Harvard Divinity School

The Technique of Exorcism Author(s): Campbell Bonner Source: The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Jan., 1943), pp. 39-49 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Harvard Divinity School Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1507969 Accessed: 29/12/2009 18:38
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ARW XXVI. attributed to Harpocration. N.'THE TECHNIQUE OF EXORCISM CAMPBELLBONNER UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN IN the curious collection of lapidary and magical lore known as the Kyranides directions are given for making a ring with certain special virtues. These words are the occasion for this paper. V. 31-34. p. N 5-11. p.oXocyroasa eavrov u tEcTaL. Herter in PaulyWissowa. she is represented as a maiden resting her foot upon a wheel. 1. Wolters. Rel. which is explained as a name given to a stone chipped from an altar of Nemesis made of X'ioS KparaLos. holding in her left hand a cubit-rule (7rxvs). not staff. and Volkmann. 296-321. which Nemesis shares with Tyche. Les lapidaires grecs. We can only translate those words as "hard stone. XXXI. sometimes a griffin with a paw resting on the wheel accompanies the goddess. 3 On Nemesis. A somewhat different text. Abhandl. Wiss. Rossbach in Roscher and H. 2 The coins and gems show that paf8os here means twig. Posnansky. There the veceaitrls stone is said to have been built (KareaKcvaoa-Evos)into a temple of Nemesis. a kind of hieroglyph.1 The stone is to be p^ee-icTS. 28. see H. something should be said about the design prescribed in the passage. Nemesis was invoked as a protector against the evil eye: Plin. . 248-274). 2. XXXVI [1912]. also Hermas. sometimes the animal is a symbol. Cf. Representations of Nemesis are very common in GraecoRoman art. Anal. eav o' r6o'v aKTrXLov roVroY TpoeIYvKIS . 8. BaL. 297. and the attributes of the goddess need not long occupy our attention. Corr. and the articles by O. et Class. was published by Pitra. V. 1890. and parts of the associated bird and plant are to be placed under the ring-stone. Shepherd. also P. 57-76. 22. Volkmann (Arch. as Perdrizet 1 Mely-Ruelle.2 L The writer concludes. 922-29.uV irapavTa o6 aitwco Eo/. is a symbol of changing fortune. 66). who thinks that a magical wand is meant. 2). 28.umovLoAJ. H. Sim. Nemesis (Bull. Les lapidaires de l'antiquite et du moyen Age:tome II. but before proceeding to discuss them. N. Upon such a stone a figure of Nemesis is to be carved. in her right a twig (paj&os). Perdrizet. 31. cf. XXXI. Hell. Sacr. overlooks the fact that in a gem-cutting showing Nemesis with rule and wand the two objects would be indistinguishable. H." but the expression seems to be a technical term for a particular stone which we cannot identify.3 The wheel.pp. Nemesis und Adrasteia (Breslauer Philol. Notes on Antique Folldore on the basis of Plin.

who has collected the archaeological data with great care. sometimes two or three. 34. and a fish (stone representing fire). VII. Descr. op. 7Julius Tambornino. op. Philippus senior. 261. Mionnet. 43. it might be given to various deities. 6 Commodus. II. Suppl. They are represented either by actual parts of the four objects or by pictorial designs. 62. besides the vetEolrqs stone. seem to have as little authority in popular usage as the name of the stone. p. Moesia Inf. It is worth noting that representations of Nemesis holding both the twig and the cubit-rule are rare.a stone. 3).J. though he discusses others. as used in ritual lustration. a representing one of the four elements plant. Then follow magical recipes in which one of the four is used. p.. However. ?f NeCErLS 7r7jxvv KarexcO rivos oWvEKCa 2rao-L7apay'yXXw. 1909 (RGVV VII. a bird.. 111. Vol. 5 Posnansky. Tambornino 7 gathered together a mass of material bearing upon demonic possession. Under each letter of the alphabet there are grouped names of four things. cit. duck. briefly.. drawing upon both pagan 4 Perdrizet. Suppl. for the goddess herself. all beginning with that letter. "It78ev v7rep TO IeT"pov. such as wheel and bridle. De antiquorum daemonismo. and they may be esoteric names. This article deals with the words o baiwcv eo. which is. we find vrcta. The compiler of the Kyranides has probably coined it to fit his system. The last two a stone. sometimes all.uoXoyirjaas eavrToy e$EeTraL. and each . . etc. does not call attention to this combination of attributes. as when a bird is carved on Under N.5 For the cubitrule an epigram of the Anthologia Planudea (4. no. for such were freely used in magic and alchemy.4 The twig seems to have no symbolic relation to the nature of the goddess. des Medailles. Vol. cit.a fish called vavKpaTrs. 55.6 Attention may also be called to the fact that YEFea-tT7r is certainly no ordinary lapidary term. wheel and twig. Pamphylia (Attaleia). VfKvais said to be the same as X6Abos. Nemesis has both rule and twig on two coins listed by Posnansky. (Callatia).40 HARVARD THEOLOGICALREVIEW puts it. a plant called YVKVa. 224) gives us an adequate explanation: XEcELS. and vavKpa&T7 is more commonly called xevm7Lts. mullein. as follows. no.. Posnansky.

this one was overlooked. The demon must speak. and most of the examples used were collected by his industry. although his collections include several passages from the Kyranides. Christian texts often tell of demons forced to confess themselves under compulsion from an exorcist. ev6EWo XaX7o'eraL Kal aTreXEbTeraT. the class of demons to which he belongs.9 Thus in Papyri Graec.) one part of the exorcism (3038 ff. XIII." Apparently he did not wish his nature and mission to be revealed prematurely. There Jesus does not allow the demons to speak "because they knew him.THE TECHNIQUE OF EXORCISM 41 and Christian literature. 34 is an exception. the point that seems to need further attention is this: the exorcist's work is most thoroughly and effectively carried out when the demon does not merely leave the possessed person. but merely as a name of power in a charm. that the possessing force was actually a demon. Mag. The following treatment of the point is intended merely to supplement Tambornino's work. 23. the treatment might well wring at least a murmur of protest from the most taciturn. i. philosophers. or religious leaders. 242-4 (Preisendanz). To all this there is sometimes added (3) a visible proof. Eav SaLuovpLtoAe'v TO oivoia Tpoaayopv Trj p. where it is introduced as a btovvataKov ovooxa. as a proof of his control. As we shall see later. and to describe the kind of mischief that he is wont to do. there is a recipe. but the Kyranides is not a Christian writing. Briefly. 0 7). and which. Again in the "tried and tested" (SOKL/OV) recipe of Pibeches for treatment of demoniacs (PGM IV 3007 ff. This act is sometimes required by the exorcist. . not mine.a &Oaea\XTov. has not been adequately emphasized. in the form of some violent action.e. 9 Mark 1. These points should be examined in order. and that he has left his former abode in the body of his victim. yet. sometimes the narratives represent it as an act of wicked spite on the part of the demon. whether mere magicians.8 Taken in connection with other narratives of exorcism that sentence emphasizes an aspect of the exorcist's art which is illustrated in the acts of various wonder-workers. (2) to tell his name or at least his nature.) is 8 caLbLovLov OpKciOo(E irav 7rveuVja XaXr'aLt OTrolov Kal &v The name Jesus Christ occurs once (p.vL avroiv eitrs iOv K. though not unnoticed. 1. but before doing so is compelled to do one or more of the following things: (1) to speak in answer to the operator's conjurations.

rather than 'Ir7aov alone. and with the same purpose. by Klostermann in his note on Mark 5. and by Lagrange on Luke 8.). 3020). 191-203) believes that genuine Jewish formulas were conflated by a heathen compiler. W.42 HARVARD THEOLOGICALREVIEW effect of the seal of Solomon (Kal eXaX?Woev) makes it plain that the purpose of this clause is simply to make the demon speak. 223.bos.somewhat as pretended theosophists have been known to make great play with the language of Indian yoga. L. Knox ("Jewish Liturgical Exorcism. The same indefinite relative clause appears again in lines 3041 and 3045. one would not expect an orthodox Jew to use the name Jesus. 607. The anachronistic connection of Solomon with Jeremiah may not be very significant. 57t OpKlOw ae KCara TrjS oqpay. yet magic never conforms to the orthodox doctrine of any religion. that is to be connected with roVOEov TrV 'E1paiwv. 9 (Das Markusevang. 1936. 13 f. Licht vom Osten. but if the author was a Jew. and A. Nock (Gnomon. In any case. by a Gentile master of magic . Kal EaXVrXaev. it is an error. on the other hand there are some things that do not agree well with Jewish teaching. 30 (L'evangile selon Saint Luc).. followed by several magical words or names." perhaps with the aid of a renegade Jew. to treat the indefinite relative clause introduced by 07oilov as if it were an indirect question asking the name and nature of the demon. I think. immediately after the phrase OpKcior a Kara TroVOeo T(rV js. . in Lietzmann's Handbuch).10 The purpose of the clause is simply to make sure of the demon. n. such an interpretation runs counter to syntactic usage even in the period of the papyri. whatever his name." HTR XXXI. D. it is surprising to find the name Jesus. I find it as easy to believe that all the Hebrew lore was "got up. 8.) sounds much more like what a Gentile pretending to 10 Yet it was accepted by Deissmann. To me the last sentence (3084 ff. In such close juxtaposition it is natural to take 'Iroov in apposition with 0eov. 2) reminds us of the sons of the high priest Scaeva who cast out demons in the name of Jesus (Acts 19. 'Epalcc^ (1. 's EOero 2oXoPL.v bwl rrnY yXcwaav TOVi Here the allusion to the 'Irpeguiov. but it may be the whole series of nomina sacra. The recipe contains several allusions to Hebrew history and rabbinical tradition which are accurate enough to suggest a Jewish origin for the text.

25). and is imputed to the demon that causes the affliction. 137-148). the demon cries out. with notes 1 and 2). 13) says that a demon of the subterranean kind that hates the light has no faculty of reason. evUvs &e repl TLS rpCTas OKplffeLs XV KaTClafV7s T7P o 7orXa qlPrV yewS erEL7. 24. 17. To this Bauer (Wirterbuch. 293.) Psellus (de operat. Reitzenstein. as many commentators do. after remarking upon this and other explanations. refuse a parler. 12. aXaXov Kat KaKov T7vrEpvLTos p?Ts.oEPvrqs. 1) has a sentence which may. (2316) cited by Reitzenstein (Poim. consequently he is often rightly called Kat &XaXov Kow4>v. hence hears no words spoken and fears no rebuke. had been brought to a more favorable appearance only after a long and importunate series Kat of trials. aKcovaa aIrpoOv. Dieterich argued strongly in 1891 in favor of the view that the passage under discussion was taken over from a prayer of the Essenes or the Therapeutae (Abraxas. 14. . aXaXos)adds a passage from a Paris MS. throws the boy into a convulsion. in Jos. multae 10a A. according to report.loa Besides these passages there are others in which it may be plausibly conjectured that the silence of the demon presents a special obstacle to the exorcist. It is natural to say. multa ieiunia. u In a passage cited by Tambornino (52 f. though indirectly. where aXaXaa rveujara are mentioned. but Lagrange. . 32-33. in his commentary on Mark 9. writing thirteen years later. Mark 9. it is Plutarch de defectu orac. that the dumbness is an effect of the disease.THE TECHNIQUE OF EXORCISM 43 possess Jewish learning would say than what a Jew would say of his own religion and its history. daem. 25. That the idea of a dumb demon was sufficiently familiar in popular thought appears clearly from a passage which Wetstein and later commentators have cited in connection with Mark 9.1 Origen (Hom. Into this group fall some of those descriptions of Jesus' miracles in which the dumbness of the victim is mentioned (Matthew 9. il suffit d'entendre aXaXov demon lui-meme.v. and leaves him. C'est une difficulte de plus pour l'exorciser. adhibeanturautem multae orationes. . seems to doubt the Jewish origin of the prayer in spite of the names and incidents drawn from the Septuagint (Poimandres. reflect the same idea: si . 438 B. she entered. du continues: . qui car on ne sait comment le prendre. OVKiaivabepovuTa. 1). ." Immediately after the command of Jesus. 22. s. There Plutarch tells of an occasion when the Pythia was prevailed upon to enter the oracular chamber when the omens. . at first unfavorable./os.

30 and Gould on this passage of Mark. The belief that knowledge of a name gives a hold upon its owner is so well known to students of folklore and of the history of religion that it is unnecessary to offer evidence for it. the critics of the last half century have recognized several marks of the popular tale of wonder-working." 14 J.l4 The demon's reply to the demand for his name may also betray an element of folk-narrative. The Gospel according to St. In this episode." as Loisy remarks. Lagrange. as previously cited. Jesus' question. and Creed. 153. after much stormy discussion. verse 8) says to Jesus." instead of an actual name. Thus when the demon (after the command to leave the tormented man. so Plummer on Luke 8. a form of words better suited to an exorcist. 1-20). EXEYEP yzap. From the tale of Rumpelstilzkin in Grimm's Marchen to the magical papyri.12 Again. "What is thy name?" is a means of recalling the aberrant mind to an awareness of its own personality. so it is taken by Wellhausen and Lagrange. The answer "Legion. et ad haec omnia surdus daemon in obsesso corpore permaneat. Klostermann. . Creed. as if ironically. Lagrange. such was the view of Wellhausen and Loisy. L'evangile selon Saint Marc. 39. Das Evangelium Marci2. Loisy. 12 A. Luke (8. /U /. It seems to appear in Mark's vivid narrative about the Gerasene demoniac (5. in which the adept vaunts his knowledge of secret names that control both demons and gods. Loisy. Wellhausen."ce qui est d'une assez piquante naivete. yet the obstinate refusal of the demon to yield to the prayers and invocations of the exorcist implies silence.44 HARVARD THEOLOGICALREVIEW exorcistarum invocationes. cf. to commentators who interpret the passage in the light of psychological therapeutics. the latter remarking "veritable plaisanterie diabolique. may be a mischievous evasion. Here the immediate nexus of surdus is with the preceding prepositional phrase. proofs beyond number show how widely this idea prevailed. 2. OpKiloW ae TOr OE6o. or his nature and his evil works. and the point has been accepted more recently by Klostermann. etc. 13 Both commentaries belong to the International Critical Commentary series. The demon tells his name.l3 But those who consider the passage as historians of religion are content to note that knowledge of the name gives the exorcist a more complete control over the recalcitrant spirit. 30).E faaaviaprs. he seems to be using.

KaCr9pwTaEv eKao-To Kat virO' ro o6 aao'LXevs baLtyuovov ovo/. p. his abiding place among the signs of the zodiac. Der Isishymnus von Androsund verwandte Texte." etc. p. saying "Tell me of what seed and of what race thou art. the nature of his mischievous work. pp.379. 16 18 Ibid. the form in which he manifests himself. the procedure is similar. the narrative continues. the inscriptions of los and Kyme. "Et tu itaque. 17 Ibid.1922. The Greek writings that treat of Solomon as the great master of magic who controls all demons and spirits were not accessible in modern text editions when Tambornino's work was done. OTLns7TT' oUv Pap. 1239ff.The Testamentof Solomon. and in Peter's words (Actus Petri cum Simone. his misdeeds. Homily on the Passion 101-104. New Testament. took it to be a mere boast. who later becomes Solomon's messenger to the other demons. as reported by Klostermann. after the demons had all been summoned by the power of Solomon's seal. iEopKtdW e aZ el. and the name of the angel who is able to defeat him (2.a KCalT77)VEpyacia T7 r7v arolov iy' ayiOp ayyfXC\vKCarap7yeiatL.1 In the Testament of Solomon the examination of the demons is narrated in detail. and he makes no use of them. 122-125. 16*-59*. each malefactor tells his name. esp. In the lrepi TOv 2oXoi&Wv7ros (sic) 3. It is worth noting that an exorcist may compensate for his ignorance of a demon's name by using a general clause." 1 and so on in a long succession of clauses beginning eyqseitL. 11). M. . quicumque es daemon. the Praises of Isis. 91*. James'stranslationin The Apocryphal 19 W. Mag. IV. 1-4). the spirits of the vices. Graec. 6. or to take a pagan example.which seem like a diabolical parody of such passages as Melito. 13* f. C. Peek. and the influence that counteracts him. is made to tell his name. And he said unto him: I am a reptile of the reptile nature and noxious son of the noxious father of him that hurt and smote the four brethren that stood upright: I am son to him that sitteth on a throne over all the earth.. Ornias..THE TECHNIQUE OF EXORCISM 45 Bultmann. and the thirty-six decans (chapters 3-18). as in aJow.. and in the examination of the demons. McCown.. R.15 They illustrate the importance of the name in more than one passage.19 16See C.17 In the Acts of Thomas (31-32) the apostle addresses a demon in serpent form.

ad Autol. LXX.EKEL rTO(fCUfpa. 20 21 . tLr ava'yKatelv As Apollonius insists. Philops. he had transferred his affections to the boy and taken possession of his body.. see the notes on this passage in the editions of Hemsterhuys and Lehmann. and that she had lured the youth on meaning in the end to devour him. aoves. avra arrveXa Theoph.as in the charm from the Kyranides with which this paper began. Div. she acknowledges that et. when the mother of a demoniac boy decides to go to the Indian sages for help.oXo7y. then tells how. Lactantius. Minuc.v 6 T7L she is an Empusa. 8 ad fin:. K . 2.. confiteor. metuunt. after his wife the ghost had consoled herself for his loss with unseemly haste. 7rXava ouoXooyEi. id est cultores dei. 28 (128).21 eavroy 6 at'lwv VTrOKplT7r of a man slain in battle. 5. and the demon tells how and whence he came.20 Again. K/ot Xp'. Kal eLTro ^70 fiTaaavlieLv alvbr. Vit. Apoll. Ipse Saturnus et Serapis et Iuppiter et quicquid daemonum colitis victi dolore quod sunt eloquuntur.22 Several passages in the church writers show it was a regular and expected part of a successful exorcism that an expelled demon should acknowledge his nature and evil works. An allusion to the miracles of Jesus or one of the apostles has been suspected. 22 In Luc. speaking Greek or the language of the country from which he had come.46 HARVARD THEOLOGICALREVIEW It is in connection with such passages as these that the answers of demons are described by the verbs 6oi. who had seduced the young Menippus. 5. "the Syrian from Palestine. keryyopevaev The demon. nec utique in turpitudinem sui nonnullis praesertim vestrum assistentibus mentiuntur. 6ooXoye. After Apollonius of Tyana had detected and exposed the Lamia.t ael'aL 8ai KcrX. . 16: Iustos autem. cuius nomine de corporibus excedunt. 2. L Ka otl aL/Aov&vreSEv'ore a Katl teXpLTov evpO e oopKlovraL KaLT rov 6ovlarlTos rov ovros Oeov Kal . inst. Philostr. 25 (166). for Iaayopebco = 6/uoXoy7S. cf. quotiens a nobis tormentis verborum et orationis incendiis de corporibus exiguntur. t av. Vit. 4. 16. Apoll. quorum Philostr. Lev. 5-7: Haec omnia sciunt pleraque pars vestrum ipsos daemonas de semetipsis confiteri. Ipsis testibus esse eos daemonas credite fassis. known for his skill in these matters. Felix 27.. or Empusa. 3." is reputed to ask the demon who has taken possession of a man whence he came into the body of the sufferer. aaKpbovPr . who is XPCIrlEVos Tq wrati. .

9292. Josephus (Ant. aWaXXarTTeOOat. A dissolute young proper way to pour libations. confitentur. OpWO-LV 0L KaTaXEXOLWE 6- Here it is clear that the operator places the vessel of water to be upset merely as a means of showing that he has had the power to expel the demon.. also Tert. The same motive is present in one of Apollonius' wonder-cures (4.. ad Donat. 45-48) tells how God permitted Solomon to learn the art of controlling demons and freeing men from their attacks by means of charms and exorcisms. 20 [157-8]). The demon replies.tseKpoT77o-avbwro6 Oabl=aros Tl av rtS ypa5Ot. verbis tamquam flagris verberati non modo daemones se esse interroganti qui sint. and he gives an example of it in the cures worked by a certain Eleazar in the presence of Vespasian and his court. 3. 8. sed etiam nomina sua edunt. BaL/tovLq IrpOLTEaTera 7roT7pLov w7pE 4~LOv raWOpcbroU ravra alvaTpel/aL Katll raPaoXEt v eL7yvCva&L rots ro'vvOpwwov. calling the name of Solomon and reciting the charms that he had composed.. 4vra s porp P 00'pv3ovy OAv e Tae. quando venerint. Then this significant passage: I3ovX6Mevos 7r'SreaL Kal rapaoan7aa 8b rots rapa-rvyxavovo-LP 6 raL'7T7v EXELT7v UToXVP. The sage at once declares that the man laughs rudely when Apollonius is explaining his idea of the youth is possessed.rOJE-Lva var'z 7rE-vpi bElas -r)e' f3vaiXtoz' uovorav. which had under its seal-stone one of the roots whose properties Solomon had taught. The man immediately fell to the ground. . 5. quomodo in homines irrepserint. EWEo -raira EWprTTETOr ' 6' cLv3pLtL UTEKU'77677 wpkj20ov.. .THE TECHNIQUE OF EXORCISM confitentur. bidding him 4"'V TEK/. and sternly addresses the demon. E7EL /. T. 5. CN57 7'KaTaIraXa6w-a'v8ptaivra`. and so drew the demon out through the sufferer's nose. tb KaL wirv ro&7-qC c. Cypr. Ka1tTq. This art persisted to the writer's own day. He describes the procedure as follows: Eleazar applied to the nostrils of the demon-possessed man his own ring.LKPO6J E`1rp0a001 ?7TOL 'EXEa'`apos OTnL ' P v8"aros lro8'vLwTpvr. and Eleazar then adjured the demon never to return. de anima 57. 47 Cf..7fpiq. The demon marks his departure by an act of physical violence. Jud.

Miracles involving the restoration of broken objects were known in classical antiquity. the daily cult in Egyptian temples began with a ritual lustration of the cult-statue. like Eleazar. and commands him to stand forth. which was intended to bring the god back to life after his sleep or death during the night.48 HARVARD THEOLOGICALREVIEW Here the phrase vv T?EK1ptpishows that Apollonius. Erat enim statua Caesaris. apprehending terrible consequences from this seeming insult to the image of the emperor. for. and when he obeys. the occasion of the exorcism is the samean unmannerly laugh under circumstances that called for respectful silence. and they are probably derived from a common original. which may have been either of pagan or of Christian origin. finding proof of such an origin in the incident where the fragments of the broken statue are sprinkled and re-united. Thereupon the young man shows by his wild behavior and utterances that he is possessed by a demon. The additional episode of the miraculous restoration of the statue suggests that the Acts of Peter is one degree further removed from the source than the story in the Life of Apollonius. 23 Hellenistische Wundererzahlungen. et statuam magnam marmoreamquae in atrio domus posita erat adpraehendens. as he remarks. ostendete omnibus adstantibus. Such an assumption is unnecessary. demanded a physical proof that the demon had actually left the afflicted body. in nomine domini nostri lesus Christi exi a iuvene nihil nocens eum. the statue is made whole again." Hoc audito iuvenis expulit se. As Peter concludes his prayer for the newly converted Marcellus.quicumquees daemon.earn calcibus comminuit. Besides the incident of the broken statue in both the lastmentioned miracles. . A miracle attributed to Peter in the apocryphal Actus Petri cum Simone (11) closely resembles the story about Apollonius. 54. but Peter bids him sprinkle the fragments with water in Christ's name. There can be no doubt that the narrative of Philostratus and that in the Acts of Peter are closely related. and Peter says: "Et tu quoque. he sees a man in the crowd smiling. The story goes on to say that Marcellus was in consternation. Reitzenstein 23held that the story was originally told of an Egyptian Magus.

KaLL rns tXS KV\XlTOa&ctplv (20). it was only natural that the effective act should be accompanied by aspersion with holy water. there can be little Kal qfxwva'av qwvjr pyaX1 e ior1X86ev aiLroV. This is the act of physical violence that bears witness to the reality of the expulsion. 14-29). and that the inhabitants. the violence of the demon on departing takes the form of an injury to the body from which he is expelled. . besought Jesus to leave their country.a aKaOaprov rT of course be attributed to the mental malady which men of that time interpreted as demonic possession. so in Mark 1.THE TECHNIQUE OF EXORCISM 49 Asclepius' restoration of a broken cup is the theme of one of the miracle-records of Epidaurus. when the whole story was told. Kpgaas KaLiroXXaaorapa&as drqX6ev. oarap&aav aCvrvro 7rvelLc. and after the command to depart. the demons enter a herd of swine and destroy them. this explanation would be particularly appropriate in such a case as that of the epileptic boy (Mark 9. 11. and in the source from which Mark drew it is probable that there was no more thought of the ethical or social problems that might arise from the incident than there was in the stories of exorcism as practised by Eleazar and Apollonius. Sylloge3. In certain other miracles. Mark records without comment that the swineherds fled and brought news of the happening to the town. 26. whose violence was a sign that he was gone to return no more. Such convulsions may doubt that in the thought of the time the final convulsion was interpreted as the last spiteful act of the demon. As soon as the boy is brought into the reav Eri presence of Jesus.79-90.24and when such a miracle was attributed to a Christian saint. 1168. However. ro 7rvevua ev'Os avvea7rapazev abroiv. When the Gerasene "Legion" is driven from the afflicted man. 24 Dittenberger.