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Drive Test Analysis
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Drive Test Analysis
Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document
1 1.1 Measurements on a drive test............................................................................ 3 Radio measurements ......................................................................................... 4 1.1.1 Spectral measurements on UTRA carrier ........................................... 4 1.1.2 Measurements on common channels .................................................. 5 1.1.3 Measurements on dedicated channels ................................................. 8 Higher-layer measurements ............................................................................ 10 1.2.1 Transport channels ............................................................................ 10 1.2.2 User-data measurements ................................................................... 11 Load simulation .............................................................................................. 12 1.3.1 Uplink radio load 12 1.3.2 Downlink radio load.......................................................................... 13 Radio optimization based on drive tests ......................................................... 14 2.1 Call set-up failure............................................................................................ 15 2.1.1 Coverage problem ............................................................................. 16 2.1.2 Admission Control problem.............................................................. 17 2.1.3 Interference problem ......................................................................... 18 2.1.4 Active Set Management .................................................................... 19 Call drop 19 2.2.1 Coverage problem ............................................................................. 19 2.2.2 Interference problem ......................................................................... 22 2.2.3 Active Set Management problem...................................................... 22 1.1.4 RLC problem .................................................................................... 24 1.1.5 RL problem ....................................................................................... 25 Higher-layer performances on User plane ...................................................... 25 1.3.1 Offered bit-rate.................................................................................. 26 1.3.2 Transport Channel BLER.................................................................. 27 1.3.3 Performances for RLC AM............................................................... 27 Higher-layer performances on Control plane ................................................. 27
Abbreviations .............................................................................................................. 29
Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document
1. Measurements on a drive test
In this section, we are listing the different measurements that could be taken on a drive test, while using either a 3G scanner or a trace mobile or both. The purpose of this document is not to tackle with implementation-specific measurements for commercial 3G scanners or trace mobiles. On a drive test, one tester can take following measurements: ■ ■ Radio measurements Higher-layer measurements (RLC and over)
Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document
1. From 3GPP TS25. the Received Signal Strength Indicator is the wide-band received power within the relevant channel bandwidth. In wide-band systems.133 are specifying the UE measurement capabilities required in UMTS FDD. the spreading of the power by code channels do not ensure a perfectly homogeneous power level over the spectrum. 1.1 Spectral measurements on UTRA carrier UTRA carrier RSSI The UTRA carrier RSSI is the key measurement for the DL interference seen by the UE. the user can specify the cells to monitor on a 3G scanner.215. Then.1 Radio measurements The 3GPP25.and inter-cell load on the UTRA carrier. The UTRA carrier RSSI mainly encompasses the intra.Pathloss cell. UE Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . interference due to adjacent channels or other radio transmitters are also included.215 and the 3GPP25. whereas a trace mobile will only measure the various UTRA carriers at the cell selection without reporting this measurement to the system. The higher the number of codes mixed the lower the PAR. 3G scanner versus trace mobile The main advantage of a 3G scanner is that the user can specify the UTRA carrier to monitor. Node B. the reporting range for UTRA carrier RSSI is from –100dBm to -25 dBm.1. A 3G scanner may also give some measurements onto the P-SCH and SSCH. whereas a trace mobile will only measure the various cells at the cell selection in idle mode and the active cells together with the declared neighboring cells in connected mode. The intra-cell contribution Iintra to the UTRA carrier RSSI can be extracted from the Transmitted Carrier Power measured at the Node B antenna connector and the path-loss measured by the drive test chain on the CPICH as: Iintra = Transmitted Carrier Power cell. From the 3GPP TS25.133. The PAR (Peak to Average Ratio) gives an indication of the homogeneity of the power level over the 5MHz bandwidth. But.
To detect a cell. the slot boundary is known. The 3GPP definitions for measurements are always after RAKE recombining. a cell is identified by its PSC (Primary Scrambling Code). Once the peak is detected. the contributions of the neighboring cells for which the CPICH can be demodulated can be analyzed. There are 512 scrambling codes grouped into 64 groups of each 8 different scrambling codes. being identical for all cells and repeated at the beginning of each slot of the P-SCH. since only the slot boundary is known and not the frame boundary. The UE needs to check the 64 possible scrambling code group for the secondary synchronization code word.1. ● ● RAKE measurements The RAKE receiver performs the multi-path combining at the mobile side. beginning at each of the 15 positions. the largest peak from the secondary synchronization code word based on the slot boundary. 1.In the same way. It does not make sense to analyze each path for radio optimization for following reasons: ● ● ● The RAKE coefficients are not configurable The RAKE algorithm is proprietary Multi-path profile changes from one test to the other Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document .2 Measurements on common channels Cell detection On one UMTS carrier. the current PSC in the identified scrambling code group by scanning the CPICH: the correlation peak obtained while descrambling the CPICH with the current PSC allows the detection of the PSC. the UE searches sequentially for: ● the universal 256-chip primary synchronization code.
The CPICH RSCP is an RXLEV measurement. one can say (for dense urban): ► -108dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP < -105dBm Uncertain CS64 coverage on unloaded network ► -105dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP < -98dBm Uncertain CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network ► -98dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP < -85dBm CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network for outdoors ► -85dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP < -70dBm CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network for in-car ► -70dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP < -62dBm CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network for indoor daylight ► -62dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network for indoor first-wall Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . CPICH RSCP The CPICH RSCP is the key measurement for DL coverage. From the 3GPP TS25.215. The CPICH measurements are the key radio measurements for cell optimization. As a rule of thumb. so that it serves for the cell evaluation and downlink channel estimation at the UE. the reporting range is for CPICH RSCP is from –115dBm to -25 dBm. even though the RAKE receiver combines measurements. The reference point for the CPICH measurements is the antenna connector of the UE. This measurement is for: ● ● Cell re-/selection UL open loop power control From the 3GPP TS25.133.CPICH measurements The CPICH is emitted continuously with a fixed power level. the CPICH RSCP (Received Signal Code Power) is the received power on one code measured on CPICH.
the range for path loss is then 58dB to 148dB. The CPICH EC/I0 measures the soft radio capacity. The typical distribution of the CPICH EC/I0 highly depends on the cell load. 3GPP Pathloss = Pure Radio Loss – 14dB and the range for radio loss is then 72dB to 162dB. the CPICH EC/I0 is the received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band. 3GPP Pathloss = CPICH TX power @ NB antenna connector CPICH RSCP @ UE antenna connector Pure Radio Loss = CPICH TX power @ NB antenna output CPICH Rx power @ UE antenna input 3GPP Pathloss = Pure Radio Loss + feeder losses . the reporting range for CPICH EC/I0 is from –24dB to 0dB. Requirements in term of CPICH EC/I0 depends on: ► The non-limitation in UL and DL coverage ► The number of cells that can be recombined Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . One should be careful with the figures for the path-loss.215. since this definition does not correspond to the pure radio loss.Downlink path-loss The path-loss measured on the CPICH is defined as: Pathloss = CPICH TX Power . From the 3GPP TS25.NB antenna gain + UE antenna gain With typical values of feeder losses (3dB). CPICH EC/I0 The CPICH EC/I0 is the key measurement for radio optimization for CDMA. NB antenna gain (17dBi) and UE antenna gain (0dBi). The EC/I0 is identical to RSCP/RSSI. This measurement is for: ● ● ● ● Cell re-/selection Radio admission control DL open-loop power control Soft HO and inter-frequency Hard HO From the 3GPP TS25.133.CPICH RSCP With a typical value of 33dBm for the CPICH TX power.
But.UL = (βD/βC)2 x PDPDCH.215 as the total UE transmitted power on one carrier at the UE antenna connector.UL PDPCCH.UL+ PDPDCH. the reporting range for UE transmitted power is from -50 dBm to 33 dBm. It is the only uplink measurement that is available at the UE side. one can say: ► -15dB ≥ CPICH EC/I0 ≥ -18dB Preferred situation is more than 1 active RL ► -12dB ≥ CPICH EC/I0 ≥ -15dB Good value for 60%-loaded network ► -8dB ≥ CPICH EC/I0 ≥ -12dB Preferred situation is not more than 1 active RL ► CPICH EC/I0 ≥ -8dB Only 1 active RL for high-quality best server 1. the Power Class of the UE bounds the upper limit (defined in 3GPP TS25.3 Measurements on dedicated channels Per definition. Uplink UE TX power The UE TX power is the key measurement to analyze UL coverage. Power Class 1 2 3 4 Maximum TX power +33 dBm +27 dBm +24 dBm +21 dBm Test mobiles in R1 and R2 were Power class 3 only.101).UL βC and βD are parameterized.133. It is defined in the 3GPP TS25.► The mobile sensitivity As a rule of thumb. From the 3GPP TS25. UE Tx power = PDPCCH.1. a 3G scanner does not perform measurements on dedicated channels. βD being fixed at 15 Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document .
The SIR target for DL is defined through UE-proprietary algorithms to achieve the BLER Quality Value assigned by the UTRAN (see Downlink Transport Channel BLER). The CFN-SFN observed time difference is for handover timing purposes to identify active cell and neighbor cell time difference. one should be cautious when analyzing such measurements in a mobile trace. ● Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . This internal measurement should be used in the DL outer-loop power control. the CFN-SFN observed time difference and the SFN-SFN observed time difference are concerning synchronization issue at the UE side over the radio interface.As a rule of thumb. ● ● The SFN-SFN observed time difference is for identifying time difference between two cells. The UE RX-TX time difference is used for RL set up purposes to compensate propagation delay of DL and UL in order to get TPC commands on DL with the right timing for the UL power control. Therefore. since various definitions are possible. Metrics for synchronization The UE Rx-Tx time difference. one can say: ► ► ► ► 16dBm ≤ UE TX power < 24dBm (shadowing and fading) 9dBm ≤ UE TX power < 16dBm (in-car penetration) 0dBm ≤ UE TX power < 9dBm (indoor day-light) UE TX power < -10dBm(deep indoor) ► -10dBm ≤ UE TX power < 0dBm (indoor first-wall) Downlink Signal-to-Interference Ratio The Signal-to-Interference ratio is not standardized for the UE.
► If the BLER is higher than the targeted Quality value. the size should be equal to the IE Reporting interval in mentioned SIB11 or 12 (see 3GPP TS 25. which is a mobile-proprietary algorithm. the radio interface is not able to satisfy the required QoS. Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . the follow-up of the BLER helps assessing whether the UE is performing according to the quality requirements or not. Transport channel BLER value shall be calculated from a time window with following size: ► if periodical reporting mode is specified by the UTRAN. This could be due to: ● Shortage of power to be dedicated to the UE on DL ● ● ● ● Power limitations due to radio parameter settings Power limitations due to high traffic on DL High interference level on DL Poor performances of the DL outer-loop power control Logically. Therefore. It is computed as the ratio between the number of received transport blocks resulting in a CRC error and the number of received transport blocks over the measurement period. the Transport channel BLER and the SIR are bound through the DL outer-loop power control. the QoS offered by the UTRAN is sufficient. as far as the data integrity is concerned.2 1. The BLER Quality value is a target indicated by the UTRAN at the RRC CONNECTION SETUP and at the RADIO BEARER SETUP for the initiated service.331) ► otherwise. this is an internal measurement at the UE side and the window size is freely designed The Transport channel BLER reporting range is from 0 to 1.2.1 Higher-layer measurements Transport channels Downlink BLER The Transport Channel block error rate (BLER) is based on evaluating the CRC of each transport block associated with the measured transport channel after RL combination (performed by the Rake receiver).1. ► If the BLER is lower than the targeted Quality value.
mainly: ● ● ● ● ● ● Transmission and reception windows Polling and Status signaling Transmitted but not acknowledged PDU (UL) Retransmitted PDU (UL) Received erroneous PDU (DL) Window follow-up (UL and DL) In the RLC Acknowledged Mode. Unacknowledged and Acknowledged.Poor performances could be following: ● Bad or slow convergence RLC statistics Three RLC modes are available for Radio Bearers: Transparent.2 TCP statistics User-data measurements Mostly used assessments are the FTP throughput and the PING roundtrip time.2. For all RLC modes. following measurements can be done: 1. statistics can be done on traffic volume and data rate. Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . In the RLC Acknowledged Mode. several algorithms manage packet retransmission.
1.1.3 Load We are not dealing with stress of network elements to determine critical load in terms of processing capacity.00% 80.00% 100.1 Uplink radio load The main concern on uplink is to figure out the increase of the interference level due to the traffic available on the cell. Radio load is critical for W-CDMA systems.00% 40. Therefore. is in term of % of pole capacity and impacts the noise rise as follows: NoiseRise = -10log (1. Cell load.XUL) Following reference values can be used: Cell load 50% 75% Noise Rise 3dB 6dB N oise rise a s a function of the Cell loa d 45 No ise Ris e in dB 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0. The interference level can be expressed as the noise rise in dB and depends on the cell load in % of the pole capacity.00% 20. no signaling or data processing is generated. XUL .00% Cell Loa d Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document .00% 60.3. Radio load consists only in interference on radio interface.
3 43. Therefore.9 1 1 1 MAX DL power for AMR MAX DL power for CS64 MAX DL power for PS128 Total cell power 41.8 38.0 40.3.0 -5 -5 -2 -2 -9 -5 1 0.1.2 dBm 31.2 Downlink radio load The limiting factor on downlink will be the maximum TX power for the Node B.0 Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . Maximum output power Other mobiles Others traffic Trace Mobile traffic Trace mobile OD settings dBm dB related Activity factor to CPICH (% time) CPICH P-SCH S-SCH PCCPCH (BCH) SCCPCH (FACH.2 42.CCH) 33.05 0. the power usage on DL is expressed as the percentage of the maximum TX power for the cell.0 31.0 28.0 37.3 43. PCH) AICH PICH Total power (common channels) MAX cell power (total power for 60% cell load) (OCNS = 60%cell load .0 24.0 28.0 39.0 31.0 28.0 37.05 0.
we are analyzing following aspects: ■ Call set-up failure ■ Call drop ■ Higher-layer performances Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . radio problems are sorted into: ■ ■ ■ ■ Coverage issues Mobility-management issues Best-server issues Interference issues In this section.2 Radio optimization based on drive tests The analysis of drive test measurements allows the detection and eventually the localization of radio problems over the coverage area. Generally.
1 Call set-up failure Here. UTRAN. we only consider call set-up failures that are due to the radio.2. transport) Investigations on call set-up problems should go through the following list: ● ● ● ● Coverage problem Admission Control problem Interference problem Active Set Management problem Following questions should drive the investigations: ► Are the CPICH measurements for the selected cell at normal values with regard to the path loss? ► What is the load status of this cell at the Call set-up? ► At which stage of the call set-up did the procedure fail? UE Node B RNC CN RRC connection request DCCH Radio Link set-up Initiate AAL2 Iub data connection for DCCH RRC connection setup RRC connection setup complete Initial NAS message transfer Authentication Procedure Security mode command Synchronised Radio Link reconfiguration Initiate AAL2 Iub data connection for DTCH RB setup request RB setup complete RAB Assignment Response Iu UP initialisation RAB assignment request Uu Iub Iu Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . Following call set-up failures are not considered: ► Invalid USIM ► Unavailability of the network (CN.
Then. PRACH power settings) ► The UE can not serve the power required after the UL Open-Loop Power Control ► The UE does not receive the Paging message for MTC (DL.2. the proprietary SRNC calculation for initial DPCCH power will require from the UE a given power level for the DL DPCCH. further investigations must be driven. especially on: ● ● ● ● ● Feeder installation for RX diversity for UL limitation Feeder losses Antenna azimuth PRACH . respectively on: ► RRC CONNECTION REQUEST sending can be checked at the mobile side ► Path loss on DL can be assessed based on scanner or mobile measurements (CPICH RSCP). This should be done on the UEselected cell. ► Reception of PAGING notification can be checked at the mobile side ► UL and DL MAPL for call set-up In case of errors repeated over an area. the UL Open-loop power result can be checked.1. further investigations must be driven.1 Coverage problem Call set-up may fail because of Coverage limitation when: ► The RACH message can not be sent: the RRC CONNECTION REQUEST can not be addressed (UL.CPICH_RSCP) + (UL_SIR_target – 10log(UL_SF=256)) – 97 AND DPCCH_Initial_power < UE_Max_Tx_Power Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . PICH. which should be lower than the maximum Tx power of the UE power class. S-CCPCH power setting RACH parameters UL MAPL for call set-up When establishing the DPCCH. PICH and S-CCPCH power settings) In case of repeated errors. DPCCH_Initial_power = (CPICH_TX_power .
1. DPCCH _ initial _ power = DL_SIRTarget m 1 ⋅ ⋅ Pt CPICH .DCCH:5dB) (on a per-service basis.2 Admission Control problem Call set-up may fail because of Admission Control limitation when: ► DL radio resources are overloaded ► UL radio resources are overloaded (RAC issue) (RAC issue) (RAC issue) ► Node B processing resources are overloaded ► RNC resources are overloaded ► Transport resources are overloaded (CAC issue .tbc) RAC issue can be assessed by monitoring NBAP messages for RADIO LINK SETUP FAILURE with the associated cause.0dB) (on a per-service basis.tbc) (CAC issue . DCCH: 256) (on a per-mobile basis: 24dBm) (on a per-cell basis: 33dBm) DL MAPL for call set-up When establishing the DL DPCCH.DCCH:256) (on a per-service basis. which should be lower than the maximum allowed Tx power on DPCCH.DCCH:-2dB) 2. UL and DL radio overload can be due to: ► High cell load due to user traffic for UL a/o DL Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document .Following default values are given as indications for R2: ● ● ● ● UL_SIR_target UL_SF UE_MaxTxPower CPICH_TX_power (on a per-service basis.4 ⋅ 10 Margin / 10 CPICH_Ec Iom. the proprietary SRNC calculation for initial DPCCH power will require from the Node B a given power level for the DL DPCCH. DCCH: 2dB) (on a per-service basis.i ⋅ 0.i SFm AND DPCCH_Initial_power < MaximumDLpower+CPICH_Tx_power Following default values are given as indications for R2: ● ● ● ● ● UE_MaxTxPower DL_SIR_target DL_SF Margin MaxDLpower (on a per-mobile basis:24dBm) (on a per-service basis.
► Interference that is due parasite transmitters that should not transmit in this band. Two kinds of problems may then be distinguished: ► Interference that is due to out-of-band emissions from other transmitters. not only cell users are contributing to the noise rise. See Pilot pollution See Missing adjacencies in the neighboring cell list External interference Specific investigations with a spectrum analyzer have to be performed for interference coming from other radio sources than the operating UTRAN. This becomes a Spectrum Clearance issue. Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . In this case. parasite emissions must be stopped in the UMTS band. filters must be set at the interfering transmitter. ► The RSSI on DL is higher than the Transmitted Carrier Power on DL of the detected cells decreased by the Path Loss seen on CPICH for each detected cell.1. Intra-network interference Intra-network interference can be analyzed with the help of the scanner on DL.e.3 Interference problem Interference problems may be due to: ► Surrounding cells of the operating UTRAN ► Other radio sources than the operating UTRAN Call set-up failure may be due to Interference problem when the RAC rejects the call. i. while the effective cell load is not at maximum: ► The RTWP on UL in Node B measurements are high but with a small number of users.► OCNS activation for DL ► Interference problem for UL a/o DL 2. In this case.
2.2 Call drop Here. we only consider call drops that are due to the radio. Coverage problem Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document .1 Coverage problem Call drop may be due to Coverage limitation when: ● ● The UE TX power reached the maximum value at the end of the call (UL limitation) The UE SIR or the UE Rx power or the UE BLER on DL did not reach its target value at the end of the call (DL limitation) See Call set-up failure. ► CN-generated reasons (to be analyzed in RANAP IU RELEASE) ► Failure in transport network Possible reasons for radio call-drop are: ► Coverage problem ► Interference problem ► Active Set Management problem ► RLC unrecoverable error ► RL failure Following questions should drive the investigations: ► Are the CPICH measurements for the Active Cells and the UE TX power at normal values with regard to the path loss seen on the cells? ► What are the last messages that the UE sent or received? (CELL UPDATE.1. etc. power-off. MEASUREMENT REPORT.4 Active Set Management The mobile can not synchronize on the Radio Link due to high pollution 2. ACTIVE SET UPDATE) ► What are the last BLER measurements from the UE? 2.2. Following call drops are not considered: ► Mobile auto-reset.
5th. 4th. (…) Scanner . the bestserver RSCP is at expected levels. etc. rooftop effect or any radiating object nearby the antenna pattern radiation. Can the azimuth of other cells be changed to reduce number QUALITY: Best CPICH Ec/Io below required level Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . Ideally each serves its intended area but not beyond. need to reduce Interference from other cells. Problem COVERAGE: Best server CPICH RSCP below required level Maps . with nothing obscuring view of antenna.Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner/Mobile . it will be used (for better or worse).Best CPICH Ec/Io Scanner/Mobile . calibration settings. 3rd. the cell may not be able to serve the power required by the Radio Link if the cell is already emitting at full power. Cell TX power can be assessed based on Node B measurements on DL Transmitted carrier power. As a last resort. especially on: ● ● ● ● Feeder installation for RX diversity for UL limitation Feeder losses Antenna azimuth CPICH power setting On radio-loaded networks On loaded networks. Therefore. This should be done on the cells of the Active Set only. consider reducing the antenna down-tilt to improve coverage. like block building. it is imperative that each sector is carefully RF controlled. 3rd. coverage problem on UL a/o DL reveals RNP defects a/o tradeoffs (propagation model.Best RSCP 2nd. Path loss on DL can be assessed based on scanner measurements (CPICH RSCP). if the RF is present. further investigations must be driven. and the RSSI is high.) or errors in RNP implementation.RSSI CPICH from Scanner . Controlling and managing the RF environment is central to optimization.Best RSCP Scanner/Mobile . 4th. increase pilot power.Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io . coverage problems may be linked to radio limitations on DL. Check Best RSCP 2nd.On unloaded networks On unloaded networks. Drop Calls examples with explanation As all sites are co-channel. (…) in order to decide which cells to remove from the interference area.Tx Power Mobile Solution Check antennas and feeders are OK. 5th.Tx Power Mobile (note that high mobile power can mean either coverage or interference problem) . database accuracy. In case of errors repeated over an area. Indeed. If Ec/Io lower than -9 db (network without load).
Check ACTIX options to find quickly missing neighbour cells between Mobile and Scanner measurements.Number of link in the AS simulated maintain the azimuth between cells to 100-120o for 3 sectors Scanner site. Site with coverage far beyond desired area Cell appears in neighbour list of cells beyond the area desired Based on IS-95 experience. . Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . AS < 4 pilots. If the correct cell is not used in soft handovers. Can the azimuth of neighbouring cells be changed? Balance coverage levels with other cells using down-tilts? Optimizing capacity will be important when traffic grows. Ensure electrical down-tilt is sufficient. but not below 10 to 12o (depending on antenna type). CAPACITY: Cells from the same site appear at similar coverage levels Call Performance: Neighbour Lists Check correct values for parameters: Compare also: ReportingRangeEvent1A_1B_1C and .Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner Typical of high sites.Best RSCP SC Scanner cover desired area. (Generally this will correspond also to areas with low Ec/Io.Number of link in the AS Excel Graph (desired values for Urban environments will be 10 to 20% of soft HO areas) of servers in that area? Can neighbouring cells be downtilted? Avoid facing sectors shooting against each other.Number of link in the AS simulated Scanner . but big enough to guarantee a small overlap between cells in order to allow the soft handover. . Can antennas be lowered? As a last resort. for 5dB window (ReportingRange) relative to the best Ec/Io should be used to calculate the number of cell in the active set. Check antennas have unobstructed views. in case of Rake limitations)-PILOT POLLUTION. Check that the cell best server areas are confined. the Ec/No and BLER will degrade and Ue_Tx_Power will increase in Mobile Plots. hence consider maintaining tilt to . however be aware that this will also reduce inbuilding coverage of the cell: hence reduce power just sufficiently to keep the cell out of active sets or raise Ec/No values.Number of link in the AS Mobile Check azimuths between co-site cells: where possible .Best RSCP SC Scanner Increase combined down-tilt.Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Mobile Check Active Set Management problems. mainly: ►The UE is sending repetitive MEASUREMENT REPORT without getting an ACTIVE SET UPDATE. but not always). increasing tilting will be unlikely to reduce interference.Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner main lobe of the antenna. reduce pilot power. including at .Number of link in the AS Mobile .QUALITY/CAPACI TY: Active set too large. the best performing networks are those that are designed for three-way hand-off or less. not excessive. .Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner/Mobile . Be aware that once off the .g. Tuning neighbour lists is a major aspect of optimisation.Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner HysteresisEvent1A_1B_1C.Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner roof edges to minimise scatter. ►The UE can not manage as many radio links as present in the Active Set (e. Soft handovers area too high and too many handovers along routes . .
that may be causing this. in case of radio resurgence) ► The UE can not manage as many radio links as present in the Active Set (e. 6g on UE RX-TX time difference) In case of repeated errors. Interference problem 2.BLER Statistics 2.PS 64/384: DL. Check BLER Exit Criteria’s: . it should note areas where the throughput of the application reduces and Check Call Drops Reasons and related parameters.3 Active Set Management problem Call drop may be due to Active Set Management problem when: ► The UE is polluted by cells that could enter the Active Set but that are not monitored ► The UE is sending repetitive MEASUREMENT REPORT without getting an ACTIVE SET UPDATE ► The UE is adding a cell to the Active Set that is too low (e.2 Interference problem Call drop may be due to Interference problem when: ● The UE TX power reached the maximum value at the end of the call (UL limitation) but the path loss should allow the service coverage The UE SIR or the UE Rx power or the UE BLER on DL did not reach its target value at the end of the call (DL limitation) but the path loss should allow the service coverage ● See Call set-up failure.BLER<2% and Throughput>345 kb/s UL. any areas where the voice Call Performance: Voice/PS performance quality degrades or the call drops happen should be noted and analysed. in case of Rake limitations) ► The UE has lost the synchronization between UL and DL (event 6f. further investigations must be driven.BLER Mobile . respectively on: ► Pilot pollution and Missing adjacencies in the neighboring cell list Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document .BLER<2% and Throughput>57 kb/s For PS. Analyse also: .Voice AMR 12. For radio identify any parameter or RF related issues optimization solutions please refer to Quality problems.g.2.For AMR.2: BLER<2% .2.g.
It mainly consists in assembling the different sets of neighboring-cell lists for all the cells of the Active Set. The operator parameterizes the neighboring-cell list for each cell. Drive tests may help detecting missing adjacencies on a live network. These lists may be not optimized due to used algorithms or due to inappropriate methods for neighborhood follow-up in deployment/densification phases. The list of neighboring cells is compiled at the S-RNC and transmitted to the UE in RRC MEASUREMENT CONTROL messages. Antenna tilt to cancel resurgence ► UE radio capabilities and maximum AS size Missing adjacencies in a cell neighborhood The UE is evaluating the radio quality of neighboring cells to detect potential cells to add to the Active Set. ► Criteria for Event 1A 10Log(MNew) ≥ Wx10Log(MBest)+(1-W)x10Log(∑MI) -(R1a+H1a) MNew : measurement on the cell entering the reporting range Mi : measurement on a cell in the active set NA: number of cells in the current active set MBest: measurement result of the strongest cell in the active set R1a : reporting range for the event 1a H1a : hysteresis parameter for the event 1a ► Criteria for Event 1B 10Log(MOld) ≤ Wx10Log(MBest)+(1-W)x10Log(∑MI)-(R1b +H1b) MOld : measurement on the cell leaving the reporting range Mi : measurement on a cell in the active set Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . The compilation of this list is proprietary.► Reason for the non-reception of ACTIVE SET UPDATE from the RNC ● ● ● ● MEASUREMENT REPORT are not received at the RNC ACTIVE SET UPDATE are not received at the UE Maximum numbers of RL a/o Node B in AS are reached RAC on target cell rejects the RL establishment ► Time-to-trigger and Hysteresis. The first computed list is inherited from the RNP. which runs proprietary algorithms to list neighboring cells. The UE does not report measurements on other cells that may be detectable but only on the list of neighboring cells signaled by the S-RNC.
especially on: ● ● ● ● Antenna azimuth and tilt CPICH power setting Cell maximum TX power Neighboring-cell list and Monitored Set 2. A polluter transmitter is a transmitter that checks all criteria to enter in active-set but which is not admitted due to the active-set limit size. further investigations must be driven. when: ● ● Radio links have a non-negligible life time and no Ping-Pong overloads the signaling. Errors do only concern the Acknowledged Mode. Radio links can be recombined in an effective manner at the Rake receiver.2. One can distinguish different levels of criticality for pilot pollution: ● ● ● A non-potential candidate cell for soft handover A potential candidate cell for soft handover but with poor performance A potential candidate cell for soft handover but not declared in the neighboring cell list To limit pilot pollution.NA: number of cells in the current active set MBest: measurement result of the strongest cell in the active set R1b : reporting range for the event 1b H1b : hysteresis parameter for the event 1b ► Criteria for Event 1C 10Log(MNew) ≥ 10Log(MI) + H1c MNew : measurement on the cell leaving the reporting range Mi : measurement on a cell in the active set H1c : hysteresis parameter for the event 1c Pilot pollution Soft handover is working well. the UE drops the call and sends Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . when errors in this protocol can not be recovered.4 RLC problem The Radio Link Control protocol can engender call drops. In an error case.
the assessment of the QoS offered by the UTRAN should only restrict to QoS that the UTRAN can actually offer.2. after receiving N313 consecutive "out of sync" indications from L1 for the established DPCCH physical channel. However. Optimization of end-user QoS should be driven next and if the subjective end-user QoS is not sufficient. Otherwise. Indeed.a RRC CELL UPDATE message on the RACH with the cause “RLC unrecoverable error”. this mean RAB QoS.3 Higher-layer performances on User plane The offered end-user QoS should also be monitored upon drive-tests. following changes could apply: ► Modify the Application settings for a better use of the RAB Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . L1 reports "out of sync" if one of these criteria is fulfilled: ► The UE estimates the DPCCH quality over the previous 160ms period to be worse than a threshold Qout ► The 20 most recently received transport blocks with a non-zero length CRC have been received with incorrect CRC. when unrecoverable RL failures occur. the UE drops the call and sends a RRC CELL UPDATE message on the RACH with the cause “RL failure”. RL failures are described in 3GPP TS25. the RL failure is recovered and T313 is stopped.331. one should separate Application Optimization from Radio Optimization. Possible deadlocks in RLC AM are: ► Not acknowledged PDU in the Sending Window (UL) ► Not received error-free PDU in the Receiving Window (DL) ► Not received Status ► Not received Polling result 2. all transport blocks with a non-zero length CRC have been received with incorrect CRC. this is a RL failure. 2. They consist in L1 synchronization loss. the UE starts T313. over the previous 160ms. In CELL_DCH State.5 RL problem The Radio Link maintenance can engender call drops. In addition. In a failure case on DL. If N315 successive "in sync" indications from L1 are received before T313 expiry.
delivery of erroneous SDU) Therefore. Once a bit-rate is attributed. the offered bit-rate can only be the requested one.► If it not sufficient.3. the monitoring of the QoS offered by the UTRAN relies on: ► Offered bit-rate ► Transport Channel BLER ► Performances for RLC AM (Acknowledged Mode) 2. The bit-rate is guaranteed. max SDU size.107 with following attributes: ► Maximum bit-rate (kbps) ► Guaranteed bit-rate (kbps) ► SDU error ratio a/o Residual bit error ratio ► Delivery order (y/n) ► Maximum SDU size (octets) ► Delivery of erroneous SDU (y/n/-) ► Transfer delay (ms) ► Traffic handling priority ► Allocation/Retention Priority Following attributes are taken into account for the choice of the Radio Bearer: ► Maximum bit-rate for PS and Guaranteed bit-rate for CS ► SDU error ratio a/o Residual bit error ratio for RB BLER for CS ► RLC mode is Transparent for CS and Acknowledged for PS (inorder delivery.1 Offered bit-rate For CS services. Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . The downgrade is then reconsider at each Cell-FACH→Cell-DCH transition. a channel with the corresponding bandwidth is allocated over the radio interface. For PS services. if the RAC can not admit the requested bit-rate. the UTRAN can apply service downgrade. higher the RAB QoS requirements. This will trigger further Radio Optimization with the new RAB implementation The RAB QoS is described in 3GPP TS23.
the delay introduced for the Telecom procedures definitely impacts the end-user perception of the network quality. since no retransmission is allowed.3. For PS services. MTM) ► Time for PDP context establishment Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document .2 Transport Channel BLER For CS services. MTC. the Transport Channel BLER is the Frame Error Rate for the service. such as: ► Attach time ► Paging time ► Call set-up time (MOC. minimal performances on Control plane are required.3. especially in terms of delay.4 Higher-layer performances on Control plane For the proper working of the Telecom procedures. the RLC performances in terms of retransmission rate and delay impact the higher-layer QoS. 2. Performances in terms of delay on the Control Plane depend on: ► The buffering and the processing times in the nodes ► The quality offered by the Transport Network ► The quality offered by the Radio Links for signaling This is on this last item that the Radio Optimization can bring improvement. The quality offered by the Radio Links can be mainly monitored through: ► Access to common channels ► Offered bit-rate ► Transport Channel BLER ► Performances for RLC AM (Acknowledged Mode) Radio optimization is done in the same way as for traffic channels. But.2. End-user assessment will rely on Procedure times. especially at the Call set-up. the Transport Channel BLER is a tradeoff between the effort in terms of bandwidth to support retransmission and the effort in terms of radio to limit errors.3 Performances for RLC AM For PS services. 2.
may only impact the network performances from an operator point of view. Other Procedure Times. Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document . such as the Detach time. such as the time for SHO completion. may only impact call set-up failure rate and call drop rate from an end-user point of view.Other Procedure Times. Events for the definition of the time interval are often specific for each operator and related to commitments.
Title: Date: Page Number: Drive Test Analysis Created by: Approved by: 05/07/2006 Doc Ref.: 29/30 Alexandre Silva UMTS-RN0-0005 Abbreviations AM AS BLER CAC CFN CN CPICH CRC DL DPCCH DPDCH FTP HO MAPL MOC MTC MTM NB NBAP OCNS PDU PSC QoS RAB RAC RANAP RLC RNP RRC RSCP RSSI RTWP SCH SFN SIR SRNC TPC TX UE UL UTRA Acknowledged Mode Active Set Block Error Rate Connection Admission Control Connection Frame Number Core Network Common Pilot Channel Cyclic Redundancy Check Downlink Dedicated Physical Control Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel File Transfer Protocol Handover Maximum Allowable Path Loss Mobile Originating Call Mobile Terminating Call Mobile To Mobile Node B Node B Application Protocol Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulation Protocol Data Unit Primary Scrambling Code Quality of Service Radio Access Bearer Radio Admission Control RAN Application Protocol Radio Link Control Radio Network Planning Radio Resource Control Received Signal Code Power Received Signal Strength Indicator Received Total Wide-band Power Synchronization Channel (Primary: P-SCH. Secondary: S-SCH) Sequence Frame Number Signal to Interference Ratio Serving RNC Transmit Power Command Transmitted User Equipment Uplink UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document .
END OF DOCUMENT Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda Confidential Document .