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You are on page 1of 51

Dimension of slab and beams (brought from slab sheet) Check for correctness of data

Carriageway width, Bc = 7.500 m

Overall width of Bridge, Bo = 10.700 m

Dimensions of the longitudinal girder is taken as follows:

Length (L si ) = 35.000 m

Breadth (B si ) = 0.550 m

Thickness(Tsi) = 1.680 m

Distance betn girders = 2.375 m

For the design purposes the dimensions of the cross beam is taken as follows:

Length (L si ) = 2.375 m

Breadth (B si ) = 0.140 m

Thickness(Tsi) = 0.300 m

Distance betn cross beams = 2.500 m

For the design purposes the dimensions of the internal slab is taken as follows:

Length (L si ) = 2.500 m Hence, effec.span in long.dir. = 2.360 m

Breadth (B si ) = 2.375 m Hence, effec.span in transv.dir. = 1.825 m

Thickness(Tsi) = 0.230 m

Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.075 m

kerb/footpath

breadth = 0.225 m at bottom and 0.225 m at top

height = 1.000 m

For design purpose dimension of cantilever slab is taken as

Length (L si ) = 1.00 m

Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m from c/c of outer girder

Breadth (B si ) = 0.325 m from outer face of outer main girder

Breadth of carriageway = 1.000 m from c/c of outer girder

1.016 m from outer face of outer main girder

Thickness(Tsi) = 0.230 m at the end

Thickness(Tsi) = 0.230 m at outer face of main girder

Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.08 m

i=0 0.200

0.40 CG of Stem from inner vertical face:

A 1= 3.324

0.23 A2= 2.674

Pa d M.A.= 1.327

14.454

A1+A2 = 5.998

0.600 CG = 0.221

b = 90 A

Retaining wall Bottom level of base = 0.000

Length = 9.500 m Road level = 5.000 ######

Breadth = 0.600 m at bottom 0.23 m at top 1.25

Height = 14.454 m CG of retain. wall from point A = 0.221 m

Ballast wall

Length = 9.500 m

Breadth = 0.400 m

Breadth of ret. wall = 0.200 m

Height = 1.000 m height of superstr. plus bearing

Return wall without pav.cover

No. = 2

Breadth = 0.200 m Height of Return wall H1= 0.7

Page 1

Substructure Kondre (right)

Total height of abutment = 15.454 m

Approach slab

Length = 5.000 m 16.354

Breadth = 3.000 m -11.354

Thickness = 0.200 m

Foundation is open foundation

Length = 6.000 m

Width 2.750 m Heel 1.000 m 0.750

Toe 1.000 m 0.750

Height of footing = 0.900 1.250

S.N Elements Unit No. L(m) B(m) H(m) Volume Unit Wt Total Wt

e from c/c

Dead Load of Superstructure

1 Hand rails 6.368 rm 4 35.60 142.40 0.06 8.54

2 Railing posts cum 18 0.15 0.15 1.00 0.41 24 9.72

3 Wearing course cum 1 35.60 7.50 0.08 20.03 22 440.55

4 Kerbs cum 2 35.60 0.23 1.00 16.02 24 384.48

5 Deck slab i) rectangle cum 1 35.60 2.93 0.23 23.95 24 574.80

ii)trapezoid cum 2 35.60 0.33 0.23 5.32 24 127.73

6 Main Girder i) fillets cum 8 35.60 0.30 0.15 6.41 24 153.79

ii) webs cum 5 35.60 0.60 1.45 154.86 24 ######

7 Internal Cross Girder i) fillets cum 0 1.83 0.15 0.15 0.00 24 0.00

ii) webs cum 0 1.83 0.14 0.07 0.00 24 0.00

8 End Cross Girder i) fillets cum 2 1.83 0.15 0.15 0.04 24 0.99

ii) webs cum 2 1.83 0.14 0.07 0.04 24 0.86

Total Dead load of the superstructure #####

Total DL coming to one abutment = 2709 KN

retaining wall 9.500 0.415 14.454 56.98 24 1367.64 0.000 m

return walls 2 6.000 0.200 0.55 1.32 24 31.68 2.208 m

ballast wall 9.500 0.400 1.00 3.80 24 91.20 0.007 m

1490.52

Maximum load on the given abutment is produced when the train of load is positioned as shown in the figure:

Axle Load,KN 27 27 114 114 68 68 68 68

xi , m 35.0 33.8 29.5 26.5 23.5 20.5

yi 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6

load, KN 114.0 110.1 57.3 51.5 45.7 39.8

Maximum total live load = 418.4 KN

Load due to impact = 418.37714 x 0.110 = 45.919 KN

Live load including impact = 418.4 + 45.919 = 464.3 KN

Axle Load,KN 200 200

xi , m 19.0 17.8

yi 0.54 0.51

load, KN 108.6 101.71

Maximum total live load = 210.3 KN

Load due to impact = 210.28571 x 0.18 = 37.851 KN

Live load including impact = 210.3 + 37.851429 = 248.1 KN

Maximum total live load = 664.0 KN

Load due to impact = 664 x 0.1 = 66.4 KN

Live load including impact = 664.0 + 66.4 = 730.4 KN

Page 2

Substructure Kondre (right)

Out of above three loadings class AA tracked loading gives maximum load to abutment.

Maximum live load to abutment = 730.4 KN

g = 18 KN/m3 g' = 8 KN/m3

Ka = 0.2973 ( Coulomb's theory applicable )

Ep1 = Ko x g h /2 =

2

639.1 KN/m h= 15.454 m

Horizontal component of earth pressure = 639.1 cos 20 = 600.5 KN/m

which acts at 0.42 x h = 6.49 m from the top of footing base.

Vertical component of earth pressure = 639.1 x sin 20 = 218.570 KN/m

which acts at 0.221 m inward from the CG of wall.

Total Vertical Thrust, E2 = Ep2 x L = 2076.4 KN

Horizontal Forces due to seismicity are computed using the formula as shown in IS Code 1893 or IRC - 6

F eq = axbx l xG

b= 1.2 for medium soil with isolated footing

l= 1 importance factor

height of action of the force = 14.45 + 0.025 + 1.68 / 2 =

= 15.319 m

act at cg of abutment = 7.727 m

acts at cg = 7.727 m

The critical case will be when seismic force acts in the direction of traffic. But according to IRC 6-1966 (222.7) "The seismic force due to live load

shall not be considered when acting in the direction of traffic,..".

Horizontal Thrust due to water current is ignored, because it usually contributes to the stability

of the wall and the load case with seismic condition does not concide with HFL.

Braking Force due to Class AA tracked load = @20% of live load/2 = 1/2 to one abutment

= 55.4 KN

height of the line of action of the brake from the road level = 1.2 m

height of the bearing level from the top of base = 14.454 m

Page 3

Substructure Kondre (right)

Severe moment is produced when the LL is within span. Assume frictional coeff. = 0.225 in free bearing

= 0.2 in other bearing

Frictional resistance at free bearing = 773.9 KN

Line of action of the force from the bottom of the abutment = 14.454 m

+ height of kerb =

= 2.68 m

Exposed area contributing to wind pressure = 93.8 m²

intensity of wind load = 0.73 KN/m²

velocity of wind = 107 km/hr

The design is to be conducted for one span only loaded with class A train of vehicle

vehicle Class A train = 20.4 x 3 = 61.2 KN

acts at 1.5 m above road level = -9.854 m

For lateral direction

wind load = 129.7 KN

acts at = 15.454 m

Longit. dir

Later. (m) Longit. Later.

1 Superstructure

1.1 Dead load of SS(D) 2709.1 0.48 1297.0

1.2 Live Load of SS (L) including impact 438.0 0.48 209.7

Substructure

2 DL of abutment(E)

Retaining wall 1367.6 0.00

Return wall - Top section 31.7 -2.21 -69.9

Ballast wall 91.2 -0.01 -0.7

Backfill (BF) 2531 0.00 0.0

Earth pressure (EP) 35062.779 Taking

(EP1) Rankin's 5704.9 6.49 ######

earth

Due to overburden(EP2) pressure

Frontal passive soil mass (EPp) coefficient.

3 Buoyancy (B)

4 Longitudinal force

4.1 Tractive force (T) 55.40 14.45 800.8

4.2 Due to temperature (F) 85.99 14.45 1242.8

4.3 Wind Load 129.67 15.45 2003.982

4.4 Centrifugal force (CF)

4.5 Thrust due to water current (WC)

4.6 Seismic forces (FS)

on superstructure 130.03 260.07 260.07 15.32 3984.0 3983.994

on abutment 71.54 143.09 143.09 7.73 1105.7 1105.654

on live load 42.05 16.95 712.8818

from backfill 121.51 243.01 243.011 7.727 1877.7 1877.746

D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + Ep3+ T + F + CF

4638 5846 129.7 ##### 2004.0

Page 4

Substructure Kondre (right)

D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + T + F + CF + FS 7492 6492 688.2 ##### 7680.3

Note: Moment is taken at the critical section at the bottom of the ABUTMENT

Design of the returning wall will be done based on normal loading condition, but checked on maximum loading

Design parameters

Vertical force = 4638 KN

Long. Moment = 40508 KN-m (Under combination group IV the permissible increase of stress is

50%, hence Combination I governs the design longitudinal

moment)

Substructures are designed using M20 concrete and Fe415 steel reinforcement

Conccrete M20 sck = 20 N/mm2

Steel sy = 415 N/mm2

Page 5

Substructure Kondre (right)

Approximate Area of Steel reinforcement required is calculated considering singly reinforced beam theory

Required spacing = 0.9 mm c/c Provide at 100 mm c/c Decrease spacing !

r= 0.8047971 % > 0.2 %

At the frontal face, the design moment is greatly reduced because of lack of earth pressure.

Therefore on this side provide only 50 % of the main reinforcement

Required spacing = 20 1.2 mm c/c Provide at 100 mm c/c Decrease specing !

Area of reinforcement provided, Ast = 29359 mm2

Distribution re-bar

Providing 0.12% of cross sectional area = 0.0012 x 600 x 1000= 720 mm2

Required spacing = 314.0 mm c/c Provide at 250 mm c/c at both faces. ok

Check for stresses (For seismic condition) Parameters for RCC design

Conccrete M20 sck = 20 N/mm2

Normal Thrust , W = 7492018 N Steel sy = 415 N/mm2

Bending Moment = ######### N-mm

Ecentricity, e = 6336.850 mm > 128.125 mm

breadth, b = 9500 mm m= 0.0

Total depth , D = 600 mm

Effective depth, d = 512.5 mm

Compressive steel cover, dc = 75 mm Ac = 29359 mm2

Tensile steel cover, dt = 75 mm At = 45873.44 mm2

0.36*σck*b

Critical secion for shear in case of abutment stem is considered at distance d = 512.5 mm from the junction

of base slab.

Horizontal force due to soil pressure = 5559.80 KN

Breaking force = 55.40 KN A

Longitudinal force due to temperature effect = 85.99 KN

Shear force V = 5701.18 KN

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2

b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 4.05%

2

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.28 Mpa for M20 concrete < 0.744 N/mm

From Table 19 of IS 456-200

The design of ballest wall and return wall will be as in left side abutment.

Page 6

Substructure Kondre (right)

RCC balast wall (as shown in the figure) monolithic to the abutment has been designed.

0.40 m

1.000 m

CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD STRESSES

Dead load from the approach slab (triangular portion) = 36 KN

= 3.7894737 KN/m

= 9.6 KN/m

r= 21 KN/m3

ca = 0.2973

= 291.667 KN

= 30.702 KN/m

Add impact to live load @ , I = 0.1 = 3.070 KN/m

e= 0.15 m from axis of ballast wall

Horizontal Load due to braking of train of vehicle class A vehicle, T =(0.2 ) x(27+114*2) = 51.0 KN

(Front vehicle only considered) = 5.4 KN/m

P comp = 25.2 KN/m

H = T or Pcopm+ Ep = 28.3 KN/m

V = DL + LL + I = 47.2 KN/m

Moment given due to the forces on the critical section I - I at the base of the ballast wall

M = ( LL + I) x e + T x h + Ep x h /3 =

= 17.92 KN-m/m

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d) =165.746387 mm2/m

Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 c/c for the continuation of bar from retaining wall

Area of steel provided = 565.2 mm2/m

Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 c/c on the opposite face

Area of steel provided = 565.2 mm2/m

Horizontal links are provided of 12 mm dia. bars @ 200 c/c

2

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm p= 0.28% 0.28

2

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.38 Mpa for M20 concrete > 0.083 N/mm

From Table 19 of IS 456-200 ok

2.1.4 DESIGN OF RETURN WALLS

Page 7

Substructure Kondre (right)

These will be monolithic with the back wall. They are joined together through 300 mm x 300 mm fillets.

The loads acting on the wing wall (return wall) would be earth pressure and horizontal force to kerb as specified in the code.

All the stresses are calculated for the critical section I-I at the bottom face of the abutment

Dead load of the returnwall = 6.000 x 0.550 x 0.200 x 24 = 15.84 KN

= 2.64 KN/m

Vert. LL from Class A load = 168.72 KN 56.24 KN/m

Add Impact due to LL @ 0.25= 42.18 KN 14.06 KN/m

acts at h/2 0.28 m from the top of foundation

Momt due to later. force = 7.5 KN/m for the curb as per code = 135.000 KN-m

Total horz. uniformly distributed load = 24.07 + 0.94 + 7.5 = 32.51 KN/m

Total Moment = 433.26 + 17.00 + 135.000 = 585.26

depth required = M /( 0.138σck b ) = 620.925 mm

where b = ( 700 + 400 ) / 2 = 550 mm

Provide overall depth = 650 mm

Provide 25 mm dia. bars Ast = 490.87 mm2

Required spacing = 139.0 mm c/c Provide at 150 mm c/c Decrease specing !

Foundation is designed as open foundation of the rectangular shape

Length = 6.00 m

Breadth = 2.75 m heel 1.000 m

toe 1.000 m

width of abutment 0.600 m

Height = 0.9 m

Concrete cover 75 mm

DEAD LOAD due to foundation = 356.4 KN

Ka = 0.2973 As calculated earlier for abutment stem. ( Coulomb's theory applicable )

Horizontal component of earth pressure = 715.7 x cos 20 = 672.499 KN/m

which acts at 0.42 x h = 6.87 m from the bottom of footing base.

Pressure due to surcharge: As approach slab has been provided no surcharge load is to be taken as per code.

Wf = 6.000 x 1.000 x 0 x 18.00 = 0.0 KN

acts at 0.8 m from centre of abutment

act at cg of abutment = 0.45 m

Seismic force due to back fill = 0.096 x 1669.0 = 160.23 KN

act at cg of backfill = 8.627 m from the bottom of foundation base

SUMMARY OF LOADS FOR DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

Page 8

Substructure Kondre (right)

(KN) (m) KN-m KN-m

1 Superstructure

1.1 Dead load of SS(D) 2709.05 0.8 2224.79

1.2 Live Load on SS including impact (L) 438.0 0.8 359.705

Substructure

2 DL of abutment(E)

Retaining wall 1367.64 1.3 1777.93

Return wall 31.68 3.5 111.118

Ballast wall 91.20 1.3 118.56

Backfill (FR)

Earth pressure (EP)

Triangular dry(EP1) 6388.7 -6.9 -43882

Frontal passive soil mass (EPp)

DL of foundation 356.40 1.4 490.05

3 Buoyancy (B)

4 Longitudinal force

4.1 Breaking (breaking) force (T) 55.40 -15.4 -850.6

4.2 Due to temperature (F) 85.99 -15.4 -1320

4.3 Wind Load

4.5Thrust due to water current (WC)

4.6Seismic forces (FS)

on superstructure 130.03 260.1 -15.3 -1992

on abutment 71.54 143.1 -7.7 -552.8

on live load 0

on foundation 17.11 34.2 -0.5 -7.698

from backfill 80.11 160.2 -8.6 -691.1

Load combination Group I (N+T condition)

D + L + I + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF 6663.0 6530 8587.12 -46053

Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition)

D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF + FS 6961.8 7128 8587 -48446

Note: Moment is taken about the toe for check against overturning .

403.82

For Normal condition For Seismic condition

P= 6663 KN P= 6962 KN

Mnet = Mr-Mo= -37465.918 Mnet = Mr-Mo= -39859 KN-m

x = Mnet/P= -5.6229806 x = Mnet/P= -5.7254 m

e = b/2-x'= 6.9979806 > b/6, hence tesion e = b/2-x'= 7.10 > b/6, hence tesion

Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = 6569.444 KN/m2 Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = 6958.3 KN/m2

Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = -5761.807 KN/m2 Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = -6114 KN/m2

Where, A=b x d = 16.5 m2

CHECK AGAINST OVERTURNING

Case: Normal

Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= 8587.1227 / 46053 = 0.2 > 2.0 Safe

Case: Seismic

Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= 8587.1227 / 48446 = 0.2 >1.5 Safe

Case : Normal

The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out = ###### KN

The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil)

= 6225.00 x 0.45 = 2801.25 KN

The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 6474.72 KN

Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 2801.25 / 6474.7 = 0.433 >1.5 Hence Safe

(f= 0.45 soil/concrete)

Case: Seismic

The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out = ######

The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil)

= 6523.80 x 0.45 = 2935.71 KN

Page 9

Substructure Kondre (right)

Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 2935.71 / 7072.3 = 0.415 >1.25 Hence Safe

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

E D

C

A F G B

Design of toe slab:

6569.44 KN/m2

#####

Wt of toe slab = 21.6 KN/m2 1412.739 -1277.72

2.75 m

Pressure distribution diagram

concrete grede : M 20

####

Steel grade : Fe 415

6547.84

d= M /( 0.138σck b ) 564.0 mm

Adopt D = 600 mm

d= 500 mm

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d)16752

= mm2 Minimum reinforc. as per code = 1000 mm2

Using 16 mm dia bar, spacing = 12.0 mm

Adopt 16 mm dia bar, spacing = 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided = 1339.733

mm2

Check for shear stress:

In toe critical section for shear is considered at a distance d = 500

from abutment stem.

1391

6548

3969

Shear force at critical section V = 15776.00 KN b= 6.00 m

Shear stress = V/(b d) = 5.259 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete

Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m ) 0.5 m

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2

b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.037% 0.04

2

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.280 N/mm2 < 5.259 N/mm

From Table 19 of IS 456-200 Not ok. Revise section or provide shear re-bar

Upward pressure on the heel slab varies from -5761.8073 Kn/m2 to -1277.72 Kn/m2

In addition to the upward pressure the heel slab is subjected to downward pressure due to the self weight of heel

slab and weight of earth fill on heel slab:

Down pressure due to self weight = 14.4 KN/m2

Down pressure due to backfill = 278.172 KN/m2

292.572 KN/m2 1570

6054

Net down pressure = 6054 KN/m2 max

1570 KN/m2 min 1.000 m

Moment about DG= 2279.841 KN-m

d= M /( 0.138σck b ) 908.862 mm

Adopt D= 600 mm

d= 500 mm

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d) = 15818 mm2 Minimum reinforc. as per code = 1000 mm2

Using 16 mm dia bar, specing = 13 mm

Adopt 16 mm dia bar, specing = 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided = 1339.7 mm2

Page 10

Substructure Kondre (right)

Distribution re-bar

0.12/100 x 900 = 1080 mm2/runnig meter

Using 12 mm dia bar, specing = 209.3 mm

Adopt 12 mm dia bar, specing = 200 mm c/c at top and bottom

Since the load on the heel is predominantly downward, it induces tensile reactio at its junction with stem.

Hence the critical section for shear for the heel slab is considered at the face of support.

Shear force V = 22874.002 KN b= 6.00 m

Shear stress = V/(b d) = 7.625 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 N/mm2 Mpa for M20 concrete

Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m )

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2

b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.037% 0.04

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided =

2

From Table 19 of IS 456-200 0.28 N/mm2 < 7.6247 N/mm Not ok. Revise section or p

Page 11

Substructure Kondre (right)

Page 12

Substructure Kondre (right)

i i

Pa

Ws Pa

d 90-b

Weight of soil is not i

to be considered in

Coulumb's Theroy.

Page 13

Substructure Kondre (right)

Pa

d 90-b

Weight of soil is not i

to be considered in b b

Coulumb's Theroy. Coulomb Rankin

Weight of soil is also to

be considered in Rankin's

i F b d Theroy.

0 30 90 20 a

a= 60 1.7321 m < 15.454 m hence Coulomb's theory applicable

Ka=

Coul. 0.75 0.9397 2.6845 0.2973

Rankin 1 0.75 0.5 1.5 0.3333

Horizontal thrust = 6806.5 acts at 5.15 m from the top of foundation footing.

Page 14

Substructure Kondre (right)

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Substructure Kondre (right)

Page 16

Substructure Kondre (right)

Decrease specing !

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Substructure Kondre (right)

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Substructure Kondre (right)

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Substructure Kondre (right)

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Substructure Kondre (right)

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Substructure Kondre (right)

Page 22

Dimension of slab and beams (brought from slab sheet) Check for correctness of data

Carriageway width, Bc = 3.000 m

Overall width of Bridge, Bo = 6.000 m

Dimensions of the longitudinal girder is taken as follows:

Length (L si ) = 8.000 m

Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m

Thickness(Tsi) = 0.750 m

Distance betn girders = 2.400 m

For the design purposes the dimensions of the cross beam is taken as follows:

Length (L si ) = 3.000 m

Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m

Thickness(Tsi) = 0.900 m

Distance betn cross beams = 8.000 m

For the design purposes the dimensions of the internal slab is taken as follows:

Length (L si ) = 8.600 m Hence, effec.span in long.dir. =

Breadth (B si ) = 3.600 m Hence, effec.span in transv.dir. =

Thickness(Tsi) = 0.200 m

Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.070 m

kerb/footpath

breadth = 1.000 m at bottom and 0.225 m at top

height = 0.500 m

For design purpose dimension of cantilever slab is taken as

Length (L si ) = 1.00 m

Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m from c/c of outer girder

Breadth (B si ) = 0.300 m from outer face of outer main girder

Breadth of carriageway = 2.400 m from c/c of outer girder

0.300 m from outer face of outer main girder

Thickness(Tsi) = 0.200 m at the end

Thickness(Tsi) = 0.200 m at outer face of main girder

Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.07 m

Pa A 1= 1.860

0.60 A2= 0.233

d M.A.= 0.709

3.100

3.100

A1+A2 = 2.093

0.750 b = 90 CG = 0.339

A

Retaining wall Bottom level of base =

Length = 6.000 m Road level =

Breadth = 0.750 m at bottom 0.60 m at top 1.25

Height = 3.100 m CG of retain. wall from point A = 0.339 m

Ballast wall

Length = 6.000 m

Breadth = 0.200 m

Height = 1.000 m height of superstr. plus bearing

Return wall without pav.cover

No. = 2

Breadth = 0.200 m Height of Return wall H1= 0.7

Length = 6.000 m Height of Return wall H2= 0.4

Total height of abutment = 4.100 m

Approach slab

Length = 5.000 m 5.000

Breadth = 3.000 m 0.000

Thickness = 0.200 m

Foundation is open foundation

Length = 6.000 m

Width 2.750 m Heel 1.000 m 0.750

Toe 1.000 m 0.750

Height of footing = 0.900 1.250

Dead Load of Superstructure

1 Hand rails 6.368 rm 4 8.60 34.40

2 Railing posts cum 5 0.15 0.15 1.00 0.11

3 Wearing course cum 1 8.60 3.00 0.07 1.81

4 Kerbs cum 2 8.60 0.61 0.50 5.27

5 Deck slab i) rectangle cum 1 8.60 3.00 0.20 5.16

ii)trapezoid cum 2 8.60 0.30 0.20 1.03

6 Main Girder i) fillets cum 4 8.60 0.30 0.15 0.77

ii) webs cum 3 8.60 0.60 0.55 8.51

7 Internal Cross Girder i) fillets cum 0 2.40 0.15 0.15 0.00

ii) webs cum 0 2.40 0.60 0.70 0.00

8 End Cross Girder i) fillets cum 2 2.40 0.15 0.15 0.05

ii) webs cum 2 2.40 0.60 0.70 2.02

Total Dead load of the superstructure

Total DL coming to one abutment =

Dead Load of Abutment

retaining wall 6.000 0.675 3.100 12.56 24 301.32

return walls 2 6.000 0.200 0.55 1.32 24 31.68

ballast wall 6.000 0.200 1.00 1.20 24 28.80

361.80

Maximum load on the given abutment is produced when the train of load is positioned as shown in the figure:

Axle Load,KN 27 27 114 114 68 68 68 68

xi , m 8.0 6.8 2.5 -0.5 -3.5 -6.5

yi 1.0 0.9 0.3 -0.1 -0.4 -0.8

load, KN 114.0 96.9 21.3 -4.3 -29.8 -55.3

Maximum total live load = 142.9 KN

Load due to impact = 142.9 x 0.321 = 45.932 KN

Live load including impact = 142.9 + 45.932 = 188.8 KN

Axle Load,KN 200 200

xi , m 19.0 17.8

yi 2.38 2.23

load, KN 475.0 445.00

Maximum total live load = 920.0 KN

Load due to impact = 920 x 0.18 = 165.6 KN

Live load including impact = 920.0 + 165.6 = 1085.6 KN

Maximum total live load = 542.5 KN

Load due to impact = 542.5 x 0.1 = 54.25 KN

Live load including impact = 542.5 + 54.25 = 596.8 KN

Out of above three loadings class AA tracked loading gives maximum load to abutment.

Maximum live load to abutment = 1085.6 KN

g = 18 KN/m3 g' = 8 KN/m3

Ka = 0.2973 ( Coulomb's theory applicable )

Ep1 = Ko x g h /2 =

2

45.0 KN/m h= 4.100 m

Horizontal component of earth pressure = 45.0 cos 20 = 42.3

which acts at 0.42 x h = 1.72 m from the top of footing base.

Vertical component of earth pressure = 45.0 x sin 20 =

which acts at 0.339 m inward from the CG of wall.

Total Vertical Thrust, E2 = Ep2 x L = 92.3 KN

Horizontal Forces due to seismicity are computed using the formula as shown in IS Code 1893 or IRC - 6

F eq = axbx l xG

b= 1.2 for medium soil with isolated footing

l= 1 importance factor

height of action of the force = 3.10 + 0.025 +

= 3.5 m

act at cg of abutment = 2.05 m

acts at cg = 2.05 m

The critical case will be when seismic force acts in the direction of traffic. But according to IRC 6-1966 (222.7) "The seismic force due to li

load shall not be considered when acting in the direction of traffic,..".

Horizontal Thrust due to water current is ignored, because it usually contributes to the stability

of the wall and the load case with seismic condition does not concide with HFL.

Braking Force due to Class AA tracked load = @20% of live load/2 =

= 55.4 KN

height of the line of action of the brake from the road level = 1.2

height of the bearing level from the top of base = 3.100 m

Severe moment is produced when the LL is within span. Assume frictional coeff. = 0.225

= 0.2

Frictional resistance at free bearing = 310.9 KN

Line of action of the force from the bottom of the abutment = 3.100 m

+ height of kerb =

= 1.25 m

Exposed area contributing to wind pressure = 10 m²

intensity of wind load = 0.73 KN/m²

velocity of wind = 107 km/hr

The design is to be conducted for one span only loaded with class A train of vehicle

vehicle Class A train = 20.4 x 3=

acts at 1.5 m above road level = 1.500 m

For lateral direction

wind load = 68.5 KN

acts at = 4.100 m

S.N

o. Load Vertical (KN) Horizontal (KN)

Longit. dir Later.

1 Superstructure

1.1 Dead load of SS(D) 296.1

1.2 Live Load of SS (L) including impact 438.0

Substructure

2 DL of abutment(E)

Retaining wall 301.3

Return wall - Top section 31.7

Ballast wall 28.8

Backfill (BF) 413

Earth pressure (EP) 413.526 Taking

(EP1) Rankin's 253.6

earth

Due to overburden(EP2) pressure

coefficient.

Taking

Rankin's

earth

pressure

Frontal passive soil mass (EPp) coefficient.

3 Buoyancy (B)

4 Longitudinal force

4.1 Tractive force (T) 55.40

4.2 Due to temperature (F) 34.54

4.3 Wind Load 68.50

4.4 Centrifugal force (CF)

4.5 Thrust due to water current (WC)

4.6 Seismic forces (FS)

on superstructure 14.21 28.42 28.42

on abutment 17.37 34.73 34.73

on live load 42.05

from backfill 19.84 39.675 39.6749

D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + Ep3+ T + F + CF

1096 344 68.5

Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition)

D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + T + F + CF + FS 1561 446 144.9

Note: Moment is taken at the critical section at the bottom of the ABUTMENT

Design of the returning wall will be done based on normal loading condition, but checked on maximum loading

Design parameters

Vertical force = 1096 KN

Long. Moment = 753 KN-m (Under combination group IV the permissible increase of stress is

50%, hence Combination I governs the design longitudinal

moment)

Substructures are designed using M20 concrete and Fe415 steel reinforcement

Conccrete M20 sck = 20 N/mm2

Steel sy = 415 N/mm2

Approximate Area of Steel reinforcement required is calculated considering singly reinforced beam theory

Required spacing = 88.3 mm c/c Provide at 100 mm c/c

r= 0.6378125 % > 0.2 %

At the frontal face, the design moment is greatly reduced because of lack of earth pressure.

Therefore on this side provide only 50 % of the main reinforcement

Provide 20 mm dia. bars Ast = 314 mm2

Required spacing = 20 113.1 mm c/c Provide at 100 mm c/c

Area of reinforcement provided, Ast = 18369 mm2

Distribution re-bar

Providing 0.12% of cross sectional area = 0.0012 x 750 x 1000= 900

Required spacing = 251.2 mm c/c Provide at 250 mm c/c

Check for stresses (For seismic condition) Parameters for RCC design

Conccrete M20 sck =

Normal Thrust , W = 1560553 N Steel sy =

Bending Moment = ######### N-mm

Ecentricity, e = 643.948 mm > 165.625 mm

breadth, b = 6000 mm m= 0.0

Total depth , D = 750 mm

Effective depth, d = 662.5 mm

Compressive steel cover, dc = 75 mm Ac = 18369 mm2

Tensile steel cover, dt = 75 mm At = 28701.56 mm2

= mm2/m

0.36*σck*b

Critical secion for shear in case of abutment stem is considered at distance d = 662.5 mm from the junction

of base slab.

Horizontal force due to soil pressure = 173.25 KN

Breaking force = 55.40 KN A

Longitudinal force due to temperature effect = 34.54 KN

Shear force V = 263.19 KN

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete

2

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm

b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.21%

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.28 Mpa for M20 concrete

From Table 19 of IS 456-200

The design of ballest wall and return wall will be as in left side abutment.

2.1.3 DESIGN OF BALLAST WALL

RCC balast wall (as shown in the figure) monolithic to the abutment has been designed.

0.20 m

Dead load from the approach slab (triangular portion) = 36 KN

= 6 KN/m

= 4.8 KN/m

r= 21 KN/m3

ca = 0.2973

= 291.667 KN

= 48.611 KN/m

Add impact to live load @ , I = 0.1 = 4.861 KN/m

e= 0.15 m from axis of ballast wall

Horizontal Load due to braking of train of vehicle class A vehicle, T =(0.2 ) x(27+114*2) =

(Front vehicle only considered) =

P comp = 25.2 KN/m

H = T or Pcopm+ Ep = 28.3 KN/m

V = DL + LL + I = 64.3 KN/m

Moment given due to the forces on the critical section I - I at the base of the ballast wall

M = ( LL + I) x e + T x h + Ep x h /3 =

= 27.76 KN-m/m

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d)256.816378

= mm2/m

Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 c/c for the continuation of bar from retaining wall

Area of steel provided = 565.2 mm2/m

Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 c/c on the opposite face

Area of steel provided = 565.2 mm2/m

Horizontal links are provided of 12 mm dia. bars @ 200 c/c

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.51 Mpa for M20 concrete

From Table 19 of IS 456-200

2.1.4 DESIGN OF RETURN WALLS

These will be monolithic with the back wall. They are joined together through 300 mm x 300 mm fillets.

The loads acting on the wing wall (return wall) would be earth pressure and horizontal force to kerb as specified in the code.

All the stresses are calculated for the critical section I-I at the bottom face of the abutment

Dead load of the returnwall = 6.000 x 0.550 x 0.200

Add Impact due to LL @ 0.25= 42.18 KN 14.06 KN/m

acts at h/2 0.28 m from the top of foundation

Momt due to later. force = 7.5 KN/m for the curb as per code = 135.000 KN-m

Total Moment = 433.26 + 17.00 + 135.000 = 585.26

depth required = M /( 0.138σck b ) = 620.925 mm

where b = ( 700 + 400 ) / 2 = 550 mm

Provide overall depth = 650 mm

Tensile steel re-bar equired = 3530.97 mm2

Provide 25 mm dia. bars Ast = 490.87 mm2

Required spacing = 139.0 mm c/c Provide at 150 mm c/c

Foundation is designed as open foundation of the rectangular shape

Length = 6.00 m

Breadth = 2.75 m heel 1.000 m

toe 1.000 m

width of abutment 0.750 m

Height = 0.9 m

Concrete cover 75 mm

DEAD LOAD due to foundation = 356.4 KN

Ka = 0.2973 As calculated earlier for abutment stem. ( Coulomb's theory applicable

Horizontal component of earth pressure = 66.9 x cos 20 =

which acts at 0.42 x h = 2.10 m from the bottom of footing base.

Pressure due to surcharge: As approach slab has been provided no surcharge load is to be taken as per code.

Wf = 6.000 x 1.000 x 0 x 18.00 = 0.0

acts at 0.875 m from centre of abutment

act at cg of abutment = 0.45 m

Seismic force due to back fill = 0.096 x 442.8

act at cg of backfill = 2.95 m from the bottom of foundation ba

SUMMARY OF LOADS FOR DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

S.No

. Load Vertical (KN) Horiz L. arm

(KN) (m)

1 Superstructure

1.1 Dead load of SS(D) 296.06 1.2

1.2 Live Load on SS including impact (L) 438.0 1.2

Substructure

2 DL of abutment(E)

Retaining wall 301.32 1.4

Return wall 31.68 3.7

Ballast wall 28.80 1.4

Backfill (FR)

Earth pressure (EP)

Triangular dry(EP1) 377.2 -2.1

Frontal passive soil mass (EPp)

DL of foundation 356.40 1.4

3 Buoyancy (B)

4 Longitudinal force

4.1 Breaking (breaking) force (T) 55.40 -4.0

4.2 Due to temperature (F) 34.54 -4.0

4.3 Wind Load

4.5 Thrust due to water current (WC)

4.6 Seismic forces (FS)

on superstructure 14.21 28.4 -3.5

on abutment 17.37 34.7 -2.1

on live load

on foundation 17.11 34.2 -0.5

from backfill 21.25 42.5 -3.0

Load combination Group I (N+T condition)

D + L + I + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF 1895.1 467

Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition)

D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF + FS 1965.0 607

Note: Moment is taken about the toe for check against overturning .

P= 1895 KN P= 1965

Mnet = Mr-Mo= 1797.12344 Mnet = Mr-Mo=

x = Mnet/P= 0.94832107 x = Mnet/P=

e = b/2-x'= 0.42667893 ok e = b/2-x'=

Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = 221.772 KN/m2 Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) =

Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = 7.932 KN/m2 Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) =

Where, A=b x d = 16.5 m2

CHECK AGAINST OVERTURNING

Case: Normal

Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= 2948.9419 / 1151.8 =

Case: Seismic

Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= 2948.9419 / 1086 =

Case : Normal

The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out =

The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil)

= 1457.06 x 0.45 = 655.676

The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 411.71 KN

Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 655.68 / 411.7 =

(f= 0.45 soil/concrete)

Case: Seismic

The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out =

The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil)

= 1527.00 x 0.45 = 687.149

The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 551.59 KN

Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 687.15 / 551.6 =

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

E D

A F G

Design of toe slab:

221.77 KN/m2

Wt of toe slab = 21.6 KN/m2 144.012 85.692

1.000 m 0.750 m

2.75 m

Pressure distribution diagram

concrete grede :

#### Steel grade :

200.17

d= M /( 0.138σck b ) 107.1 mm

Adopt D = 600 mm

d= 500 mm

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d) =604 mm2 Minimum reinforc. as per code =

Using 16 mm dia bar, spacing = 201.1 mm

Adopt 16 mm dia bar, spacing = 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided =

In toe critical section for shear is considered at a distance d = 500

from abutment stem.

#####

161.3

2

Shear stress = V/(b d) = 0.181 N/mm

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete

Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m ) 0.5 m

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2

b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.037%

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.280 N/mm2 >

From Table 19 of IS 456-200 ok. Shear re-bar is not necessary.

Design of heel slab:

Upward pressure on the heel slab varies from 7.93215698 Kn/m2 to 85.69 Kn/m2

In addition to the upward pressure the heel slab is subjected to downward pressure due to the self weight of heel

slab and weight of earth fill on heel slab:

Down pressure due to self weight = 14.4 KN/m2

Down pressure due to backfill = 73.8 KN/m2

88.2 KN/m2 3

3 KN/m2 min 1.000 m

Moment about DG= 27.174 KN-m

d= M /( 0.138σck b ) 99.225 mm

Adopt D= 600 mm

d= 500 mm

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d) = 189 mm2 Minimum reinforc. as per code =

Using 16 mm dia bar, specing = 201 mm

Adopt 16 mm dia bar, specing = 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided =

Distribution re-bar

0.12/100 x 900 = 1080 mm2/runnig meter

Using 12 mm dia bar, specing = 209.3 mm

Adopt 12 mm dia bar, specing = 200 mm c/c at top and bottom

Since the load on the heel is predominantly downward, it induces tensile reactio at its junction with stem.

Hence the critical section for shear for the heel slab is considered at the face of support.

Shear force V = 248.3274 KN b= 6.00 m

Shear stress = V/(b d) = 0.083 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 N/mm2 Mpa for M20 concrete

Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m )

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2

b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.037%

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided =

From Table 19 of IS 456-200 0.28 N/mm2 >

k for correctness of data

8.000 m

3.000 m

0.000

5.000 ######

Unit Wt Total Wt

e from c/c

0.06 2.06

24 2.70

22 39.73

24 126.42

24 123.84

24 24.77

24 18.58

24 204.34

24 0.00

24 0.00

24 1.30

24 48.38

592.12

296.1 KN

0.000 m

2.338 m

0.238 m

i

Pa

d 90-b Ws

Weight of soil is not

to be considered in b b

Coulumb's Theroy. Coulomb

i F b d

0 30 90 20

a= 60 1.7321 m < 4.100 m hence

Ka=

KN/m Coul. 0.75 0.9397 2.6845 0.2973

Rankin 1 0.75 0.5 1.5 0.3333

15.384 KN/m

Horizontal thrust = 302.6 acts at 1.37 m from the top of foundation footing.

KN

= 28.42 KN

0.75 / 2 =

= 34.73 KN

39.675 KN

in free bearing

in other bearing

7.3 KN

61.2 KN

(m) Longit. Later.

0.16 47.7

0.16 70.6

0.00

-2.34 -74.1

-0.24 -6.8

0.00 0.0

1.72 436.7

3.10 171.7

3.10 107.1

4.10 280.85

2.05 71.2 71.20224

5.60 235.4688

2.05 81.3 81.3335

752.9 280.9

1004.9 487.5

le increase of stress is

gn longitudinal

Decrease spacing !

ok

mm2

at both faces. ok

20 N/mm2

415 N/mm2

2

> 0.125 N/mm

51.0 KN

8.5 KN/m

rom retaining wall

2

> 0.202 N/mm

ok

x 24 = 15.84 KN

= 2.64 KN/m

KN/m

= 32.51 KN/m

Decrease specing !

62.8613 KN/m

KN

KN

= 34.214 KN

= 42.509 KN

from the bottom of foundation base

M[r] M(o)

KN-m KN-m

359.382

531.683

414.315

117.612

39.6

996.3

-792.1

490.05

-221.6

-138.2

-49.74

-35.6

0

-7.698

-62.7

2948.94 -1152

2949 -1086

114.85

eismic condition

KN

1862.99 KN-m

0.94809 m

0.43 ok

=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = 230.02 KN/m2

=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = 8.1638 KN/m2

###### KN

KN

soil/concrete)

######

KN

B

7.9

1.000 m

M 20

Fe 415

87.1259

mm2

122.4

0.04

2

0.181 N/mm

80

1000 mm2

0.04

2

0.0828 N/mm ok

i

Pa

i

Rankin

Weight of soil is also to

be considered in Rankin's

Theroy.

a

theory is applicable:

Coulomb's theory applicable

ndation footing.

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