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DOCUMENT NO 371 April 2018

A.P.A.C. Ltd.
Archaeological Perspectives Analysis Consultancy
ARCHAEOLOGICAL WATCHING BRIEF

WB/PML/17

Site of Portland Mill, Buxton Rd, Leek, Staffs

Prepared For:
CgMs Heritage

Planning Application No: SDM/2017/0165

Prepared by C E Smith
12th April 2018
A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17

Summary

A planning application for the demolition of existing buildings; retention of an extant façade and
erection of Retirement Living accommodation (49 units), including car parking, with associated
landscaping and infrastructure, on the site of Portland Mill, Buxton Road, Leek, Staffordshire, was
made by McCarthy and Stone to Staffordshire Moorlands District Council. The planning reference
is SDM/2017/0165.

This report details the results of a watching brief, carried out on the site during intrusive
groundworks, by APAC Ltd acting on behalf of CgMs Heritage (Archaeological consultant to the
applicants).

The assessment area is the site of the Portland Mill, an early 19th century silk mill belonging to A J
Worthington & Co Ltd, with earlier Georgian terraced housing occupying the northern third of the
site.

Owing to demolition of the Georgian housing and levelling of the site prior to the construction of the
mill, little intact archaeology survives within the assessment area. A well of at least18 th century date
or earlier attests to previous occupation of the site though no other significant finds or features were
located.

Copyright Notice:
A.P.A.C. Ltd. retains copyright of this report under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577) to reproduce map information; Copyright remains otherwise
with the Ordnance Survey.

Cover Photograph: View of Portland Mill as it appeared in 1901 on the A J Worthington & Co headed paper
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Contents
Contents ................................................................................................................................................... 3
Figures...................................................................................................................................................... 4
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 5
2 Site Location and Description ....................................................................................................... 5
3 Geology and Topography .............................................................................................................. 5
4 Brief archaeological and historical background ............................................................................ 5
5 Aims and Objectives ..................................................................................................................... 6
6 Scope of the Work......................................................................................................................... 6
7 Methodology ................................................................................................................................. 7
8 Watching Brief Results ................................................................................................................. 7
9 Finds .............................................................................................................................................. 9
10 Discussion and Interpretation ...................................................................................................... 11
12 Staff ............................................................................................................................................. 12
13 Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................... 12
14 Bibliography and References: ..................................................................................................... 12

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Figures
Fig 1 General site location map
Fig 2 Plan showing site layout of Portland Mill, Leek
Fig 3 1838 Leek Town Plan showing assessment area
Fig 4 1862 Leek map by Slagg showing assessment area
Fig 5 1899 2nd Ed 25 Inch OS map showing assessment area
Fig 6 1900 2nd Ed 6 Inch OS map showing assessment areas
Fig 7 1925 3rd Ed 6 Inch OS map showing assessment area
Fig 8 Detailed site location map showing work areas and foundation trench layout

Plates
PL01 View south west of concrete ground slab in situ prior to removal
PL02 View west of exposed hardcore deposit beneath slab during removal
PL03 View east of exposed hardcore deposit beneath slab during removal
PL04 View of slab removal on Brunswick Street frontage
PL05 View of slab removal showing natural clay immediately beneath
PL06 View south during ground reduction at northern end of site
PL07 View west after ground reduction in northern end of site
PL08 View north east showing small area of paving located during ground reduction
PL09 View south of section exposed during modern drain removal
PL10 View during mill wall and foundation removal
PL11 View during mill wall and foundation removal
PL12 View during mill wall and foundation removal
PL13 View north west showing general shot of foundation trench
PL14 View south east showing general shot of foundation trench
PL15 View north east showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section
PL16 View west showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section
PL17 View east showing heavily truncated wall foundation within foundation trench
PL18 View south showing brick floor surface within foundation trench section
PL19 View north showing brick and mortar feature within foundation trench section
PL20 View west of partially excavated brick cellar feature
PL21 Post-excavation view west of cellar feature noted within foundation trench
PL22 View east along gully feature [022]
PL23 Plan view of well feature [007]
PL24 Oblique view of well feature [007]
PL25 Mid excavation view showing stratigraphic sequence within crane base area
PL26 Post excavation view south showing crane base section
PL27 Post excavation view west showing crane base section
PL28 View of diesel oil tank under excavation in crane base area
PL29 View of extricated diesel oil tank

Appendices

Appendix I Digital photograph list & contact sheet
Appendix II Finds index & assemblage photographs
Appendix III Context list

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1 Introduction

This report has been prepared by C E Smith, APAC Ltd. It forms the results of an archaeological watching brief
undertaken in response to intrusive groundworks associated with a planning application for the demolition of
existing buildings; retention of an extant façade and erection of Retirement Living accommodation (49 units),
including car parking, with associated landscaping and infrastructure, on the site of Portland Mill, Buxton Road,
Leek, Staffordshire.

The assessment area is centred on NGR SJ 989566 (Fig 1). The planning application number for the project is
SDM/2017/0165 and the local planning authority is Staffordshire Moorlands District Council.

Prior to the commencement of groundworks taking place a written scheme of investigation was drawn up by
APAC Ltd (Smith, 2017). This was submitted to Staffordshire Moorlands District Council by CgMs Heritage
acting in their capacity as archaeological consultants for the applicant, McCarthy & Stone Retirement Lifestyles
Ltd.

The majority of the 4100m² assessment area was located beneath the extant buildings of a 19th century silk mill
and its later concrete floor slab. Demolition of the mill buildings, with the exception of the structures Queen Street
façade, was undertaken at the same time as the watching brief on groundworks.

Following a site visit undertaken by APAC Ltd on January 30 th, the watching brief was undertaken over a period
of 10 non-consecutive days between February 12th and March 14th 2018.

2 Site Location and Description

The assessment area comprises a rectangular parcel of land 93m in length by 48m wide. It is bound to the north by
the A53, Buxton Road, with the lines of Brunswick Street, Queen Street and Portland Street to the east, south and
west respectively (Figs 1 & 2).

The northerly quarter of the assessment area, adjacent to Buxton Road, is currently open ground formerly
occupied by a row of Georgian terraced brick houses with garden plots to the rear. The remainder of the
assessment area is located beneath brick built mill structures and a later 20 th century car wash building.

3 Geology and Topography

The underlying solid geology of the assessment area is formed Morridge Formation - Mudstone, siltstone and
sandstone sedimentary bedrock formed between 329 and 320 million years ago during the Carboniferous period
(British Geological Survey, 2018).

The solid geology of the assessment area is overlain by slowly permeable, seasonally wet, acid, loamy and clayey
soils with impeded drainage (Soilscapes, 2017).

The assessment area itself is located approximately 300m to the east of the centre of Leek in an area characterised
by 19th century brick terrace houses and is situated at approximately 200m above Ordnance Datum (OD) with a
slight rise in ground level of approximately one metre across the site from north to south.

4 Brief archaeological and historical background

Silk making in Leek first began in the seventeenth century and was originally attributed to an influx of French
Huguenot refugees (Poole, 2002). By the mid eighteenth century the making of threads, sewing silks, twist,
shawls, handkerchiefs, buttons and plain ribbons was growing in importance in the area. By the 1790s there were
2000 people employed in the trade with Leek (Brook, 1977, Sherlock, 1976, Buchanan, 1980). As the scale of
production increased in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries so the factory became more important. The
reduction of import tax on raw silk in the 1820s, combined with an increased duty on foreign manufactured
fabrics, meant that mill construction in the early nineteenth century gained momentum (Sherlock, 1976). The mid
nineteenth century saw the building of weaving factories (mills) driven by steam engines. By this date
Staffordshire had up to 4000 people employed in the trade, mainly in the town of Leek (Brook, 1977).

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The following is an excerpt from the Leek & Lowe Victoria County History (Baggs et al, 1996) regarding the
history of the Portland Mill site:

“A. J. Worthington & Co. Ltd. of Portland Mills in Portland Street and Queen Street, though smaller
than either of the latter two firms, was one of the larger firms in Leek by the 1920s, with a workforce
of 400. It is said to have originated in 1803 as James Goostrey & Co. James Goostrey was a silk
manufacturer in Portland Street in the mid-1830s, presumably at the mill there described as new when
it was offered for sale in 1832. Soon afterwards the business was taken over by James Hammond and
Henry Turner. By 1838 Andrew Jukes Worthington, a friend of Turner, was a partner, and in 1839 he
married the niece of Turner's wife. He bought the Turners out, and the firm became A. J. Worthington
& Co., evidently in 1845. In 1861, when he was living in Spout Street, he was employing 200 people.
For some years before 1868 he was in partnership with Thomas Halcomb, evidently his brother-in-law.
In that year Thomas withdrew, and Andrew's son Ernest became a partner. Andrew died in 1873.
Ernest and his brother Philip were in partnership with Henry Russell, a London silk agent, from 1875
until Russell's death in 1885. The brothers continued in partnership until Ernest's death in 1896, and
when Philip died in 1902 the business was left in trust for his son Lancelot, a minor. The firm became
a private limited company in 1909 and was renamed A. J. Worthington & Co. (Leek) Ltd. in 1936. It
took over several firms after the Second World War, and a parent company A. J. Worthington
(Holdings) Ltd. was formed in 1953; the group consisted of six companies in 1963. In 1984 the group
announced heavy losses, partly as a result of the closure of its subsidiary W. H. White & Sons of Old
Bank Mill, Ball Haye Road, a firm dating from 1923. Turnover increased with the re-emergence of
White & Sons, and Worthingtons showed a profit again in 1986”.

The earliest phase of the silk mill located on the site is thus likely to date from the early 19th century, but the
buildings have been extended on several occasions in the later 19th and 20th century. The historic maps shown on
figures 3 to 7 document the changing appearance of the site from 1838 to 1925.

An insurance deed for the mill in the name of E A Worthington, dated 1874 and held in the Staffordshire County
Records Office, describes the site (below) thus giving some insight into the use of the buildings extant on the site
at the time:

“Silk mill fronting to Portland Street, Queen Street and Brunswick Street with silk shade engine house,
boiler house, singeing house, stabling and carriage house etc belonging to mill. Also dwelling house
and garden in Osborne Street and all machinery belonging Share, estate and interest of E. A.
Worthington under will of A. J. Worthington”

5 Aims and Objectives
The aims of an archaeological watching brief, as defined by the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists (CIfA,
2014) are:
 To ensure that any buried remains located within the development area are fully investigated and recorded if
revealed as a consequence of the site works;
 To provide an opportunity for the archaeologists present to signal to all interested parties, before the
destruction of the material in question, that an archaeological find has been made for which the resources of
the watching brief itself are not sufficient to support treatment to a satisfactory and proper standard;
 If such a find is made, representatives of both the client and the regional Development Control
Officer/County Archaeologist will be informed and a site meeting organised, as appropriate.

In accordance with the agreed Written scheme of Investigation the general aims of the watching brief were to:

 Establish the presence/absence of archaeological deposits within the assessment area.
 Elucidate the character, distribution, extent and importance of any identified archaeological deposits.
 Produce a detailed record of the work undertaken so as any archaeological deposits are preserved by record

6 Scope of the Work

The watching brief was undertaken on all groundworks deemed by the archaeologist present on-site to be likely to
impact on the archaeological resource. Monitored works included the removal of the mill’s concrete floor slab,
excavation and removal of foundations and services associated with both the mill and the later car wash structure,
excavation of foundation trenches, excavation of a crane base and ground level reduction across areas of the site.

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All remains of potential archaeological or historical interest were considered, whatever their date. Figure 7 shows
a detailed location plan of all monitored groundworks.

7 Methodology
Watching Brief

Groundworks were undertaken by a 21 ton Hyundai 360 mechanical excavator under close archaeological
supervision.

Owing to the extremely uneven nature of the ground, the depth of the excavations and the instability of trench
edges, health and safety was always the primary concern with physical access to some excavated areas restricted.

All areas were photographed using digital photography (16mp+) with images taken in *RAW or TIFF format for
long term archive storage.

All on site illustrations were undertaken on drafting film using recognised conventions and scales (1:10, 1:20,
1:50 as appropriate).

All encountered contexts were recorded on APAC Ltd pro-forma context sheets.

All finds were bagged by context with the finds retained for subsequent processing.

All works were undertaken in accordance with the CIfA’s (2014) Standards and Guidance: for an archaeological
watching brief (2014) and current Health and Safety legislation

8 Watching Brief Results

Removal of Concrete Floor Slab

The floor of the mill structure was composed of a poured concrete surface (001). In those parts of the structure not
being retained the removal of the floor surface (001), after demolition of the associated standing fabric, was
subject to archaeological monitoring (Plates 1-5).

The floor slab (001) was largely uniform across all areas of the factory in that it consisted of a 0.15m to 0.3m
thickness and was located above a modern, non-permeable, membrane. In all areas subject to monitoring, both the
membrane and the concrete slab overlay a sand and hardcore brick rubble horizon (002). This made ground
horizon (002) varied in depth from 0.2m to 0.4m deep.

Where observed, made ground horizon (002) overlay a heavily compacted black silt horizon with frequent broken
brick and subrounded stone inclusions (003). This horizon contained 19th and early 20th century finds (ceramic,
clay pipe etc) and varied in depth from 0.1m to 0.65m.

Dark silt horizon (003) was observed to overlay the mottled yellow clay natural (012) in all areas observed as part
of the watching brief. The surface of the natural clay deposits were observed at approximately 197.20m above
Ordnance Datum.

Ground Level Reduction

A watching brief was undertaken on the initial stages of ground level reduction within the north-western corner of
the site. Removal of 0.3m depth of modern overburden deposits represented the extent of the works as the
required OD height was reached (Plates 6&7). Works to this depth were still within the made ground/hardcore
deposit (002) as observed beneath concrete slab (001). As no further depth was required, watching brief works
ceased on ground level reduction at this point. A small area of stone paving was uncovered at this depth (Plate 8).

Removal of Foundations and Services

As part of the demolition process, all substantial below ground remains were removed using a mechanical
excavator under archaeological supervision.

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Removal of the concrete foundations of the later car wash structure [015] and associated modern drainage,
immediately below the north-western corner of the site, showed the same stratigraphic sequence as that described
above. All of the foundations and services were located cut through horizon (003) and natural (012) to a depth of
up to 1.8m below the ground surface (Plate 9).

Removal of foundations for the mill structure, assigned the ubiquitous number [016] unless otherwise stated,
showed them to extend to a depth of approximately 1.8m below the concrete slab floor (001) (Plates 10-12).

The foundations [016] appeared to sit in a cut [027] approximately 0.4m wide and 1.5m deep. This was cut
through both the natural (012) and the dark silt horizon (003). The lower levels of the wall foundations [016],
approximately the basal metre, were composed of tightly packed, un-bonded and roughly shaped limestone
blocks. This stone coursing formed the base layer upon which the brick walls of the mill building were
constructed.

New Foundation Trenches

Excavation for the new foundations was undertaken using a mechanical excavator with trenches cut to widths of
between 0.9m and 3.2m. The foundation trench layout is shown on Fig 8.

Excavation was undertaken after reduction of ground level across the northern third of the site to the required
formation height. Across all trenches in this area the upper deposit was composed of mixed, firmly compacted
rubble and brick hardcore (004). This deposit was likely formed from material associated with the demolished
houses in this area. In the majority of areas this deposit overlay a compact dark silt (003) similar to that observed
elsewhere and containing the same material (Plates 13-16).

Fragmentary structural elements relating to the likely Georgian terraced housing were noted within the trenches in
this area. This included brick features [013], [014], [020] (walls and floors) largely observed in section as well as
drains cut into the natural clay (012) (Plates 17-19).

A backfilled cellar [005], 4m in length by 4m in width and approximately 2.5m deep was also noted in the north
west corner of the site. This was cut down into the natural (012) and was composed of brick walls and floor
(unfrogged), bonded with an off-white lime mortar. Remnants of a white limewash were observed on the internal
faces of the cellar. No further cellars were observed (Fig 8, Plates 20&21).

A linear gully feature [022], running parallel to Buxton Road (east to west) and located beneath the line of
terraced houses was noted cut into the natural (012) (Plate 22). The gully was observed for 4m in plan and
contained a single fill of firmly compacted subrounded gravel and clay (023). No dating evidence was recovered
from the feature though it appeared likely to be a land drain pre-dating the Georgian houses.

A backfilled and capped well [007] was also noted cut into the natural (012) within a 3.2m wide area of the new
foundation trench (Fig 8, Plates 23&24). The well [007] was 1.5m in diameter and had been backfilled over with
an area of redeposited natural clay (026). The cut of the well [007] was lined at the top by three courses (equating
to approximately 0.3m in depth) of roughly faced, unbonded, stone blocks (008). Below this the edges of the well
were unlined. The well was located at NGR 398939.071 356687.524.

Beneath the redeposited natural (026) obscuring the well was a thin (0.2m) compact grey clay deposit (010) which
appeared to be capping the well feature [007]. This overlay the final, upper, fill deposit of the well which was
composed of a loosely compacted, dark grey/black silt (009) with frequent small coal and charcoal inclusions
(possibly hearth rakings). This included discarded domestic material such as ceramics and clay tobacco pipe.

Excavation of the well feature by hand was continued by hand to a depth of 1.2m below the section edge at which
point it was not deemed safe to continue on health and safety grounds. Mechanical excavation of the heavily
waterlogged lower fills of the well was undertaken with all spoil being visually scanned for finds. The lower fill
(011) was composed of a smooth grey silt with subangular stone inclusions forming approximately 70% of the
context. This large amount of stone filling the well was considered to represent a concerted backfill effort, likely
after the well had fallen out of use.

Mechanical excavation of the well ceased at 4.8m below the current ground surface, again on health and safety
grounds. An engineering solution was thus sought, leaving the lower portion of the well in situ. No further finds or
features were noted within the foundation trenches.

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Crane Base Area

The crane base excavation measured approximately 10x10m and was a total of 2.5m deep (below the current
ground surface). Removal of the concrete floor slab (001) revealed a spread of hardcore rubble material (002)
located above a similar compacted black silt deposit (003) to that seen elsewhere (Plates 25-27) The silt deposit
appeared to be up to 0.7m deep and was located above the surface of the natural clay horizons (012). Located
within the middle of the crane base trench, sat within a cut [017] made through silt (003) and natural clay (012),
was a large steel oil/diesel tank (018). The tank was 4.5m in length by 1.5m in diameter and was constructed from
separate sheets of steel overlapping and riveted together (Fig 8, Plates 28&29).

No finds or features of archaeological significance were observed within the crane base excavation.

Watching Brief Summary

The watching brief located comparatively little in terms of intact archaeological features. With the exception of
the well [007], the majority of features were structural (brick), fragmentary in nature, and related to either the
Georgian terraced houses or later additions to the silk mill.

The large steel fuel cylinder (018) was located immediately adjacent to the site of the mills chimney, presumably
next to its engine house. It is reasonable to assume this fed an engine or heating system for the mill and thus likely
dates to the early 20th century when diesel oil began to replace coal. The location of the tank in this area, sat in a
deep cut into the natural, had removed any archaeological features within its footprint.

The depth of deposits located above the surface of the natural clay was noted as becoming shallower from the
north to the south. Removal of the ground slab (001) and the hardcore horizon (002) along the silk mills frontage
onto Brunswick Street revealed the surface of the natural at a depth of only 0.3m below the surface of the slab
with no intact deposits remaining. In order to create level ground for the mill buildings, it appears that the
footprint of the silk mill was terraced down into the natural clay.

9 Finds

All of the finds recovered during the course of the watching brief were retained and recorded by context. The
finds in their entirety are catalogued in Appendix II along with additional annotated photographs of each
assemblage.

Ceramics

The ceramic assemblage from the watching brief work comprised a total of 33 fragments, all of which were
recovered from the upper fill (009) of well feature [007]. All of the assemblage represents domestic wares and
includes teacups, chamber pots and kitchen pancheons of later 18th and very early 19th century date. Notable
within the assemblage is a sherd of Nottingham stoneware which was no longer being produced after 1790 and the
hindquarters of a locally produced Staffordshire ware dog, also of 18 th century date (A Phillips, Pers.comm).
Locally produced Staffordshire slipwares were also noted within the assemblage.

A fragment of a child’s earthenware clay bird whistle was also recovered from context (009). Comparative
examples, albeit from Australia and the USA, were 19 th century in date (Casey & Lowe, 2008).

Clay Tobacco Pipe

A total of 24 clay tobacco pipe fragments were recovered during the course of the watching brief, again all from
within the upper fill (009) of well feature [007]. Of the 24 fragments, two were diagnostic pipe bowls with extant
stems whilst the remainder was composed of stem or undiagnostic bowl fragments. The diagnostic pipes are
discussed below:

Two largely complete clay tobacco pipes were recovered from the upper dark ash and silt fill (009) of the well
feature [007] and provide a good date for the wells last phase of being open before clay capping horizon (010) was
deposited.

The first pipe is heavily used with deep sooting on the inside of the bowl. The bowl itself is plain and undecorated
with very thin walls. The bowl is stylistically typical of pipes dating from c. AD1790-1810.

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The second pipe shows no signs of ever having been smoked and may have been discarded unused. Again, the
bowl is plain and undecorated with very thin walls. The bowl is also stylistically typical of pipes dating from c.
AD1790-1810. Neither pipe bears any makers marks.

Brick

The vast majority of the bricks forming the structure of the Portland Mill were roughly uniform in size, unfrogged,
and bore no manufacturers stamp. Bricks bearing several different manufacturers stamps were noted throughout
the course of the watching brief, largely within demolition horizons or unstratified. These bricks are listed below
along with associated manufacturer details and dates:

R H & S Ld - Robert Heath and Sons Ltd had extensive coal and iron interests in the Biddulph and Kidsgrove
areas and also operated brickworks in the Grange area of Cobridge in the early 1900's. c1919 Amalgamated with
the Low Moor Co to become Robert Heath and Low Moor.

J Cope & Son – J. Cope & Son were owners of the Midland Port Vale Tileries in 1878. J Cope is listed as
brickmaker at Port Vale, Wolstanton Stoke on Trent & Smallthorne in 1868 and Norton in the Moors, Burslem &
Wolstanton in 1872.

Port Vale – Burslem – As above, also manufactured at the Midland Port Vale Tileries, likely by J Cope & Son.

Burslem - As above, also manufactured at the Midland Port Vale Tileries, likely by J Cope & Son.

Oldfield & Oldfield Fenton - Oldfield's brick works, east of Duke Street in the Lane Delph area of Fenton. There
was a brickworks in Lane Delph by 1820. The Oldfield works was part of the Oldfield Colliery until 1896 when
the mine closed and the brickworks continued independently. The yard was in production until at least 1959.

Wilkinson Bros – Began trading in 1922 after the purchase of a marl pit in Longport - Brick is post 1927-8 when
the Burslem company formed with bricks bearing this stamp. Ceased trading in 1972

Berry Hill Brickworks – Stoke on Trent - There was a brickworks on this site by the 1870's when it was in the
hands of William Bowers. In the 1920's the berry Hill Brickworks was the largest of its kind in North
Staffordshire.

Docken & Dougall – Scottish fireclay brick produced by Bonnyside Brickworks, Bonnybridge, Stirlingshire. The
company was in operation from 1845 to 1967. Owned by J Dougall & Son from 1896-1967.

Stafford C & I - The company was first registered on 10 September 1873. The brickworks was in operation from
at least 1900 as part of the Great Fenton Collieries & Ironworks complex.

CBCo – The Cheshire Brick Co works was situated at Middlewood between Hazel Grove and High Lane.
Production began in the 1920s and ended in the 1960s.

LBC - The London Brick Company started production towards the end of the First World War and usage peaked
in the post -World War Two rebuilding period up to the 1960s.

New Haden Brickworks, Cheadle, Staffs – New Haden Colliery was acquired by John Slater in 1917 and
became part of his Berry Hill group in 1922. A brickworks was opened at New Haden at this time in order to
utilise the clay worked from the colliery.

PB Co Ltd – Although late 19th century, no exact date for the founding of Potteries Brick Company can be
established as it was an administrative corporation owned by eleven parent companies. They did not produce their
own bricks though others did under a PB Co Ltd license. The company was dissolved in 1966.

Enfield Plastic Accrington – The Enfield Brick and Terra Cotta Co Ltd was sold to the Accrington Brick and
Tile Co Ltd in 1938.

Cobridge – Cobridge Brick and Marl Co Ltd is based on nearby Leek Rd, Cobridge, Stoke have been in existence
since the late 19th century and are currently still trading.

Birchenwood – Birchenwood Brick and Tile Company was part of the Potteries Brick Company (PB Co Ltd).

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Birchenwood colliery opened in the 1890s, most of the coal being used for coke and clay for bricks. The colliery
closed in 1932, but coke and brick production continued by using material from other sites. This production also
ceased in 1973.

Peartree Brick Co – The Peartree Glazed Brick and Marl Co was based in Hanley, Stoke, and first appears in the
1907 company directory.

Finds Summary

With the exception of the stamped brick finds which were not retained to form part of the archive, the entire finds
assemblage from the watching brief is derived from domestic material recovered from the upper fill (009) of well
[007].

Diagnostic finds from within the assemblage, most notably the clay pipes and Nottingham ware, suggest the well
was out of use (though still open for deposition of domestic waste) by c.1790-1800. Its last phase being the end of
the 18th century would suggest use throughout the 18th century, possibly earlier. It is worth noting that, whilst
everything else within the assessment area, including the Georgian terraced houses, was constructed in brick, no
brick was noted within the well. This again may suggest an earlier date.

The brick manufacturers stamps noted from within the demolition horizons observed during the watching brief are
all of later 19th to early 20th century date and likely represent later additions to structures in the area. The Georgian
bricks, from which the terraced houses and majority of the mill were constructed, are largely uniform in size
though are unfrogged and bear no makers stamps.

10 Discussion and Interpretation
Little in terms of intact archaeological features appears to survive within the assessment area at Portland Mill,
Leek.
The Georgian terraced houses formerly occupying the northern third of the site were demolished within the 20 th
century and the majority of the ground in this area is highly disturbed. The natural clay deposits were observed at
between 0.4m and 0.75m below the current ground surface with the above deposits mostly resulting from
demolition with only fragmentary structures remaining. Only two features, well [007] and gully [022] were
observed cut into the natural clay (012) in this area.
Monitored groundworks within the remainder of the assessment area showed that, beneath the concrete ground
slab and hardcore on the western edge of the site (parallel with Portland Street), a dark silt deposit was present up
to 0.5m in depth. This directly overlay the natural clay (012). Observed works on the eastern edge of the site,
parallel with Brunswick Street, showed that the natural clay (012) was present directly beneath the concrete
ground slab (001) and hardcore deposit (002).
The well feature [007], which is at least 18th century in date, is likely to have survived only due to the depth to
which it extended. Given its location, the well is unlikely to be contemporary with the Georgian houses as it
would be located within, or very close to, their footprint. It does, therefore, provide evidence of land use prior to
the erection of the Georgian housing and the construction of the mill.

11 Archive

The original archive for the watching brief will be retained by APAC Ltd.

Secondary archives will be deposited with the Staffordshire Potteries Museum and Art Gallery, from whom a
museum accession number has been sought.

The OASIS online record number for the project is:- apacltd1-307852

A copy of the final report & WSI will be deposited with the regional HER for Staffordshire.

Any finds retained from the watching brief will, after transfer of ownership, be deposited with the Staffordshire
Potteries museum and Art Gallery.

11
A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17
12 Staff

The watching brief was undertaken by Chris E Smith BA (Hons) MA MCIfA.
Post-excavation finds processing was undertaken by Adam Phillips.

13 Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to the staff of Jim Wise Demolition and McCarthy & Stone for affording APAC Ltd access to the
site and to Phil Bethell, Associate Director, CgMs Heritage, for valuable liaising throughout the course of the
work.

14 Bibliography and References
Baggs, A P, Cleverdon, M F, Johnston D A & Tringham, N J. 1996. Leek: Leek & Lowe, in A History of the
County of Stafford: Volume 7, Leek and the Moorlands. Victoria County History, London

British Geological Survey - www.bgs.ac.uk – Accessed 15th February 2018

Brook, F. 1977. The Industrial Archaeology of the British Isles: 1 – The West Midlands. B T Batsford Ltd,
London

Buchanan, R A. 1980. Industrial Archaeology of Britain. Allen Lane, London

Chartered Institute for Archaeologists. 2014. Standards and Guidance: for an archaeological watching brief

Excavations at 710-722 George Street, Haymarket, Sydney, 2008
cited on http://www.caseyandlowe.com.au/site710.htm - Accessed 16th March 2018

National Soil Resources Institute - http://www.landis.org.uk/soilscapes/ - Accessed 15th February 2018

Poole, R. 2002. A History of Leek. Churnet Valley Books, Leek

Sherlock, R. 1976. The Industrial Archaeology of Staffordshire. David & Charles, London

Smith C, E. 2017. APAC Ltd Written Scheme of Investigation for a Programme of Archaeological Work.
Watching Brief WB/CA/17 – Portland Mill, Buxton Road, Leek, Staffordshire.

The copyright for this report shall remain with A.P.A.C. Ltd

A.P.A.C. Registered Address: Wyastone Business Park, Monmouth, NP25 3SR
Tel: 01600 891584. Mobile: 07734962919 Email: apac.philips@btinternet.com
Company Registration No 5041541 VAT Reg No 826 3628 19
Director: Dr. N. Phillips D.Phil. M. Phil. BA (Hons).Cert Ed/FE MCIfA

12
Portland Mill, Leek

Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd Copyright Licence (No. 100046577)
0 3km 0 60m

Fig 1: Map showing general location of assessment area with detailed site location inset
A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

OAD
ON R
BUXT

N

BRU
NSW
ICK S
TREE
POR

T
TLAN
D ST
REET

Lift

est FL
708.7

est FL
9.145

T
STREE
QUEEN

0 30m

Fig 2: Site ground plan showing layout of Portland Mill and assessment area boundary (surveys provided by CgMs Heritage) WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

0 100m

Fig 3: 1838 Town Plan of Leek showing assessment area (red) with
extant mill buildings
WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

0 100m

Fig 4: 1862 Slagg Map of Leek showing assessment area (red) with
extant mill buildings
WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

0 100m

Fig 5: 1899 2nd Edition 25 Inch OS map showing assessment area (red) WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

0 100m

Fig 6: 1900 2nd Edition 6 Inch OS map showing assessment area (red) WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

0 200m

Fig 7: 1925 3rd Edition 6 Inch OS map showing assessment area (red) WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

OAD
ON R
BUXT

N

Cellar

Well

BRU
Fuel tank

NSW
and crane

ICK S
base extent

TREE
POR

T
TLAN
D ST
REET

Lift

est FL
708.7

est FL
9.145

Foundation
Trenches
Area covered by
watching brief
T
STREE
QUEEN

0 30m

Fig 8: Site ground plan showing location of features noted during watching brief and foundation trench layout WB/PML/17
(surveys provided by CgMs Heritage and McCarthy & Stone)
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 1: View of ground slab in situ prior to removal. Scales 1x1m, Looking south west

Plate 2: View of exposed made groundand hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking west

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 3: View of exposed made ground/hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking east

Plate 4: View of exposed made ground and hardcore deposit beneath ground slab. Looking south west

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 5: Removal of ground slab showing depth of clay natural beneath made ground/hardcore deposit along
eastern edge of site. Looking west, Scale 1x1m

Plate 6: View of finished level during ground reduction across northern area of site. Looking south, Scales 2x1m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 7: View west across northern area after completed ground level reduction. Looking west

Plate 8: Oblique view of remnant yorkstone slab surface observed during ground level reduction.
Looking north east, Scales 2x1m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 9: View south of trench section observed during foundation removal. Note made ground/hardcore deposit
above black silt and natural clay. Looking south, Scale 1x1m

Plate 10: View of foundation trench during foundation removal. Looking south west. Scale 1x2m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 11: View of lower stone courses of mill wall foundation during removal. Looking south west.

Plate 12: View of foundation trench after foundation removal. Looking south west. Scale 1x2m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 13: View north west showing general shot of foundation trench. Scale 2x1m

Plate 14: View south east showing general shot of foundation trench. Scales 2x1m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 15: View north east showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section. Scales 2x1m

Plate 16: View west showing stratigraphic sequence with foundation trench section. Scales 2x1m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 18: View south showing brick floor surface within foundation trench
section. Scales 2x1m

Plate 17: View east showing heavily truncated wall
foundation within foundation trench

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 19: View north showing brick and mortar feature within foundation trench section. Scale 1x1m

Plate 20: View west of partially excavated brick cellar feature. Scale 1x2m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 21: Post-excavation view west of cellar feature noted within
foundation trench

Plate 22: View of gully located within new foundation
trench in northern edge of site. Looking east, Scale 1x1m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 23: Plan view of well feature [007] . Scales 2x1m

Plate 24: Oblique view of well feature [007]. Scales 2x1m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 25: Mid excavation view showing stratigraphic sequence within crane base area. Scale 1x2m

Plate 26: Post excavation view south showing crane base section. Scale 1x2m

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 27: Post excavation view west showing crane base section. Scale 1x2m

Plate 28: View of diesel oil tank under excavation in crane base area. Looking south

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

Plate 29: View of extricated diesel oil tank. Looking south

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Appendix 1 - Digital Photograph List & Contact Sheets
A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17

Appendix I – Photograph list and Contact Sheets

Cameras – Kodak Pixpro AZ421, Samsung SM-G930F & Leica Summilux

Frame No. Description Direction L/P Date
101917 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition S L 30/1/18
101920 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition E L 30/1/18
101942 Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition S L 30/1/18
101944 Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition S L 30/1/18
102010 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition NW L 30/1/18
102011 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition W L 30/1/18
102012 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition SW L 30/1/18
102014 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition SW L 30/1/18
102040 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition W L 30/1/18
102041 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition NW L 30/1/18
102043 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition N L 30/1/18
102109 Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition S L 30/1/18
102007 View of Queen Street façade underpinning W L 30/1/18
102313 View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition SE L 30/1/18
102315 View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition E L 30/1/18
102316 View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition NE L 30/1/18
102322 View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition SE L 30/1/18
102327 View of yard area within centre of mill during demolition S L 30/1/18
102349 R H & S Ld stamped brick from demolition - L 30/1/18
102426 View of Queen Street façade underpinning - L 30/1/18
102438 View of Queen Street façade underpinning E P 30/1/18
102512 Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition NW L 30/1/18
102513 Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition N L 30/1/18
102515 Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition NE L 30/1/18
102554 Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition E L 30/1/18
102601 Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition NE L 30/1/18
102603 Internal view of Portland Mill site during demolition N L 30/1/18
102605 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition NW L 30/1/18
102649 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition E L 30/1/18
102650 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition NE L 30/1/18
102651 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition N L 30/1/18
102653 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition NW L 30/1/18
102654 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition W L 30/1/18
102732 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition NW L 30/1/18
102735 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition N L 30/1/18
103027 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition NW L 30/1/18
103114 View of Queen street façade during site visit NW L 30/1/18
103214 View of mill building from Portland Street E L 30/1/18
100_1486 View of test trench onto natural during slab removal NW L 12/2/18
100_1487 View of dark silt (102) in section of test trench SW L 12/2/18
100_1488 View along mill wall line [106] during demolition WB NW P 12/2/18
100_1489 View of section of foundation trench [107] SW L 12/2/18
100_1490 Oblique view of section of foundation trench [107] W L 12/2/18
100_1491 View along mill wall line [106] during demolition WB NW P 12/2/18
100_1492 View along mill wall line [106] during demolition WB NW L 12/2/18
100_1493 General view of ground disturbances during demolition SW L 12/2/18
100_1494 View along mill wall line [106] during demolition WB E L 12/2/18
072909 Pre-start view of site in snow S L 12/2/18
073632 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition W L 12/2/18
076333 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition SW L 12/2/18
A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17

073635 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition SW L 12/2/18
073637 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition S L 12/2/18
080523 Slab removal in progress – Working shot S L 12/2/18
080526 Slab removal in progress – Working shot S L 12/2/18
115413 Slab removed exposing hardcore beneath W L 12/2/18
115416 Slab removed exposing hardcore beneath W L 12/2/18
115557 Slab removed exposing hardcore beneath E L 12/2/18
134259 View of lower courses of foundation during removal SW L 12/2/18
134303 Foundation removal in progress – Working shot W L 12/2/18
134305 View of lower courses of foundation during removal SW L 12/2/18
134611 Oldfield stamped brick - P 12/2/18
134833 Stafford C & I Co Ltd stamped brick - P 12/2/18
081116 Section through slab and hardcore showing silt beneath S L 13/2/18
084028 Manhole and stanchion support removal working shot SW L 13/2/18
085900 Section showing dark silt (102) above natural (103) S L 13/2/18
093151 Section showing foundation remains and natural (103) S L 13/2/18
093206 Section showing foundation remains and natural (103) S L 13/2/18
093209 Section showing foundation remains and natural (103) S L 13/2/18
093436 Burslem & Berry Hill Brickworks stamped bricks - P 13/2/18
095652 As above plus J Cope & Son stamped brick - L 13/2/18
100924 Port Vale Burslem & Wilkinson Bros stamped brick - L 13/2/18
104103 View showing height slab is raised above ground level S L 13/2/18
104203 View of slab in NE corner prior to removal SW L 13/2/18
104237 View of slab in NE corner prior to removal W L 13/2/18
105320 Working shot during drain & concrete stanchion removal SE L 13/2/18
105629 Docken stamped fireclay brick - L 13/2/18
110849 Section showing silt deposits after manhole removal NW L 13/2/18
113415 Working shot during foundation removal NW L 13/2/18
114924 Deposits visible in section of foundation trench NW L 13/2/18
115001 Deposits visible in section of foundation trench W L 13/2/18
115059 Deposits and foundation remains visible during removal S P 13/2/18
115103 Deposits and foundation remains visible during removal S L 13/2/18
115739 Oldfield Fenton stamped brick - P 13/2/18
115740 Oldfield Fenton stamped brick - L 13/2/18
120008 Deposits visible in section of foundation trench SW L 13/2/18
120011 Deposits visible in section of foundation trench SW L 13/2/18
120141 Deposits visible in section of foundation trench NW L 13/2/18
120155 Deposits visible in section of foundation trench SW L 13/2/18
125455 Slab removed in NE corner showing hardcore beneath W L 13/2/18
125600 Slab removed in NE corner showing hardcore beneath S P 13/2/18
125611 Slab removed in NE corner showing hardcore beneath SW L 13/2/18
132654 Slab removed showing shallow brick foundation W P 13/2/18
132701 Slab removed showing shallow brick foundation NW L 13/2/18
071652 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition SE L 20/2/18
071654 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition S L 20/2/18
071656 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition S L 20/2/18
071658 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition SW L 20/2/18
072628 External view of Portland Mill site during demolition S L 20/2/18
072854 CBCo Stamped brick - L 20/2/18
080957 LBC 12 Stamped brick - L 20/2/18
091715 View of reduced ground level within NW corner of site N L 20/2/18
091723 View of reduced ground level within NW corner of site NE L 20/2/18
091749 View of reduced ground level within NW corner of site S L 20/2/18
091757 View of reduced ground level within NW corner of site SW L 20/2/18
081941 View across site prior to foundation excavation W L 23/2/18
083038 View of truncated York stone slab surface N L 23/2/18
083048 View of truncated York stone slab surface NE L 23/2/18
A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17

083056 View of truncated York stone slab surface SE L 23/2/18
085432 New Haden Brick Works stamped brick - P 23/2/18
092852 Mid-excavation view of backfilled cellar NW L 23/2/18
092900 Mid-excavation view of backfilled cellar W L 23/2/18
094020 Mid-excavation view of backfilled cellar N L 23/2/18
103310 View north along foundation trench N P 23/2/18
103323 Oblique view of section of N-S foundation trench NE L 23/2/18
103329 View north along foundation trench N L 23/2/18
123614 View north along foundation trench N P 23/2/18
123625 Oblique view of section of N-S foundation trench NW L 23/2/18
123815 View south along N-S foundation trench w/cellar S P 23/2/18
124532 Mid-excavation view across cellar to E-W foundation NE L 23/2/18
124538 Mid-excavation view across cellar to E-W foundation NE L 23/2/18
125126 PB Co Ltd stamped brick - P 23/2/18
133127 Base of E-W foundation trench – natural deposits E P 23/2/18
133201 Oblique view of E-W foundation trench & section SE L 23/2/18
133212 Oblique view of E-W foundation trench & section SW L 23/2/18
133328 View of section within E-W foundation trench S L 23/2/18
133347 Oblique view of section within E-W foundation trench SW L 23/2/18
133354 Oblique view of section within E-W foundation trench SE L 23/2/18
133430 Base of E-W foundation trench – natural deposits W P 23/2/18
133436 Base of E-W foundation trench – natural deposits W L 23/2/18
133442 Oblique view of E-W trench & S facing section NW L 23/2/18
133805 Mid-ex view of brick foundation within E-W int.footing E L 23/2/18
134504 Mid-ex view of brick foundation within E-W int.footing E P 23/2/18
141216 Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing E L 23/2/18
141242 Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing W L 23/2/18
141250 Oblique post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing NE L 23/2/18
141300 Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing N L 23/2/18
141342 Enfield Plastic Accrington stamped brick - P 23/2/18
082610 Mid-ex view of backfilled cellar in NW corner W L 26/2/18
082615 Mid-ex view of backfilled cellar in NW corner SW L 26/2/18
082624 Mid-ex view of backfilled cellar in NW corner NW L 26/2/18
082851 Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing W P 26/2/18
082856 Oblique post-ex view along E-W internal footing NW L 26/2/18
082904 Oblique post-ex view along E-W internal footing SW L 26/2/18
082937 Post-ex view along base of E-W internal footing W P 26/2/18
082943 Oblique post-ex view along E-W internal footing SW L 26/2/18
082951 Oblique post-ex view along E-W internal footing NW L 26/2/18
083016 Post-ex view along base of E-W external footing W P 26/2/18
083022 Oblique post-ex view along E-W external footing NW L 26/2/18
083029 Oblique post-ex view along E-W external footing SW L 26/2/18
083151 View of cut and mortared feature in above footing sec S L 26/2/18
084434 Detail of brick demo horizon above dark silt & stones N L 26/2/18
084442 Detail of brick demo horizon above dark silt & stones NW L 26/2/18
084512 Detail of brick demo horizon above dark silt & stones NE L 26/2/18
090314 Mid-ex view of ceramic drain removal within foundation - P 26/2/18
090316 Mid-ex view of ceramic drain removal within foundation - P 26/2/18
092240 Mid-ex view of ceramic drain removal within foundation - P 26/2/18
094416 Exposed ‘Vitro’ brick surface within trench section S L 26/2/18
094427 Oblique of above SE L 26/2/18
094437 Oblique of above SW L 26/2/18
094515 Exposed ‘Vitro’ brick surface within trench section S L 26/2/18
094654 View south across site during watching brief S L 26/2/18
095521 View of brick surface within footing section N L 26/2/18
095525 View of brick surface within footing section N L 26/2/18
113115 Cobridge stamped brick - P 26/2/18
A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17

113402 View of exposed brick floor of cellar in NW corner N L 26/2/18
121020 Post-excavation view of cellar in NW corner W L 26/2/18
140249 Oblique post-excavation view of cellar in NW corner NW L 26/2/18
142302 Birchenwood stamped brick - P 26/2/18
205208 Resized version of IMG 083151 S P 26/2/18
094509 View of stone & clay filled linear in internal N-S footing W P 27/2/18
094514 View of stone & clay filled linear in internal N-S footing NW L 27/2/18
094528 View of stone & clay filled linear in internal N-S footing E P 27/2/18
111922 View south across site during watching brief S L 27/2/18
111924 View south across site during watching brief S L 27/2/18
114028 Photo showing coordinates of Well feature - P 27/2/18
114900 Pre-ex view of Well in internal N-S footing SW P 27/2/18
121602 View of top of Well in internal N-S footing S P 27/2/18
121606 View of top of Well in internal N-S footing S L 27/2/18
121610 View of top of Well in internal N-S footing SE L 27/2/18
143511 Peartree Brick Co stamped brick - P 27/2/18
143716 Showing maximum depth of well achieved by machine E P 27/2/18
144110 Showing well feature extending below 4.8m depth - P 27/2/18
144519 General working shot adj. well location N L 27/2/18
150011 General working shot adj. well location N P 27/2/18
150736 General working shot adj. well location S P 27/2/18
150740 General working shot adj. well location S P 27/2/18
090343 View across NW corner of site NE L 28/2/18
095642 Oblique view of section, N-S internal footing adj. well NE L 28/2/18
095713 Oblique view of section, N-S internal footing adj. well NE L 28/2/18
095722 Oblique view of section, N-S internal footing N of well NE L 28/2/18
095827 Working shot looking north along N-S internal footing N L 28/2/18
105704 Dougall stamped fireclay brick - P 28/2/18
114350 Continuation to S of Vitro brick surface W L 28/2/18
114355 Continuation to S of Vitro brick surface NW L 28/2/18
115923 View across site during watching brief NE L 28/2/18
121720 View across site during watching brief SE L 28/2/18
121723 View across site during watching brief S L 28/2/18
121726 View across site during watching brief S L 28/2/18
121729 View across site during watching brief S L 28/2/18
121732 View across site during watching brief S L 28/2/18
122002 View across site during watching brief NE L 28/2/18
122005 View across site during watching brief E L 28/2/18
091333 View across site showing results of sodden ground SW L 12/3/18
103336 View of exposed lifting gear within mill structure SW P 12/3/18
114413 Mid-ex view of crane base after diesel oil tank found S P 12/3/18
114917 Diesel oil tank under excavation S L 12/3/18
114919 Diesel oil tank under excavation S L 12/3/18
114926 Diesel oil tank under excavation SW L 12/3/18
114938 Diesel oil tank under excavation SE L 12/3/18
115006 Diesel oil tank under excavation SE L 12/3/18
115012 Diesel oil tank under excavation SE L 12/3/18
115039 Diesel oil tank under excavation S L 12/3/18
115042 Diesel oil tank under excavation S L 12/3/18
115408 Diesel oil tank under excavation S L 12/3/18
120059 Diesel oil tank under excavation S L 12/3/18
120108 Diesel oil tank under excavation S L 12/3/18
120116 Diesel oil tank under excavation SW L 12/3/18
120219 Diesel oil tank under excavation S P 12/3/18
120224 Diesel oil tank under excavation S L 12/3/18
120352 Diesel oil tank under excavation SE P 12/3/18
120405 Diesel oil tank under excavation SE P 12/3/18
A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17

121331 Crane base with diesel oil tank removed SE L 12/3/18
112448 Working shot showing stratigraphy within crane base E L 13/3/18
113301 View north along wide foundation N P 13/3/18
115043 Working shot showing view across site NE L 13/3/18
115507 Working shot showing stratigraphy within crane base E L 13/3/18
115515 Working shot showing stratigraphy within crane base NE L 13/3/18
115526 Working shot showing stratigraphy within crane base SE L 13/3/18
151359 Post-excavation view of crane base excavation S L 13/3/18
151412 Post-excavation view of crane base excavation SE L 13/3/18
152242 Post-excavation view of crane base excavation NW L 13/3/18
152250 Post-excavation view of crane base excavation NW L 13/3/18
103605 View showing extent to which mill terraced into natural SE L 14/3/18
103563 View showing extent to which mill terraced into natural NE L 14/3/18
103736 View showing extent to which mill terraced into natural SE L 14/3/18
103740 View showing extent to which mill terraced into natural SE L 14/3/18
104849 View across site showing ground conditions SE L 14/3/18
Appendix 2 - Finds Index & Assemblage Photographs
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II WB/PML/17
Finds Index

Bag no Area Context Description Period Date
1 Well 009 2 sherds iron glazed earthenware pancheon C18-19
2 sherds iron glazed earthenware pancheon bases C18-19
1 sherd iron glazed earthenware pancheon rim C18-19
2 sherds (refit) iron glazed (with mirror effect) C18-19
earthenware pancheon
1 sherd Nottingham ware rim with applied decoration C18
3 sherd (refit) Staffordshire slipware rim C17-19
1 sherd externally/internally iron glazed earthenware rim C18-19
1 shallow earthenware bowl with applied decoration C18-19
1 sherd shallow earthenware bowl rim with applied C18-19
decoration
1 sherd shallow earthenware bowl base with applied C18-19
decoration
1 sherd earthenware C18-19
2 clay pipes c.1790
1 clay pipe with partial bowl C18-19
2 sherds clay pipe bowls C18-19
16 clay pipe stems Undiag
3 clay pipe stems/mouth pieces with partial glaze Undiag
1 clay ball/marble Undiag
1 fragment clay bird whistle C19
1 sherd Creamware C18-19
1 sherd partial side/rim porcelain C18-19
1 fragment porcelain animal figurine C18-19
1 sherd base of white chamber pot C18-19
2 sherds white chamber pot rims C18-19
1 sherd white china pot base with red decoration C18-19
1 sherd mostly intact china tea cup with blue decoration C18
1 sherd china teacup side with blue decoration C18-19
6 sherds white china with blue decoration C18-19
1 sherd white china pot rim C18-19
1 sherd white china pot base. C18-19
Portland Mill, Leek

1. Finds from (009) - Well assemblage

2. Finds from (009) - Well assemblage

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Portland Mill, Leek

3. Finds from (009) - Well assemblage

A.P.A.C. WB/PML/17
Appendix 3 - Context List
A.P.A.C. Ltd Portland Mill, Leek WB/PML/17

Appendix III – Context Catalogue

Context Description Approx. Ini Date
No. Date
001 Concrete ground slab C20 CS 13/3/18
002 Brick rubble/hardcore made ground beneath (001) C20 CS 13/3/18
003 Compact dark silt w/charcoal horizon beneath (002) C18-20 CS 13/3/18
004 Brick & mortar demolition horizon from houses C20 CS 13/3/18
005 Structure of late 18/19th C cellr in NW corner C18-19 CS 13/3/18
006 Mixed rubble and brick backfill of [006] C20 CS 13/3/18
007 Cut of post-medieval well feature C17-18 CS 13/3/18
008 Stone edging/lining on top of well C17-18 CS 13/3/18
009 Ash & charcoal/dark silt last fill of well [007] c.1790- CS 13/3/18
1810
010 Dark grey clay capping of well, above (009) C19 CS 13/3/18
(early)
011 Mixed stone, silt, timber backfill of well [007] C18 CS 13/3/18
012 Firmly compacted yellow w/grey clay natural - CS 13/3/18
013 Brick floor surface noted in section – NW corner of site C19-20 CS 13/3/18
014 Brick & mortar feature noted in section – NW corner/site C19-20 CS 13/3/18
015 Grubbed out drains and manholes from modern carwash C20 CS 13/3/18
016 Grubbed out later mill building foundations C19-20 CS 13/3/18
017 Cut for large steel fuel tank within crane base area c.1900 CS 13/3/18
018 Steel diesel/oil cylindrical tank c.1900 CS 13/3/18
019 Backfill of cut [017] c.1900 CS 13/3/18
020 Cut of shallow gully with mortar fill – beneath carwash C19 CS 13/3/18
021 Mortar and rubble fill of [020] – section only C19 CS 13/3/18
022 Cut of stone/gravel filled gully along N edge of site C18 CS 13/3/18
023 Clay and gravel fill of shallow gully [022] C18 CS 13/3/18
024 Cut for cellar [005] C18-19 CS 13/3/18
025 Remnant Yorkstone slab surface adj, carwash area C19-20 CS 13/3/18
026 Redeposit natural clay covering well [007] C19 CS 13/3/18
(early)