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DOCUMENT NO 371

DOCUMENT NO 371 A.P.A.C. Ltd. April 2018 ArchaeologicalPerspectives Analysis Consultancy ARCHAEOLOGICAL WATCHING BRIEF

A.P.A.C. Ltd.

April 2018

ArchaeologicalPerspectives Analysis Consultancy

ARCHAEOLOGICAL WATCHING BRIEF

WB/PML/17

Analysis Consultancy ARCHAEOLOGICAL WATCHING BRIEF WB/PML/17 Site of Portland Mill,Buxton Rd, Leek, Staffs Prepared For:

Site of Portland Mill,Buxton Rd, Leek, Staffs

Prepared For:

CgMs Heritage

Planning Application No: SDM/2017/0165

Prepared by C E Smith 12th April 2018

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek Summary WB/PML/17 A planning application for the demolition of existing

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

Summary

WB/PML/17

A planning application for the demolition of existing buildings; retention of an extant façade and

erection of Retirement Living accommodation (49 units), including car parking, with associated

landscaping and infrastructure, on the site of Portland Mill, Buxton Road, Leek, Staffordshire, was made by McCarthy and Stone to Staffordshire Moorlands District Council. The planning reference

is SDM/2017/0165.

This report details the results of a watching brief, carried out on the site during intrusive groundworks, by APAC Ltd acting on behalf of CgMs Heritage (Archaeological consultant to the applicants).

The assessment area is the site of the Portland Mill, an early 19 th century silk mill belonging to A J Worthington & Co Ltd, with earlier Georgian terraced housing occupying the northern third of the site.

Owing to demolition of the Georgian housing and levelling of the site prior to the construction of the mill, little intact archaeology survives within the assessment area. A well of at least18 th century date or earlier attests to previous occupation of the site though no other significant finds or features were located.

Copyright Notice:

A.P.A.C. Ltd. retains copyright of this report under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577) to reproduce map information; Copyright remains otherwise with the Ordnance Survey.

Cover Photograph: View of Portland Mill as it appeared in 1901 on the A J Worthington & Co headed paper

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek Contents WB/PML/17 Contents 3 Figures 4 1 Introduction 5 2

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

Contents

WB/PML/17

Contents

3

Figures

4

1

Introduction

5

2

Site Location and Description

5

3

Geology and Topography

5

4

Brief archaeological and historical background

5

5

Aims and Objectives

6

6

Scope of the Work

6

7

Methodology

7

8

Watching Brief Results

7

9

Finds

9

10

Discussion and Interpretation

11

12

Staff

12

13

Acknowledgements

12

14

Bibliography and References:

12

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek Figures Fig 1 General site location map Fig 2 Plan

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

Figures

Fig 1

General site location map

Fig 2

Plan showing site layout of Portland Mill, Leek

Fig 3

1838 Leek Town Plan showing assessment area

Fig 4 1862 Leek map by Slagg showing assessment area

Fig 5 1899 2 nd Ed 25 Inch OS map showing assessment area Fig 6 1900 2 nd Ed 6 Inch OS map showing assessment areas

Fig 7

Fig 8 Detailed site location map showing work areas and foundation trench layout

1925 3 rd Ed 6 Inch OS map showing assessment area

Plates

WB/PML/17

PL01 View south west of concrete ground slab in situ prior to removal

PL02

View west of exposed hardcore deposit beneath slab during removal

PL03

View east of exposed hardcore deposit beneath slab during removal

PL04 View of slab removal on Brunswick Street frontage

PL05

View of slab removal showing natural clay immediately beneath

PL06

View south during ground reduction at northern end of site

PL07 View west after ground reduction in northern end of site PL08 View north east showing small area of paving located during ground reduction

PL09

PL10 View during mill wall and foundation removal PL11 View during mill wall and foundation removal

PL12 View during mill wall and foundation removal

View south of section exposed during modern drain removal

PL13

View north west showing general shot of foundation trench

PL14

View south east showing general shot of foundation trench

PL15

View north east showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section

PL16

View west showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section

PL17

View east showing heavily truncated wall foundation within foundation trench

PL18

View south showing brick floor surface within foundation trench section

PL19

View north showing brick and mortar feature within foundation trench section

PL20 View west of partially excavated brick cellar feature PL21 Post-excavation view west of cellar feature noted within foundation trench PL22 View east along gully feature [022]

PL23

Plan view of well feature [007]

PL24

Oblique view of well feature [007]

PL25 Mid excavation view showing stratigraphic sequence within crane base area PL26 Post excavation view south showing crane base section

PL27 Post excavation view west showing crane base section

PL28

View of diesel oil tank under excavation in crane base area

PL29

View of extricated diesel oil tank

Appendices

Appendix I

Digital photograph list & contact sheet

Appendix II

Finds index & assemblage photographs

Appendix III

Context list

A.P.A.C. Ltd 1 Introduction Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 This report has been prepared by C

A.P.A.C. Ltd

1 Introduction

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

This report has been prepared by C E Smith, APAC Ltd. It forms the results of an archaeological watching brief undertaken in response to intrusive groundworks associated with a planning application for the demolition of existing buildings; retention of an extant façade and erection of Retirement Living accommodation (49 units), including car parking, with associated landscaping and infrastructure, on the site of Portland Mill, Buxton Road, Leek, Staffordshire.

The assessment area is centred on NGR SJ 989566 (Fig 1). The planning application number for the project is SDM/2017/0165 and the local planning authority is Staffordshire Moorlands District Council.

Prior to the commencement of groundworks taking place a written scheme of investigation was drawn up by APAC Ltd (Smith, 2017). This was submitted to Staffordshire Moorlands District Council by CgMs Heritage acting in their capacity as archaeological consultants for the applicant, McCarthy & Stone Retirement Lifestyles Ltd.

The majority of the 4100m² assessment area was located beneath the extant buildings of a 19 th century silk mill and its later concrete floor slab. Demolition of the mill buildings, with the exception of the structures Queen Street façade, was undertaken at the same time as the watching brief on groundworks.

Following a site visit undertaken by APAC Ltd on January 30 th , the watching brief was undertaken over a period of 10 non-consecutive days between February 12 th and March 14 th 2018.

2 Site Location and Description

The assessment area comprises a rectangular parcel of land 93m in length by 48m wide. It is bound to the north by the A53, Buxton Road, with the lines of Brunswick Street, Queen Street and Portland Street to the east, south and west respectively (Figs 1 & 2).

The northerly quarter of the assessment area, adjacent to Buxton Road, is currently open ground formerly occupied by a row of Georgian terraced brick houses with garden plots to the rear. The remainder of the assessment area is located beneath brick built mill structures and a later 20 th century car wash building.

3 Geology and Topography

The underlying solid geology of the assessment area is formed Morridge Formation - Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone sedimentary bedrock formed between 329 and 320 million years ago during the Carboniferous period (British Geological Survey, 2018).

The solid geology of the assessment area is overlain by slowly permeable, seasonally wet, acid, loamy and clayey soils with impeded drainage (Soilscapes, 2017).

The assessment area itself is located approximately 300m to the east of the centre of Leek in an area characterised by 19 th century brick terrace houses and is situated at approximately 200m above Ordnance Datum (OD) with a slight rise in ground level of approximately one metre across the site from north to south.

4 Brief archaeological and historical background

Silk making in Leek first began in the seventeenth century and was originally attributed to an influx of French Huguenot refugees (Poole, 2002). By the mid eighteenth century the making of threads, sewing silks, twist, shawls, handkerchiefs, buttons and plain ribbons was growing in importance in the area. By the 1790s there were 2000 people employed in the trade with Leek (Brook, 1977, Sherlock, 1976, Buchanan, 1980). As the scale of production increased in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries so the factory became more important. The reduction of import tax on raw silk in the 1820s, combined with an increased duty on foreign manufactured fabrics, meant that mill construction in the early nineteenth century gained momentum (Sherlock, 1976). The mid nineteenth century saw the building of weaving factories (mills) driven by steam engines. By this date Staffordshire had up to 4000 people employed in the trade, mainly in the town of Leek (Brook, 1977).

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 The following is an excerpt from the Leek &

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

The following is an excerpt from the Leek & Lowe Victoria County History (Baggs et al, 1996) regarding the history of the Portland Mill site:

“A. J. Worthington & Co. Ltd. of Portland Mills in Portland Street and Queen Street, though smaller than either of the latter two firms, was one of the larger firms in Leek by the 1920s, with a workforce of 400. It is said to have originated in 1803 as James Goostrey & Co. James Goostrey was a silk manufacturer in Portland Street in the mid-1830s, presumably at the mill there described as new when

it was offered for sale in 1832. Soon afterwards the business was taken over by James Hammond and

Henry Turner. By 1838 Andrew Jukes Worthington, a friend of Turner, was a partner, and in 1839 he married the niece of Turner's wife. He bought the Turners out, and the firm became A. J. Worthington & Co., evidently in 1845. In 1861, when he was living in Spout Street, he was employing 200 people. For some years before 1868 he was in partnership with Thomas Halcomb, evidently his brother-in-law. In that year Thomas withdrew, and Andrew's son Ernest became a partner. Andrew died in 1873.

Ernest and his brother Philip were in partnership with Henry Russell, a London silk agent, from 1875 until Russell's death in 1885. The brothers continued in partnership until Ernest's death in 1896, and when Philip died in 1902 the business was left in trust for his son Lancelot, a minor. The firm became

a private limited company in 1909 and was renamed A. J. Worthington & Co. (Leek) Ltd. in 1936. It

took over several firms after the Second World War, and a parent company A. J. Worthington (Holdings) Ltd. was formed in 1953; the group consisted of six companies in 1963. In 1984 the group announced heavy losses, partly as a result of the closure of its subsidiary W. H. White & Sons of Old Bank Mill, Ball Haye Road, a firm dating from 1923. Turnover increased with the re-emergence of White & Sons, and Worthingtons showed a profit again in 1986”.

The earliest phase of the silk mill located on the site is thus likely to date from the early 19th century, but the buildings have been extended on several occasions in the later 19th and 20th century. The historic maps shown on figures 3 to 7 document the changing appearance of the site from 1838 to 1925.

An insurance deed for the mill in the name of E A Worthington, dated 1874 and held in the Staffordshire County Records Office, describes the site (below) thus giving some insight into the use of the buildings extant on the site at the time:

Silk mill fronting to Portland Street, Queen Street and Brunswick Street with silk shade engine house, boiler house, singeing house, stabling and carriage house etc belonging to mill. Also dwelling house and garden in Osborne Street and all machinery belonging Share, estate and interest of E. A. Worthington under will of A. J. Worthington

5 Aims and Objectives

The aims of an archaeological watching brief, as defined by the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists (CIfA, 2014) are:

To ensure that any buried remains located within the development area are fully investigated and recorded if revealed as a consequence of the site works;

To provide an opportunity for the archaeologists present to signal to all interested parties, before the destruction of the material in question, that an archaeological find has been made for which the resources of the watching brief itself are not sufficient to support treatment to a satisfactory and proper standard;

If such a find is made, representatives of both the client and the regional Development Control Officer/County Archaeologist will be informed and a site meeting organised, as appropriate.

In accordance with the agreed Written scheme of Investigation the general aims of the watching brief were to:

Establish the presence/absence of archaeological deposits within the assessment area.

Elucidate the character, distribution, extent and importance of any identified archaeological deposits.

Produce a detailed record of the work undertaken so as any archaeological deposits are preserved by record

6 Scope of the Work

The watching brief was undertaken on all groundworks deemed by the archaeologist present on-site to be likely to impact on the archaeological resource. Monitored works included the removal of the mill’s concrete floor slab, excavation and removal of foundations and services associated with both the mill and the later car wash structure, excavation of foundation trenches, excavation of a crane base and ground level reduction across areas of the site.

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 All remains of potential archaeological or historical interest were

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

All remains of potential archaeological or historical interest were considered, whatever their date. Figure 7 shows a detailed location plan of all monitored groundworks.

7

Methodology

Watching Brief

Groundworks were undertaken by a 21 ton Hyundai 360mechanical excavator under close archaeological supervision.

Owing to the extremely uneven nature of the ground, the depth of the excavations and the instability of trench edges, health and safety was always the primary concern with physical access to some excavated areas restricted.

All areas were photographed using digital photography (16mp+) with images taken in *RAW or TIFF format for long term archive storage.

All on site illustrations were undertaken on drafting film using recognised conventions and scales (1:10, 1:20, 1:50 as appropriate).

All encountered contexts were recorded on APAC Ltd pro-forma context sheets.

All finds were bagged by context with the finds retained for subsequent processing.

All works were undertaken in accordance with the CIfA’s (2014) Standards and Guidance: for an archaeological watching brief (2014) and current Health and Safety legislation

8 Watching Brief Results

Removal of Concrete Floor Slab

The floor of the mill structure was composed of a poured concrete surface (001). In those parts of the structure not being retained the removal of the floor surface (001), after demolition of the associated standing fabric, was subject to archaeological monitoring (Plates 1-5).

The floor slab (001) was largely uniform across all areas of the factory in that it consisted of a 0.15m to 0.3m thickness and was located above a modern, non-permeable, membrane. In all areas subject to monitoring, both the membrane and the concrete slab overlay a sand and hardcore brick rubble horizon (002). This made ground horizon (002) varied in depth from 0.2m to 0.4m deep.

Where observed, made ground horizon (002) overlay a heavily compacted black silt horizon with frequent broken brick and subrounded stone inclusions (003). This horizon contained 19 th and early 20 th century finds (ceramic, clay pipe etc) and varied in depth from 0.1m to 0.65m.

Dark silt horizon (003) was observed to overlay the mottled yellow clay natural (012) in all areas observed as part of the watching brief. The surface of the natural clay deposits were observed at approximately 197.20m above Ordnance Datum.

Ground Level Reduction

A watching brief was undertaken on the initial stages of ground level reduction within the north-western corner of the site. Removal of 0.3m depth of modern overburden deposits represented the extent of the works as the required OD height was reached (Plates 6&7). Works to this depth were still within the made ground/hardcore deposit (002) as observed beneath concrete slab (001). As no further depth was required, watching brief works ceased on ground level reduction at this point. A small area of stone paving was uncovered at this depth (Plate 8).

Removal of Foundations and Services

As part of the demolition process, all substantial below ground remains were removed using a mechanical excavator under archaeological supervision.

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 Removal of the concrete foundations of the later car

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

Removal of the concrete foundations of the later car wash structure [015] and associated modern drainage, immediately below the north-western corner of the site, showed the same stratigraphic sequence as that described above. All of the foundations and services were located cut through horizon (003) and natural (012) to a depth of up to 1.8m below the ground surface (Plate 9).

Removal of foundations for the mill structure, assigned the ubiquitous number [016] unless otherwise stated, showed them to extend to a depth of approximately 1.8m below the concrete slab floor (001) (Plates 10-12).

The foundations [016] appeared to sit in a cut [027] approximately 0.4m wide and 1.5m deep. This was cut through both the natural (012) and the dark silt horizon (003). The lower levels of the wall foundations [016], approximately the basal metre, were composed of tightly packed, un-bonded and roughly shaped limestone blocks. This stone coursing formed the base layer upon which the brick walls of the mill building were constructed.

New Foundation Trenches

Excavation for the new foundations was undertaken using a mechanical excavator with trenches cut to widths of between 0.9m and 3.2m. The foundation trench layout is shown on Fig 8.

Excavation was undertaken after reduction of ground level across the northern third of the site to the required formation height. Across all trenches in this area the upper deposit was composed of mixed, firmly compacted rubble and brick hardcore (004). This deposit was likely formed from material associated with the demolished houses in this area. In the majority of areas this deposit overlay a compact dark silt (003) similar to that observed elsewhere and containing the same material (Plates 13-16).

Fragmentary structural elements relating to the likely Georgian terraced housing were noted within the trenches in this area. This included brick features [013], [014], [020] (walls and floors) largely observed in section as well as drains cut into the natural clay (012) (Plates 17-19).

A backfilled cellar [005], 4m in length by 4m in width and approximately 2.5m deep was also noted in the north

west corner of the site. This was cut down into the natural (012) and was composed of brick walls and floor (unfrogged), bonded with an off-white lime mortar. Remnants of a white limewash were observed on the internal faces of the cellar. No further cellars were observed (Fig 8, Plates 20&21).

A linear gully feature [022], running parallel to Buxton Road (east to west) and located beneath the line of

terraced houses was noted cut into the natural (012) (Plate 22). The gully was observed for 4m in plan and contained a single fill of firmly compacted subrounded gravel and clay (023). No dating evidence was recovered from the feature though it appeared likely to be a land drain pre-dating the Georgian houses.

A backfilled and capped well [007] was also noted cut into the natural (012) within a 3.2m wide area of the new

foundation trench (Fig 8, Plates 23&24). The well [007] was 1.5m in diameter and had been backfilled over with

an area of redeposited natural clay (026). The cut of the well [007] was lined at the top by three courses (equating

to approximately 0.3m in depth) of roughly faced, unbonded, stone blocks (008). Below this the edges of the well

were unlined. The well was located at NGR 398939.071 356687.524.

Beneath the redeposited natural (026) obscuring the well was a thin (0.2m) compact grey clay deposit (010) which appeared to be capping the well feature [007]. This overlay the final, upper, fill deposit of the well which was composed of a loosely compacted, dark grey/black silt (009) with frequent small coal and charcoal inclusions (possibly hearth rakings). This included discarded domestic material such as ceramics and clay tobacco pipe.

Excavation of the well feature by hand was continued by hand to a depth of 1.2m below the section edge at which point it was not deemed safe to continue on health and safety grounds. Mechanical excavation of the heavily waterlogged lower fills of the well was undertaken with all spoil being visually scanned for finds. The lower fill (011) was composed of a smooth grey silt with subangular stone inclusions forming approximately 70% of the context. This large amount of stone filling the well was considered to represent a concerted backfill effort, likely after the well had fallen out of use.

Mechanical excavation of the well ceased at 4.8m below the current ground surface, again on health and safety grounds. An engineering solution was thus sought, leaving the lower portion of the well in situ. No further finds or features were noted within the foundation trenches.

A.P.A.C. Ltd Crane Base Area Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 The crane base excavation measured approximately

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Crane Base Area

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

The crane base excavation measured approximately 10x10m and was a total of 2.5m deep (below the current ground surface). Removal of the concrete floor slab (001) revealed a spread of hardcore rubble material (002) located above a similar compacted black silt deposit (003) to that seen elsewhere (Plates 25-27) The silt deposit appeared to be up to 0.7m deep and was located above the surface of the natural clay horizons (012). Located within the middle of the crane base trench, sat within a cut [017] made through silt (003) and natural clay (012), was a large steel oil/diesel tank (018). The tank was 4.5m in length by 1.5m in diameter and was constructed from separate sheets of steel overlapping and riveted together (Fig 8, Plates 28&29).

No finds or features of archaeological significance were observed within the crane base excavation.

Watching Brief Summary

The watching brief located comparatively little in terms of intact archaeological features. With the exception of the well [007], the majority of features were structural (brick), fragmentary in nature, and related to either the Georgian terraced houses or later additions to the silk mill.

The large steel fuel cylinder (018) was located immediately adjacent to the site of the mills chimney, presumably next to its engine house. It is reasonable to assume this fed an engine or heating system for the mill and thus likely dates to the early 20 th century when diesel oil began to replace coal. The location of the tank in this area, sat in a deep cut into the natural, had removed any archaeological features within its footprint.

The depth of deposits located above the surface of the natural clay was noted as becoming shallower from the north to the south. Removal of the ground slab (001) and the hardcore horizon (002) along the silk mills frontage onto Brunswick Street revealed the surface of the natural at a depth of only 0.3m below the surface of the slab with no intact deposits remaining. In order to create level ground for the mill buildings, it appears that the footprint of the silk mill was terraced down into the natural clay.

9

Finds

All of the finds recovered during the course of the watching brief were retained and recorded by context. The finds in their entirety are catalogued in Appendix II along with additional annotated photographs of each assemblage.

Ceramics

The ceramic assemblage from the watching brief work comprised a total of 33 fragments, all of which were recovered from the upper fill (009) of well feature [007]. All of the assemblage represents domestic wares and includes teacups, chamber pots and kitchen pancheons of later 18 th and very early 19 th century date. Notable within the assemblage is a sherd of Nottingham stoneware which was no longer being produced after 1790 and the hindquarters of a locally produced Staffordshire ware dog, also of 18 th century date (A Phillips, Pers.comm). Locally produced Staffordshire slipwares were also noted within the assemblage.

A fragment of a child’s earthenware clay bird whistle was also recovered from context (009). Comparative examples, albeit from Australia and the USA, were 19 th century in date (Casey & Lowe, 2008).

Clay Tobacco Pipe

A total of 24 clay tobacco pipe fragments were recovered during the course of the watching brief, again all from within the upper fill (009) of well feature [007]. Of the 24 fragments, two were diagnostic pipe bowls with extant stems whilst the remainder was composed of stem or undiagnostic bowl fragments. The diagnostic pipes are discussed below:

Two largely complete clay tobacco pipes were recovered from the upper dark ash and silt fill (009) of the well feature [007] and provide a good date for the wells last phase of being open before clay capping horizon (010) was deposited.

The first pipe is heavily used with deep sooting on the inside of the bowl. The bowl itself is plain and undecorated with very thin walls. The bowl is stylistically typical of pipes dating from c. AD1790-1810.

A.P.A.C. LtdPortland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 The second pipe shows no signs of ever having been smoked

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

The second pipe shows no signs of ever having been smoked and may have been discarded unused. Again, the bowl is plain and undecorated with very thin walls. The bowl is also stylistically typical of pipes dating from c. AD1790-1810. Neither pipe bears any makers marks.

Brick

The vast majority of the bricks forming the structure of the Portland Mill were roughly uniform in size, unfrogged, and bore no manufacturers stamp. Bricks bearing several different manufacturers stamps were noted throughout the course of the watching brief, largely within demolition horizons or unstratified. These bricks are listed below along with associated manufacturer details and dates:

R H & S Ld - Robert Heath and Sons Ltd had extensive coal and iron interests in the Biddulph and Kidsgrove

areas and also operated brickworks in the Grange area of Cobridge in the early 1900's. c1919 Amalgamated with the Low Moor Co to become Robert Heath and Low Moor.

J Cope & Son J. Cope & Son were owners of the Midland Port Vale Tileries in 1878. J Cope is listed as

brickmaker at Port Vale, Wolstanton Stoke on Trent & Smallthorne in 1868 and Norton in the Moors, Burslem & Wolstanton in 1872.

Port Vale Burslem As above, also manufactured at the Midland Port Vale Tileries, likely by J Cope & Son.

Burslem - As above, also manufactured at the Midland Port Vale Tileries, likely by J Cope & Son.

Oldfield & Oldfield Fenton - Oldfield's brick works, east of Duke Street in the Lane Delph area of Fenton. There was a brickworks in Lane Delph by 1820. The Oldfield works was part of the Oldfield Colliery until 1896 when the mine closed and the brickworks continued independently. The yard was in production until at least 1959.

Wilkinson Bros Began trading in 1922 after the purchase of a marl pit in Longport - Brick is post 1927-8 when the Burslem company formed with bricks bearing this stamp. Ceased trading in 1972

Berry Hill Brickworks Stoke on Trent - There was a brickworks on this site by the 1870's when it was in the hands of William Bowers. In the 1920's the berry Hill Brickworks was the largest of its kind in North Staffordshire.

Docken & Dougall Scottish fireclay brick produced by Bonnyside Brickworks, Bonnybridge, Stirlingshire. The company was in operation from 1845 to 1967. Owned by J Dougall & Son from 1896-1967.

Stafford C & I - The company was first registered on 10 September 1873. The brickworks was in operation from at least 1900 as part of the Great Fenton Collieries & Ironworks complex.

CBCo The Cheshire Brick Co works was situated at Middlewood between Hazel Grove and High Lane. Production began in the 1920s and ended in the 1960s.

LBC - The London Brick Company started production towards the end of the First World War and usage peaked in the post -World War Two rebuilding period up to the 1960s.

New Haden Brickworks, Cheadle, Staffs New Haden Colliery was acquired by John Slater in 1917 and became part of his Berry Hill group in 1922. A brickworks was opened at New Haden at this time in order to utilise the clay worked from the colliery.

PB Co Ltd Although late 19 th century, no exact date for the founding of Potteries Brick Company can be established as it was an administrative corporation owned by eleven parent companies. They did not produce their own bricks though others did under a PB Co Ltd license. The company was dissolved in 1966.

Enfield Plastic Accrington The Enfield Brick and Terra Cotta Co Ltd was sold to the Accrington Brick and Tile Co Ltd in 1938.

Cobridge Cobridge Brick and Marl Co Ltd is based on nearby Leek Rd, Cobridge, Stoke have been in existence since the late 19 th century and are currently still trading.

Birchenwood Birchenwood Brick and Tile Company was part of the Potteries Brick Company (PB Co Ltd).

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 Birchenwood colliery opened in the 1890s, most of the

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

Birchenwood colliery opened in the 1890s, most of the coal being used for coke and clay for bricks. The colliery closed in 1932, but coke and brick production continued by using material from other sites. This production also ceased in 1973.

Peartree Brick Co The Peartree Glazed Brick and Marl Co was based in Hanley, Stoke, and first appears in the 1907 company directory.

Finds Summary

With the exception of the stamped brick finds which were not retained to form part of the archive, the entire finds assemblage from the watching brief is derived from domestic material recovered from the upper fill (009) of well

[007].

Diagnostic finds from within the assemblage, most notably the clay pipes and Nottingham ware, suggest the well was out of use (though still open for deposition of domestic waste) by c.1790-1800. Its last phase being the end of the 18 th century would suggest use throughout the 18 th century, possibly earlier. It is worth noting that, whilst everything else within the assessment area, including the Georgian terraced houses, was constructed in brick, no brick was noted within the well. This again may suggest an earlier date.

The brick manufacturers stamps noted from within the demolition horizons observed during the watching brief are all of later 19 th to early 20 th century date and likely represent later additions to structures in the area. The Georgian bricks, from which the terraced houses and majority of the mill were constructed, are largely uniform in size though are unfrogged and bear no makers stamps.

10 Discussion and Interpretation

Little in terms of intact archaeological features appears to survive within the assessment area at Portland Mill, Leek.

The Georgian terraced houses formerly occupying the northern third of the site were demolished within the 20 th century and the majority of the ground in this area is highly disturbed. The natural clay deposits were observed at between 0.4m and 0.75m below the current ground surface with the above deposits mostly resulting from demolition with only fragmentary structures remaining. Only two features, well [007] and gully [022] were observed cut into the natural clay (012) in this area.

Monitored groundworks within the remainder of the assessment area showed that, beneath the concrete ground

slab and hardcore on the western edge of the site (parallel with Portland Street), a dark silt deposit was present up

to 0.5m in depth. This directly overlay the natural clay (012). Observed works on the eastern edge of the site,

parallel with Brunswick Street, showed that the natural clay (012) was present directly beneath the concrete ground slab (001) and hardcore deposit (002).

The well feature [007], which is at least 18 th century in date, is likely to have survived only due to the depth to which it extended. Given its location, the well is unlikely to be contemporary with the Georgian houses as it would be located within, or very close to, their footprint. It does, therefore, provide evidence of land use prior to the erection of the Georgian housing and the construction of the mill.

11 Archive

The original archive for the watching brief will be retained by APAC Ltd.

Secondary archives will be deposited with the Staffordshire Potteries Museum and Art Gallery, from whom a museum accession number has been sought.

The OASIS online record number for the project is:- apacltd1-307852

A copy of the final report & WSI will be deposited with the regional HER for Staffordshire.

Any finds retained from the watching brief will, after transfer of ownership, be deposited with the Staffordshire Potteries museum and Art Gallery.

A.P.A.C. Ltd 12 Staff Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 The watching brief was undertaken by Chris

A.P.A.C. Ltd

12 Staff

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

The watching brief was undertaken by Chris E Smith BA (Hons) MA MCIfA. Post-excavation finds processing was undertaken by Adam Phillips.

13 Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to the staff of Jim Wise Demolition and McCarthy & Stone for affording APAC Ltd access to the site and to Phil Bethell, Associate Director, CgMs Heritage, for valuable liaising throughout the course of the work.

14 Bibliography and References

Baggs, A P, Cleverdon, M F, Johnston D A & Tringham, N J. 1996. Leek: Leek & Lowe, in A History of the County of Stafford: Volume 7, Leek and the Moorlands. Victoria County History, London

British Geological Survey - www.bgs.ac.uk Accessed 15 th February 2018

Brook, F. 1977. The Industrial Archaeology of the British Isles: 1 The West Midlands. B T Batsford Ltd, London

Buchanan, R A. 1980. Industrial Archaeology of Britain. Allen Lane, London

Chartered Institute for Archaeologists. 2014. Standards and Guidance: for an archaeological watching brief

Excavations at 710-722 George Street, Haymarket, Sydney, 2008 cited on http://www.caseyandlowe.com.au/site710.htm - Accessed 16th March 2018

National Soil Resources Institute - http://www.landis.org.uk/soilscapes/ - Accessed 15 th February 2018

Poole, R. 2002. A History of Leek. Churnet Valley Books, Leek

Sherlock, R. 1976. The Industrial Archaeology of Staffordshire. David & Charles, London

Smith C, E. 2017. APAC Ltd Written Scheme of Investigation for a Programme of Archaeological Work. Watching Brief WB/CA/17 Portland Mill, Buxton Road, Leek, Staffordshire.

The copyright for this report shall remain with A.P.A.C. Ltd

A.P.A.C. Registered Address: Wyastone Business Park, Monmouth, NP25 3SR Tel: 01600 891584. Mobile: 07734962919 Email: apac.philips@btinternet.com Company Registration No 5041541 VAT Reg No 826 3628 19 Director: Dr. N. Phillips D.Phil. M. Phil. BA (Hons).Cert Ed/FE MCIfA

A.P.AdetnargsahyevruSecanndrO )775640001.oN(ecneciLthgirypoCdtLC Portland Mill, Leek 0 3km 0 60m Fig 1: Map showing
A.P.AdetnargsahyevruSecanndrO
)775640001.oN(ecneciLthgirypoCdtLC
Portland Mill, Leek
0
3km
0
60m
Fig 1: Map showing general location of assessment area with detailed site location inset
A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek N BUXTON ROAD BRUNSWICK STREET est FL 9.145 est FL 8.770 Lift
Portland Mill, Leek
N
BUXTON ROAD
BRUNSWICK STREET
est FL 9.145
est FL 8.770
Lift
PORTLAND STREET
QUEEN STREET
0
30m
Fig 2: Site ground plan showing layout of Portland Mill and assessment area boundary (surveys provided by CgMs Heritage)
WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

0 100m
0
100m

Fig 3: 1838 Town Plan of Leek showing assessment area (red) with extant mill buildings

Mill, Leek 0 100m Fig 3: 1838 Town Plan of Leek showing assessment area (red) with

WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

0 100m
0
100m

Fig 4: 1862 Slagg Map of Leek showing assessment area (red) with extant mill buildings

Mill, Leek 0 100m Fig 4: 1862 Slagg Map of Leek showing assessment area (red) with

WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

0 100m
0
100m

Fig 5: 1899 2nd Edition 25 Inch OS map showing assessment area (red)

Portland Mill, Leek 0 100m Fig 5: 1899 2nd Edition 25 Inch OS map showing assessment

WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

0

100m

Portland Mill, Leek 0 100m Fig 6: 1900 2nd Edition 6 Inch OS map showing assessment

Fig 6: 1900 2nd Edition 6 Inch OS map showing assessment area (red)

Portland Mill, Leek 0 100m Fig 6: 1900 2nd Edition 6 Inch OS map showing assessment

WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek 0 200m Fig 7: 1925 3rd Edition 6 Inch OS map showing assessment
0 200m
0
200m

Fig 7: 1925 3rd Edition 6 Inch OS map showing assessment area (red)

Portland Mill, Leek 0 200m Fig 7: 1925 3rd Edition 6 Inch OS map showing assessment

WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek N BUXTON ROAD Cellar Well BRUNSWICK STREET Fuel tank and crane base
Portland Mill, Leek
N
BUXTON ROAD
Cellar
Well
BRUNSWICK STREET
Fuel tank
and crane
base extent
est FL 9.145
est FL 8.770
Lift
PORTLAND STREET
Foundation
Trenches
Area covered by
watching brief
QUEEN STREET
0
30m
Fig 8: Site ground plan showing location of features noted during watching brief and foundation trench layout
(surveys provided by CgMs Heritage and McCarthy & Stone)
WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 1: View of ground slab in situ prior to removal. Scales 1x1m,

Plate 1: View of ground slab in situ prior to removal. Scales 1x1m, Looking south west

in situ prior to removal. Scales 1x1m, Looking south west Plate 2: View of exposed made

Plate 2: View of exposed made groundand hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking west

south west Plate 2: View of exposed made groundand hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking west

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 3: View of exposed made ground/hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking east

Plate 3: View of exposed made ground/hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking east

ground/hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking east Plate 4: View of exposed made ground and hardcore

Plate 4: View of exposed made ground and hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking south west

east Plate 4: View of exposed made ground and hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking south

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 5: Removal of ground slab showing depth of clay natural beneath made

Plate 5: Removal of ground slab showing depth of clay natural beneath made ground/hardcore deposit along eastern edge of site. Looking west, Scale 1x1m

deposit along eastern edge of site. Looking west, Scale 1x1m Plate 6: View of finished level

Plate 6: View of finished level during ground reduction across northern area of site. Looking south, Scales 2x1m

View of finished level during ground reduction across northern area of site. Looking south, Scales 2x1m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 7: View west across northern area after completed ground level reduction. Looking

Plate 7: View west across northern area after completed ground level reduction. Looking west

area after completed ground level reduction. Looking west Plate 8: Oblique view of remnant yorkstone slab

Plate 8: Oblique view of remnant yorkstone slab surface observed during ground level reduction. Looking north east, Scales 2x1m

remnant yorkstone slab surface observed during ground level reduction. Looking north east, Scales 2x1m A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 9: View south of trench section observed during foundation removal. Note made

Plate 9: View south of trench section observed during foundation removal. Note made ground/hardcore deposit above black silt and natural clay. Looking south, Scale 1x1m

above black silt and natural clay. Looking south, Scale 1x1m Plate 10: View of foundation trench

Plate 10: View of foundation trench during foundation removal. Looking south west. Scale 1x2m

1x1m Plate 10: View of foundation trench during foundation removal. Looking south west. Scale 1x2m A.P.A.C.

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 11: View of lower stone courses of mill wall foundation during removal.

Plate 11: View of lower stone courses of mill wall foundation during removal. Looking south west.

of mill wall foundation during removal. Looking south west. Plate 12: View of foundation trench after

Plate 12: View of foundation trench after foundation removal. Looking south west. Scale 1x2m

west. Plate 12: View of foundation trench after foundation removal. Looking south west. Scale 1x2m A.P.A.C.

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 13: View north west showing general shot of foundation trench. Scale 2x1m

Plate 13: View north west showing general shot of foundation trench. Scale 2x1m

west showing general shot of foundation trench. Scale 2x1m Plate 14: View south east showing general

Plate 14: View south east showing general shot of foundation trench. Scales 2x1m

trench. Scale 2x1m Plate 14: View south east showing general shot of foundation trench. Scales 2x1m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 15: View north east showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section. Scales

Plate 15: View north east showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section. Scales 2x1m

sequence with foundation trench section. Scales 2x1m Plate 16: View west showing stratigraphic sequence with

Plate 16: View west showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section. Scales 2x1m

2x1m Plate 16: View west showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section. Scales 2x1m A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Plate 17: View east showing heavily truncated wall foundation within foundation trench Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 17: View east showing heavily truncated wall foundation within foundation trench

Portland Mill, Leek

wall foundation within foundation trench Portland Mill, Leek Plate 18: View south showing brick floor surface

Plate 18: View south showing brick floor surface within foundation trench section. Scales 2x1m

Leek Plate 18: View south showing brick floor surface within foundation trench section. Scales 2x1m A.P.A.C.

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 19: View north showing brick and mortar feature within foundation trench section.

Plate 19: View north showing brick and mortar feature within foundation trench section. Scale 1x1m

mortar feature within foundation trench section. Scale 1x1m Plate 20: View west of partially excavated brick

Plate 20: View west of partially excavated brick cellar feature. Scale 1x2m

trench section. Scale 1x1m Plate 20: View west of partially excavated brick cellar feature. Scale 1x2m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Plate 21: Post-excavation view west of cellar feature noted within foundation trench Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 21: Post-excavation view west of cellar feature noted within foundation trench

Portland Mill, Leek

feature noted within foundation trench Portland Mill, Leek Plate 22: View of gully located within new

Plate 22: View of gully located within new foundation trench in northern edge of site. Looking east, Scale 1x1m

View of gully located within new foundation trench in northern edge of site. Looking east, Scale

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 23: Plan view of well feature [007] . Scales 2x1m Plate 24:

Plate 23: Plan view of well feature [007] . Scales 2x1m

Leek Plate 23: Plan view of well feature [007] . Scales 2x1m Plate 24: Oblique view

Plate 24: Oblique view of well feature [007]. Scales 2x1m

Plan view of well feature [007] . Scales 2x1m Plate 24: Oblique view of well feature

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 25: Mid excavation view showing stratigraphic sequence within crane base area. Scale

Plate 25: Mid excavation view showing stratigraphic sequence within crane base area. Scale 1x2m

stratigraphic sequence within crane base area. Scale 1x2m Plate 26: Post excavation view south showing crane

Plate 26: Post excavation view south showing crane base section. Scale 1x2m

crane base area. Scale 1x2m Plate 26: Post excavation view south showing crane base section. Scale

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 27: Post excavation view west showing crane base section. Scale 1x2m Plate

Plate 27: Post excavation view west showing crane base section. Scale 1x2m

excavation view west showing crane base section. Scale 1x2m Plate 28: View of diesel oil tank

Plate 28: View of diesel oil tank under excavation in crane base area. Looking south

Scale 1x2m Plate 28: View of diesel oil tank under excavation in crane base area. Looking

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Portland Mill, Leek

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 29: View of extricated diesel oil tank. Looking south A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Plate 29: View of extricated diesel oil tank. Looking south

Portland Mill, Leek Plate 29: View of extricated diesel oil tank. Looking south A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17

Appendix 1 - Digital Photograph List & Contact Sheets

Appendix 1 - Digital Photograph List & Contact Sheets

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 Appendix I – Photograph list and Contact Sheets Cameras

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

Appendix I – Photograph list and Contact Sheets

Cameras – Kodak Pixpro AZ421, Samsung SM-G930F & Leica Summilux

Frame No.

Description

Direction

L/P

Date

101917

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

S

L

30/1/18

101920

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

E

L

30/1/18

101942

Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition

S

L

30/1/18

101944

Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition

S

L

30/1/18

102010

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NW

L

30/1/18

102011

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

W

L

30/1/18

102012

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

SW

L

30/1/18

102014

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

SW

L

30/1/18

102040

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

W

L

30/1/18

102041

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NW

L

30/1/18

102043

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

N

L

30/1/18

102109

Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition

S

L

30/1/18

102007

View of Queen Street façade underpinning

W

L

30/1/18

102313

View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition

SE

L

30/1/18

102315

View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition

E

L

30/1/18

102316

View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition

NE

L

30/1/18

102322

View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition

SE

L

30/1/18

102327

View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition

S

L

30/1/18

102349

R H & S Ld stamped brick from demolition

-

L

30/1/18

102426

View of Queen Street façade underpinning

-

L

30/1/18

102438

View of Queen Street façade underpinning

E

P

30/1/18

102512

Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NW

L

30/1/18

102513

Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition

N

L

30/1/18

102515

Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NE

L

30/1/18

102554

Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition

E

L

30/1/18

102601

Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NE

L

30/1/18

102603

Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition

N

L

30/1/18

102605

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NW

L

30/1/18

102649

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

E

L

30/1/18

102650

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NE

L

30/1/18

102651

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

N

L

30/1/18

102653

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NW

L

30/1/18

102654

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

W

L

30/1/18

102732

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NW

L

30/1/18

102735

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

N

L

30/1/18

103027

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

NW

L

30/1/18

103114

View of Queen street façade during site visit

NW

L

30/1/18

103214

View of mill building from Portland Street

E

L

30/1/18

100_1486

View of test trench onto natural during slab removal

NW

L

12/2/18

100_1487

View of dark silt (102) in section of test trench

SW

L

12/2/18

100_1488

View along mill wall line [106] during demolition WB

NW

P

12/2/18

100_1489

View of section of foundation trench [107]

SW

L

12/2/18

100_1490

Oblique view of section of foundation trench [107]

W

L

12/2/18

100_1491

View along mill wall line [106] during demolition WB

NW

P

12/2/18

100_1492

View along mill wall line [106] during demolition WB

NW

L

12/2/18

100_1493

General view of ground disturbances during demolition

SW

L

12/2/18

100_1494

View along mill wall line [106] during demolition WB

E

L

12/2/18

072909

Pre-start view of site in snow

S

L

12/2/18

073632

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

W

L

12/2/18

076333

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

SW

L

12/2/18

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 073635 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

073635

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

SW

L

12/2/18

073637

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

S

L

12/2/18

080523

Slab removal in progress – Working shot

S

L

12/2/18

080526

Slab removal in progress – Working shot

S

L

12/2/18

115413

Slab removed exposing hardcore beneath

W

L

12/2/18

115416

Slab removed exposing hardcore beneath

W

L

12/2/18

115557

Slab removed exposing hardcore beneath

E

L

12/2/18

134259

View of lower courses of foundation during removal

SW

L

12/2/18

134303

Foundation removal in progress – Working shot

W

L

12/2/18

134305

View of lower courses of foundation during removal

SW

L

12/2/18

134611

Oldfield stamped brick

-

P

12/2/18

134833

Stafford C & I Co Ltd stamped brick

-

P

12/2/18

081116

Section through slab and hardcore showing silt beneath

S

L

13/2/18

084028

Manhole and stanchion support removal working shot

SW

L

13/2/18

085900

Section showing dark silt (102) above natural (103)

S

L

13/2/18

093151

Section showing foundation remains and natural (103)

S

L

13/2/18

093206

Section showing foundation remains and natural (103)

S

L

13/2/18

093209

Section showing foundation remains and natural (103)

S

L

13/2/18

093436

Burslem & Berry Hill Brickworks stamped bricks

-

P

13/2/18

095652

As above plus J Cope & Son stamped brick

-

L

13/2/18

100924

Port Vale Burslem & Wilkinson Bros stamped brick

-

L

13/2/18

104103

View showing height slab is raised above ground level

S

L

13/2/18

104203

View of slab in NE corner prior to removal

SW

L

13/2/18

104237

View of slab in NE corner prior to removal

W

L

13/2/18

105320

Working shot during drain & concrete stanchion removal

SE

L

13/2/18

105629

Docken stamped fireclay brick

-

L

13/2/18

110849

Section showing silt deposits after manhole removal

NW

L

13/2/18

113415

Working shot during foundation removal

NW

L

13/2/18

114924

Deposits visible in section of foundation trench

NW

L

13/2/18

115001

Deposits visible in section of foundation trench

W

L

13/2/18

115059

Deposits and foundation remains visible during removal

S

P

13/2/18

115103

Deposits and foundation remains visible during removal

S

L

13/2/18

115739

Oldfield Fenton stamped brick

-

P

13/2/18

115740

Oldfield Fenton stamped brick

-

L

13/2/18

120008

Deposits visible in section of foundation trench

SW

L

13/2/18

120011

Deposits visible in section of foundation trench

SW

L

13/2/18

120141

Deposits visible in section of foundation trench

NW

L

13/2/18

120155

Deposits visible in section of foundation trench

SW

L

13/2/18

125455

Slab removed in NE corner showing hardcore beneath

W

L

13/2/18

125600

Slab removed in NE corner showing hardcore beneath

S

P

13/2/18

125611

Slab removed in NE corner showing hardcore beneath

SW

L

13/2/18

132654

Slab removed showing shallow brick foundation

W

P

13/2/18

132701

Slab removed showing shallow brick foundation

NW

L

13/2/18

071652

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

SE

L

20/2/18

071654

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

S

L

20/2/18

071656

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

S

L

20/2/18

071658

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

SW

L

20/2/18

072628

External view of Portland Mill site during demolition

S

L

20/2/18

072854

CBCo Stamped brick

-

L

20/2/18

080957

LBC 12 Stamped brick

-

L

20/2/18

091715

View of reduced ground level within NW corner of site

N

L

20/2/18

091723

View of reduced ground level within NW corner of site

NE

L

20/2/18

091749

View of reduced ground level within NW corner of site

S

L

20/2/18

091757

View of reduced ground level within NW corner of site

SW

L

20/2/18

081941

View across site prior to foundation excavation

W

L

23/2/18

083038

View of truncated York stone slab surface

N

L

23/2/18

083048

View of truncated York stone slab surface

NE

L

23/2/18

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 083056 View of truncated York stone slab surface SE

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

083056

View of truncated York stone slab surface

SE

L

23/2/18

085432

New Haden Brick Works stamped brick

-

P

23/2/18

092852

Mid-excavation view of backfilled cellar

NW

L

23/2/18

092900

Mid-excavation view of backfilled cellar

W

L

23/2/18

094020

Mid-excavation view of backfilled cellar

N

L

23/2/18

103310

View north along foundation trench

N

P

23/2/18

103323

Oblique view of section of N-S foundation trench

NE

L

23/2/18

103329

View north along foundation trench

N

L

23/2/18

123614

View north along foundation trench

N

P

23/2/18

123625

Oblique view of section of N-S foundation trench

NW

L

23/2/18

123815

View south along N-S foundation trench w/cellar

S

P

23/2/18

124532

Mid-excavation view across cellar to E-W foundation

NE

L

23/2/18

124538

Mid-excavation view across cellar to E-W foundation

NE

L

23/2/18

125126

PB Co Ltd stamped brick

-

P

23/2/18

133127

Base of E-W foundation trench – natural deposits

E

P

23/2/18

133201

Oblique view of E-W foundation trench & section

SE

L

23/2/18

133212

Oblique view of E-W foundation trench & section

SW

L

23/2/18

133328

View of section within E-W foundation trench

S

L

23/2/18

133347

Oblique view of section within E-W foundation trench

SW

L

23/2/18

133354

Oblique view of section within E-W foundation trench

SE

L

23/2/18

133430

Base of E-W foundation trench – natural deposits

W

P

23/2/18

133436

Base of E-W foundation trench – natural deposits

W

L

23/2/18

133442

Oblique view of E-W trench & S facing section

NW

L

23/2/18

133805

Mid-ex view of brick foundation within E-W int.footing

E

L

23/2/18

134504

Mid-ex view of brick foundation within E-W int.footing

E

P

23/2/18

141216

Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing

E

L

23/2/18

141242

Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing

W

L

23/2/18

141250

Oblique post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing

NE

L

23/2/18

141300

Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing

N

L

23/2/18

141342

Enfield Plastic Accrington stamped brick

-

P

23/2/18

082610

Mid-ex view of backfilled cellar in NW corner

W

L

26/2/18

082615

Mid-ex view of backfilled cellar in NW corner

SW

L

26/2/18

082624

Mid-ex view of backfilled cellar in NW corner

NW

L

26/2/18

082851

Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing

W

P

26/2/18

082856

Oblique post-ex view along E-W internal footing

NW

L

26/2/18

082904

Oblique post-ex view along E-W internal footing

SW

L

26/2/18

082937

Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing

W

P

26/2/18

082943

Oblique post-ex view along E-W internal footing

SW

L

26/2/18

082951

Oblique post-ex view along E-W internal footing

NW

L

26/2/18

083016

Post-ex view along base of E-W external footing

W

P

26/2/18

083022

Oblique post-ex view along E-W external footing

NW

L

26/2/18

083029

Oblique post-ex view along E-W external footing

SW

L

26/2/18

083151

View of cut and mortared feature in above footing sec

S

L

26/2/18

084434

Detail of brick demo horizon above dark silt & stones

N

L

26/2/18

084442

Detail of brick demo horizon above dark silt & stones

NW

L

26/2/18

084512

Detail of brick demo horizon above dark silt & stones

NE

L

26/2/18

090314

Mid-ex view of ceramic drain removal within foundation

-

P

26/2/18

090316

Mid-ex view of ceramic drain removal within foundation

-

P

26/2/18

092240

Mid-ex view of ceramic drain removal within foundation

-

P

26/2/18

094416

Exposed ‘Vitro’ brick surface within trench section

S

L

26/2/18

094427

Oblique of above

SE

L

26/2/18

094437

Oblique of above

SW

L

26/2/18

094515

Exposed ‘Vitro’ brick surface within trench section

S

L

26/2/18

094654

View south across site during watching brief

S

L

26/2/18

095521

View of brick surface within footing section

N

L

26/2/18

095525

View of brick surface within footing section

N

L

26/2/18

113115

Cobridge stamped brick

-

P

26/2/18

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 113402 View of exposed brick floor of cellar in

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

113402

View of exposed brick floor of cellar in NW corner

N

L

26/2/18

121020

Post-excavation view of cellar in NW corner

W

L

26/2/18

140249

Oblique post-excavation view of cellar in NW corner

NW

L

26/2/18

142302

Birchenwood stamped brick

-

P

26/2/18

205208

Resized version of IMG 083151

S

P

26/2/18

094509

View of stone & clay filled linear in internal N-S footing

W

P

27/2/18

094514

View of stone & clay filled linear in internal N-S footing

NW

L

27/2/18

094528

View of stone & clay filled linear in internal N-S footing

E

P

27/2/18

111922

View south across site during watching brief

S

L

27/2/18

111924

View south across site during watching brief

S

L

27/2/18

114028

Photo showing coordinates of Well feature

-

P

27/2/18

114900

Pre-ex view of Well in internal N-S footing

SW

P

27/2/18

121602

View of top of Well in internal N-S footing

S

P

27/2/18

121606

View of top of Well in internal N-S footing

S

L

27/2/18

121610

View of top of Well in internal N-S footing

SE

L

27/2/18

143511

Peartree Brick Co stamped brick

-

P

27/2/18

143716

Showing maximum depth of well achieved by machine

E

P

27/2/18

144110

Showing well feature extending below 4.8m depth

-

P

27/2/18

144519

General working shot adj. well location

N

L

27/2/18

150011

General working shot adj. well location

N

P

27/2/18

150736

General working shot adj. well location

S

P

27/2/18

150740

General working shot adj. well location

S

P

27/2/18

090343

View across NW corner of site

NE

L

28/2/18

095642

Oblique view of section, N-S internal footing adj. well

NE

L

28/2/18

095713

Oblique view of section, N-S internal footing adj. well

NE

L

28/2/18

095722

Oblique view of section, N-S internal footing N of well

NE

L

28/2/18

095827

Working shot looking north along N-S internal footing

N

L

28/2/18

105704

Dougall stamped fireclay brick

-

P

28/2/18

114350

Continuation to S of Vitro brick surface

W

L

28/2/18

114355

Continuation to S of Vitro brick surface

NW

L

28/2/18

115923

View across site during watching brief

NE

L

28/2/18

121720

View across site during watching brief

SE

L

28/2/18

121723

View across site during watching brief

S

L

28/2/18

121726

View across site during watching brief

S

L

28/2/18

121729

View across site during watching brief

S

L

28/2/18

121732

View across site during watching brief

S

L

28/2/18

122002

View across site during watching brief

NE

L

28/2/18

122005

View across site during watching brief

E

L

28/2/18

091333

View across site showing results of sodden ground

SW

L

12/3/18

103336

View of exposed lifting gear within mill structure

SW

P

12/3/18

114413

Mid-ex view of crane base after diesel oil tank found

S

P

12/3/18

114917

Diesel oil tank under excavation

S

L

12/3/18

114919

Diesel oil tank under excavation

S

L

12/3/18

114926

Diesel oil tank under excavation

SW

L

12/3/18

114938

Diesel oil tank under excavation

SE

L

12/3/18

115006

Diesel oil tank under excavation

SE

L

12/3/18

115012

Diesel oil tank under excavation

SE

L

12/3/18

115039

Diesel oil tank under excavation

S

L

12/3/18

115042

Diesel oil tank under excavation

S

L

12/3/18

115408

Diesel oil tank under excavation

S

L

12/3/18

120059

Diesel oil tank under excavation

S

L

12/3/18

120108

Diesel oil tank under excavation

S

L

12/3/18

120116

Diesel oil tank under excavation

SW

L

12/3/18

120219

Diesel oil tank under excavation

S

P

12/3/18

120224

Diesel oil tank under excavation

S

L

12/3/18

120352

Diesel oil tank under excavation

SE

P

12/3/18

120405

Diesel oil tank under excavation

SE

P

12/3/18

A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17 121331 Crane base with diesel oil tank removed SE

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Portland Mill, Leek

WB/PML/17

121331

Crane base with diesel oil tank removed

SE

L

12/3/18

112448

Working shot showing stratigraphy within crane base

E

L

13/3/18

113301

View north along wide foundation

N

P

13/3/18

115043

Working shot showing view across site

NE

L

13/3/18

115507

Working shot showing stratigraphy within crane base

E

L

13/3/18

115515

Working shot showing stratigraphy within crane base

NE

L

13/3/18

115526

Working shot showing stratigraphy within crane base

SE

L

13/3/18

151359

Post-excavation view of crane base excavation

S

L

13/3/18

151412

Post-excavation view of crane base excavation

SE

L

13/3/18

152242

Post-excavation view of crane base excavation

NW

L

13/3/18

152250

Post-excavation view of crane base excavation

NW

L

13/3/18

103605

View showing extent to which mill terraced into natural

SE

L

14/3/18

103563

View showing extent to which mill terraced into natural

NE

L

14/3/18

103736

View showing extent to which mill terraced into natural

SE

L

14/3/18

103740

View showing extent to which mill terraced into natural

SE

L

14/3/18

104849

View across site showing ground conditions

SE

L

14/3/18