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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 7 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

A. Sudhakar, He saw the movie yesterday (Åûªúø’ Ç 2 a) New bridge


Pedda MallaReddy inaugurated
ÆœE´÷ E†o îª÷¨»úø’)– Verb- saw- past
Q. What are the differences simple tense- past action.
ÉC èπÿú≈ Å®·ûË (PP)
among the simple present, Ééπ\úø yesterday ÅEaction time
ïJ-T† = v§ƒ®ΩçGμç-úÕ†
the simple future the present îÁ•’-ûª’Ø√oç. ÉD present perfect Past
èπ◊, éÌûªh ´çûÁ†.
perfect, the past perfect and simple èπ◊ ûËú≈. b) House site
the simple past tenses? He has come (Åûª-úÌ-î √aúø’– verb- has pattas distrib-
A. Simple present/ Present simple - e.g.: come- present perfect- ´*a† time îÁ°æp-úøç uted (PP)
come, (with I, we, you and they), comes Law: A rule enforced by a government in
(with he, she and it) - used for regular
™‰ü¿’) °æç°œùà îËߪ’•úÕ† É∞¡x-Ææn-™«© °æö«d©’. English connection with a particular situation.
He came last night (Åûªúø’ E†o ®√vA ™ Past Participle èπ◊ Å®Ωnç, 'îËߪ’-•-úÕ†— ÅE
actions of any type- habits, facts of sci- Rule: A Government organisation/ an institu-
´î√aúø’)– verb- came- past simple- E†o
ence, universal truths, repeated actions ´Ææ’hçC. tion/ a private organisation's statements
with words like frequently, often, etc.
´î√aúø’, ÅE ´*a† time ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’Ø√oç) Q. English to Telugu, Telugu to English about what a person should do, should not
These are the important differences Translator
Simple future - verb form- shall/ will come, í¬ °æE îËߪ’-ü¿-©’--èπ◊-Ø√o†’. Éçü¿’èπ◊ do, may do, may not do, etc.
among the various tenses.
shall/ will go, etc. éÓ*çí˚ Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ᙫ v°œÊ°®˝ 鬢√L? Regulation: A regulation is also a rule, but a
Uses: future actions - I shall see him P. Simhachalam, Vijayawada É™« v§ƒéÃdÆˇ Å´-ú≈-EéÀ Ææ£æ«-éπ-Jç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Å´-Ææ-®Ω- regulation is more about what we should
tomorrow/ He will come here in a few days, ´’ßË’u °æ¤Ææh-鬩 í∫’Jç* ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. not do rather than what we should do.
Q. éÀçC °æüΔ-©†’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ņ’-´-Cç*, ¢√öÀ í∫’Jç*
etc. A. O’®Ω’ English †´-©© ûÁ©’í∫’ ņ’-¢√-üΔ©’, Ordinance: A law a government enforces/
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. 1. °æ¤†-®Ω’-üΔ`-öÀç-îªúøç 2. *©-´©’ English newspapers ™E reports, ûÁ©’í∫’
The present perfect- verb form- (I, we, you, an act which a government makes without
°æ©-´-©’í¬ 3. Ç¢Ë-ü¿† ´uéπhç îËߪ’úøç 4. †÷ûª-ØÓ- ¢√®√h-°æ-vA-éπ-™xE report - äÍé N≠æߪ’ç O’ü¿ ÖçúËN it being passed by an Assembly/
and they) have + past participle; (he, she, û√q£æ«ç °©’x-GéÀç-C 5. E®Ω-Ææ† ´uéπhç îËߪ’úøç
it) has + past participle- e.g.: Have gone/ §Ú©’a-èπ◊E, ví∫£œ«ç-î√L. Å®·ûË Éçü¿’èπ◊ O’®Ω’ Parliament when they are not in session. It
6. Ææp≠ædç îËߪ’úøç 7. †®Ωt-í∫-®Ωs¥çí¬ 8. Ææç°∂‘’-¶μ«´ç î√™« éπ%≠œ îËߪ÷Lq Öçô’çC. English ™ Ö†o has, however, to be approved by the
has gone; have/ has seen, etc.
Assembly/ Parliament later.

He saw the movie yester day


Instruction: Stating what we should/ should
not do - an instruction may not have then
force of a rule, regulation or a law.
Orient: 1) East (direction) 2) guide or direct
uses: Code: 1) A set of rules that the people in a
matter ûÁ©’-í∫’™ translate îËÆœ, üΔEo group or society have to follow they may
1) Past actions, time not stated:
She has seen the movie - action over -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 585 ´’Sx O’Í® English ™éÀ translate îËÆæ’éÓ-
¢√-L. O’ English translation †’,
not have the power of a rule/ law. 2) A code
language is a kind of secret language used
(past), time of action not known.
Original English Passage ûÓ §ÚLa by a group of people.
2) Action starting in the past and continu- ´uéπhç îËߪ’úøç 9. §ƒ´¤©’ éπü¿-°æúøç îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊çô÷ Öçú≈L. É™« îËߪ’úøç Öûªh-´’- Society: 1) A group of people living in the
ing till now 10. Åúø’-í∫’-©èπ◊ ´’úø’-í∫’-™ Ô-ûªhúøç ¢Á’i† ´÷®Ω_ç. same area and following the same cus-
i) They have lived here for the past/ 11. ñÆæuç îÁ°æpúøç 12. √o-éÓ™«
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®Ωnç ûÁ©-°æ- toms, traditions and patterns of behaviour.
M.SURESAN
last ten years (they started living 13. éπ~çûª´uç 14. ¢Áç°æ-®√x-úøôç 2) A number of persons forming into a
í∫-©®Ω’.
here ten years ago and have lived till 15. å*ûªuç 16. Ç®Ó-°œç-îªúøç group for same common purpose. e.g.: A
now) 1. Chiru strikes a chord with people
17. Cí∫-ñ«-®Ω’-ûÓçC 18. ´’ü¿lûª’ É´yúøç 19. éπ©- teachers' society/ A scholars' society.
ii) She has sung for 100 movies so far/ 2. En masse
Association: A group of persons of the
éπ©ç Í®°œçC 20. èπ◊Ø√-J-©’x-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’ 21. ûËô-ûÁ©xç
till now/ until now. (Right from the îËÆœçC 22. Ççéπ~©’ NCμç-*çC 23. Bv´çí¬ 3. U - Turn Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? same profession/ occupation. An associa-
time she started singing to this day) êçúÕç-îªúøç 24. ûª©x-úÕLx §Úûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. 25. éπÆæ-®Ωûª’h 4. Ççí∫x ¢√®√h-°æ-vA-éπ™ x °ü¿l ¢√é¬u-©†’ ᙫ Å®Ωnç tion is usually formed to take care of the
iii) He has not seen the movie yet (Éçûª- 26. ÆæO’-éÀ~ç-î√®Ω’ 27. ÅE-¢√®Ωuç 28. véπ´’-•-Dl¥-éπ- îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L? ´·êuçí¬ é¬´÷©’ °öÀd† interests/ rights of its members.
´-®Ωèπÿ/ Éçé¬ Åûªú≈ ÆœE´÷ îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’– Jç-î√-©E 29. ÇüË-Pç-*çC 30. ¢√uë«u-Eç-î√®Ω’ ¢√é¬u©’ î√™« °ü¿l-Ní¬ Öçö«®·. Å™«Íí Analysis: Studying something very thor-
îª÷úø-éπ-§Ú-´úøç Éçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ ïJ-TçC) 31. éπ®Ω\-¨¡-çí¬. past participle †’ ¢√éπuç™ ¢√úË B®Ω’ Å®Ωnç oughly to understand it completely. This is
The past perfect tense - verb form - had + A. 1. Reiterate 2. Embellish 3. Express 鬴-úøç-™‰ü¿’. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ Oô-Eo-öÀF ᙫ Å®Ωnç done usually by studying each part of a
past participle- e.g.: had seen, had gone, anguish 4. A new enthusiasm surged îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√™ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. thing/ each aspect of a situation and thus to
had bought, etc. 5. Express protest 6. Make clear A. 1) *®Ω’ v°æï™x Ææpçü¿† éπL-Tç-î √úø’. understand the whole of it.
7. Indirectly 8. Express solidarity 9. Making Institute: An organization with a particular
Uses: The first of two part actions (í∫ûªç™ 2) ´‚éπ Ö´’t-úÕí¬ (Åçü¿®Ω÷ éπLÆœ äÍé-≤ƒJ)
moves 10. Toadying 11. Predict/ Foretell/ purpose- especially an educational institu-
ïJ-T† È®çúø’ °æ†’™x ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC) Prophesy 12. Whip 13. Excusable/
3) äéπ ¢Áj°æ¤ ´·çü¿’èπ◊ ¢ÁRx, èπ◊úÕ-¢Áj°æ¤ AJT ÅüË
i) He said that he had bought a car. tion- or a group of people of a particular
Pardonable 14. Long for 15. Propriety
(ûª†’ ´÷®Ω_ç™ ¢Á†éÀ\ ®√´úøç – É™« îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊
O©’†o Road ¶μ«í∫ç – ÉC English Åéπ~®Ωç U profession.
buying is the first
é¬®Ω’ -éÌ-Ø√o-†E îÁ§ƒpúø’)– 16. Complain 17. Deteriorating 18. Support
past action, and saying is the second Organization: A group of people forming a
19. Cause flutter 20. Languishing 21. Lay †’ §ÚL Öçô’çC.
action. so 'buying' is in the past perfect business, a club to achieve some thing in
bare 22. Imposed restrictions 23. Condemn 4) îªü¿’-´¤ûª÷ Öçõ‰, éÌçûª-é¬-™«-EéÀ ¢Á’©xí¬ any field- business, politics, social service
tense. Strongly 24. Seriously worried/ upset Å®Ωn´’´úøç ¢Á·ü¿-©-´¤-ûª’çC. ´·êuçí¬ O’®Ω’ etc.
ii) I went to his room but by then he had 25. Exercise 26. Reviewed 27. Inevitable/ English °æü¿ ñ«c†ç °ç-éÓ-¢√L. ´’ç*
Unavoidable 28. Regularise 29. Ordered/ Restriction: A rule not allowing you to do
left(ÅûªúÕ í∫CéÀ ؈’ ¢Á∞«x†’, é¬F Dictionary Å´-Ææ®Ωç – Paper ¢Á·ûªhç îªC-N†
Directed 30. Commented 31. Cruelly. some thing.
Åûªúø°æpöÀÍé ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’) ûª®√yûª, îªC-¢Ë-ô-°æ¤púø’ é¬èπ◊çú≈, O’èπ◊ í∫’®Ω’hçúË
Finance: Money and connected with money.
¢ÁRx-§Ú-´úøç ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T† first past Q. éÀçC¢√öÀE ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. éπJ∏† °æüΔ©÷, ¢√öÀ ¢√úø’é¬ îª÷úøçúÕ.
Dictionary ™. ûª®Ωîª÷ TV ™ English Economic: Connected with the acquiring,
action- Åçü¿’-éπE had + past participle is+suspected + to+have+ past participle
News casts èπÿú≈ îª÷Ææ÷h ÖçúøçúÕ. áéπ\úø spending, investing and the availability or
(past perfect tense) was+suspected+to+have+ past participle lack of money, etc.
The simple past/ past simple- eg: came, English éπE-°œÊÆh Åéπ\úø îªü¿-´çúÕ.
be form (is was)+ understood+to+have+p.p. Q. Why don't we say 'Economic Minister'
went, saw, loved etc. Raja, Yellandu.
A. a) His relatives are + suspected instead of saying 'Finance Minister'?
Use: For a past action at a definite time/ (be from) Q. Please clarify the following doubts and A. We say mostly finance minister because it is
time known. to have + committed + the murder you are requested not to ask me to refer to the responsibility to provide money for the
I bought the car last year (past participle) a dictionary, as I am not understood. country's plans and programmes.
b) She is suspected to have 1. Experiment 2. Practical 3. Law 4. Rule We do not say an economic minister-
(؈’ véÀûªç Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç éÌØ√o-Ø√ é¬®Ω’-†’)–
Ééπ\úø last year ÅE time îÁ•’-ûª’-Ø√o†’ – (be) 5. Regulation 6. Ordinance 7. Instruction
Economic here means the study of the gen-
ïJ-T-§Ú-®·† action èπ◊. stolen the necklace. 8. Orient 9. code 10. Society 11. Association
(Past Participle) eration, spending and availability or the lack
12. Analysis 13. Institute 14. Organisation
Past simple á°æ¤púø÷ í∫ûªç™ °∂晫Ø√ of it. However, some countries have
Q. ¢√®√h-°æ-vA-éπ™x J§Ú-®˝d-©†’ ing form past partici- 15. Restriction 16. Finance 17. Economic.
Æ洒ߪ’ç (Definite time) ™ ïJ-T† °æEE ple ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμ-≤ƒh®Ω’ éπüΔ? OöÀE ᙫ Å®Ωnç A. Experiment: 1) Usually a scientific test to
Ministers for economic affairs which may
ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC. find out what happens when we try out mean a finance minister.
îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L? Lastly please note this: understand the
Present perfect èπÿú≈, Past action ØË something new or to know what is correct.
A. 1 a) Prime Minister visiting AP today
ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC, Å®·ûË present perfect ¢√úÕ- 2) An activity/ method we try out to find out difference between, 'you are requested' (as
= AP you wrote in your letter) and, 'I request you'.
†-°æ¤púø’ time îÁ°æpç. what happens in a particular situation.
Ñ ®ÓV éÀ ´Ææ’h†o v°æüμΔ-†-´’çvA
b) India signing pact with the US Practical: Connected with real life rather 'You are requested' is almost an order,
He has seen the movie (Åûªú≈ ÆœE´÷
îª÷¨»úø’)– verb: has seen- present perfect- = ߪ‚áÆˇ ûÓ ä°æpçü¿ç èπ◊ü¿’-®Ω’a-èπ◊ç-ô’†o ¶μ«®Ωû˝ then with ideas or theories. For example, while, 'I request you' is a proper request/
É™«çöÀîÓôx '...ing' form èπ◊ Å®Ωnç, ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o/ an experiment is conducted to get practical plea. Or you can say, 'Please/ kindly do not
îª÷úøôç, past ™. é¬F past ™ °∂晫Ø√ experience - to find out if a theory or idea is ask me to refer to a dictionary'.
îËÆæ’h†o/ ´Ææ’h†o ... É™« ´Ææ’hçC.
Æ洒ߪ’ç ÅE îÁ°æpúøç ™‰ü¿’. correct or not.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 14 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

A. Saiprasad, Kusthapur. Fitment - ã v°æü˨¡ Ææy¶μ«-¢√Eo •öÀd Åéπ\úø ¢√úË A. Institute, Institution,
Association, Society,
Q. What is the difference furniture/ Éûª®Ω ≤ƒ´’vT– e.g. : Bathroom fit- Organisation,
among Advocate, Barrister, ment = Bathroom ™ Å´’Í®a Wash basin,
Assembly--
Pleader, Lawyer. bathing stool, etc. (´’† ü˨¡ç™ fitment †’ OöÀ
A. Advocate = Lawyer. Pay Scale †’ç* ÉçéÓ pay scale
Å®·ûË ûª°æ¤pí¬, äéπ í∫’-Jç-* -É-öÃ-´-™‰
court ´u´-£æ…®Ω °æ-J¶μ«≠æ™  èπ◊ ÖüÓuT ´÷Í®-ô-°æ¤púø’ éÌûªh scale ™ ÉîËa ´‚©- -N-´-Jçî√ç.
Advocate ÅØË áèπ◊\´í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. ¢Ë-ûª†ç level †’ fitment Åçô’ç-ö«®Ω’). Academy = NüΔu,
lawyer
äéπJ ûª®Ω-°∂椆 ´é¬™«h °æ¤îª’a-èπ◊†o †’, ¢√J Commutation = äéπ ™„éπ\ v°æ鬮Ωç ÉÆæ’h†o @û√Eo éπ∞«, ¨»ÆæY N≠æ-ߪ÷™x
ûª®Ω-°∂椆advocate Åçö«®Ω’. ÉC ´’† ü˨¡ç™ ÉçéÓ ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† ™„éπ\™éÀ ´÷®Ωaúøç. v°æûËuéπ Péπ~ù ÉîËa ÆæçÆæn  Suspend = û√û√\-L-éπçí¬ Nüμ¿’-©èπ◊ £æ…ï-®Ω’-é¬-E-
Commutation of Pension = Retire Å´¤-
áèπ◊\´. ™‰üΔ ¢√öÀE v§Úûªq-£œ«çîË ÆæçÆæn. ´yéπ §Ú´úøç, ÖüÓuT O’ü¿ °∂œ®√u-ü¿’-©†’ Nî√-Jç-
Barrister = England ™ Ø√uߪ’-¨»ÆæYç ûª’†o°æ¤úø’ §Òçü¿’-ûª’†o @û√Eo •öÀd pension ™„éπ\- Wing = N¶μ«í∫ç; Panel = Committee
îËç-ü¿’èπ◊;
ŶμºuÆœç*†¢√∞¡Ÿx. í∫-ôdúøç. Camp = NúÕC/ ÖüÓu-í∫’©’/ ÅCμ-é¬®Ω’©’ ûª´’ NCμ Dismiss = ÖüÓuí∫ç †’ç* ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç.
Pleader = Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ (í∫ûªç™) ¶μ«®Ω-ûª-üË-¨¡ç- Basic = ´‚©-¢Ë-ûª†ç. @ûªç™ éπLÊ° éπ®Ω’´¤ ¶μºûªuç EN’ûªhç ¢Á∞Ïx-îÓô’  Gift = presentation.
™E ™«ßª’-®Ωx†’ (Law degree ™‰èπ◊ç-ú≈ØË éÓ®Ω’d™ (Dearness Allowance - DA), House Rent. Federation = Ææ´÷êu – a group of organisa-
 Ultimatum (altimatum é¬ü¿’) – *´J £«îªa-Jéπ,
¢√Cç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ņ’-´’-AçîË ®ÓV™x) pleader ÅØË Relief = üμ¿®Ω©’ °J-T-†-°æ¤púø’, ÖüÓu-í∫’-©èπ◊ Ü®Ω-ôí¬ tions with similar purposes.
DE ûª®√yûª ´’Sx £«îªa-Jéπ Öçúøü¿’, îªÍ®u;
Alliance =
Warning = £«îªa-Jéπ – ÉN áØÁj oØ√ ÖçúÌa.
¢√∞¡Ÿx. É°æ¤úŒ °æü¿ç ÅCμ-é¬-J-éπçí¬ ¢√úø’-éπ™ ™‰ü¿’. ÉîËa ≤Ò´·t Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç. èπÿôN’ – ߪ·üΔl¥™x, ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷™x éÌEo
Q. What are the full forms of various bank Allowance = HRA - (ÉçöÀ ÅüÁl ¶μºûªuç) ™«çöÀN  Courtesy = ´’®√uü¿; ≤˘ï†uç; äéπ-JéÀ îÁçC†
ü˨»©’/ ´®√_©’ éπLÆœ à®Ωp-úËN.
accounts given below: éπ©-°æèπ◊çú≈. Forum = ¢ËCéπ – v°æï©’ ûª´’-èπ◊†o ÅGμ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷-©†’ ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’, N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†’ Éûª-®Ω’©’ ¢√úø’-èπ◊-
S.B. A/C, C.A. A/C, R.D. A/C, A.C.C. A/C, Gratuity = ÖüÓuT ÅçCç-*† ÊÆ´-©èπ◊, ¢√®Ω’ retire äéπ-J-éÌ-éπ®Ω’ ûÁLߪ’-°æ-®Ωèπ◊ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊/ Åçü¿’èπ◊ ØËçü¿’èπ◊ ÉîËa ņ’-´’A;
O.D. A/C, C.C. A/C.
Source = ´‚©ç.
ÅßË’-ô-°æ¤púø’ (°æü¿O N®Ω-´’ù îËÊÆ-ô-°æ¤púø’) àéπ- à®√pô’ îËÊÆ Ææ¶μº.
A. SB A/C = Savings Bank Account Union = äÍé-´%Ah/ ¢√u°æ-éπç™ Ö†o-¢√J Ææç°∂æ’ç
 Guidance = ´÷®Ω_-ü¿-®Ωz-éπûªyç – ´·êuçí¬ Â°ü¿l-
(§Òü¿’°æ¤ ¢Á·ûªhçí¬ ÉîËa ≤Ò´·t.
ë«û√) Q. Bhuvaneswar †’ Bhubaneshwar ÅE ®ΩOç-vü¿- Council = ´’çúøL – §ƒ©-Ø√-°æ-®Ω-¢Á’i† N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ ¢√∞¡⁄x, ņ’-¶μº-´-Vc©÷, *†o-¢√-∞¡x-éÀîËa Ææ©-£æ…©’,
CA A/C = Current Account Ø√ü∑˛ ®∏√í∫÷-®˝†’ Rabindranath Tagore ÅE îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊ØË v°æï©/ ÅCμ-é¬-®Ω’© ´’çúøL – v°æ¶μº’-ûªy-°æ-®Ω- Ææ÷©’, Ææ´’-Ææu© °æJ-≥ƒ\-®Ω-´÷-®√_©’;
RD A/C = Recurring Deposit Account áçü¿’èπ◊ ®√≤ƒh®Ω’? ¢Á’i† ™‰üΔ ÆæçÆæn© °æ®Ω-¢Á’i†. Counselling = Ææ´’-Ææu©†’ áü¿’-®Ì\ç-ô’†o ¢√J
Ææ£æ…-ߪ÷®Ωnç, ¢√JéÀ üμÁj®Ωuç éπL-Tç*, ¢√J Ææ´’-Ææu-

He came up by dint of har d work


©èπ◊ °æJ-≥ƒ\®Ωç îª÷Ê° v°æߪ’ûªoç – ´·êuçí¬
ÉC äéπ ´%Ah™ Ö†o íÌ°æp-¢√∞¡Ÿx, Ç ´%Ah-™ØË
Éûª-®Ω’© Ææ´’-Ææuèπ◊ °æJ-≥ƒ\®Ωç îª÷Ê° v°æߪ’ûªoç,
Ææ£æ«%-ü¿-ߪ’-ûªûÓ.
 Insurance = H´÷;
ACC A/C = Firm = Exgratia = ¶«üμ¿-°æ-úø’-ûª ’-†o-¢√-JéÀ, v°æ´ ÷-üΔ©
ÉC ™‰ü¿’. ¢√u§ƒ®Ω ÆæçÆæn
OD A/C = Over Draft Account
CC A/C = Cash Credit Account
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 586 Group = •%çü¿ç– ᙫçöÀ v°æñ«-•%ç-ü¿-¢Á’iØ√. ¶«J† °æúÕ-†-¢√-Jéà ü¿ßª’ûÓ, ≤ƒ†’-¶μº÷-AûÓ
League = äéπ -ÖüËl-¨¡ ≤ƒ-üμ¿-†èπ◊ à®ΩpúË (£æ«èπ◊\™« é¬èπ◊çú≈) ÉîËa úø•’s, Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç.
Q. véÀÈé-ö¸™ double century. Triple century ņoõ‰x v°æï©, ÆæçÆæn©, ü˨»© Ææç°∂æ’ç..  Cancel = ®Ωü¿’l îËߪ’úøç;
A. äJߪ÷, ¶„çí¬M ¶μ«≠æ™ x '´— èπ◊
400, 500, 600 ®ΩØ˛q îËÊÆh à´’ç-ö«®Ω’? Club = äÍé ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ, äÍé Ǩ¡ßª’ ≤ƒüμ¿-†èπ◊ Delete = omit = ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç; ãN-≠æ-ߪ÷Eo é¬F,
•ü¿’©’, '•— °æ©’-èπ◊-û√®Ω’.
A. 400 - Quadruple (century) véπ´’çûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ Ææ´÷-¢Ë-¨¡-´’ßË’u v°æï©
Q. What is the difference among
éÌçûª-¶μ«-í¬Eo é¬F.
500 = Quintuple (century M.SURESAN •%çü¿ç.  Panic = v°æ´÷-ü¿ç-´©x/ v°æ´÷ü¿ç ï®Ω-í∫-¶-ûÓç-ü¿ØË
yard, Storage, Plant, Stall,
)
600 = Sextuple (century Bureau = v°æ¶μº’ûªy 鬮√u-©†’ E®Ωy-£œ«çîË
) Shed, Exchange, Cafe. Ç™- ´©x Ç™-*çîË ¨¡éÀh éÓ™pßË’™« îËÊÆ ÅA-
Q. Blood - DEo •xú˛ Åçö«®Ω’. Foot- DEo °∂æ¤ö¸ A. Yard = An open place for a special purpose/
ÆæçÆæn; Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ÉîËa 鬮√u-©ßª’ç. ¶μºßª’ç;
Åçö«®Ω’. Å™«Íí But, Put... É™«ç-öÀN áØÓo stocking something/ business (üÌúÕf). Q. What is the difference between- Disaster = N°æûª’h.
ÖØ√o®·. éÌûªh Ŷμ«u-Ææ-èπ◊-©èπ◊ ᙫ °æ©-鬙 Å®Ωnç- Storage = E©y Öçîªúøç. Crimson - Red, Courtesy - Source, Tender -  Motto = äéπ-ÆæçÆæn/ ü˨¡ç/ ´uéÀh Ǩ¡-ߪ÷-©†’
Auction, Guidance - Counselling, Tribunal -
Plant = Machinery used in industries - °æJ-
é¬E Ñ Aéπ-´’éπ àN’öÀ? É™«çöÀ §Òçûª† ™‰E ûÁLÊ° *†o-¢√éπuç, °æüΔ©’;
Öî√a¥-®Ω-ù©’ ᙫ ÇN-®Ωs¥-Nç-î√®·? §ƒ®∏Ω-¨»-©™ Commission, Insurance - Exgratia, Views - Slogan = EØ√ü¿ç (´·êuçí¬ Political
v¨¡´’™x ¢√úË ßª’çvûªç/ ߪ’çvû√©’. Ideas, Cancel - Delete, Moratorium - Parties ûª´’ éÓJ-éπ©’, Ǩ¡-ߪ÷-©†’, ´uA-Í®-éπûª†’
NüΔu-®Ω’n©’ ÅúÕÍí É™«çöÀ ÆæçüË-£æ…-©èπ◊ Ö§ƒ-üμΔu-ߪ·- Stall = ´Ææ’h-´¤©¢Ë’t ü¿’é¬ùç/ îÓô’.
Prohibition, Panic - Disaster, Quotation - ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊, v°æéπ-öÀç-îËçü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úË, Ææ’©-¶μºçí¬
Shed = éπ°æ¤pûÓ Ö†o N¨»-©-¢Á’i† í∫C, ´·êuçí¬ °æJ-
úÕí¬ á™« Ææ´÷-üμΔ-†-N’-¢√yL?
Invoice/ Estimate, Motto - slogan, Scrutiny - Öîªa ¥-Jç-îª-í∫© ¢√éπuç/ °æüΔ©’ etc... Zindabad,
A ÉC î√™« §ƒûª v°æ¨Ïo éπüΔ? ÉC English
. v¨¡-´’©’ E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊/ ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ E©y Verification, Jail- Prison, Suspend - Dismiss, Down, Down ™«çöÀN).
Spelling, Pronunciation èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† ÖçîËçü¿’èπ◊ Ñ íÓúø©’, Éô’-éπ-©-ûÓØË é¬èπ◊çú≈, Éûª®Ω Xerox- Photostat, Gift-Presentation,  Jail = Prison.
N≠æߪ’ç. DEéÀ v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i† °æü¿l¥A Åçô÷ ™‰ü¿’. ´Ææ’h-´¤-©ûÓ EJtç* ÖçúÌa. Altimatum - Warning
 Xerox = Photostat
ÅC ÅçûË ÅE îÁ°æpçúÕ. Exchange = ´÷JpúÕ; ´÷JpúÕ ïJÍí îÓô’ A.  Crimson = deep/ dark red
Q. Explain these words concerned Finance (Shares ™«çöÀN). G. Rambabu, Nandyal
 Tender = ¢Ë©ç™ §ƒ™Ô_-ØË-¢√∞¡Ÿx §ƒúË-§ƒô;
and Salaries. Bonus, Stifund, Increment, Cafe = Ç£æ…®Ω °æüΔ-®√n©’, §ƒF-ߪ÷©’ éÌE, AE
Q. Sir,
Time Scale, Master Scale, Pay, Divident,
ÉîËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ ä°æ¤p-èπ◊ØË ¢Á·ûªhç; éÀçC ¢√é¬uEéÀ Å®Ωnç N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
û√Ííç-ü¿’èπ◊ O©’çúË îÓô’ = Restaurant. Auction - ¢Ë©ç ¢Ëߪ’úøç/ ¢Ë©ç We are on good terms.
Fitment, Commutation, Pension, Basic, Q. éÀçC Ççí∫x°æüΔ-©†’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ à´’E îÁ°æp-´îª’a?
Relief, Allowance, Gratuity.  Tribunal= äéπ Ææ´’-Ææu†’ °æJ-Q-LçîË/ N¢√üΔ©†’ A. ´÷´’üμ¿u Ææç•ç-üμΔ©’ ¶«í∫’-Ø√o®·.
Hotel, Tailors, Gazetted, Xerox, Cabinet,
Q.
A. Bonus = Check book, Auditorium, Classical, Round
°æEE Ææ´’®Ωnçí¬ îËÆœ ™«¶μ«-©†’ °ç*- °æJ-≠æ \-JçîË ÅCμ-鬮Ωç Ö†o Ø√uߪ’-≤ƒn†ç; éÀçC ¢√é¬u© ´’üμ¿u ûËú≈ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
†çü¿’èπ◊ 鬆’-éπí¬ é¬Jt-èπ◊-©èπ◊ ߪ÷ï-´÷†uç ÉîËa figure, Indian ink. Commission = äéπ Ææ´’-Ææuèπ◊ °æJ-≥ƒ\®Ωç éπ†’- i) He is a member on the committe
†í∫ü¿’ §ƒJ-ûÓ-≠œéπç. A. Hotel, Tailor - English - Telugu dictionary
èπ◊\-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊, E¢√-Jç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊, Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ÊÆéπ-Jç- ii) He is a member in the committe
Stipend (Stifund é¬ü¿’) = Péπ~ù 鬩ç™ Péπ~ù îª÷úøçúÕ. îËç-ü¿’èπ◊, ÅCμ-鬮Ωç Ö†o v°æ¶μº’ûªy ÆæçÆæn. A. He is a member of the committee.
 View = ÅGμ-v§ƒßª’ç; Idea = Ç™-. Q.
§ÒçüË¢√JéÀ îÁLxçîË úø•’s. Gazetted - Gazette (í∫ñ„ö¸) v°æï-©èπ◊ Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç éÀçC-¢√-öÀéÀ Å®Ωnç ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
 Moratorium = °æ®Ω-Ææp®Ω ä°æpç-ü¿çûÓ àüÁjØ√ abrode, bay, inlieu of, by u dint of (or) by dint of.
Increment : @ûªç™ àú≈-C-Íé-ú≈CéÀ °çîË ¢Á·ûªhç ûÁ-LÊ°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æ¶μº’ûªyç ÅCμ-é¬-J-éπçí¬ í∫´®Ωo®˝ Ê°®Ω’ûÓ
Time Scale : 1) (@û√© N≠æ-ߪ’ç™) äéπ EKgûª v°æ-JçîË °ævAéπ. Éçü¿’™ v°æ-Jç-*† N≠æߪ’ç Ωu©’, 鬮Ωu-éπ-™«-§ƒ©-†’ û√û√\-L-éπçí¬ ELÊ°-ߪ’úøç; A. Abroad (Abrode é¬ü¿’) = NüË-¨»-©™
Å®·-ûËØË v§ƒ´÷-ùÀéπç. Prohibition = v°æ¶μº’-û√y©÷/ ÆæçÆæn©’ NCμçîË bay = ´‚úø’-¢Áj°æ¤™« ØË© Ö†o Ææ´·-vü¿-¶μ«í∫ç– the
鬩 ´u´-Cμ™  ÖüÓuí∫’© v§ƒ®Ωç¶μº ¢Ëûª†ç.
(Starting Salary), v°æA Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç ÉîËa incre- äéπ-≤ƒn®· v°æ¶μº’ûªy ÅCμ-é¬-®Ω’© Eߪ÷-´’-鬩’ EÊ≠üμ ¿ç. Bay of Bengal
(£æ«ÙüΔ†’ •öÀd), •C-M©’, retirement ™«çöÀ  Quotation = äéπ ´Ææ’h´¤ Ţ˒tç-ü¿’èπ◊/ ÊÆ´-©†’ In lieu of =
ment ûÓ é¬© ´u´Cμ *´®Ω ´îËa í∫J≠æe ¢Ëûª†ç. ÉC Åçü¿’èπ◊ •ü¿’©’
É™« ÖçúÌa. 15000 - 2000 - 35000 = ®Ω÷. ¢√öÀE Gazette™ v°æéπ-öÀ-Ææ’hçC v°æ¶μº’ûªyç. Å™«çöÀ ÅçCç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ äéπ ÆæçÆæn îÁÊ°p üμ¿®Ω; a) They paid him 2 days' wages in lieu of the
15000 -ûÓ -v§ƒ®Ωç-¶μº-¢Á’i, -à-ú≈-CéÀ ®Ω÷.2000© °ç°æ¤ûÓ ÅCμ-é¬-®Ω’-©†’ Gazetted Officers Åçö«®Ω’. Invoice = îËÆ œ† °æEéÃ, Ææ®Ω-°∂æ®√ îËÆ œ† ´Ææ’h-´¤-©èπ◊, work he did on 2 Sundays = È®çúø’ ÇC-
10 à∞¡x™ ®Ω÷.35000 Å´¤-ûª’ç-ü¿E. ÉC time Xerox = °ævû√© †éπ∞¡Ÿx ûªßª÷®Ω’ îËÊÆ °æü¿l¥A = é̆’-íÓ©’üΔ®Ω’úø’ îÁLxç-î√-Lq† ≤Ò´·t N´-®√-©†’ ¢√-®√©’ °æE-îË-Æœ-†ç-ü¿’-èπ◊-í¬†’ Åûª-úÕéÀ È®çvúÓ-V©
scale. Photocopy, Cabinet, Cheque (Check é¬ü¿’) ûÁLÊ° °ævûªç; ¢Ëûª-Ø√©’ áèπ◊\´ Éî√a®Ω’.
book, Auditorium, Round figure, Indian ink Estimate = ´Ææ’h-´¤©/ ÊÆ´© Ææ®Ω-°∂æ-®√-éπßË’u ê®Ω’a b) He took cash in lieu of the prize he won =
2) ã EKgûª 鬩 ´u´Cμ.
Master Scale = Ø√èπ◊ ûÁLÆœ É™«çöÀ ´÷ô ™‰ü¿’.
OöÀ-éÓÆæç English - Telugu Dictionary îª÷úøçúÕ. ÅçîªØ√. ûª†èπ◊ ´*a† •£æ›-´’-AéÀ •-ü¿’©’ Åûª-úø’ †í∫ü¿’
Q. What is the difference among - Institute,  Scrutiny = ûÁL-°œ† N´-®√©’ ÆæÈ®j-†¢√ 鬢√, BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
Pay = @ûªç Academy, Association, Wing, Society, ûª°æ¤p™‰¢Á’iØ√ ÖØ√oߪ÷ ÅE îª÷úøôç; By dint of = Åçü¿’-´©x;
Dividend (Divident é¬ü¿’) – ã company ûª†èπ◊ Panel, Camp, Federation, Alliance, Front,
Verification = äéπ N≠æߪ’ç Eï-¢Á’içüΔ, é¬üΔ, He came up by dint of hard work
´*a† ™«¶μºç™ ¢√ö«-üΔ-®Ωxèπ◊ ¢√J ¢√ö«© E≠æpAh Committee, Organisation, Forum, Union,
Party, Council, Assembly, Firm, Group, ÆæÈ®jçüΔ, é¬üΔ, ´’†ç ņ’-èπ◊-†oô’x ÖçüΔ, ™‰üΔ = Åûª-úÕ éπ%≠œ´©x/ ´‚©çí¬ Â°jéÌ-î√aúø’.
v°æ鬮Ωç °æç°œùà îËÊÆ ≤Ò´·t.
League, Club, Bureau, Institution, ÅE E®Ωl¥-Jç--éÓ-´úøç.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 21 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Subodh: (Have you) had your grub? I have Subodh: Mom is good at cooking and that 1) That makes two of
yet to eat, and if you haven't I shall keeps me off outside food. Today us = Ç N≠æ-ߪ’ç™
have company. she is out of town. Otherwise she ´’E-ü¿l®Ωç äéπõ‰/
(F ¶μï†ç Å®·çüΔ? ØËEçé¬ AØ√Lq would have served me up the spe-
cial food today.
´’†ç ñúŒ.
ÖçC, †’´‹y ¶μçîË-ߪ’-éπ-§ÚûË Ø√èπ◊ com- a) Oh, you've lost
pany Öçô’çC.) (Å´’t ´çô©’ ¶«í¬ îËÆæ’hçC. Åçü¿’-´©x
your certificates
Susmitha: I haven't yet, and that makes two of Ø√èπ◊ •ßª’ô AØË Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’. É¢√∞¡
us. Where shall we eat? Ç¢Á’ Ü∞x ™‰ü¿’. ™‰èπ◊ç-õ‰ Ø√éîÓV v°æûËuéπ too? That makes
´çô-é¬-©ûÓ Å†oç °õ‰düË.) two of us = †’´‹y
(Éçé¬ ™‰ü¿’ – Åçü¿’-´©x Fèπ◊ ؈’ ñ-úŒ. a) I can never forget the delicious dinner he
Susmitha: Just don't worry. I grew up like that certificates§ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊-Ø√o¢√? Å®·ûË ÉçÍéç?
áéπ\úø ¶μçîËüΔlç?)
too. When I was young, my grand- served as on his birthday = Åûª-úÕ °æ¤öÀd-†-®ÓV
Subodh: I'd opt for snacks instead of a regu- †’´¤y Ø√èπ◊ ûÓúø’/ ´’E-ü¿l®Ωç äéπõ‰.
lar meal. I can't think of a restaurant mother used to feed me with choice Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥çí¬ Åûª-úÕ-*a† ÅA ®Ω’*-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† Nçü¿’
b) Has he failed two? That makes two of
that can give us a good fare; I mean sweets and biscuits. She was good ØËØÁ-†o-öÀéà ´’®Ω’-´-™‰†’.
at cooking that kind of stuff. Can I them = fail
Åûªúø÷ Åߪ÷uú≈? Å®·ûË Ç N≠æ- b) The mango is among the most delicious of
a place where it pays to eat.
ever forget that? ߪ’ç™ ¢√Rx-ü¿l®Ω÷ äéπõ‰. fruits.Åûªuçûª ®Ω’*-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† °æçúøx™ ´÷N’úÕ
(´÷´‚©’ ¶μï†ç é¬èπ◊çú≈ àü¿Ø√o °∂æ©- 3) Hold out = E©-üÌ-èπ◊\-éÓ-´úøç/ ã°œéπ °æôd-í∫©í∫úøç/
£æ…®Ωç îËüΔl-´’-†’çC Ø√èπ◊. Ééπ\-úÁ-éπ\ú≈ (àç °æ®Ω-¢√-™‰-ü¿’™‰ ؈÷ F™«Íí °J-í¬†’. °æçúø’ äéπöÀ.
´’ç* ¶μï†ç üÌJÍé îÓô’ Ø√èπ◊ ûªôdúøç Ø√ *†o-ûª-†ç™ ´÷ Å´’t´’t/ ¶«´’t °æô’d éÓ™p-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç. 7) Delicacy = äéπ v§ƒçû√-EéÀ Ê°®Ω’ûÁ*a°õ‰d ´çôéπç.
™‰ü¿’ – Åçõ‰ ´’† úø•’sèπ◊ ûªí∫_ ¶μï†ç Ø√èπ◊ ´’ç* Æ‘y-ô’x, -GÂÆ\-ô’x -îËÆœ °õ‰dC. a) Inspite of the enemy being stronger they a) Biriyani is a Hyderabadi delicacy. =
üÌJÍé îÓô’.) Å™«çöÀ ¢√öÀ™x Ç¢Á’ Côd. -ØË-†-C held out for quite a long time = ¨¡vûª’´¤ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ GJ-ߪ÷-FéÀ °öÀdçC Ê°®Ω’./
Susmitha: That's right, but if you can hold out
á°æpöÀéà ´’®Ω-*-§Ú-™‰†’.) •©-¨»L Å®·-†p-öÀéÃ, ¢√∞¡Ÿx î√™«-ÊÆ°æ¤ E©-üÌ-èπ◊\- GJߪ÷F £j«ü¿-®√-¶«D ´çôéπç
for a while and are game for a little Subodh: Then come, let's go. èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’/ v°æA-°∂æ’-öÀç-î√®Ω’. b) Sandesh is a delicacy. Bengal is famous
walk I can show you a place you (®√, §ÚüΔç.) b) If they can hold out for another ten for = ¶„çí¬™¸ 'ÆæçüË≠ˇ— ´çôéπç î√© v°æÆœCl¥
can eat to your heart's content. Note: 1) heart's content = ´’†-≤ƒ®√/ Ææçûª%-°œhí¬ minutes, they will win the match = îÁçCçC.
(ÅC Eï¢Ë’. Å®·ûË é¬Ææh ü¿÷®Ωç †’´¤y 2) out of this world. Å°æ‹-®Ωy-¢Á’i†, áéπ\-ú≈-™‰E ÉçéÓ 10 EN’-≥ƒ©’ E©-üÌ-èπ◊\-éÓ-í∫-L-TûË, ¢√∞¡Ÿx 6) Cuisine (Pronunciation - éÀy@Ø˛ – @, size ™
†úø-´-ö«-EéÀ ÂÆj Åçõ‰, F ´’†-≤ƒ®√ A†-í∫- 3) game for = Æœü¿l¥ç-é¬-´úøç/ 'ÂÆj— ņúøç. Èí©’-≤ƒh®Ω’. 'z' ™« °æ©-é¬L) = a) ´çô NüμΔ†ç; Andhra
L-T† îÓöÀéÀ BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á∞«h.) Cuisine = Ççvüμ¿ °æü¿l¥A ´çôéπç; North Indian
Cuisine = Öûªh®Ω ¶μ«®Ω-û√-EéÀ v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i† ´çôéπç.

I haven't had my gr ub yet..


b) àüÁjØ√ Restaurant ûªßª÷-®Ω’-îËÆ œ ´úÕfçîË ´çô-
鬩’, ´·êuçí¬ êK-üÁj-†N.
multi-cuisine restaurant = ®Ωéπ-®Ω-鬩, NNüμ¿
v§ƒçû√© ´çô-é¬-©†’ ÅçCç-îª-í∫© restaurant.
Subodh: (Are) you sure of that? Hope I won't a) She is an adept at cooking, and can cook
Ééπ 2) Snacks, 4) Specialty,
be disappointed. I'm really starving. multi-cuisine fare =
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 587
5) Delicious 6) Cuisine 7) Delicacy Ç¢Á’ ´çô™ Côd. ®Ωéπ-®Ω-鬩,
(Eï-¢Ë’Ø√? Åçûª ü¿÷®Ω´‚ ¢ÁRx Ø√èπ◊ 8) Feed - É´Fo ǣ慮Ω, Ç£æ…®Ω °æüΔ-®√n- NNüμ¿ v§ƒçû√© ´çô-é¬-©†’ Ç¢Á’ ´çúø-í∫-©ü¿’.
E®√¨¡ éπ©-í∫-ü¿-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. Eïçí¬ î√™« ©èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*-†N. OöÀE îª÷üΔlç. b) Chinese Cuisine is in demand now a days =
Çéπ-Lí¬ ÖçC.)
2) Snacks Åçõ‰ ¶μï†ç é¬èπ◊çú≈ Å™«p-
(°j ¢√öÀ™x (2) & (3) í∫ûªç™ î√™«- îÁjF ´çô-é¬-©èπ◊ Ñ ®ÓV™x ´’ç* T®√éÃßË’ ÖçC.
Susmitha: The place is famous for its special- 8) Feed = 1)
ty stuff. The fried rice there is really ≤ƒ®Ω’x N´-Jçî√ç) £æ…®Ωç ÅE, ´’†ç Tiffin Åçô’çö«ç. é¬F AE-°œç-îªúøç, AçúÕ Â°ôdúøç. 2) ïçûª’-
delicious. It serves Chinese cuisine 4) Keep somebody off something = M.SURESAN Tiffin ÅØË ´÷ô English ™ ™‰ü¿’. üΔE ´¤© ¢Ë’ûª; ïçûª’-´¤-©†’ ¢Ë’°æúøç.
’©’ Snacks ™‰-üΔ refreshments a) The child care home feeds its children
too which is out of this world. The äéπJo äéπîÓöÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡x-F-ߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´úøç/ •ü¿
place is famous for its North Indian (plural ™ØË ¢√úøû√ç), Å™«p-£æ…®Ωç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. °æ©- well = Ç P¨¡Ÿ Ææç®Ω-éπ~ù Íéçvü¿ç™ °œ©x-©èπ◊ ´’ç*
Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰éπ-§Ú-´úøç.
delicacies too. e.g.: The police action kept the students off £æ…®Ωç ÅE èπ ÿ ú≈ ņ’éӴa. Å™«çöÀ °æ©-£æ…-®Ω-¨»-©†’ AçúË Â°úø-û√®Ω’.
Snackbar/ Refreshments stall ÅE b) In most oldage homes, the old people are
(E†’o ؈’ BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á∞Ïx îÓô’ éÌEo ´çô- the campus = §ÚMÆˇ Ωu NüΔu-®Ω’n-©†’ èπÿú≈
é¬-©èπ◊ v°æûËu-éπûª Ö†oC. Åéπ\úÕ Fried Åçö«®Ω ’ . (´’†ç ´÷´‚- © ’í¬ ¢√öÀ E Tiffin Centres not fed well = î√© ´%üΔl¥-v¨¡-´÷™x ´%ü¿’l¥-©èπ◊
NüΔu-©ßª’ Ç´-®Ω-ù-™-EéÀ ¢Á∞¡x-E-´y-™‰ü¿’.
rice î√™« ®Ω’*í¬ Öçô’çC. v°æ°æç- 5) Starve = °æÆæ’hç-úøôç; Å®·ûË '¶«í¬ Çéπ-™‰-≤ÚhçC— -
Åçô’çö«ç) AçúÕ ÆæJí¬ Â°ôd®Ω’.
îªç™ ÉçÈé-éπ\ú≈ üÌ®Ω-éπE îÁjØ√ ´çô-鬩’ 4) Specialty (Speciality ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«®Ω’)/ (Are not fed. ÉC feed éÀ passive voice)
Å-ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ èπÿú≈ ¢√úø’-ûª÷-Öçö«ç.
Specialty food = °∂æ©-£æ…-®Ω-¨»-©©’/ Hotels/ c) Who feeds you? Your parents, of course =
èπÿú≈ Åéπ\úø üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-û√®·. ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ Now look at the following expressions from
North Indian ´çô-鬩èπ◊ èπÿú≈ ÅC the conversation above: Restaurants éÌEo, éÌEo ®Ω鬩 ´çôé¬-©èπ◊ v°æÆœCl Fèπ◊ AçúÕ Â°õ‰d-üÁ-´®Ω’? O’ ûªLxü¿çvúø’-™‰-éπüΔ?
d) Cows and buffaloes feed on grass =
°öÀdçC Ê°®Ω’.) 1) That makes two of us §Òçü¿ ’ - û ª ’ ç- ö «®·. Å™«çöÀ v°æûËuéπ ´çô-鬙‰
Subodh: Take me there at once. I can't wait 2) I'd opt for snacks, instead of a regular meal Specialty foods/ Specialty. Ç´¤©÷, ÍíüÁ©÷ í∫úÕf Açö«®·.
any longer. a) I like to enjoy the Specialty food of that Look at the word 'Grub' in the first sen-
3) If you can hold out for a while
tence in the dialogue. 'Grub' also means
(¢ÁçôØË ††oéπ\-úÕéÀ BÆæ’-Èé∞¡Ÿx. Éçéπ ؈’ 4) The place is famous for its specialty stuff. restaurant = Ç °∂æ©-£æ…-®Ω-¨»© v°æûËuéπ ´çô-é¬Eo food. Å®·ûË ÉC-é¬Ææhinformal. Å®Ωnç ¶μï-†¢Ë’,
5) The fried rice is really delicious
ã°œéπ °æôd-™‰†’.) džç-Cç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ É≠æd-°æ-úø-û√†’.
Susmitha: I'm surprised that having been here Å®·Ø√ ´’†èπ◊ ¶«í¬ °æJ-îªßª’ç Ö†o ´uèπ◊h-©-ûÓØË
6) It serves Chinese Cuisine b) Prawns are the specialty item of the sea side
so long you don't know about this Ñ ´÷ô ¢√úøû√ç. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®·ûË, AçúÕ/
restaurant. 7) The place is famous for its North Indian restaurant, 'Sun-n-sand' = Ææ´·vü¿ B®Ωç™ èπÿúø’ ÅØË ´÷ô 'grub' èπ◊ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC.
Delicacies too. Ö†o Sun-n-sand v°æûËuéπ ´çôéπç ®Ìߪ’u©’/ Ç I haven't had my grub yet = Éçé¬ ØËE-¢√∞¡
(Éçûª-鬩ç Ééπ\úø ÖçúÕ èπÿú≈ Ñ
£æ«Ùô™¸ Fèπ◊ ûÁM-ü¿çõ‰ Ø√é¬-¨¡a-®Ωuçí¬ 8) ... my grandmother used to feed me with °∂æ©-£æ…-®Ω-¨»© ®Ìߪ’u© ´çô-é¬-©èπ◊ Ê°®Ω’. AçúÕ AØËxü¿’.
choice sweets... 5) Delicious = ®Ω’*-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i†
ÖçC.)
S. Satyanarayana Murthy, Kakinada 2) Verb 'is' È®çúø’ NüμΔ-©’í¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø’ûª’çü¿E Å®·ûË has been/ have been/ had been ÖçúËN/ ÖØ√o®· (They were) ÅØË Å®√n-E-≤ƒh®·–
Q. 1) I think that the following be forms are used í∫-ûªç-™ ®√¨»®Ω’. 1) Öçúøôç 2) action ûª®√yûª '...ing' form èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç. Å°æ¤púø’ -Å-C Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ OöÀéÀ à voice Öçúøü¿’.
in the passive voice only. îËߪ’úøç. Ñ N≠æߪ’ç ÉçTx≠ˇ ¶μ«≠æèπ◊ Çߪ·-´¤- active voice ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Å´¤-ûª’çC. Å®·ûË Am/ is/ 2) All 'be' forms- have
1. is, am, are being + V3 - Present continuous °æô’d ÅE ¶μ«N-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. DE-O’ü¿ N´-®Ω-ù©’ ´’Sx are/ was/ were being ûª®√yûª PP ßË’ ´Ææ’hçC. am shall has been
2. was, were being + V3 - Past continuous ûÁL-°œûË ¶«í¬ Å®Ωn-´’-´¤-ûª’çC. Åçü¿’-éπE 'being' á°æ¤púø÷ passive form ™ØË is should had
3. has, have been + V3 - Present perfect are will shall
A. 1) Yes, they are passive forms. ´Ææ’hçC.
4. had been + V3 - Past perfect was would should
Being + PP (Past Participle/ V3), been + Be Åçõ‰ Öçúøôç ÅØË Å®Ωnç ÖçC. Be here. I'll
were can be will
being, been ©†’ passive voice ™ PP, are always passive. been talk to you again = Ééπ\úø Öçúø’. ØËFoûÓ ´’Sx
Å®·ûË, ûª®√yûª, could would have been
´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úøû√ç. Ñ Verbs -†’ pas- '...ing' form active voice.
èπÿú≈ ´Ææ’hçC. Å°æ¤púøC ´÷ö«x-úøû√. Be E Öçúøôç- ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ É™«çöÀ may can
sive ™ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√úø-û√-®Ω-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. a) He is being given an injection = Åûª-úÕéÀ îÓôx-™ØË ¢√úøû√ç, independent í¬. might could
Active voice ™ ¢√úÕûË á™« ¢√ú≈L? injection passive Am, is are, was, were ûª®√yûª PP (V3) ´ÊÆhØË may
É´y-•-úø’-ûÓçC (É°æ¤púø’) – ÉC must
í∫ûªç™ 'be' éÀ past tense been ÅE (´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®·ûË, Åûª-úÕéÀ injection ÅN PP ûÓ éπLÆœ passive verbs Å´¤-û√®·. ¢√öÀ need
might
®√¨»®Ω’. 'be' Åçõ‰ Öçúøôç ÅE ûÁL-§ƒ®Ω’. 'be' Verb - is being given
ÉÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ Åçö«ç) – Ééπ\úø ûª®√yûª PP ™‰éπ-§ÚûË, ÅN 'be' form èπ◊ NNüμ¿ ought
must
- is being + PP (Passive)
®Ω÷§ƒ™„j, É°æ¤púø’ ÖØ√o†’ (I am), É°æ¤púø’ ÖØ√oúø’
®Ω÷§ƒ™‰ is, was ÅE ®√¨»®Ω’. (He is...), É°æ¤púø’ ÖçC (She is; It is); í∫ûªç™ °j´Fo 'be' forms. ÉN 'NN-üμ¿- ®Ω-鬩 Öçúø-ö«Eo—
b) He has been given an injection =
ÉçéÓ ÆæçüË£æ«ç. is, am, are, was, were ´Èíj®√
injection
Åûªúø’ ÖçúË¢√úÕE (I was), í∫ûªç™ ÖçúË-¢√úø’/ ÖØ√oúø’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-û√®·. °j 'be' form ©ûÓ ÉçÍéç éπL-ÆœØ√ àüÓ
verbs -Å-Eoç-öÀ-F passive voice éÀçü¿ °æJ-í∫-ùÀç- (he was), í∫ûªç™ ÖçC (She/ It was), í∫ûªç™ °æE îËߪ’úøç ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. 鬕öÀd, ÅN Action
É´y-•-ú≈fúø’ (´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’ – Åûª-úÕéÀ
injection sentence
Éî√a®Ω’) – Ñ verb, has
™ ÖØ√o´¤/ ÖØ√o®Ω’ (You were); í∫ûªç™ ÖØ√o®Ω’ Words Å´¤-û√®·. Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x ûÁL-°œ†
î√™«?ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ N´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. been + PP (Passive) forms of verbs îª÷úøçúÕ.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 28 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Subodh: I haven't seen you for ages. Have Pranav: I turned a new leaf in my life as soon
Slog away = v¨¡´’
you been tied up at work or what? as I left college. My sister's words
before she left for the Sates did the
-°æ-úøôç °æô’d-ü¿-©í¬
Second thoughts =
(î√™«-é¬-©-´’-®·uçC E†’o îª÷Æœ. °æEûÓ
BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o¢√ àç?) trick. That changed me completely.
éÌûªh Ç™-îª-†©’
Pranav: You can say that again. I haven't had (Ø√ @N-ûªç™ ؈’ éÌûªh Ê°@ ûÁJ-î√†’,
Look at the following
breathing space this whole week. 鬙‰@ ´ü¿-©-í¬ØË. ´÷ Åéπ\ Å¢Á’-Jé¬èπ◊ expressions from
Perhaps I have to keep at it for anoth- ¢Á∞Ïx-´·ç-ü¿†o ´÷ô©’ Ø√™ Ñ ´÷®Ω’p the dialogue above:
er three or four months to come. Well, ûÁî √a®·. ؈’ É°æ¤púø’ °æ‹Jhí¬ 1) Tied up at work.
to get ahead in the job I have to. ´÷J-§Úߪ÷.) 2) Keep at it for another three to four months.
Subodh: So thank your sister for the change in 3) To take somebody on = ÖüÓuí∫ç É´yúøç/
(†’´¤y ÆæJ-í¬ØË ÅØ√o´¤. Ñ¢√-®Ω-´’çû√ 3) When they first took you on
you. What about your plans of going Eߪ’-N’ç-îªúøç.
Ü°œJ Ææ-©°æ†çûª °æE™ ÖØ√o. É™« 4) My sister's words did the trick. a) They took me on, offering a salary of
abroad?
ÉçéÓ ´‚úø’Ø√©’í∫’ ØÁ©©’ é̆-≤ƒ- 5) Run by my parents and good friends like you. Rs.20000/- a month = 20000 ®Ω÷. © @ûªçûÓ
(O’ Çéπ\-ߪ’uèπ◊ †’´¤y ®Ω’ù-°æúÕ ÖØ√o´¤.
1) Be tied up at work =
Tçî√L. Ø√ ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ °jéÀ®√´-ú≈-EéÀ.) BJ-éπ-™‰-†çûª °æE™ ††’o ÖüÓu-í∫ç-™éÀ BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’.
Subodh: When they first took you on, they did- F´¤ NüË-¨»-©èπ◊ ¢Á∞Ïx Ç™- à´’-®·çC?)
Pranav: I have second thoughts about it. The
Öçúøôç. b) They did not take her on, in spite of her
n't tell you that you had to slog away
job I am in now is a plum job and a) Dad is too tied up at arrangements for my high qualifications =
like this, did they?
Ö†oûª NüΔu-®Ω|-ûª©’
promises quick growth. Any way I sister's marriage to bother about my Ö†o°æp-öÀéà ǢÁ’èπ◊ ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÖüÓuí∫ç É´y-™‰ü¿’.
(¢√∞¡Ÿx ¢Á·ü¿ô E†’o ÖüÓu-í∫ç-™éÀ BÆæ’- want to run it by my parents and good marks = Ø√ ´÷®Ω’\© í∫’Jç* °æöÀdç--éÓ-™‰-†ç- 4) To do the trick = ņ’-èπ◊†o °∂æL-û√-Eo-´yúøç
èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’ †’Nyçûª v¨¡´’-°æ-ú≈Lq friends like you. I have to think ûªí¬ ´÷ îÁLx °Rx à®√p-ôx™ BJ-éπ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ a) The doctor's medicines were no use.
through it.
´Ææ’hç-ü¿E îÁ°æp-™‰-ü¿’í¬.) ÖØ√o®Ω’ ´÷ Ø√†o. Fasting for a day did the trick = ú≈éπd-J-*a†

Fasting for a day did the trick


´’çü¿’™‰ç °æE-îË-ߪ’-™‰ü¿’. äéπ\-®ÓV °æÆæ’hç-úË-Ææ-JéÀ
Ç ®Óí∫ç ûªT_çC (ÇPç-*† °∂æL-û√-Eo-*açC)
b) The officer was delaying my file. I paid him
a bribe or Rs. 2000/- and that did the trick
= Ç Ç°∂‘-Ææ®˝ Ø√ °∂j©’†’ §ƒÆˇ îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈
Pranav: They didn't of course, but I don't mind b) I expected you to be tied up at û√û√q®Ωç îËÆæ’hçõ‰ 2000 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’
it. I am learning you know, and I am your exams but I'm surprized that
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 588
©çîª-N’î√a. üΔçûÓ °æ†-®·çC. (ÇPç-*† °∂æLûªç
rather happy about it. you are watching TV = F °æK-éπ~-©ûÓ ´*açC)
(îÁ°æp-™‰-ü¿-†’éÓ, é¬F Ø√Íéç Ŷμºuç-ûª®Ωç ûª©-´·-†-éπ™„j Öçö«-´E ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o-í¬F 5) To run by somebody = to take somebody's
™‰ü¿’. °æE ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o Ç Nüμ¿ç-í¬-ØÁjØ√. (üΔEo í∫’Jç* ´’Sx Ç™-îª- †’´¤y öÃO îª÷Ææ’hç-úøôç Ø√é¬-¨¡a-®Ωuçí¬ advice = äéπJ Ææ©-£æ…†’ BÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç/ Ææçv°æ-
ÅC Ø√èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖçC. (BJ-éπ-™‰- †©’ ´î√a®·. ØËE-°æ¤púø’ ÖçC. Cç-îªúøç.
èπ◊çú≈ éπ≠d-°æ æ-úø’-ûª’-†o°æp-öÀéÃ) îËÆæ’h†o ÖüÓuí∫ç î√™« 2) Keep at something = continue to a) He bought the house only after running it
Subodh: It's amazing to hear you say that. I M.SURESAN by his uncle =
´’ç*C, ´’ç* ´%Cl¥ éπL-Tç-îË- do something. ¢√∞¡x ¶«¶«®· Ææ©£æ… BÆæ’-èπ◊ØË/
wonder if you are the same guy who ü¿ØË †´’téπç ÖçC. àüÁjØ√ a) He keeps at smoking against doctor's ¶«¶«-®·E Ææçv°æ-Cç-*† ûª®√yûË Ç É©’x
at college never seemed to bother ÆæÍ® ´÷ Å´÷t-Ø√-†o©÷, F™«çöÀ ÊÆo£œ«- advice = ú≈éπd®˝ Ææ©-£æ…èπ◊ ´uA-Í®-éπçí¬ Åûªúø’ éÌØ√oúøûªúø’.
about your future. ûª’© Ææ©£æ… BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. üΔEo Æœí∫-È®ö¸ û√í∫’-ûª÷ØË ÖØ√oúø’. b) I have to run it by my parents before I
(†’´y™« ņúøç Ø√èπ◊ Eïçí¬ Ç¨¡a-®Ωuçí¬ í∫’Jç* BJ-éπí¬ Ç™-*ç-î√L.) b) Keep at (practising) music. You are sure decide on my marriage = Ø√ °Rx N≠æߪ’ç à
Notes: Turn a new leaf = @Nûªç ÅØË °æ¤Ææh-éπç™
ÖçC. 鬙‰@ ®ÓV™x ¶μºN-≠æuûª’h í∫’Jç* to become a great singer one day = E®Ωg-ߪ’-¢Á’iØ√, ´÷ ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’-©†’ Ææçv°æ-Cç-î√Lq
°æöÀdç--éÓE †’¢ËyØ√ É™« Åçô’-†o-ü¿E éÌûªh Ê°@ A°æpúøç/ ´÷J-§Ú-´úøç ÆæçUûªç Ŷμºu-Æœ-Ææ÷hØË Öçúø’. ´ü¿-©èπ◊. àüÓ Öçô’çC/ Ææ©£æ… BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√Lq Öçô’çC.
Ø√èπ◊ ÆæçüË-£æ«çí¬ ÖçC.) plum job = ´’ç* ÖüÓuí∫ç
äéπ-®ÓV íÌ°æp í¬ßª’-èπ◊-®√-L-´-´¤-û√´¤.
T.Siva, Nandikotkur A. Mystery = something that is very difficult to Marriage is an ancient custom = Each/ each of the students has a book in
explain or understand. their hand =
Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀéÀ ÆæÈ®j† Ææ´÷-üμΔ-Ø√-©†’ N¢√£æ«ç î√™« v§ƒ<† Ææçv°æüΔߪ’ç. Ç NüΔu-®Ω’n-©™ v°æA-¢√J îËA™ ã
Ææ÷*ç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. His death is a mystery = How he died or Ancient x Modern. °æ¤Ææhéπç ÖçC.
why he died cannot be explained. = Round (adj) = Around Every- refers to all the members in a group.
1) It suits --- me.
´’†-éπ-®Ωnç-
(a) to (b) no word
é¬E, áçûª v°æߪ’-Aoç-*Ø√ àO’ ûÁL-ߪ’E N≠æߪ’ç. There is a wall round (around) the temple. Every car has a steering wheel = 鬮Ωx-Eoç-öÀéÀ
The end of Subhas Chandra Bose is still a Around is used more in American English. steering wheel
2) It suits --- my needs Öçô’çC.
mystery = Ææ’¶μ«-≠ˇ-îªç-vü¿-¶Ææ’ Åçûªç á´-Jéà steering wheel
(a) to (b) no word Lament = to express sadness or sorrow = (鬮Ω-†o-üΔ-EéÀ Öçô’çC)
Every worker there is well trained =
ûÁL-ߪ’E/ Åçûª’-*-éπ\E N≠æߪ’ç.
3) It is suitable --- me N≥ƒ-üΔEo, Nî√-®√Eo ´uéπh-°æ-®Ω-îªúøç– Åéπ\úÕ
Miracle = Åü¿’s¥ûªç – An act or an event that
(a) to (b) for We all lament the loss of morals among °æE-¢√-∞¡}çû√ (v°æB °æE-¢√úø÷) Ææ’P-éÀ~-ûª’™‰.
does not follow the laws of nature = v°æéπ%A
4) It is suitable --- my needs political leaders = Dumb= unable to speak (´÷ö«x-úø-™‰E) ´·êuçí¬
ÆœüΔl¥ç-û√©èπ◊ ņ’-í∫’-ùçí¬ ïJÍí Nçûª– eg: Baba ®√ï-éÃߪ’ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-©-™E ØÁjAéπ
(a) to (b) for and such others curing patients by mere °æûª-Ø√-EéÀ ´’†ç Nî√-J-Ææ’hØ√oç/ ´’†-éπC N≥ƒ-üΔEo ´‚í∫.
5) He is studying --- Class V touch of their hands; their creating things out éπ©’-í∫-ñ‰-Ææ’hçC. He was born dumb = Åûªúø’ °æ¤ô’d-éπ-ûÓØË ´‚í∫.
(a) in (b) no word of nothing, etc. Mourn = weep over the death of a person = Å®·ûË ´‚í∫-¢√-∞¡x†’ dumb ņúøç ÆæÈ®j-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, Å™«
6) A person who lives in London is ----- of Mutiny = Refusing to obey the orders of supe- äéπJ ´’%AE í∫’Jç* N©-°œç-îªúøç. ņúøç ¢√∞¡x†’ Å´-´÷-Eç-îªúøç. Speech impaired
London riors, especially soldiers and sailors refusing to January 30th is a day of national mourning = Åçö«ç.
obey the orders of their superiors 30 Mute= silent (´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-LT èπÿú≈ ´÷ö«x-úø-èπ◊çú≈
(a) a resident (b) a dweller (c) an inhabitant = °j ÅCμ-é¬-®Ω’© ï†-´J ü˨¡ç™ ñ«Bߪ’ Ææçû√-°æ-C†ç.
A. 1 - 5 Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary Çïc-©†’ Cμéπ\-Jç-îªúøç, ´·êuçí¬ ÂÆjE-èπ◊©÷, Ø√N-èπ◊©÷ (≤ƒyûªç-vûªuç-éÓÆæç v§ƒù«-©-Jpç-*† ¢√J-°æôx Ææçû√°æç Öçúøôç)
îª÷úøçúÕ. ÅCμ-é¬-®Ω’© Çïc-©†’ §ƒöÀç-îª-ú≈-EéÀ E®√-éπ-Jç-îªúøç. ´uéπh-°æ-®Ω’≤ƒhç.) They were mute in fear = ¶μºßª’çûÓ ´÷ö«x-úø-
6. A resident Revolt = Rising against authority especially Also = too, but 'also' is 'formal', whereas 'too' èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç.
government is 'informal' Avenge = to punish or hurt some one for the
Q. éÀçC¢√-öÀéÀ Antonyms ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. – îªôdv°æ鬮Ωç à®Ωpúøf v°æ¶μº’-û√y-EéÀ
ÅN-üμË-ߪ’ûª v°æéπ-öÀç* ´uA-Í®-éÀç-îªúøç. Too also wrong they have done to you, your friends or
1) Refuse, 2) Reject, 3) Mourn, 4) Overcome, éπçõ‰ é¬Ææh ví¬çC∑éπç. ´÷´‚-©’í¬
Mutiny, revolt - synonyms í¬ BÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a. Spoken English ™ too áèπ◊\´ ¢√úøû√ç. relatives.
5) Famous, 6) Notorious, 7) Prosperous,
(O’èπ◊, O’¢√-∞¡xèπ◊, O’ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-©èπ◊ ïJ-T†
8) Appreciate, 9) confident, 10) Trust. Primitive = Of the early stages of human I also like the movie - ví¬çC∑éπç, (Ø√èπÿ Ç ÆœE´÷ ÅØ√u-ߪ÷-EéÀ °æí∫-B®Ω’aéÓ´úøç/ v°æB-鬮Ωç B®Ω’a-éÓ-´úøç)
A. 1) refuse x agree, 2) reject x accept development/ Of the undeveloped stages †*açC) Parasurama avenged his father's death by
in civilization, old fashioned - I like the movie too ÉC ¢√u´-£æ…-Jéπç; Å®·ûË killing all Kshatriyas.
3) mourn x rejoice, 4) overcome x surrender
Ø√í∫-®Ωéπûª °æJ- (éπ~vA-ߪ·-©oç-ü¿Ko îªç°œ °æ®Ω-¨¡Ÿ-
5) famous x obscure 6) notorious x famous
ù«-´’ç™ ÅGμ-´%Cl¥ îÁçü¿E ü¿¨¡èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† I like the movie too èπ◊ È®çúø-®√n©’ ®√´îª’a – ®√-´·úø’ ûª† ûªçvúÕ £æ«ûªuèπ◊ v°æB-鬮Ωç B®Ω’a-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’)
7) prosperous x indi-
(éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ´÷vûªç) (üΔüΔ°æ¤ ÅØ√-í∫-®Ω-éπ-¢Á’i†) eg: Primitive tribes = 1) Ø√èπÿ Ç ÆœE´÷ É≠ædç 2) Ø√èπ◊ Ç ÆœE´÷ èπÿú≈ Avenge - verb
gent 8) appreciate x depricate 9) confident x ÇC-´’-ñ«A ûÁí∫©’. (N’í∫û√ Ææ´÷-ïç-ûÓ- §ƒô’ É≠æd¢Ë’ ÅE. Ææçü¿-®√s¥-Eo-•öÀd Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√Lq Revenge - °æí∫/ v°æB-鬮Ωç. ÉC noun.
diffident 10) trust x doubt. Ø√í∫®Ωéπ-û√-Gμ-´%Cl¥ îÁçü¿E) ´Ææ’hçC. He took revenge on his political rivals by
Q. éÀçC ¢√öÀ Å®Ωnç, Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Even today there are some parts of the world Each- refers to the people or things, in a defeating them in the elections = ûª† ®√ï-éÃߪ’
1) Mystery - Miracle, 2) Mutiny - Revolt, where primitive people live. group separately- äéπ •%çü¿ç-™E ´’†’-≠æfl-©†’, v°æûªu-®Ω’n-©†’ áEo-éπ™x ãúÕç* v°æB-鬮Ωç B®Ω’a-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
3) Primitive - Ancient, 4) Round - Around, Ancient = of the long past - v§ƒ<-†-¢Á’i† – ÉC ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’, v°æA-¢√-JF, v°æA-üΔEo í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úÕ- Avenge E áèπ◊\-´í¬ ´’†Íé é¬èπ◊çú≈, ´’†èπ◊ Ææç•ç-
5) Lament - Mourn, 6) Also - Too, 7) Each - v§ƒ<-†-¢Á’i-†-°æp-öÀéà ÅGμ-´%Cl¥ îÁçC† ´÷†´ @-´-† †-°æ¤púø’, each/ each of them Åçö«ç– 'v°æA— ÅØË Cμç-*† ¢√∞¡}èπ◊ ïJ-T† ÅØ√u-ߪ÷-EéÀ èπÿ-ú≈ v°æB-鬮Ωç
every, 8) Dumb - Mute, 9) Avenge - Revenge, -Ææ-®Ω-RE Ææ÷*-Ææ’hçC. Å®ΩnçûÓ. B®Ω’a-éÓ-´úøç -Å-ØË -Å®Ωnç-ûÓ -¢√-úø-û√ç.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm