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# Hydraulics

## Dr. Mohsin Siddique

Assistant Professor

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Steady Flow in Open Channels

Uniform sections

##  Broad Crested Weirs and Venturi Flumes

Flow over Humps and through
Constrictions
Flow Over Hump
 Hump:
is a streamline construction provided at the bed of the channel.
It is locally raised bed.

## Let’s examine the case of hump in a rectangular channel.

We will neglect the head loss.
Flow Over Hump

##  For frictionless two-dimensional flow,

sections 1 and 2 in Fig are related by 1 2 3
continuity and energy:
V1 V2
v1 y1 = v2 y2 B1=B2 y2 y3
y1
v12 v22 Z
+ y1 = + y2 + Z
2g 2g
This equation has one negative and
 Eliminating V2 between these two two positive solutions if Z is not
gives a cubic polynomial equation for too large.
the water depth y2 over the hump. It’s behavior is illustrated by E~y
2 2
Diagram and depends upon
v y whether condition 1 is Subcritical
y23 − E2 y22 + 1 1 = 0
2g (on the upper) or Supercritical
v12 (lower leg) of the energy curve.
where E2 = + y1 − Z
2g
Flow Over Hump
 The specific energy E2 is exactly Z Super-Critical
less than the approach energy E1, and 1 2 Approach

## point 2 will lie on the same leg of the

curve as E1.
 A sub-critical approach, Fr1 <1, will
cause the water level to decrease at
the bump. Supercritical approach
flow, Fr1>1, causes a water-level
increase over the bump.
 If the hump height reaches Zmax
Zmax=Zc=E1-Ec, as illustrated in fig, the
flow at the crest will be exactly
critical (Fr =1). Z
 If Z = Zmax, there are no physically
correct solutions to Eqn. i.e., a hump
too large will “choke” the channel
and cause frictional effects, typically a
hydraulic jump.
These hump arguments are reversed if the channel has a depression (Z<0): Subcritical
approach flow will cause a water-level rise and supercritical flow a fall in depth. Point 2 will
be |Z| to the right of point 1, and critical flow cannot occur.
Flow Over Hump

y2 y3 y2 y3
y1 y1
Z Z

Z<<Zc
Action
Afflux=y1-yo

yc y1 yc
y3
y1 yo
Z Z y3

## Z=Zc y1=yo, y2=yc, y3=yo Z>Zc y1>yo, y2=yc, y3<yo

Flow Over Hump

 As it is explained with the help of E~y Diagram, a hump of any height “Z”
would cause the lowering of the water surface over the hump in case of
subcritical flow in channel. It is also clear that a gradual increase in the
height of hump “Z” would cause a gradual reduction in y2 value. That height
of hump which is just causing the flow depth over hump equal to yc is know
as critical height of hump Zc .

 Further increase in Z (>Zc) would cause the flow depth y2 remaining equal
yc thus causing the water surface over the hump to rise. This would further
cause an increase in the depth of water upstream of the hump which mean
that water surface upstream of the hump would rise beyond the previous
value i.e y1>yo. This phenomenon of rise in water surface upstream with
Z>Zc is called damming action and the resulting increase in depth upstream
of the hump i.e y1-yo is known as Afflux.
Flow Through Contraction
 When the width of the channel is reduced while the bed remains flat, the discharge
per unit width increases. If losses are negligible, the specific energy remains constant
and so for subcritical flow depth will decrease while for supercritical flow depth will
increase in as the channel narrows.

Continuity Equation
B1 y1v1 = B2 y2 v2
Bernoulli ' s Equation
v12 v22 B1 B2
y1 + = y2 +
2g 2g
Using both equations, we get
 
  y1 y2
 ( 1 2 )
2 g y − y yc
Q=B2 y 2 v 2 =B2 y 2  2 
 B
1 − 2 2 y 
  B1 y1  
Flow Through Contraction
 If the degree of contraction and the flow conditions are such that
upstream flow is subcritical and free surface passes through the critical
depth yc in the throat.

B1 Bc
Q = Bc yc vc = Bc yc 2 g ( E − yc )
2
sin ce yc = E
3
y1 y2
2  1  yc
Therefore Q = Bc E  2g E 
3  3 
Q = 1.705BE 3/ 2 in SI Units
y1
yc yc
Example # 11.3
 In the accompanying figure, uniform flow E.L
of water occurs at 0.75 m3/s in a 1.2m V12/2g V22/2g H.G.L
wide rectangular flume at a depth of
0.6m. y2 y3
 (a). Is the flow sub-critical or super- y1
critical. Z

##  (b). If a hump height of Z=0.1 m is placed

in the bottom of flume, calculate the
water depth over the hump. Neglect the Q = 0.75 m3/sec
head loss in flow over the hump. B = 1.2 m
 (c). If the hump height is raised to y1 = 0.6 m
Z=0.2m, what then are the water depths q = Q/B = 0.625 m3/sec/m
upstream and downstream of hump.
Neglect head loss over hump.
Example # 11.3
Solution

## q 2 3 0.6252 Applying Bernoulli's Equation

yc = 3 =
g 9.81 q2 q2
y1 + = Z + y2 +
= 0.341m < y 2 gy 21 2 gy 2 2
∴ Flow is subcritical q2 q2
y2 + = y1 + −Z
2 gy 2 2 2 gy 21
y2 = 0.46m
 (b) First calculate Zc
 (C)(c).
Z>Zc therefore y2= yc
2 2
q q
y+ = Z c + y c +
2 gy 2 2 gy 2 c Applying Bernoulli's Equation
0.6252 0.6252 q2 q2
0.6 + 2
= Z c + 0.341 + 2 y1 + = Z + yc +
2 g (0.6) 2 g (0.341) 2 gy 21 2 gy 2c
0.655 = Z c + 0.512 y1 = 0.665m
Z c = 14.2cm q2 q2
y3 + = Z + yc +
2 gy 23 2 gy 2c
y3 = 0.2m
Problem 11.54
 A rectangular channel 1.2 m wide  Given that
carries 1.1 m3/sec of water in Q = 1.1 m3/sec
uniform flow at a depth of 0.85m.
B1 = 1.2 m
If a bridge pier 0.3m wide is placed
in the middle of this channel, find q1 = 0.92 m3/sec/m
the local change in water surface yo = 0.85 m
elevation. What is the minimum B2 = B1-0.3 = 0.9 m
width of the constricted channel
which will not cause a rise in
water surface upstream.
Bernouli ' s Equation
q1 2 q2 2
yo + = y2 +
B2=B1-0.3 2 gy o 2 gy 2
Energy Equation
B1 0.3m
Q = Bc y c vc = Byv
Problem 11.54

q12 q12 q2 2
sin ce E = yo + = 0.91m yo + = y2 +
2 gyo 2 gyo 2 gy2
2
yc = E = 0.606m q2 2
3 y2 + = 0.91
2 gy2
Vc = gyc = 2.473m / sec
y2 = o.38m & 0.785m
Therefore
Q = Bc yc vc = 1.1
Bc = 0.744m
Broad Crested Weirs and
Venturi Flumes
Broad Crested Weirs and Venturi Flumes
 Flow Measurement in Open Channels
 Temporary Devices
 Floats
 Pitot Tube
 Current meter
 Salt Velocity Method
 Radio Active Tracers
 Permanent Devices Broad Crested Weirs and Venturi
 Sharp Crested Weir/Notch Flumes are extensively used for
 Broad Crested Weir discharge measurement in open
channel.
 Venture Flume
 Ordinary Flume Broad Crested Weirs and Critical
 Critical Depth Flume flumes are based and worked on
the principle of occurrence of
critical depth.
Broad Crested Weir
 A weir, of which the ordinary dam is
an example, is a channel obstruction
over which the flow must deflect.
 For simple geometries the channel
discharge Q correlates with gravity
and with the blockage height H to
which the upstream flow is backed up
above the weir elevation.
 Thus a weir is a simple but effective
open-channel flow-meter.

##  Figure shows two common weirs,

sharp-crested and broad-crested,
assumed. In both cases the flow
upstream is subcritical, accelerates to
critical near the top of the weir, and
spills over into a supercritical nappe.
For both weirs the discharge q per
unit width is proportional to g1/2H3/2
but with somewhat different
coefficients Cd.
Broad Crested Weir
Applying Energy Equation ignoring h L
V2 Vc2
H+Z+ = Z + yc +
2g 2g Vc
V y 2 y1
c
For Critical flow = c
2g 2 Z>Zc
2 2 2
V 2Vc V c
∴ H+ = +
2g 2g 2g
2  V12 
Vc = gH +  V = Velocity of approach =Q/By1
3  2g 
Vc2 BVc3 H= Head over the crest
Since : Q = BycVc = B Vc =
g g B= Width of Channel
3
B 2  V2  
∴Q =  gH +  Since Qact =Cd Q
g 3  2g  
  3/ 2
3/ 2  V2 
 V2  ∴ Qact = 1.7Cd B  H +  in SI
Q = 1.7 B  H +  in SI  2g 
 2g 
3/ 2
 V 2 3/ 2  V2 
Q = 3.09 B  H + Qact = 3.09Cd B  H +  in FPS
 in FPS
 2g 
 2g 
Broad Crested Weir
Coefficient of Discharge, Cd also called Weir Discharge Coefficient Cw

##  Cw depends upon Weber number

W, Reynolds number R and weir
geometry (Z/H, L, surface roughness,
sharpness of edges etc). It has been Vc
found that Z/H is the most
important.
Z>Zc
 The Weber number W, which
accounts for surface tension, is
important only at low heads.
 In the flow of water over weirs
the Reynolds number, R is
generally high, so viscous effects
are generally insignificant. For
Broad crested weirs Cw depends
on length for. Further, it is
considerably sensitive to surface
roughness of the crest.
Venturi Flume
Ordinary Flume
 An ordinary flume is the one in which a stream line contraction of width is provided
so that the water level at the throat is drawn down but the critical depth doesn’t
occur.

Continuity Equation
B1 y1v1 = B2 y2 v2
Bernoulli ' s Equation
v12 v22 B1 B2
y1 + = y2 +
2g 2g
Using both equations, we get
  y1 y2
  yc
 2 gH 
Q=B2 y 2 v 2 =B2 y 2  2
 B y
1 − 2 2   H = y2-y1
  B1 y1  
Venturi Flume
Critical Depth Flume (Standing Wave Flume)

 A critical depth flume is the one in which either the width is contracted to such
an extent that critical depth occurs at the throat or more common both a
hump/weir in bed & side contractions are provided to attain critical depth with
hydraulic jump occurrence at d/s of throat.

Continuity Equation B1 B2

Q = B1 y1v1 = B2 y2 v2
Bernoulli ' s Equation V1 H
2 2 y1 vc yc
v
1 v c
Z+H + = Z + yc + Z
2g 2g
Using both equations, we get
Q=B2 y c v c
Problem: 12.66

 A broad crested weir rises 0.3m above the bottom of channel. With a
measured head of 0.6m above the crest, what is rate of discharge per unit
width? Allow for velocity of approach.

Z = 0.3m
H = 0.6m Take Cd=0.62
y1 = Z + H
q = ???
As we know that;
3/ 2
 V2 
Qact = 1.7Cd B  H + 
 2g 
3/ 2
 Q2 
Qact = 1.7Cd B  H + 
 By 2 g 
Since B = 1; using Trial and Error
Qact = q =0.505 m3 / sec/ m
Problem: 12.67
 A broad crested weir of height 0.6m in a channel 1.5m wide has a flow over it
of 0.27m3/sec.What is water depth just upstream of weir?
Z = 0.6m
H = y1 − 0.6
B = 1.5m
Q = 0.27 m3 / sec
Cd = 0.62
As we know that;
3/ 2
 Q2 
Qact = 1.7Cd B  H + 
 By1 2 g 
3/ 2
 0.27 2 
0.27 = 1.7 x0.62 x1.5  y1 − 0.62 + 
 1.5 y1 2 g 
Solving above equations reults
y1 = 0.905m
Hydraulic jump and its practical
applications.
Hydraulic jump

Hydraulic jump formed on a spillway model Rapid flow and hydraulic jump on a dam
for the Karna-fuli Dam in Bangladesh.
Hydraulics Jump or Standing Wave
 Hydraulics jump is local non-uniform flow phenomenon resulting from the
change in flow from super critical to sub critical. In such as case, the water
level passes through the critical depth and according to the theory
dy/dx=infinity or water surface profile should be vertical. This off course
physically cannot happen and the result is discontinuity in the surface
characterized by a steep upward slope of the profile accompanied by lot of
turbulence and eddies. The eddies cause energy loss and depth after the
jump is slightly less than the corresponding alternate depth. The depth
before and after the hydraulic jump are known as conjugate depths or
sequent depths.

y
y1 & y2 are called
conjugate depths
y2
y2
y1
y1
Classification of Hydraulic jump

## Classification of hydraulic jumps:

(a) Fr =1.0 to 1.7: undular jumps;
(b) Fr =1.7 to 2.5: weak jump;
(c) Fr =2.5 to 4.5: oscillating jump;
(d) Fr =4.5 to 9.0: steady jump;
(e) Fr =9.0: strong jump.
Classification of Hydraulic jump

##  Fr1 <1.0: Jump impossible, violates second law of thermodynamics.

 Fr1=1.0 to 1.7: Standing-wave, or undular, jump about 4y2 long; low
dissipation, less than 5 percent.
 Fr1=1.7 to 2.5: Smooth surface rise with small rollers, known as a weak
jump; dissipation 5 to 15 percent.
 Fr1=2.5 to 4.5: Unstable, oscillating jump; each irregular pulsation creates a
large wave which can travel downstream for miles, damaging earth banks
and other structures. Not recommended for design conditions. Dissipation
15 to 45 percent.
 Fr1=4.5 to 9.0: Stable, well-balanced, steady jump; best performance and
action, insensitive to downstream conditions. Best design range. Dissipation
45 to 70 percent.
 Fr1>9.0: Rough, somewhat intermittent strong jump, but good performance.
Dissipation 70 to 85 percent.
Uses of Hydraulic Jump

##  Hydraulic jump is used to dissipate or destroy the energy

of water where it is not needed otherwise it may cause
damage to hydraulic structures.

##  It may be used for mixing of certain chemicals like in case

of water treatment plants.

##  It may also be used as a discharge measuring device.

Equation for Conjugate Depths

Momentum Equation
F1 − F2 + Fg − Ff = ρ Q(V2 − V1 ) 2

Where 1

## F1 = Force helping flow

F1 y1 y2
F2 = Force resisting flow F2

Ff = Frictional Resistance L
So~0
Fg = Gravitational component of flow
Assumptions:
1. If length is very small frictional resistance may be neglected. i.e (Ff=0)
2. Assume So=0; Fg=0

Note: Momentum equation may be stated as sum of all external forces is equal
to rate of change of momentum.
Equation for Conjugate Depths
Let the height of jump = y2-y1 Where;
Length of hydraulic jump = Lj Q2
Specific Force=Fm = + Ahc
γ Ag
F1 − F 2 = Q (V2 − V1 )
g Note : Specific force remains same at section
γ at start of hydraulic jump and at end of hydraulic
γ hc1 A1 − γ hc 2 A2 =
Q (V2 − V1 )
g jump which means at two conjugate depths the
hc = Depth to centriod as measured specific force is constant.
from upper WS Now lets consider a rectangular channel
γ γ q2 B2 y1 q 2 B 2 y
QV1 + γ hc1 A1 = QV2 + γ hc 2 A2 ⇒ eq.1 ∴ + By1 = + By2 2
g g By1 g 2 By2 g 2
Eq. 1 stated that the momentum flow rate q 2 y12 q2 y22
+ = + ⇒ eq.3
plus hydrostatic force is the same at both y1 g 2 y2 g 2
sections 1 and 2. q2  1 1  1 2
 −  = ( y2 − y1 )
2
Dividing Equation 1 by γ and g  y1 y2  2
changing V to Q/A or
Q2 Q2 q 2  y2 − y1  1
+ A1hc1 = + A2 hc 2 = Fm ⇒ eq.2
A1 g A2 g   = ( y2 − y1 )( y2 + y1 )
g  y1 y2  2
Equation for Conjugate Depths
q2 y +y 
= y1 y2  2 1  ⇒ eq.4
g  2 
Practically -Ve depth is not possible
Eq. 4 shows that hydraulic jumps can
y
be used as discharge measuring device.
Since q = V1 y1 = V2 y2
2
( )
∴ y2 = 1 −1 + 1 + 8FN21 ⇒ eq.5

Similarly
V12 y12 y +y 
∴ = y1 y2  2 1  y
g  2 
2
( )
y1 = 2 −1 + 1 + 8 FN22 ⇒ eq.5a
÷ by y13
2
2V12 y2  y2 
= + 
gy1 y1  y1 
2
y  y
0 =  2  + 2 − 2 FN21
 y1  y1
2
y2 −1 ± 1 + 4(1)(2) FN 1
=
y1 2(1)
y1
y2 =
2
(
−1 ± 1 + 8 FN21 )
Location of Hydraulic Jumps

Hydraulic Jump

yo1
yc M3 y2
y1
So1>Sc
So2<Sc

## Hydraulic Jump may take place

1. D/S of the Break point in slope y1>yo1
2. The Break in point y1=yo1
3. The U/S of the break in slope y1<yo1
Location of Hydraulic Jumps

##  Flow Under a Sluice Gate

yo
yc y1 y2=yo
ys

L So<Sc
Lj
Location of hydraulic jump where it starts is
L=(Es-E1)/(S-So)
Condition for Hydraulic Jump to occur
ys<y1<yc<y2
Flow becomes uniform at a distance L+Lj from sluice gate where
Length of Hydraulic jump = Lj = 5y2 or 7(y2-y1)
Problem

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Problem 11. 87
 A hydraulic Jump occurs in a triangular
flume having side slopes 1:1. The flow
rate is 0.45 m3/sec and depth before
jump is 0.3m. Find the depth after the Q2 Q2
jump and power loss in jump?
+ A1hc1 = + A2 hc2
A1 g A2 g
 Solution
hc = y / 3
Q= 0.45 m3/sec
y2 = 0.858m
y1=0.3m
y2=? ∆E = E1 − E2
∆E = 0.679
T=2y Power Loss = γ Q∆E
hc=y/3
Power Loss = 2.997 Kwatt

1:1
Problem 11. 89
 A very wide rectangular channel with bed slope = 0.0003 and roughness n =
0.020 carries a steady flow of 5 m3/s/m. If a sluice gates is so adjusted as to
produce a minimum depth of 0.45m in the channel, determine whether a hydraulic
jump will form downstream, and if so, find (using one reach) the distance from the
gate to the jump.
 Solution

yo
ys=0.45m y1 y2=yo yc

So<Sc
L Lj
Problem 11. 89
1/ 3
q 2
yc =   = 1.366 > 0.45 ⇒ Super Critical Flow
 g 
A
Q = R 2 / 3 So1/ 2
n
yo ≈ y2
y1 = f ( y2 )
Vm2 n 2
S = 4/3
Rm
Es − E1
L=
S − So
Thank you
 Questions….

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