bpd.

G/L = 900 scf/bbl q = 600 bpd Find the correct bean size.

Solution: (Refer to Fig. 29)

(1) Find G/L = 900 scf/bbl on abicissa

(2) Proceed vertically upward to PWh= 500 psi

(3) Find rate at top of nomograph= 600 bpd

(4) From q = 600 bpd proceed vertically downwards until intersecting the same horizontal line

encountered from step (2)

26

Chapter Three Lecture- - -2015

Petroleum Department Fourth Stage Production Engineering II

Multiphase Flow in Pipe

H.W-5: Given data:

(A) ° API = 30PWh = 350 psia G/L = 1000 scf/bblq= 200 bpd

(B) °API = 30 q = 2500 bpd PWh= 300 psi G/L = 300 scf/bbl

Find the bean size by:

(a) Poettmann&Beck method (Ros)

(b) Gilbert method

H.W-6: Given data:

(A) ° API = 40PWh = 1000 psia G/L = 500 scf/bblq = 1000 bpd

(B) °API = 30 PWh= 200 q = 2000 bpd GIL = 400 scf/bbl

Find the bean size by: (a) Poettmann&Beck method (Ros)

(b) Gilbert method.

27

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