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Types of Stretching

Static Stretching

Static stretching means a stretch is held in a challenging but comfortable position for a
period of time, usually somewhere between 10 to 30 seconds. Static stretching is the
most common form of stretching found in general fitness and is considered safe and
effective for improving overall flexibility. However, many experts consider static
stretching much less beneficial than dynamic stretching for improving range of motion
for functional movement, including sports and activities for daily living.

Dynamic Stretching

Dynamic stretching means a stretch is performed by moving through a challenging but

comfortable range of motion repeatedly, usually 10 to 12 times. Although dynamic
stretching requires more thoughtful coordination than static stretching (because of the
movement involved), it is gaining favor among athletes, coaches, trainers, and physical
therapists because of its apparent benefits in improving functional range of motion and
mobility in sports and activities for daily living.
Note that dynamic stretching should not be confused with old-fashioned ballistic
stretching (remember the bouncing toe touches from PE classes?). Dynamic stretching
is controlled, smooth, and deliberate, whereas ballistic stretching is uncontrolled, erratic,
and jerky. Although there are unique benefits to ballistic stretches, they should be done
only under the supervision of a professional because, for most people, the risks of
ballistic stretching far outweigh the benefits.

Passive Stretching

Passive stretching means you’re using some sort of outside assistance to help you
achieve a stretch. This assistance could be your body weight, a strap, leverage, gravity,
another person, or a stretching device. With passive stretching, you relax the muscle
you’re trying to stretch and rely on the external force to hold you in place. You don’t
usually have to work very hard to do a passive stretch, but there is always the risk that
the external force will be stronger than you are flexible, which could cause injury.

Active Stretching

Active stretching means you’re stretching a muscle by actively contracting the muscle in
opposition to the one you’re stretching. You do not use your body weight, a strap,
leverage, gravity, another person, or a stretching device. With active stretching, you
relax the muscle you’re trying to stretch and rely on the opposing muscle to initiate the
stretch. Active stretching can be challenging because of the muscular force required to
generate the stretch but is generally considered lower risk because you are controlling
the stretch force with your own strength rather than an external force.
Ballistic Stretching
This type of stretching uses the stretched muscles by bouncing into or out of a stretched
position as a spring which pulls the body out of the stretched position. It involves trying
to force a part of the body beyond its range of motion.

Components of stretching
The joints and encompassing connective tissues turn out to be more unbending and
lose quite a bit of their flexibility as we age. These outcomes in more noteworthy
solidness and diminished scope of movement.

Women tend to have more flexibility than men most likely because of structural,
anatomical, and hormonal contrasts.

Physical Activity that burdens the joints with greater ranges of movements aids in
maintaining flexibility thus an active person has greater flexibility than less active


There are natural joint and tissue arrangement differences between persons whose
result in varying levels of flexibility. Some individuals are gifted with plasticity
components and higher elasticity to their connective tissue that make them inherently
more flexible.

Process of Stretching

 Incline your head back, rest your chin on your palm, and pull your jaw open.
 Say "Ah!" (you can mime it).
 Grab your chin with your thumb, index and middle fingers.
 Stretch it left to right. This exercise will help if you have been hit to the jaw


 Incline your head forward, but do not roll your head from side to side as this can be
harmful. Instead, stretch your neck to the left, right, forward and back, but always
return to center first!
 Tilt your head with the ear toward the shoulder and hold the tilt for 20-30 seconds.
Focus on your breathing and relaxing your neck and shoulder muscles during this
 Be sure that while your head is tilted back, you keep your jaw relaxed and even let
your mouth fall open just a bit.


 Stand approximately 2 feet (61 cm) back from the interior corner of a wall, facing the
corner. Position your feet to be about shoulder-width apart.
 Place one forearm on each wall with your elbows resting just above the height of
your shoulders.
 Lean forward as far as you comfortably can. Hold in this position for 30-60 seconds.


 Clasp your hands together and reach your arms forward directly in front of your
chest as far as possible.
 Allow your upper back to become round and your chin to drop toward your chest.
 Hold this position for 15-30 seconds.

 Sit on the floor.

 Press the soles of your feet together.
 Pull your feet as close to your body as possible.
 Push your knees down.

Cooperating muscle group


These muscles cause the movement to occur. They create the normal range of
movement in a joint by contracting. Agonists are also referred to as prime
movers since they are the muscles that are primarily responsible for generating
the movement.


These muscles act in opposition to the movement generated by the agonists and
are responsible for returning a limb to its initial position.


These muscles perform, or assist in performing, the same set of joint motion as
the agonists. Synergists are sometimes referred to as neutralizers because they
help cancel out, or neutralize, extra motion from the agonists to make sure that
the force generated works within the desired plane of motion.


These muscles provide the necessary support to assist in holding the rest of the
body in place while the movement occurs. Fixators are also sometimes
called stabilizers.


Ayexza Ivanka B. De Silva