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# PHYSICAL CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

Ideal Gas Properties of water
PV = nRT, n = m/M, xi = ni/nT , xi = Specific heat capacity of liquid water,
Pi/PT CP: 4.184 J/g-K
P1V1 = P2V2 Specific heat capacity of water vapour,
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 CP: 1.871 J/g-K
Molar heat capacity at constant pressure, Specific heat capacity of water ice,
5 CP: 2.08 J/g-K
CP,m: R
2 Molar heat capacity of liquid water,
Molar heat capacity at constant volume, CP,m: 75.312 J/mol-K
3 Molar heat capacity of water vapour,
CV,,m: R CP,m: 33.138 J/mol-K
2
Cv = 3/2R (monoatomic ideal gas) ΔHfus = 6.01 kJ/mol
Cv =5/2R (diatomic ideal gas) ΔHvap = 40.7 kJ/mol
Cp - Cv = nR
Cp,m - Cv,m = R
Thermochemistry
Constants U r xn  U c,M mM   U C ,wire mwire 
Gas constants, R: U rxn  CK  P T 
H   U   PV 
- 83.145 cm3 bar/K-mol
n g
- 82.055 cm3 atm/K-mol H  rxn  U  rxn  RT
mol
- 0.0821 L atm/K-mol Grxn   i G f ,i
- 8.314 J/K-mol Grxn  H rxn  TS rxn
- 1.9872 cal/K-mol
Conversion factors
T(K) = t(oC) + 273.15
1 atm = 760 torr = 101325 Pa
Clausius-Clapeyron equation 1 bar =106 dyn/cm = 0.9869 atm-cm
P2 H m  1 1  1 bar = 750.062 torr = 105 Pa
ln    
P1 R  T2 T1 
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
H m  1  1 cal = 4.184 Joule
d ln P   d 
R T  1 V = 1 J/C
Thermodynamic formulas 1 dyn = 1 g-cm/s2
H  U  PV at constant P 1 dyn/cm = 1 erg/cm2 = 10-3 J/m2
U  q  w
1 erg = 10-7 J

w   PdV
1 inch = 2.54 cm
H  q P   C P dT
1 Ǻ = 10-8 cm = 0.1 nm
U  qV   CV dT 1 liter = 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3
ΔH =Hfinal-Hinitial
dq
S   rev
T
Appendix 1