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Assistant Professor

1

Steady Flow in Open Channels

Uniform sections

Flow over Humps and through

Constrictions

Flow Over Hump

Hump:

is a streamline construction provided at the bed of the channel.

It is locally raised bed.

We will neglect the head loss.

Flow Over Hump

sections 1 and 2 in Fig are related by 1 2 3

continuity and energy:

V1 V2

v1 y1 = v2 y2 B1=B2 y2 y3

y1

v12 v22 Z

+ y1 = + y2 + Z

2g 2g

This equation has one negative and

Eliminating V2 between these two two positive solutions if Z is not

gives a cubic polynomial equation for too large.

the water depth y2 over the hump. It’s behavior is illustrated by E~y

2 2

Diagram and depends upon

v y whether condition 1 is Subcritical

y23 − E2 y22 + 1 1 = 0

2g (on the upper) or Supercritical

v12 (lower leg) of the energy curve.

where E2 = + y1 − Z

2g

Flow Over Hump

The specific energy E2 is exactly Z Super-Critical

less than the approach energy E1, and 1 2 Approach

curve as E1.

A sub-critical approach, Fr1 <1, will

cause the water level to decrease at

the bump. Supercritical approach

flow, Fr1>1, causes a water-level

increase over the bump.

If the hump height reaches Zmax

Zmax=Zc=E1-Ec, as illustrated in fig, the

flow at the crest will be exactly

critical (Fr =1). Z

If Z = Zmax, there are no physically

correct solutions to Eqn. i.e., a hump

too large will “choke” the channel

and cause frictional effects, typically a

hydraulic jump.

These hump arguments are reversed if the channel has a depression (Z<0): Subcritical

approach flow will cause a water-level rise and supercritical flow a fall in depth. Point 2 will

be |Z| to the right of point 1, and critical flow cannot occur.

Flow Over Hump

y2 y3 y2 y3

y1 y1

Z Z

Z<<Zc

Action

Afflux=y1-yo

yc y1 yc

y3

y1 yo

Z Z y3

Flow Over Hump

As it is explained with the help of E~y Diagram, a hump of any height “Z”

would cause the lowering of the water surface over the hump in case of

subcritical flow in channel. It is also clear that a gradual increase in the

height of hump “Z” would cause a gradual reduction in y2 value. That height

of hump which is just causing the flow depth over hump equal to yc is know

as critical height of hump Zc .

Further increase in Z (>Zc) would cause the flow depth y2 remaining equal

yc thus causing the water surface over the hump to rise. This would further

cause an increase in the depth of water upstream of the hump which mean

that water surface upstream of the hump would rise beyond the previous

value i.e y1>yo. This phenomenon of rise in water surface upstream with

Z>Zc is called damming action and the resulting increase in depth upstream

of the hump i.e y1-yo is known as Afflux.

Flow Through Contraction

When the width of the channel is reduced while the bed remains flat, the discharge

per unit width increases. If losses are negligible, the specific energy remains constant

and so for subcritical flow depth will decrease while for supercritical flow depth will

increase in as the channel narrows.

Continuity Equation

B1 y1v1 = B2 y2 v2

Bernoulli ' s Equation

v12 v22 B1 B2

y1 + = y2 +

2g 2g

Using both equations, we get

y1 y2

( 1 2 )

2 g y − y yc

Q=B2 y 2 v 2 =B2 y 2 2

B

1 − 2 2 y

B1 y1

Flow Through Contraction

If the degree of contraction and the flow conditions are such that

upstream flow is subcritical and free surface passes through the critical

depth yc in the throat.

B1 Bc

Q = Bc yc vc = Bc yc 2 g ( E − yc )

2

sin ce yc = E

3

y1 y2

2 1 yc

Therefore Q = Bc E 2g E

3 3

Q = 1.705BE 3/ 2 in SI Units

y1

yc yc

Example # 11.3

In the accompanying figure, uniform flow E.L

of water occurs at 0.75 m3/s in a 1.2m V12/2g V22/2g H.G.L

wide rectangular flume at a depth of

0.6m. y2 y3

(a). Is the flow sub-critical or super- y1

critical. Z

in the bottom of flume, calculate the

water depth over the hump. Neglect the Q = 0.75 m3/sec

head loss in flow over the hump. B = 1.2 m

(c). If the hump height is raised to y1 = 0.6 m

Z=0.2m, what then are the water depths q = Q/B = 0.625 m3/sec/m

upstream and downstream of hump.

Neglect head loss over hump.

Example # 11.3

Solution

yc = 3 =

g 9.81 q2 q2

y1 + = Z + y2 +

= 0.341m < y 2 gy 21 2 gy 2 2

∴ Flow is subcritical q2 q2

y2 + = y1 + −Z

2 gy 2 2 2 gy 21

y2 = 0.46m

(b) First calculate Zc

(C)(c).

Z>Zc therefore y2= yc

2 2

q q

y+ = Z c + y c +

2 gy 2 2 gy 2 c Applying Bernoulli's Equation

0.6252 0.6252 q2 q2

0.6 + 2

= Z c + 0.341 + 2 y1 + = Z + yc +

2 g (0.6) 2 g (0.341) 2 gy 21 2 gy 2c

0.655 = Z c + 0.512 y1 = 0.665m

Z c = 14.2cm q2 q2

y3 + = Z + yc +

2 gy 23 2 gy 2c

y3 = 0.2m

Problem 11.54

A rectangular channel 1.2 m wide Given that

carries 1.1 m3/sec of water in Q = 1.1 m3/sec

uniform flow at a depth of 0.85m.

B1 = 1.2 m

If a bridge pier 0.3m wide is placed

in the middle of this channel, find q1 = 0.92 m3/sec/m

the local change in water surface yo = 0.85 m

elevation. What is the minimum B2 = B1-0.3 = 0.9 m

width of the constricted channel

which will not cause a rise in

water surface upstream.

Bernouli ' s Equation

q1 2 q2 2

yo + = y2 +

B2=B1-0.3 2 gy o 2 gy 2

Energy Equation

B1 0.3m

Q = Bc y c vc = Byv

Problem 11.54

q12 q12 q2 2

sin ce E = yo + = 0.91m yo + = y2 +

2 gyo 2 gyo 2 gy2

2

yc = E = 0.606m q2 2

3 y2 + = 0.91

2 gy2

Vc = gyc = 2.473m / sec

y2 = o.38m & 0.785m

Therefore

Q = Bc yc vc = 1.1

Bc = 0.744m

Broad Crested Weirs and

Venturi Flumes

Broad Crested Weirs and Venturi Flumes

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Temporary Devices

Floats

Pitot Tube

Current meter

Salt Velocity Method

Radio Active Tracers

Permanent Devices Broad Crested Weirs and Venturi

Sharp Crested Weir/Notch Flumes are extensively used for

Broad Crested Weir discharge measurement in open

channel.

Venture Flume

Ordinary Flume Broad Crested Weirs and Critical

Critical Depth Flume flumes are based and worked on

the principle of occurrence of

critical depth.

Broad Crested Weir

A weir, of which the ordinary dam is

an example, is a channel obstruction

over which the flow must deflect.

For simple geometries the channel

discharge Q correlates with gravity

and with the blockage height H to

which the upstream flow is backed up

above the weir elevation.

Thus a weir is a simple but effective

open-channel flow-meter.

sharp-crested and broad-crested,

assumed. In both cases the flow

upstream is subcritical, accelerates to

critical near the top of the weir, and

spills over into a supercritical nappe.

For both weirs the discharge q per

unit width is proportional to g1/2H3/2

but with somewhat different

coefficients Cd.

Broad Crested Weir

Applying Energy Equation ignoring h L

V2 Vc2

H+Z+ = Z + yc +

2g 2g Vc

V y 2 y1

c

For Critical flow = c

2g 2 Z>Zc

2 2 2

V 2Vc V c

∴ H+ = +

2g 2g 2g

2 V12

Vc = gH + V = Velocity of approach =Q/By1

3 2g

Vc2 BVc3 H= Head over the crest

Since : Q = BycVc = B Vc =

g g B= Width of Channel

3

B 2 V2

∴Q = gH + Since Qact =Cd Q

g 3 2g

3/ 2

3/ 2 V2

V2 ∴ Qact = 1.7Cd B H + in SI

Q = 1.7 B H + in SI 2g

2g

3/ 2

V 2 3/ 2 V2

Q = 3.09 B H + Qact = 3.09Cd B H + in FPS

in FPS

2g

2g

Broad Crested Weir

Coefficient of Discharge, Cd also called Weir Discharge Coefficient Cw

W, Reynolds number R and weir

geometry (Z/H, L, surface roughness,

sharpness of edges etc). It has been Vc

found that Z/H is the most

important.

Z>Zc

The Weber number W, which

accounts for surface tension, is

important only at low heads.

In the flow of water over weirs

the Reynolds number, R is

generally high, so viscous effects

are generally insignificant. For

Broad crested weirs Cw depends

on length for. Further, it is

considerably sensitive to surface

roughness of the crest.

Venturi Flume

Ordinary Flume

An ordinary flume is the one in which a stream line contraction of width is provided

so that the water level at the throat is drawn down but the critical depth doesn’t

occur.

Continuity Equation

B1 y1v1 = B2 y2 v2

Bernoulli ' s Equation

v12 v22 B1 B2

y1 + = y2 +

2g 2g

Using both equations, we get

y1 y2

yc

2 gH

Q=B2 y 2 v 2 =B2 y 2 2

B y

1 − 2 2 H = y2-y1

B1 y1

Venturi Flume

Critical Depth Flume (Standing Wave Flume)

A critical depth flume is the one in which either the width is contracted to such

an extent that critical depth occurs at the throat or more common both a

hump/weir in bed & side contractions are provided to attain critical depth with

hydraulic jump occurrence at d/s of throat.

Continuity Equation B1 B2

Q = B1 y1v1 = B2 y2 v2

Bernoulli ' s Equation V1 H

2 2 y1 vc yc

v

1 v c

Z+H + = Z + yc + Z

2g 2g

Using both equations, we get

Q=B2 y c v c

Problem: 12.66

A broad crested weir rises 0.3m above the bottom of channel. With a

measured head of 0.6m above the crest, what is rate of discharge per unit

width? Allow for velocity of approach.

Z = 0.3m

H = 0.6m Take Cd=0.62

y1 = Z + H

q = ???

As we know that;

3/ 2

V2

Qact = 1.7Cd B H +

2g

3/ 2

Q2

Qact = 1.7Cd B H +

By 2 g

Since B = 1; using Trial and Error

Qact = q =0.505 m3 / sec/ m

Problem: 12.67

A broad crested weir of height 0.6m in a channel 1.5m wide has a flow over it

of 0.27m3/sec.What is water depth just upstream of weir?

Z = 0.6m

H = y1 − 0.6

B = 1.5m

Q = 0.27 m3 / sec

Cd = 0.62

As we know that;

3/ 2

Q2

Qact = 1.7Cd B H +

By1 2 g

3/ 2

0.27 2

0.27 = 1.7 x0.62 x1.5 y1 − 0.62 +

1.5 y1 2 g

Solving above equations reults

y1 = 0.905m

Hydraulic jump and its practical

applications.

Hydraulic jump

Hydraulic jump formed on a spillway model Rapid flow and hydraulic jump on a dam

for the Karna-fuli Dam in Bangladesh.

Hydraulics Jump or Standing Wave

Hydraulics jump is local non-uniform flow phenomenon resulting from the

change in flow from super critical to sub critical. In such as case, the water

level passes through the critical depth and according to the theory

dy/dx=infinity or water surface profile should be vertical. This off course

physically cannot happen and the result is discontinuity in the surface

characterized by a steep upward slope of the profile accompanied by lot of

turbulence and eddies. The eddies cause energy loss and depth after the

jump is slightly less than the corresponding alternate depth. The depth

before and after the hydraulic jump are known as conjugate depths or

sequent depths.

y

y1 & y2 are called

conjugate depths

y2

y2

y1

y1

Classification of Hydraulic jump

(a) Fr =1.0 to 1.7: undular jumps;

(b) Fr =1.7 to 2.5: weak jump;

(c) Fr =2.5 to 4.5: oscillating jump;

(d) Fr =4.5 to 9.0: steady jump;

(e) Fr =9.0: strong jump.

Classification of Hydraulic jump

Fr1=1.0 to 1.7: Standing-wave, or undular, jump about 4y2 long; low

dissipation, less than 5 percent.

Fr1=1.7 to 2.5: Smooth surface rise with small rollers, known as a weak

jump; dissipation 5 to 15 percent.

Fr1=2.5 to 4.5: Unstable, oscillating jump; each irregular pulsation creates a

large wave which can travel downstream for miles, damaging earth banks

and other structures. Not recommended for design conditions. Dissipation

15 to 45 percent.

Fr1=4.5 to 9.0: Stable, well-balanced, steady jump; best performance and

action, insensitive to downstream conditions. Best design range. Dissipation

45 to 70 percent.

Fr1>9.0: Rough, somewhat intermittent strong jump, but good performance.

Dissipation 70 to 85 percent.

Uses of Hydraulic Jump

of water where it is not needed otherwise it may cause

damage to hydraulic structures.

of water treatment plants.

Equation for Conjugate Depths

Momentum Equation

F1 − F2 + Fg − Ff = ρ Q(V2 − V1 ) 2

Where 1

F1 y1 y2

F2 = Force resisting flow F2

Ff = Frictional Resistance L

So~0

Fg = Gravitational component of flow

Assumptions:

1. If length is very small frictional resistance may be neglected. i.e (Ff=0)

2. Assume So=0; Fg=0

Note: Momentum equation may be stated as sum of all external forces is equal

to rate of change of momentum.

Equation for Conjugate Depths

Let the height of jump = y2-y1 Where;

Length of hydraulic jump = Lj Q2

Specific Force=Fm = + Ahc

γ Ag

F1 − F 2 = Q (V2 − V1 )

g Note : Specific force remains same at section

γ at start of hydraulic jump and at end of hydraulic

γ hc1 A1 − γ hc 2 A2 =

Q (V2 − V1 )

g jump which means at two conjugate depths the

hc = Depth to centriod as measured specific force is constant.

from upper WS Now lets consider a rectangular channel

γ γ q2 B2 y1 q 2 B 2 y

QV1 + γ hc1 A1 = QV2 + γ hc 2 A2 ⇒ eq.1 ∴ + By1 = + By2 2

g g By1 g 2 By2 g 2

Eq. 1 stated that the momentum flow rate q 2 y12 q2 y22

+ = + ⇒ eq.3

plus hydrostatic force is the same at both y1 g 2 y2 g 2

sections 1 and 2. q2 1 1 1 2

− = ( y2 − y1 )

2

Dividing Equation 1 by γ and g y1 y2 2

changing V to Q/A or

Q2 Q2 q 2 y2 − y1 1

+ A1hc1 = + A2 hc 2 = Fm ⇒ eq.2

A1 g A2 g = ( y2 − y1 )( y2 + y1 )

g y1 y2 2

Equation for Conjugate Depths

q2 y +y

= y1 y2 2 1 ⇒ eq.4

g 2

Practically -Ve depth is not possible

Eq. 4 shows that hydraulic jumps can

y

be used as discharge measuring device.

Since q = V1 y1 = V2 y2

2

( )

∴ y2 = 1 −1 + 1 + 8FN21 ⇒ eq.5

Similarly

V12 y12 y +y

∴ = y1 y2 2 1 y

g 2

2

( )

y1 = 2 −1 + 1 + 8 FN22 ⇒ eq.5a

÷ by y13

2

2V12 y2 y2

= +

gy1 y1 y1

2

y y

0 = 2 + 2 − 2 FN21

y1 y1

2

y2 −1 ± 1 + 4(1)(2) FN 1

=

y1 2(1)

y1

y2 =

2

(

−1 ± 1 + 8 FN21 )

Location of Hydraulic Jumps

Hydraulic Jump

yo1

yc M3 y2

y1

So1>Sc

So2<Sc

1. D/S of the Break point in slope y1>yo1

2. The Break in point y1=yo1

3. The U/S of the break in slope y1<yo1

Location of Hydraulic Jumps

yo

yc y1 y2=yo

ys

L So<Sc

Lj

Location of hydraulic jump where it starts is

L=(Es-E1)/(S-So)

Condition for Hydraulic Jump to occur

ys<y1<yc<y2

Flow becomes uniform at a distance L+Lj from sluice gate where

Length of Hydraulic jump = Lj = 5y2 or 7(y2-y1)

Problem

35

Problem 11. 87

A hydraulic Jump occurs in a triangular

flume having side slopes 1:1. The flow

rate is 0.45 m3/sec and depth before

jump is 0.3m. Find the depth after the Q2 Q2

jump and power loss in jump?

+ A1hc1 = + A2 hc2

A1 g A2 g

Solution

hc = y / 3

Q= 0.45 m3/sec

y2 = 0.858m

y1=0.3m

y2=? ∆E = E1 − E2

∆E = 0.679

T=2y Power Loss = γ Q∆E

hc=y/3

Power Loss = 2.997 Kwatt

1:1

Problem 11. 89

A very wide rectangular channel with bed slope = 0.0003 and roughness n =

0.020 carries a steady flow of 5 m3/s/m. If a sluice gates is so adjusted as to

produce a minimum depth of 0.45m in the channel, determine whether a hydraulic

jump will form downstream, and if so, find (using one reach) the distance from the

gate to the jump.

Solution

yo

ys=0.45m y1 y2=yo yc

So<Sc

L Lj

Problem 11. 89

1/ 3

q 2

yc = = 1.366 > 0.45 ⇒ Super Critical Flow

g

A

Q = R 2 / 3 So1/ 2

n

yo ≈ y2

y1 = f ( y2 )

Vm2 n 2

S = 4/3

Rm

Es − E1

L=

S − So

Thank you

Questions….

39

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