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# Substructure Kondre (right)

Dimension of slab and beams (brought from slab sheet) Check for correctness of data

## Length of single span = 35.000 m

Carriageway width, Bc = 7.500 m
Overall width of Bridge, Bo = 10.700 m

## No. of main girder = 5

Dimensions of the longitudinal girder is taken as follows:
Length (L si ) = 35.000 m
Breadth (B si ) = 0.550 m
Thickness(Tsi) = 1.680 m
Distance betn girders = 2.375 m

## No. of cross beams = 15

For the design purposes the dimensions of the cross beam is taken as follows:
Length (L si ) = 2.375 m
Breadth (B si ) = 0.140 m
Thickness(Tsi) = 0.300 m
Distance betn cross beams = 2.500 m

For the design purposes the dimensions of the internal slab is taken as follows:
Length (L si ) = 2.500 m Hence, effec.span in long.dir. = 2.360 m
Breadth (B si ) = 2.375 m Hence, effec.span in transv.dir. = 1.825 m
Thickness(Tsi) = 0.230 m
Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.075 m
kerb/footpath
breadth = 0.225 m at bottom and 0.225 m at top
height = 1.000 m
For design purpose dimension of cantilever slab is taken as
Length (L si ) = 1.00 m
Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m from c/c of outer girder
Breadth (B si ) = 0.325 m from outer face of outer main girder
Breadth of carriageway = 1.000 m from c/c of outer girder
1.016 m from outer face of outer main girder
Thickness(Tsi) = 0.230 m at the end
Thickness(Tsi) = 0.230 m at outer face of main girder
Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.08 m

## The freebody diagram of the R.C.C Abutment is shown below:

i=0 0.200
0.40 CG of Stem from inner vertical face:
A 1= 3.324
0.23 A2= 2.674
Pa d M.A.= 1.327
14.454

A1+A2 = 5.998
0.600 CG = 0.221
b = 90 A

## Dimensions taken for the design of abutment:

Retaining wall Bottom level of base = 0.000
Length = 9.500 m Road level = 5.000 ######
Breadth = 0.600 m at bottom 0.23 m at top 1.25
Height = 14.454 m CG of retain. wall from point A = 0.221 m
Ballast wall
Length = 9.500 m
Breadth of ret. wall = 0.200 m
Height = 1.000 m height of superstr. plus bearing
Return wall without pav.cover
No. = 2
Breadth = 0.200 m Height of Return wall H1= 0.7

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Substructure Kondre (right)

## Length = 6.000 m Height of Return wall H2= 0.4

Total height of abutment = 15.454 m

Approach slab
Length = 5.000 m 16.354
Thickness = 0.200 m
Foundation is open foundation
Length = 6.000 m
Width 2.750 m Heel 1.000 m 0.750
Toe 1.000 m 0.750
Height of footing = 0.900 1.250

## Volume = 14.850 m3 W = 356.40 KN

S.N Elements Unit No. L(m) B(m) H(m) Volume Unit Wt Total Wt
e from c/c
1 Hand rails 6.368 rm 4 35.60 142.40 0.06 8.54
2 Railing posts cum 18 0.15 0.15 1.00 0.41 24 9.72
3 Wearing course cum 1 35.60 7.50 0.08 20.03 22 440.55
4 Kerbs cum 2 35.60 0.23 1.00 16.02 24 384.48
5 Deck slab i) rectangle cum 1 35.60 2.93 0.23 23.95 24 574.80
ii)trapezoid cum 2 35.60 0.33 0.23 5.32 24 127.73
6 Main Girder i) fillets cum 8 35.60 0.30 0.15 6.41 24 153.79
ii) webs cum 5 35.60 0.60 1.45 154.86 24 ######
7 Internal Cross Girder i) fillets cum 0 1.83 0.15 0.15 0.00 24 0.00
ii) webs cum 0 1.83 0.14 0.07 0.00 24 0.00
8 End Cross Girder i) fillets cum 2 1.83 0.15 0.15 0.04 24 0.99
ii) webs cum 2 1.83 0.14 0.07 0.04 24 0.86
Total DL coming to one abutment = 2709 KN

retaining wall 9.500 0.415 14.454 56.98 24 1367.64 0.000 m
return walls 2 6.000 0.200 0.55 1.32 24 31.68 2.208 m
ballast wall 9.500 0.400 1.00 3.80 24 91.20 0.007 m
1490.52

## STRESS DUE TO LIVE LOAD

Maximum load on the given abutment is produced when the train of load is positioned as shown in the figure:
Axle Load,KN 27 27 114 114 68 68 68 68
xi , m 35.0 33.8 29.5 26.5 23.5 20.5
yi 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6
load, KN 114.0 110.1 57.3 51.5 45.7 39.8
Maximum total live load = 418.4 KN
Load due to impact = 418.37714 x 0.110 = 45.919 KN
Live load including impact = 418.4 + 45.919 = 464.3 KN

xi , m 19.0 17.8
yi 0.54 0.51
Maximum total live load = 210.3 KN
Load due to impact = 210.28571 x 0.18 = 37.851 KN
Live load including impact = 210.3 + 37.851429 = 248.1 KN

Maximum total live load = 664.0 KN
Load due to impact = 664 x 0.1 = 66.4 KN
Live load including impact = 664.0 + 66.4 = 730.4 KN

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Substructure Kondre (right)

Maximum live load to abutment = 730.4 KN

## Corresponding to F= 30 ° of the backfill material

g = 18 KN/m3 g' = 8 KN/m3
Ka = 0.2973 ( Coulomb's theory applicable )
Ep1 = Ko x g h /2 =
2
639.1 KN/m h= 15.454 m
Horizontal component of earth pressure = 639.1 cos 20 = 600.5 KN/m
which acts at 0.42 x h = 6.49 m from the top of footing base.
Vertical component of earth pressure = 639.1 x sin 20 = 218.570 KN/m
which acts at 0.221 m inward from the CG of wall.

## Total Horizontal Thrust, E1 = Ep1 x L = 5704.9 KN

Total Vertical Thrust, E2 = Ep2 x L = 2076.4 KN

## STRESS DUE TO SEISMIC FORCES

Horizontal Forces due to seismicity are computed using the formula as shown in IS Code 1893 or IRC - 6

F eq = axbx l xG

## where a= 0.08 for the zone V of seismic intensity

b= 1.2 for medium soil with isolated footing
l= 1 importance factor

## a. Seismic force due to Superstructure = 0.096 x 2709.05 = 260.1 KN

height of action of the force = 14.45 + 0.025 + 1.68 / 2 =
= 15.319 m

## b. Seismic force due to Abutment = 0.096 x 1491 = 143.1 KN

act at cg of abutment = 7.727 m

## c. Seismic force due to Back fill = 0.096 x 2531.4 = 243.01 KN

acts at cg = 7.727 m

The critical case will be when seismic force acts in the direction of traffic. But according to IRC 6-1966 (222.7) "The seismic force due to live load
shall not be considered when acting in the direction of traffic,..".

## STRESS DUE TO WATER CURRENT

Horizontal Thrust due to water current is ignored, because it usually contributes to the stability
of the wall and the load case with seismic condition does not concide with HFL.

## Due to Tractive Effort or Braking Force

Braking Force due to Class AA tracked load = @20% of live load/2 = 1/2 to one abutment
= 55.4 KN
height of the line of action of the brake from the road level = 1.2 m
height of the bearing level from the top of base = 14.454 m

## Due to Resistance in Bearing (Temperature)

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Substructure Kondre (right)

Severe moment is produced when the LL is within span. Assume frictional coeff. = 0.225 in free bearing
= 0.2 in other bearing
Frictional resistance at free bearing = 773.9 KN

## Unbalanced frictional force = 86.0 KN

Line of action of the force from the bottom of the abutment = 14.454 m

## Exposed height of structure = depth of the beams + thickness of slab +

+ height of kerb =
= 2.68 m
Exposed area contributing to wind pressure = 93.8 m²

## Avg. height of superstructure from the bed = 6.000 m

intensity of wind load = 0.73 KN/m²
velocity of wind = 107 km/hr
The design is to be conducted for one span only loaded with class A train of vehicle

## b. Wind Force on Moving

vehicle Class A train = 20.4 x 3 = 61.2 KN
acts at 1.5 m above road level = -9.854 m

## Maximum load is obtained in exposed area = 129.7 KN

For lateral direction
acts at = 15.454 m

## S.No. Load Vertical (KN) Horizontal (KN) Arm Moment (KN)

Longit. dir
Later. (m) Longit. Later.
1 Superstructure
1.2 Live Load of SS (L) including impact 438.0 0.48 209.7

Substructure
2 DL of abutment(E)
Retaining wall 1367.6 0.00
Return wall - Top section 31.7 -2.21 -69.9
Ballast wall 91.2 -0.01 -0.7
Backfill (BF) 2531 0.00 0.0
Earth pressure (EP) 35062.779 Taking
(EP1) Rankin's 5704.9 6.49 ######
earth
Due to overburden(EP2) pressure
Frontal passive soil mass (EPp) coefficient.
3 Buoyancy (B)
4 Longitudinal force
4.1 Tractive force (T) 55.40 14.45 800.8
4.2 Due to temperature (F) 85.99 14.45 1242.8
4.3 Wind Load 129.67 15.45 2003.982
4.4 Centrifugal force (CF)
4.5 Thrust due to water current (WC)
4.6 Seismic forces (FS)
on superstructure 130.03 260.07 260.07 15.32 3984.0 3983.994
on abutment 71.54 143.09 143.09 7.73 1105.7 1105.654
on live load 42.05 16.95 712.8818
from backfill 121.51 243.01 243.011 7.727 1877.7 1877.746

## Load combination Group II (Normal+Temp. condition)

D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + Ep3+ T + F + CF
4638 5846 129.7 ##### 2004.0

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Substructure Kondre (right)

## Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition)

D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + T + F + CF + FS 7492 6492 688.2 ##### 7680.3

Note: Moment is taken at the critical section at the bottom of the ABUTMENT

## 2.2.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF ABUTMENT RETAINING WALL

Design parameters
Vertical force = 4638 KN
Long. Moment = 40508 KN-m (Under combination group IV the permissible increase of stress is
50%, hence Combination I governs the design longitudinal
moment)

Substructures are designed using M20 concrete and Fe415 steel reinforcement

## Parameters for RCC design

Conccrete M20 sck = 20 N/mm2
Steel sy = 415 N/mm2

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Substructure Kondre (right)

Approximate Area of Steel reinforcement required is calculated considering singly reinforced beam theory

## Provide 25 mm dia. bars Ast = 490.625 mm2

Required spacing = 0.9 mm c/c Provide at 100 mm c/c Decrease spacing !

## Area of reinforcement provided, Ast = 45873.438 mm2

r= 0.8047971 % > 0.2 %

At the frontal face, the design moment is greatly reduced because of lack of earth pressure.
Therefore on this side provide only 50 % of the main reinforcement

## Provide 20 mm dia. bars Ast = 314 mm2

Required spacing = 20 1.2 mm c/c Provide at 100 mm c/c Decrease specing !
Area of reinforcement provided, Ast = 29359 mm2

## Same spacing of reinforcement is provided on the side faces of the abutment.

Distribution re-bar
Providing 0.12% of cross sectional area = 0.0012 x 600 x 1000= 720 mm2

## Provide 12 mm dia. bars Ast = 113.04 mm2

Required spacing = 314.0 mm c/c Provide at 250 mm c/c at both faces. ok

Check for stresses (For seismic condition) Parameters for RCC design
Conccrete M20 sck = 20 N/mm2
Normal Thrust , W = 7492018 N Steel sy = 415 N/mm2
Bending Moment = ######### N-mm
Ecentricity, e = 6336.850 mm > 128.125 mm
breadth, b = 9500 mm m= 0.0
Total depth , D = 600 mm
Effective depth, d = 512.5 mm
Compressive steel cover, dc = 75 mm Ac = 29359 mm2
Tensile steel cover, dt = 75 mm At = 45873.44 mm2

0.36*σck*b

## Check for shear stress:

Critical secion for shear in case of abutment stem is considered at distance d = 512.5 mm from the junction
of base slab.
Horizontal force due to soil pressure = 5559.80 KN
Breaking force = 55.40 KN A
Longitudinal force due to temperature effect = 85.99 KN
Shear force V = 5701.18 KN

## Shear stress tc = V/(b d) = 0.744 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete
Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2
b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 4.05%
2
tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.28 Mpa for M20 concrete < 0.744 N/mm
From Table 19 of IS 456-200
The design of ballest wall and return wall will be as in left side abutment.

## 2.1.3 DESIGN OF BALLAST WALL

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Substructure Kondre (right)

RCC balast wall (as shown in the figure) monolithic to the abutment has been designed.
0.40 m

1.000 m
= 3.7894737 KN/m

= 9.6 KN/m

r= 21 KN/m3
ca = 0.2973

## Class AA (tr) load component on wall , LL =

= 291.667 KN
= 30.702 KN/m
Add impact to live load @ , I = 0.1 = 3.070 KN/m
e= 0.15 m from axis of ballast wall

Horizontal Load due to braking of train of vehicle class A vehicle, T =(0.2 ) x(27+114*2) = 51.0 KN
(Front vehicle only considered) = 5.4 KN/m

## Compaction load is maximum at the depth of 1.2m from the top.

P comp = 25.2 KN/m

## Maximum shear force on section I-I

H = T or Pcopm+ Ep = 28.3 KN/m
V = DL + LL + I = 47.2 KN/m

Moment given due to the forces on the critical section I - I at the base of the ballast wall
M = ( LL + I) x e + T x h + Ep x h /3 =
= 17.92 KN-m/m

## Area of vertical steel reinforcement required

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d) =165.746387 mm2/m

Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 c/c for the continuation of bar from retaining wall
Area of steel provided = 565.2 mm2/m
Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 c/c on the opposite face
Area of steel provided = 565.2 mm2/m
Horizontal links are provided of 12 mm dia. bars @ 200 c/c

## Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax = 2.8 N/mm2

2
Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm p= 0.28% 0.28
2
tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.38 Mpa for M20 concrete > 0.083 N/mm
From Table 19 of IS 456-200 ok
2.1.4 DESIGN OF RETURN WALLS

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Substructure Kondre (right)

These will be monolithic with the back wall. They are joined together through 300 mm x 300 mm fillets.
The loads acting on the wing wall (return wall) would be earth pressure and horizontal force to kerb as specified in the code.

## STRESS DUE TO VERTICAL LOADS

All the stresses are calculated for the critical section I-I at the bottom face of the abutment
Dead load of the returnwall = 6.000 x 0.550 x 0.200 x 24 = 15.84 KN
= 2.64 KN/m
Vert. LL from Class A load = 168.72 KN 56.24 KN/m
Add Impact due to LL @ 0.25= 42.18 KN 14.06 KN/m

## Horizontal Thrust due to DL+LL+IL=q*L*ka = 24.070 KN/m

acts at h/2 0.28 m from the top of foundation

## Moment due to earth pressure = 16.998 KN-m

Momt due to later. force = 7.5 KN/m for the curb as per code = 135.000 KN-m

Total horz. uniformly distributed load = 24.07 + 0.94 + 7.5 = 32.51 KN/m
Total Moment = 433.26 + 17.00 + 135.000 = 585.26
depth required = M /( 0.138σck b ) = 620.925 mm
where b = ( 700 + 400 ) / 2 = 550 mm
Provide overall depth = 650 mm

## Tensile steel re-bar equired = 3530.97 mm2

Provide 25 mm dia. bars Ast = 490.87 mm2
Required spacing = 139.0 mm c/c Provide at 150 mm c/c Decrease specing !

## 2.2.3 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

Foundation is designed as open foundation of the rectangular shape
Length = 6.00 m
Breadth = 2.75 m heel 1.000 m
toe 1.000 m
width of abutment 0.600 m
Height = 0.9 m
Concrete cover 75 mm

## Horizontal earth pressure due to backfill

Ka = 0.2973 As calculated earlier for abutment stem. ( Coulomb's theory applicable )

## Ep1 = Ka x g h2 /2 = 715.66 KN/m h = 16.354 m

Horizontal component of earth pressure = 715.7 x cos 20 = 672.499 KN/m
which acts at 0.42 x h = 6.87 m from the bottom of footing base.
Pressure due to surcharge: As approach slab has been provided no surcharge load is to be taken as per code.

## Wb = 6.000 x 1.000 x 15.454 x 18.00 = 1669.0 KN

Wf = 6.000 x 1.000 x 0 x 18.00 = 0.0 KN
acts at 0.8 m from centre of abutment

## Seismic force due to Foundation = 0.096 x 356.4 = 34.214 KN

act at cg of abutment = 0.45 m
Seismic force due to back fill = 0.096 x 1669.0 = 160.23 KN
act at cg of backfill = 8.627 m from the bottom of foundation base
SUMMARY OF LOADS FOR DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

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Substructure Kondre (right)

## S.No. Load Vertical (KN) Horiz L. arm M[r] M(o)

(KN) (m) KN-m KN-m
1 Superstructure
1.2 Live Load on SS including impact (L) 438.0 0.8 359.705

Substructure
2 DL of abutment(E)
Retaining wall 1367.64 1.3 1777.93
Return wall 31.68 3.5 111.118
Ballast wall 91.20 1.3 118.56

## Backfill (BF) 1669.03 2.10 3504.97

Backfill (FR)
Earth pressure (EP)
Triangular dry(EP1) 6388.7 -6.9 -43882

## Due to overburden(EP2) 0.00 0

Frontal passive soil mass (EPp)
DL of foundation 356.40 1.4 490.05
3 Buoyancy (B)
4 Longitudinal force
4.1 Breaking (breaking) force (T) 55.40 -15.4 -850.6
4.2 Due to temperature (F) 85.99 -15.4 -1320

## 4.4Centrifugal force (CF)

4.5Thrust due to water current (WC)
4.6Seismic forces (FS)
on superstructure 130.03 260.1 -15.3 -1992
on abutment 71.54 143.1 -7.7 -552.8
on foundation 17.11 34.2 -0.5 -7.698
from backfill 80.11 160.2 -8.6 -691.1
Load combination Group I (N+T condition)
D + L + I + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF 6663.0 6530 8587.12 -46053
Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition)
D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF + FS 6961.8 7128 8587 -48446

Note: Moment is taken about the toe for check against overturning .
403.82
For Normal condition For Seismic condition
P= 6663 KN P= 6962 KN
Mnet = Mr-Mo= -37465.918 Mnet = Mr-Mo= -39859 KN-m
x = Mnet/P= -5.6229806 x = Mnet/P= -5.7254 m
e = b/2-x'= 6.9979806 > b/6, hence tesion e = b/2-x'= 7.10 > b/6, hence tesion
Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = 6569.444 KN/m2 Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = 6958.3 KN/m2
Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = -5761.807 KN/m2 Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = -6114 KN/m2
Where, A=b x d = 16.5 m2
CHECK AGAINST OVERTURNING
Case: Normal
Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= 8587.1227 / 46053 = 0.2 > 2.0 Safe
Case: Seismic
Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= 8587.1227 / 48446 = 0.2 >1.5 Safe

## CHECK AGAINST SLIDING

Case : Normal
The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out = ###### KN
The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil)
= 6225.00 x 0.45 = 2801.25 KN
The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 6474.72 KN
Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 2801.25 / 6474.7 = 0.433 >1.5 Hence Safe
(f= 0.45 soil/concrete)
Case: Seismic
The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out = ######
The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil)
= 6523.80 x 0.45 = 2935.71 KN

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Substructure Kondre (right)

## The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 7072.32 KN

Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 2935.71 / 7072.3 = 0.415 >1.25 Hence Safe
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

E D
C

A F G B
Design of toe slab:

6569.44 KN/m2

#####
Wt of toe slab = 21.6 KN/m2 1412.739 -1277.72

## 1.000 m 0.600 m 1.000 m

2.75 m
Pressure distribution diagram

concrete grede : M 20

####
6547.84

## Moment about EF = 2414.47 KN-m 2414.47

d= M /( 0.138σck b ) 564.0 mm
d= 500 mm
Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d)16752
= mm2 Minimum reinforc. as per code = 1000 mm2
Using 16 mm dia bar, spacing = 12.0 mm
Adopt 16 mm dia bar, spacing = 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided = 1339.733
mm2
Check for shear stress:
In toe critical section for shear is considered at a distance d = 500
from abutment stem.

1391
6548

3969
Shear force at critical section V = 15776.00 KN b= 6.00 m
Shear stress = V/(b d) = 5.259 N/mm2
Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete
Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m ) 0.5 m
Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2
b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.037% 0.04
2
tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.280 N/mm2 < 5.259 N/mm
From Table 19 of IS 456-200 Not ok. Revise section or provide shear re-bar

## Design of heel slab:

Upward pressure on the heel slab varies from -5761.8073 Kn/m2 to -1277.72 Kn/m2
In addition to the upward pressure the heel slab is subjected to downward pressure due to the self weight of heel
slab and weight of earth fill on heel slab:
Down pressure due to self weight = 14.4 KN/m2
Down pressure due to backfill = 278.172 KN/m2
292.572 KN/m2 1570
6054
Net down pressure = 6054 KN/m2 max
1570 KN/m2 min 1.000 m
d= M /( 0.138σck b ) 908.862 mm
d= 500 mm
Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d) = 15818 mm2 Minimum reinforc. as per code = 1000 mm2
Using 16 mm dia bar, specing = 13 mm
Adopt 16 mm dia bar, specing = 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided = 1339.7 mm2

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Substructure Kondre (right)

Distribution re-bar
0.12/100 x 900 = 1080 mm2/runnig meter
Using 12 mm dia bar, specing = 209.3 mm
Adopt 12 mm dia bar, specing = 200 mm c/c at top and bottom

## Check for shear stress:

Since the load on the heel is predominantly downward, it induces tensile reactio at its junction with stem.
Hence the critical section for shear for the heel slab is considered at the face of support.
Shear force V = 22874.002 KN b= 6.00 m
Shear stress = V/(b d) = 7.625 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 N/mm2 Mpa for M20 concrete
Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m )
Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2
b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.037% 0.04
tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided =
2
From Table 19 of IS 456-200 0.28 N/mm2 < 7.6247 N/mm Not ok. Revise section or p

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Substructure Kondre (right)

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Substructure Kondre (right)

i i
Pa
Ws Pa
d 90-b
Weight of soil is not i
to be considered in
Coulumb's Theroy.

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Substructure Kondre (right)
Pa
d 90-b
Weight of soil is not i
to be considered in b b
Coulumb's Theroy. Coulomb Rankin
Weight of soil is also to
be considered in Rankin's
i F b d Theroy.
0 30 90 20 a

## h= 30 Let us find out which theory is applicable:

a= 60 1.7321 m < 15.454 m hence Coulomb's theory applicable
Ka=
Coul. 0.75 0.9397 2.6845 0.2973
Rankin 1 0.75 0.5 1.5 0.3333

## Hor pressure from Rankin's theory = 716.48 KN/m

Horizontal thrust = 6806.5 acts at 5.15 m from the top of foundation footing.

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Substructure Kondre (right)

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Decrease specing !

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## > b/6, hence tesion

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## Not ok. Revise section or provide shear re-bar

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Dimension of slab and beams (brought from slab sheet) Check for correctness of data

## Length of single span = 8.000 m

Carriageway width, Bc = 3.000 m
Overall width of Bridge, Bo = 6.000 m

## No. of main girder = 3

Dimensions of the longitudinal girder is taken as follows:
Length (L si ) = 8.000 m
Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m
Thickness(Tsi) = 0.750 m
Distance betn girders = 2.400 m

## No. of cross beams = 2

For the design purposes the dimensions of the cross beam is taken as follows:
Length (L si ) = 3.000 m
Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m
Thickness(Tsi) = 0.900 m
Distance betn cross beams = 8.000 m

For the design purposes the dimensions of the internal slab is taken as follows:
Length (L si ) = 8.600 m Hence, effec.span in long.dir. =
Breadth (B si ) = 3.600 m Hence, effec.span in transv.dir. =
Thickness(Tsi) = 0.200 m
Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.070 m
kerb/footpath
breadth = 1.000 m at bottom and 0.225 m at top
height = 0.500 m
For design purpose dimension of cantilever slab is taken as
Length (L si ) = 1.00 m
Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m from c/c of outer girder
Breadth (B si ) = 0.300 m from outer face of outer main girder
Breadth of carriageway = 2.400 m from c/c of outer girder
0.300 m from outer face of outer main girder
Thickness(Tsi) = 0.200 m at the end
Thickness(Tsi) = 0.200 m at outer face of main girder
Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.07 m

## 0.20 i=0 CG of Stem from inner vertical face:

Pa A 1= 1.860
0.60 A2= 0.233
d M.A.= 0.709
3.100
3.100
A1+A2 = 2.093
0.750 b = 90 CG = 0.339
A

## Dimensions taken for the design of abutment:

Retaining wall Bottom level of base =
Length = 6.000 m Road level =
Breadth = 0.750 m at bottom 0.60 m at top 1.25
Height = 3.100 m CG of retain. wall from point A = 0.339 m
Ballast wall
Length = 6.000 m
Height = 1.000 m height of superstr. plus bearing
Return wall without pav.cover
No. = 2
Breadth = 0.200 m Height of Return wall H1= 0.7
Length = 6.000 m Height of Return wall H2= 0.4
Total height of abutment = 4.100 m

Approach slab
Length = 5.000 m 5.000
Thickness = 0.200 m
Foundation is open foundation
Length = 6.000 m
Width 2.750 m Heel 1.000 m 0.750
Toe 1.000 m 0.750
Height of footing = 0.900 1.250

## S.N Elements Unit No. L(m) B(m) H(m) Volume

1 Hand rails 6.368 rm 4 8.60 34.40
2 Railing posts cum 5 0.15 0.15 1.00 0.11
3 Wearing course cum 1 8.60 3.00 0.07 1.81
4 Kerbs cum 2 8.60 0.61 0.50 5.27
5 Deck slab i) rectangle cum 1 8.60 3.00 0.20 5.16
ii)trapezoid cum 2 8.60 0.30 0.20 1.03
6 Main Girder i) fillets cum 4 8.60 0.30 0.15 0.77
ii) webs cum 3 8.60 0.60 0.55 8.51
7 Internal Cross Girder i) fillets cum 0 2.40 0.15 0.15 0.00
ii) webs cum 0 2.40 0.60 0.70 0.00
8 End Cross Girder i) fillets cum 2 2.40 0.15 0.15 0.05
ii) webs cum 2 2.40 0.60 0.70 2.02
Total DL coming to one abutment =
retaining wall 6.000 0.675 3.100 12.56 24 301.32
return walls 2 6.000 0.200 0.55 1.32 24 31.68
ballast wall 6.000 0.200 1.00 1.20 24 28.80
361.80

## STRESS DUE TO LIVE LOAD

Maximum load on the given abutment is produced when the train of load is positioned as shown in the figure:
Axle Load,KN 27 27 114 114 68 68 68 68
xi , m 8.0 6.8 2.5 -0.5 -3.5 -6.5
yi 1.0 0.9 0.3 -0.1 -0.4 -0.8
load, KN 114.0 96.9 21.3 -4.3 -29.8 -55.3
Maximum total live load = 142.9 KN
Load due to impact = 142.9 x 0.321 = 45.932 KN
Live load including impact = 142.9 + 45.932 = 188.8 KN

xi , m 19.0 17.8
yi 2.38 2.23
Maximum total live load = 920.0 KN
Load due to impact = 920 x 0.18 = 165.6 KN
Live load including impact = 920.0 + 165.6 = 1085.6 KN

Maximum total live load = 542.5 KN
Load due to impact = 542.5 x 0.1 = 54.25 KN
Live load including impact = 542.5 + 54.25 = 596.8 KN

Maximum live load to abutment = 1085.6 KN

## Corresponding to F= 30 ° of the backfill material

g = 18 KN/m3 g' = 8 KN/m3
Ka = 0.2973 ( Coulomb's theory applicable )
Ep1 = Ko x g h /2 =
2
45.0 KN/m h= 4.100 m
Horizontal component of earth pressure = 45.0 cos 20 = 42.3
which acts at 0.42 x h = 1.72 m from the top of footing base.
Vertical component of earth pressure = 45.0 x sin 20 =
which acts at 0.339 m inward from the CG of wall.

## Total Horizontal Thrust, E1 = Ep1 x L = 253.6 KN

Total Vertical Thrust, E2 = Ep2 x L = 92.3 KN

## STRESS DUE TO SEISMIC FORCES

Horizontal Forces due to seismicity are computed using the formula as shown in IS Code 1893 or IRC - 6

F eq = axbx l xG

## wherea = 0.08 for the zone V of seismic intensity

b= 1.2 for medium soil with isolated footing
l= 1 importance factor

## a. Seismic force due to Superstructure = 0.096 x 296.058

height of action of the force = 3.10 + 0.025 +
= 3.5 m

## b. Seismic force due to Abutment = 0.096 x 362

act at cg of abutment = 2.05 m

## c. Seismic force due to Back fill = 0.096 x 413.28 =

acts at cg = 2.05 m

The critical case will be when seismic force acts in the direction of traffic. But according to IRC 6-1966 (222.7) "The seismic force due to li
load shall not be considered when acting in the direction of traffic,..".

## STRESS DUE TO WATER CURRENT

Horizontal Thrust due to water current is ignored, because it usually contributes to the stability
of the wall and the load case with seismic condition does not concide with HFL.

## Due to Tractive Effort or Braking Force

Braking Force due to Class AA tracked load = @20% of live load/2 =
= 55.4 KN
height of the line of action of the brake from the road level = 1.2
height of the bearing level from the top of base = 3.100 m

## Due to Resistance in Bearing (Temperature)

Severe moment is produced when the LL is within span. Assume frictional coeff. = 0.225
= 0.2
Frictional resistance at free bearing = 310.9 KN

## Unbalanced frictional force = 34.5 KN

Line of action of the force from the bottom of the abutment = 3.100 m

## Exposed height of structure = depth of the beams + thickness of slab +

+ height of kerb =
= 1.25 m
Exposed area contributing to wind pressure = 10 m²

## Avg. height of superstructure from the bed = 6.000 m

intensity of wind load = 0.73 KN/m²
velocity of wind = 107 km/hr
The design is to be conducted for one span only loaded with class A train of vehicle

## b. Wind Force on Moving

vehicle Class A train = 20.4 x 3=
acts at 1.5 m above road level = 1.500 m

## Maximum load is obtained in exposed area = 68.5 KN

For lateral direction
acts at = 4.100 m

## SUMMARY OF LOADS FOR DESIGN OF ABUTMENTS

S.N
o. Load Vertical (KN) Horizontal (KN)
Longit. dir Later.
1 Superstructure
1.2 Live Load of SS (L) including impact 438.0

Substructure
2 DL of abutment(E)
Retaining wall 301.3
Return wall - Top section 31.7
Ballast wall 28.8
Backfill (BF) 413
Earth pressure (EP) 413.526 Taking
(EP1) Rankin's 253.6
earth
Due to overburden(EP2) pressure
coefficient.
Taking
Rankin's
earth
pressure
Frontal passive soil mass (EPp) coefficient.
3 Buoyancy (B)
4 Longitudinal force
4.1 Tractive force (T) 55.40
4.2 Due to temperature (F) 34.54
4.4 Centrifugal force (CF)
4.5 Thrust due to water current (WC)
4.6 Seismic forces (FS)
on superstructure 14.21 28.42 28.42
on abutment 17.37 34.73 34.73
from backfill 19.84 39.675 39.6749

## Load combination Group II (Normal+Temp. condition)

D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + Ep3+ T + F + CF
1096 344 68.5
Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition)
D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + T + F + CF + FS 1561 446 144.9

Note: Moment is taken at the critical section at the bottom of the ABUTMENT

## 2.2.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF ABUTMENT RETAINING WALL

Design parameters
Vertical force = 1096 KN
Long. Moment = 753 KN-m (Under combination group IV the permissible increase of stress is
50%, hence Combination I governs the design longitudinal
moment)

Substructures are designed using M20 concrete and Fe415 steel reinforcement

## Parameters for RCC design

Conccrete M20 sck = 20 N/mm2
Steel sy = 415 N/mm2
Approximate Area of Steel reinforcement required is calculated considering singly reinforced beam theory

## Provide 25 mm dia. bars Ast = 490.625 mm2

Required spacing = 88.3 mm c/c Provide at 100 mm c/c

## Area of reinforcement provided, Ast = 28701.563 mm2

r= 0.6378125 % > 0.2 %

At the frontal face, the design moment is greatly reduced because of lack of earth pressure.
Therefore on this side provide only 50 % of the main reinforcement

## Ast = 3332 x0.5 = 1666 mm2

Provide 20 mm dia. bars Ast = 314 mm2
Required spacing = 20 113.1 mm c/c Provide at 100 mm c/c
Area of reinforcement provided, Ast = 18369 mm2

## Same spacing of reinforcement is provided on the side faces of the abutment.

Distribution re-bar
Providing 0.12% of cross sectional area = 0.0012 x 750 x 1000= 900

## Provide 12 mm dia. bars Ast = 113.04 mm2

Required spacing = 251.2 mm c/c Provide at 250 mm c/c

Check for stresses (For seismic condition) Parameters for RCC design
Conccrete M20 sck =
Normal Thrust , W = 1560553 N Steel sy =
Bending Moment = ######### N-mm
Ecentricity, e = 643.948 mm > 165.625 mm
breadth, b = 6000 mm m= 0.0
Total depth , D = 750 mm
Effective depth, d = 662.5 mm
Compressive steel cover, dc = 75 mm Ac = 18369 mm2
Tensile steel cover, dt = 75 mm At = 28701.56 mm2

= mm2/m

0.36*σck*b

## Check for shear stress:

Critical secion for shear in case of abutment stem is considered at distance d = 662.5 mm from the junction
of base slab.
Horizontal force due to soil pressure = 173.25 KN
Breaking force = 55.40 KN A
Longitudinal force due to temperature effect = 34.54 KN
Shear force V = 263.19 KN

## Shear stress tc = V/(b d) = 0.125 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete
2
Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm
b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.21%
tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.28 Mpa for M20 concrete
From Table 19 of IS 456-200
The design of ballest wall and return wall will be as in left side abutment.
2.1.3 DESIGN OF BALLAST WALL

RCC balast wall (as shown in the figure) monolithic to the abutment has been designed.
0.20 m

= 6 KN/m

= 4.8 KN/m

r= 21 KN/m3
ca = 0.2973

## Class AA (tr) load component on wall , LL =

= 291.667 KN
= 48.611 KN/m
Add impact to live load @ , I = 0.1 = 4.861 KN/m
e= 0.15 m from axis of ballast wall

Horizontal Load due to braking of train of vehicle class A vehicle, T =(0.2 ) x(27+114*2) =
(Front vehicle only considered) =

## Compaction load is maximum at the depth of 1.2m from the top.

P comp = 25.2 KN/m

## Maximum shear force on section I-I

H = T or Pcopm+ Ep = 28.3 KN/m
V = DL + LL + I = 64.3 KN/m

Moment given due to the forces on the critical section I - I at the base of the ballast wall
M = ( LL + I) x e + T x h + Ep x h /3 =
= 27.76 KN-m/m

## Area of vertical steel reinforcement required

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d)256.816378
= mm2/m

Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 c/c for the continuation of bar from retaining wall
Area of steel provided = 565.2 mm2/m
Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 c/c on the opposite face
Area of steel provided = 565.2 mm2/m
Horizontal links are provided of 12 mm dia. bars @ 200 c/c

## Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2 p= 0.57% 0.57

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.51 Mpa for M20 concrete
From Table 19 of IS 456-200
2.1.4 DESIGN OF RETURN WALLS

These will be monolithic with the back wall. They are joined together through 300 mm x 300 mm fillets.
The loads acting on the wing wall (return wall) would be earth pressure and horizontal force to kerb as specified in the code.

## STRESS DUE TO VERTICAL LOADS

All the stresses are calculated for the critical section I-I at the bottom face of the abutment

## Vert. LL from Class A load = 168.72 KN 56.24 KN/m

Add Impact due to LL @ 0.25= 42.18 KN 14.06 KN/m

## Horizontal Thrust due to DL+LL+IL=q*L*ka = 24.070 KN/m

acts at h/2 0.28 m from the top of foundation

## Moment due to earth pressure = 16.998 KN-m

Momt due to later. force = 7.5 KN/m for the curb as per code = 135.000 KN-m

## Total horz. uniformly distributed load = 24.07 + 0.94 + 7.5

Total Moment = 433.26 + 17.00 + 135.000 = 585.26
depth required = M /( 0.138σck b ) = 620.925 mm
where b = ( 700 + 400 ) / 2 = 550 mm
Provide overall depth = 650 mm

## Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d) = 3530.97 mm2/m

Tensile steel re-bar equired = 3530.97 mm2
Provide 25 mm dia. bars Ast = 490.87 mm2
Required spacing = 139.0 mm c/c Provide at 150 mm c/c

## 2.2.3 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

Foundation is designed as open foundation of the rectangular shape
Length = 6.00 m
Breadth = 2.75 m heel 1.000 m
toe 1.000 m
width of abutment 0.750 m
Height = 0.9 m
Concrete cover 75 mm

## Horizontal earth pressure due to backfill

Ka = 0.2973 As calculated earlier for abutment stem. ( Coulomb's theory applicable

## Ep1 = Ka x g h2 /2 = 66.90 KN/m h= 5.000 m

Horizontal component of earth pressure = 66.9 x cos 20 =
which acts at 0.42 x h = 2.10 m from the bottom of footing base.
Pressure due to surcharge: As approach slab has been provided no surcharge load is to be taken as per code.

## Wb = 6.000 x 1.000 x 4.100 x 18.00 = 442.8

Wf = 6.000 x 1.000 x 0 x 18.00 = 0.0
acts at 0.875 m from centre of abutment

## Seismic force due to Foundation = 0.096 x 356.4

act at cg of abutment = 0.45 m
Seismic force due to back fill = 0.096 x 442.8
act at cg of backfill = 2.95 m from the bottom of foundation ba
SUMMARY OF LOADS FOR DESIGN OF FOUNDATION
S.No
. Load Vertical (KN) Horiz L. arm
(KN) (m)
1 Superstructure
1.2 Live Load on SS including impact (L) 438.0 1.2

Substructure
2 DL of abutment(E)
Retaining wall 301.32 1.4
Return wall 31.68 3.7
Ballast wall 28.80 1.4

## Backfill (BF) 442.80 2.25

Backfill (FR)
Earth pressure (EP)
Triangular dry(EP1) 377.2 -2.1

## Due to overburden(EP2) 0.00

Frontal passive soil mass (EPp)
DL of foundation 356.40 1.4
3 Buoyancy (B)
4 Longitudinal force
4.1 Breaking (breaking) force (T) 55.40 -4.0
4.2 Due to temperature (F) 34.54 -4.0

## 4.4 Centrifugal force (CF)

4.5 Thrust due to water current (WC)
4.6 Seismic forces (FS)
on superstructure 14.21 28.4 -3.5
on abutment 17.37 34.7 -2.1
on foundation 17.11 34.2 -0.5
from backfill 21.25 42.5 -3.0
Load combination Group I (N+T condition)
D + L + I + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF 1895.1 467
Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition)
D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF + FS 1965.0 607

Note: Moment is taken about the toe for check against overturning .

## For Normal condition For Seismic condition

P= 1895 KN P= 1965
Mnet = Mr-Mo= 1797.12344 Mnet = Mr-Mo=
x = Mnet/P= 0.94832107 x = Mnet/P=
e = b/2-x'= 0.42667893 ok e = b/2-x'=
Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = 221.772 KN/m2 Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) =
Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = 7.932 KN/m2 Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) =
Where, A=b x d = 16.5 m2
CHECK AGAINST OVERTURNING
Case: Normal
Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= 2948.9419 / 1151.8 =
Case: Seismic
Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= 2948.9419 / 1086 =

## CHECK AGAINST SLIDING

Case : Normal
The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out =
The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil)
= 1457.06 x 0.45 = 655.676
The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 411.71 KN
Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 655.68 / 411.7 =
(f= 0.45 soil/concrete)
Case: Seismic
The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out =
The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil)
= 1527.00 x 0.45 = 687.149
The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 551.59 KN
Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 687.15 / 551.6 =
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

E D

A F G
Design of toe slab:

221.77 KN/m2
Wt of toe slab = 21.6 KN/m2 144.012 85.692

1.000 m 0.750 m
2.75 m
Pressure distribution diagram

concrete grede :
200.17

## Moment about EF = 87.13 KN-m

d= M /( 0.138σck b ) 107.1 mm
d= 500 mm
Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d) =604 mm2 Minimum reinforc. as per code =
Using 16 mm dia bar, spacing = 201.1 mm
Adopt 16 mm dia bar, spacing = 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided =

## Check for shear stress:

In toe critical section for shear is considered at a distance d = 500
from abutment stem.
#####

161.3

## Shear force at critical section V = 542.20 KN b= 6.00 m

2
Shear stress = V/(b d) = 0.181 N/mm
Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete
Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m ) 0.5 m
Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2
b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.037%
tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = 0.280 N/mm2 >
From Table 19 of IS 456-200 ok. Shear re-bar is not necessary.
Design of heel slab:
Upward pressure on the heel slab varies from 7.93215698 Kn/m2 to 85.69 Kn/m2
In addition to the upward pressure the heel slab is subjected to downward pressure due to the self weight of heel
slab and weight of earth fill on heel slab:
Down pressure due to self weight = 14.4 KN/m2
Down pressure due to backfill = 73.8 KN/m2
88.2 KN/m2 3

## Net down pressure = 80 KN/m2 max

3 KN/m2 min 1.000 m
d= M /( 0.138σck b ) 99.225 mm
d= 500 mm
Ast = Mu/ (0.87xσy x 0.7984 x d) = 189 mm2 Minimum reinforc. as per code =
Using 16 mm dia bar, specing = 201 mm
Adopt 16 mm dia bar, specing = 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided =
Distribution re-bar
0.12/100 x 900 = 1080 mm2/runnig meter
Using 12 mm dia bar, specing = 209.3 mm
Adopt 12 mm dia bar, specing = 200 mm c/c at top and bottom

## Check for shear stress:

Since the load on the heel is predominantly downward, it induces tensile reactio at its junction with stem.
Hence the critical section for shear for the heel slab is considered at the face of support.
Shear force V = 248.3274 KN b= 6.00 m
Shear stress = V/(b d) = 0.083 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 N/mm2 Mpa for M20 concrete
Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m )
Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2
b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= 0.037%
tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided =
From Table 19 of IS 456-200 0.28 N/mm2 >
k for correctness of data

8.000 m
3.000 m
0.000
5.000 ######

Unit Wt Total Wt
e from c/c

0.06 2.06
24 2.70
22 39.73
24 126.42
24 123.84
24 24.77
24 18.58
24 204.34
24 0.00
24 0.00
24 1.30
24 48.38
592.12
296.1 KN
0.000 m
2.338 m
0.238 m

i
Pa
d 90-b Ws
Weight of soil is not
to be considered in b b
Coulumb's Theroy. Coulomb

i F b d
0 30 90 20

## h= 30 Let us find out which theory is applicable:

a= 60 1.7321 m < 4.100 m hence
Ka=
KN/m Coul. 0.75 0.9397 2.6845 0.2973
Rankin 1 0.75 0.5 1.5 0.3333
15.384 KN/m

## Hor pressure from Rankin's theory = 50.43 KN/m

Horizontal thrust = 302.6 acts at 1.37 m from the top of foundation footing.
KN

= 28.42 KN
0.75 / 2 =

= 34.73 KN

39.675 KN

in free bearing
in other bearing

7.3 KN

61.2 KN

## Arm Moment (KN)

(m) Longit. Later.

0.16 47.7
0.16 70.6

0.00
-2.34 -74.1
-0.24 -6.8
0.00 0.0

1.72 436.7
3.10 171.7
3.10 107.1
4.10 280.85

## 3.50 99.5 99.47549

2.05 71.2 71.20224
5.60 235.4688
2.05 81.3 81.3335

752.9 280.9

1004.9 487.5

le increase of stress is
gn longitudinal

Decrease spacing !
ok

mm2

at both faces. ok

20 N/mm2
415 N/mm2

## mm from the junction

2
> 0.125 N/mm
51.0 KN
8.5 KN/m
rom retaining wall

2
> 0.202 N/mm
ok

## specified in the code.

x 24 = 15.84 KN
= 2.64 KN/m

KN/m

= 32.51 KN/m
Decrease specing !

62.8613 KN/m

KN
KN

= 34.214 KN

= 42.509 KN
from the bottom of foundation base

M[r] M(o)
KN-m KN-m

359.382
531.683

414.315
117.612
39.6

996.3
-792.1

490.05

-221.6
-138.2

-49.74
-35.6
0
-7.698
-62.7

2948.94 -1152

2949 -1086

114.85
eismic condition
KN
1862.99 KN-m
0.94809 m
0.43 ok
=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = 230.02 KN/m2
=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = 8.1638 KN/m2

###### KN

KN

soil/concrete)

######
KN

B
7.9

1.000 m

M 20
Fe 415

87.1259

mm2
122.4

0.04
2
0.181 N/mm
80

1000 mm2

## of re-bar provided = 1339.7 mm2

0.04

2
0.0828 N/mm ok
i

Pa
i

Rankin
Weight of soil is also to
be considered in Rankin's
Theroy.
a

theory is applicable:
Coulomb's theory applicable

ndation footing.