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Airmiss
Describe the photograph below.

Vocabulary

airmiss near miss airprox air proximity hazard


comfortable distance keep separation take avoiding action
level bust airspace infringement altitude deviation ACAS

Complete the sentences with a word or phrase from the box.

1. An __________ occurs when the distance between two airborne aircraft


falls below the safe separation distance and the safety of the flights is
compromised.

2. A __________ is when an aircraft deviates from the cleared level by more


than 300 feet.

3. An important role of ATC is to __________ between aircraft so that airprox


situations can be avoided.

4. An __________ can happen if a pilot reads back the wrong flight level and
the controller does not notice the mistake.

5. Incorrect setting of the altimeter can lead to unintentional __________.

6. If the ACAS warning is activated, the pilot will have to __________.

7. __________ happens when an aircraft enters controlled airspace without


the correct clearance.

© Copyright English Teacher Oxford 2009


Online Aviation English - English Teacher Oxford - www.englishteacheroxford.co.uk

What is an Airprox?
An AIRPROX is a situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic
services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their relative
positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved
may have been compromised. (ICAO Doc 4444: PANS-ATM)

Why do Airprox occur?

An Airprox may occur due to a level bust or an airspace infringement.

A level bust usually occurs for one of the following reasons:


• An aircraft reads back the clearance and executes the clearance
correctly but does not follow it because of a flight management error or
a technical fault.
• An aircraft reads back the clearance correctly but executes it incorrectly
and the error is not detected by the crew because of a flight
management error.
• An aircraft reads back the clearance incorrectly but this mistake is not
detected by ATC so it is then executed. This is an ATC error.
• An aircraft does not have enough time to execute a late re-clearance
and passes through new cleared level. This is an ATC error.
• An aircraft follows the clearance but with the wrong altimeter setting.
• An aircraft leaves the cleared flight level without clearance to do so.

An airspace infringement occurs when an aircraft enters controlled airspace


without previously requesting and obtaining clearance from the controlling
authority of that airspace, or enters the airspace under conditions that were
not contained in the clearance.

Speaking

1. What is an airprox?

2. Why do airprox occur?

3. What is a level bust?

4. What is an airspace infringement?

5. How can airprox be avoided?

6. What equipment is used to prevent mid-air collisions?

© Copyright English Teacher Oxford 2009


Online Aviation English - English Teacher Oxford - www.englishteacheroxford.co.uk

Answers:
1. An airprox occurs when the distance between two airborne aircraft falls
below the safe separation distance and the safety of the flights is
compromised.
2. A level bust is when an aircraft deviates from the cleared level by more
than 300 feet.
3. An important role of ATC is to keep separation between aircraft so that
airprox situations can be avoided.
4. An altitude deviation can happen if a pilot reads back the wrong flight level
and the controller does not notice the mistake.
5. Incorrect setting of the altimeter can lead to unintentional level busts /
altitude deviation.
6. If the ACAS warning is activated, the pilot will have to take avoiding
action.
7. Airspace infringement happens when an aircraft enters controlled
airspace without the correct clearance.

© Copyright English Teacher Oxford 2009